Mitochondrial Eve: Wikis

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Haplogroup Modern humans

Early diversification.PNG

Time of origin 152,000 - 234,000 BP[1]
Place of origin East Africa
Ancestor Neandertal-Human MRCA
Descendants Mitochondrial macro-haplogroups L0, L1, and L5
Defining mutations None

Mitochondrial Eve is defined as the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor for all living humans. Passed down from mother to offspring, all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in every living person is directly descended from hers. Mitochondrial Eve is the female counterpart of Y-chromosomal Adam, the patrilineal most recent common ancestor, although they lived thousands of years apart.

Mitochondrial Eve is generally estimated to have lived around 200,000 years ago,[2] most likely in East Africa,[3] when Homo sapiens sapiens were developing as a species separate from other human species.

Mitochondrial Eve lived much earlier than the out of Africa migration that is thought to have occurred between 95,000 to 45,000 BP.[4] The dating for 'Eve' was a blow to the multiregional hypothesis, and a boost to the hypothesis that modern humans originated relatively recently in Africa and spread from there, replacing more "archaic" human populations such as Neanderthals. As a result, the latter hypothesis is now the dominant one.

Contents


Female and mitochondrial ancestry

Through random drift or selection the female-lineage may trace back to a single female, such as Mitochondrial Eve
Simplified Human mitochondrial phylogeny

Without a DNA sample, it is not possible to reconstruct the complete genetic makeup (genome) of any individual who died very long ago. By analysing descendants' DNA, however, parts of ancestral genomes are estimated by scientists. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome are commonly used to trace ancestry in this manner. mtDNA is generally passed un-mixed from mothers to children of both sexes, along the maternal line, or matrilineally.[5][6] Matrilineal descent goes back to our mothers, to their mothers, until all female lineages converge.

Branches are identified by one or more unique markers which give a mitochondrial "DNA signature" or "haplotype" (e.g. the CRS is a haplotype). Each marker is a DNA base-pair that has resulted from a SNP mutation. Scientists sort mitochondrial DNA results into more or less related groups, with more or less recent common ancestors. This leads to the construction of a DNA family tree where the branches are in biological terms clades, and the common ancestors such as Mitochondrial Eve sit at branching points in this tree. Major branches are said to define a haplogroup (e.g. CRS belongs to haplogroup H), and large branches containing several haplogroups are called "macro-haplogroups".

The mitochondrial clade which Mitochondrial Eve defines is the species Homo sapiens sapiens itself, or at least the current population or "chronospecies" as it exists today. In principle, earlier Eves can also be defined going beyond the species, for example one who is ancestral to both modern humanity and Neanderthals, or, further back, an "Eve" ancestral to all members of genus Homo and chimpanzees in genus Pan. According to current nomenclature, Mitochondrial Eve's haplogroup was within mitochondrial haplogroup L because this macro-haplogroup contains all surviving human mitochondrial lineages today.

The variation of mitochondrial DNA between different people can be used to estimate the time back to a common ancestor, such as Mitochondrial Eve. This works because, along any particular line of descent, mitochondrial DNA accumulates mutations at the rate of approximately one every 3500 years.[7][8] A certain number of these new variants will survive into modern times and be identifiable as distinct lineages. At the same time some branches, including even very old ones, come to an end, when the last family in a distinct branch has no daughters.

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor for all modern humans. Whenever one of the two most ancient branch lines dies out, the MRCA will move to a more recent female ancestor, always the most recent mother to have more than one daughter with living maternal line descendants alive today. The amount of mutations which can be found distinguishing modern people is determined by two criteria: firstly and most obviously, the time back to her, but secondly and less obviously by the varying rates at which new branches have come into existence and old branches have become extinct. By looking at the number of mutations which have been accumulated in different branches of this family tree, and looking at which geographical regions have the widest range of least related branches, the region where Eve lived can be proposed.

The date when Mitochondrial Eve lived is estimated by determining the MRCA of a sample of mtDNA lineages. In 1980, Brown first proposed that modern humans possessed a mitochondrial common ancestor that may have lived as recently as 180kya. In 1987, Cann et al. suggested that mitochondrial Eve may have lived between 140-280kya.

Common fallacies

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Not the only woman

One of the misconceptions of mitochondrial Eve is that since all women alive today descended in a direct unbroken female line from her that she was the only woman alive at the time.[9][10] However nuclear DNA studies indicate that the size of the ancient human population never dropped below some tens of thousands;[9] there were many other women around at Eve's time with descendants alive today, but somewhere in all their lines of descent there is at least one man who could not pass on his mother's mitochondral DNA to his children. By contrast, Eve's lines of descent to each person alive today includes at least one line of descent to each person which is purely matrilineal.

Not alive at the same time as "Adam"

Sometimes mitochondrial Eve is assumed to have lived at the same time as Y-chromosomal Adam, perhaps even meeting and mating with him. Like Eve, "Adam" probably lived in Africa, however Eve lived much earlier than Adam - perhaps some 50,000 to 80,000 years earlier than Adam - due to the greater variability in male fecundity.[11]

Not the most recent ancestor shared by all humans

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor (MRCA). Since the mtDNA is inherited maternally and recombination is either rare or absent, it is relatively easy to track the ancestry of the lineages back to a MRCA; however this MRCA is valid only when discussing mitochondrial DNA. In approximate sequence from youngest to oldest we can list various important points in the ancestor of modern human populations:-

  • The Human MRCA. All humans alive today share a surprisingly recent common ancestor, perhaps even within the last 5000 years, even for people born on different continents.[12]
  • The Identical ancestors point. Just a few thousand years before the most recent single ancestor shared by all living humans, comes the time when all humans alive today, will descend (in different ways) from all humans who were alive at that time who still have living descendants. In other words, from this point back in time "each present-day human has exactly the same set of genealogical ancestors". This is far more recent than Mitochondrial Eve.[12]
  • "Y-Chromosomal Adam", the most recent male-line ancestor of all living men, was much more recent than Mitochondrial Eve, but is also likely to have been long before the Identical ancestors point.

Implications of dating and placement of Eve

The first studies suggesting a recent common ancestor for humans within Africa came at time when a hypothesis for human evolution, known as the Multiregional Evolution hypothesis, was popular among some leading paleoanthropologists (e.g. Milford Wolpoff). The impetus for this hypothesis comes from the belief that humans first left Africa about 2 million years ago and spread globally; these humans were similar to modern humans in many ways. Other biases indicated the temporal difference between Homo erectus and modern Homo sapiens was too short to allow for another new species, and many authors perceived regional evolution from archaic forms into modern ones. Consequently, the finding of a recent maternal ancestor for all humans in Africa created an extended controversy. Over a decade the MREH theory retracted to theories of racial admixture, such as proposed by Eric Trinkhaus, to mostly recent Africa origin hypotheses.

The strict Out of Africa and Multiregional Evolution controversy revolved around where to best place the evolution of anatomically modern humans over evolutionary timescales.

Cann, Stoneking & Wilson (1987) placement of a relatively small population of humans in sub-saharan Africa, lent appreciable support for the recent Out of Africa hypothesis. The current concept places between 1,500 and 16,000 effectively interbreeding individuals (census 4,500 to 48,000 individuals) within Tanzania and proximal regions. Later, Tishkoff using data from many loci has extrapolated origins to the Angola-Namibia border region near the Atlantic Ocean (although this region has poor genetic definition), whereas Behar et al. 2008 places an ancestral population in Ethiopia. These opinions all point toward a sub-Saharan origin. More recent literature on languages and pygmy phenotype indicate that L0 and L1 were carried by click-speaking pygmies from SE Africa to Central and Western Africa, therefore explaining much of the genetic diversity in those regions. Consequently, more recent studies have tended to push the cradle of humanity more toward the South or East of Africa.

To some extent the studies have already revealed that the presence of archaic homo sapiens in Northwest Africa, Jebel Irhoud, were not likely part of the contiguous modern human population. In addition, the older remains at Skhul and Qafzeh are also unlikely part of the constrict human population, evidence currently indicates humans expanded in the region no earlier than 90,000 BP.[citation needed] Tishkoff argues that humans might have migrated to the levant before 90 Ka, but this colony did not persist in SW Asia.[citation needed] Better defined is the genetic separation among Neanderthals, Flores hobbit, Java man, and Peking man. In 1999 Krings et al., eliminated problems in molecular clocking postulated by Nei, 1992 when it was found the mtDNA sequence for the same region was substantially different from the MRCA relative to any human sequence. Currently there are 6 fully sequenced Neanderthal mitogenomes, each falling within a genetic cluster less diverse than that for humans, and mitogenome analysis in humans has statistically markedly reduced the TMRCA range so that it no longer overlaps with Neandertal/human split times. Of all the non-African hominids European archaics most closely resembled humans, indicating a larger genetic divide with other hominids.

Since the Multiregional evolution hypothesis (MREH) revolved around a belief that regional modern human populations evolved in situ in various regions (Europe - Neandertals to Europeans, Asia - Homo Erectus to East Asians, Australia - Sumatran erectines to Indigeonous Australians), these results demonstrated that a pure MREH hypothesis could not explain one important genetic marker.

In popular science and culture

Popular science

Cover of the January 11, 1988, edition of Newsweek

Newsweek Magazine reported on Mitochondrial Eve based on the Cann et al. study in January 1988, under a heading of "Scientists Explore a Controversial Theory About Man's Origins". The edition sold a record number of copies.[13]

The Seven Daughters of Eve presents the theory of human mitochondrial genetics to a general audience.

In River Out of Eden, Richard Dawkins discusses human ancestry in the context of a river of genes and shows that Mitochondrial Eve is one of the many common ancestors we can trace back to via different gene pathways.

The Discovery Channel produced a documentary entitled The Real Eve (or Where We Came From in the United Kingdom), based on the book Out of Eden by Stephen Oppenheimer.

NOVA on PBS had an episode "Children of Eve" (about 1987).

Popular culture

See also

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T Former Clusters IWX

References

  1. ^ Pedro Soares et al 2009, Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock. and its Supplemental Data. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 84, Issue 6, 740-759, 04 June 2009
  2. ^ University of Leeds - New ‘molecular clock’ aids dating of human migration history
  3. ^ 'Your Genetic Journey' - The Genographic Project
  4. ^ Endicott, P; Ho, SY; Metspalu, M; Stringer, C (September 2009), "Evaluating the mitochondrial timescale of human evolution", Trends Ecol. Evol. (Amst.) 24 (9): 515–21, doi:10.1016/j.tree.2009.04.006, PMID 19682765 
  5. ^ Giles, Richard E; H Blanc, H M Cann, and D C Wallace (1980). "Maternal inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA". PNAS 77 (11): 6715-6719. http://www.pnas.org/content/77/11/6715.abstract. 
  6. ^ Birky, C. William (2008). "Uniparental inheritance of organelle genes". Current Biology 18 (16): R692-R695. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4T96DJ4-B&_user=10&_coverDate=08%2F26%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1232071752&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=b73147dffdd2ca6a010de407176efd84. 
  7. ^ Soares, P; Ermini, L; Thomson, N; Mormina, M; Rito, T; Röhl, A; Salas, A; Oppenheimer, S et al. (June 2009), "Correcting for purifying selection: an improved human mitochondrial molecular clock", American Journal of Human Genetics 84 (6): 740–59, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001, PMID 19500773 
  8. ^ There are sites in mtDNA (such as: 16129, 16223, 16311, 16362) that evolve more rapidly, have been noted to change within intragenerational timeframes - Excoffier & Yang (1999); however most studies avoid using these sites because of the higher possibly of reverse mutations causing information loss.
  9. ^ a b Takahata, N (January 1993), "Allelic genealogy and human evolution", Mol. Biol. Evol. 10 (1): 2–22, PMID 8450756, http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8450756 "Any hypothesis that assumes a small number of founding individuals throughout the late Pleistocene can be rejected."
  10. ^ Dawkins, Richard (2004), The ancestor's tale: a pilgrimage to the dawn of evolution, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-618-00583-8 
  11. ^ Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam The Genetic Genealogist
  12. ^ a b Rohde, DL; Olson, S; Chang, JT (September 2004), "Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans", Nature 431 (7008): 562–6, doi:10.1038/nature02842, PMID 15457259 
  13. ^ Oppenheimer, Stephen (2004). The Real Eve: Modern Man's Journey Out of Africa. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1334-8. 
  14. ^ The McGuffin Review: BATTLESTAR GALACTICA The Series Finale

Further reading

External links

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2005-04-22, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
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Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Mitochondrial Eve (mt-mrca) is the name given by researchers to the woman who is defined as the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for all living humans. Passed down from mothers to offspring for over a hundred thousand years, her mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is now found in all living humans: every mtDNA in every living person is derived from hers. Mitochondrial Eve is the female counterpart of Y-chromosomal Adam, the patrilineal most recent common ancestor, although they lived at different times.

She is believed to have lived about 140,000 years ago in what is now Ethiopia, Kenya or Tanzania. The time she lived is calculated based on the molecular clock technique of correlating elapsed time with observed genetic drift.

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all humans via the mitochondrial DNA pathway, not the unqualified MRCA of all humanity. All living humans can trace their ancestry back to the MRCA via at least one of their parents, but Mitochondrial Eve can only be reached via the maternal line. Therefore, she necessarily lived much longer ago than the MRCA of all humanity.

The existence of Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam does not imply the existence of population bottlenecks or a first couple. They each lived within a large human population at a different time. Some of their contemporaries have no living descendants today, and others are ancestors of all people alive today. No contemporary of Mitochondrial Eve or Y-chromosomal Adam is an ancestor of only a subset of people alive today, because both of them lived much longer ago than the identical ancestors point.

Contents

Matrilineal descent

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common ancestor of all humans via the mitochondrial DNA pathway. In other words, she is the MRCA found when ancestry of all living humans is traced back in time, following only the maternal lineage. The mitochondrial DNA pathway is equivalent to maternal lineage, because Mitochondrial DNA is only passed down from mother to child, never father to child.[1]

To find the Mitochondrial Eve of all humans living today, one can start by listing all individuals alive today. For every individual (males and females), trace a line from the individual to his/her mother. Then continue those lines from each of those mothers to their mothers, and so on, effectively tracing a family tree backward in time based purely on mitochondrial lineages. Going back through time these mitochondrial lineages will converge when two or more women have the same mother. The further back in time one goes, the fewer mitochondrial ancestors of living humans there will be, until only one is left. This is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor of all humans alive today, i.e. Mitochondrial Eve.

It is possible to draw the same matrilineal tree forward in time by starting with all contemporary human females of Mitochondrial Eve. Some of these women may have died childless. Others left only male children. For the rest who became mothers with at least one daughter, one can trace a line forward in time connecting them to their daughters. As the forward lineages progress in time, more and more lineage lines become extinct, because the last female in the line dies childless or left no female children. Eventually, only one single lineage remains, which includes all mothers, and in the next generation, all people, and hence all people alive today.

Misconceptions

Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor of all humans. The MRCA's offspring have led to all living humans via sons and daughters, but Mitochondrial Eve must be traced only through female lineages, so she is estimated to have lived much longer ago than the MRCA. While Mitochondrial Eve is thought to have been living around 140,000 years ago, according to probabilistic studies,[2] the MRCA could have been living as recently as 3,000 years ago.[3]

Allan Wilson's naming Mitochondrial Eve[4] after Eve of the Genesis creation story has led to some misunderstandings among the general public. A common misconception is that Mitochondrial Eve was the only living human female of her time — she was not. Had she been the only living female of her time, humanity would most likely have become extinct due to an extreme population bottleneck.

Indeed not only were many women alive at the same time as Mitochondrial Eve but many of them have descendants alive today. They may have left descendants via either son or daughters (and grandsons or granddaughters, and so on). Nuclear genes from these contemporary women of Mitochondrial Eve may be present in today's population, but mitochondrial DNA from them is not.[1]

What distinguishes Mitochondrial Eve (and her matrilineal ancestors) from all her female contemporaries is that she has a purely matrilineal line of descent to all humans alive today, whereas all her contemporaries have at least one male in every line of descent. Because mitochondrial DNA is only passed through matrilineal descent, all humans alive today have mitochondrial DNA that is traceable back to Mitochondrial Eve.

Furthermore, it can be shown that every contemporary woman of Mitochondrial Eve either has no living descendant today or is an ancestor to all living people. Starting with 'the' MRCA at around 3,000 years ago, one can trace all ancestors of the MRCA backward in time. At every ancestral generation, more and more ancestors (via both paternal and maternal lines) of MRCA are found. These ancestors are by definition also common ancestors of all living people. Eventually, there will be a point in past where all humans can be divided into two groups: those who left no descendants today and those who are common ancestors of all living humans today. This point in time is termed the identical ancestors point and is estimated to be between 5,000 and 15,000 years ago. Since Mitochondrial Eve is estimated to have lived more than hundred thousand years before the identical ancestors point, every contemporary woman of hers is either not an ancestor of any living people, or a common ancestor of all living people.[2][5]

Mitochondrial DNA

Main article: Mitochondrial DNA

We know about Eve because of mitochondrial organelles that are passed only from mother to offspring. Each mitochondrion contains Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A comparison of DNA sequences from mtDNA in a population reveals a molecular phylogeny. Unlike mtDNA outside the nucleus, genes in nuclear DNA become recombined after being inherited from both parents, and therefore we can be statistically less certain about nuclear DNA origins than we can for mtDNA, which is only inherited from the mother. mtDNA also mutates at a higher rate compared to nuclear DNA, so it gives researchers a more useful, magnified view of the diversity present in a population.[6][7]

Just as mitochondria are inherited matrilineally, Y-chromosomes are inherited patrilineally.[8] Thus it is possible to apply the same principles outlined above to men. The common patrilineal ancestor of all humans alive today has been dubbed Y-chromosomal Adam. Importantly, the genetic evidence suggests that the most recent patriarch of all humanity is much more recent than the most recent matriarch, suggesting that 'Adam' and 'Eve' were not alive at the same time. While 'Eve' is believed to be alive 140,000 years ago, 'Adam' lived only 60,000 years ago.[2]

Eve and the Out-of-Africa theory

Since Mitochondrial Eve is believed to have lived in Africa she is sometimes referred to as African Eve, an ancestor who has been hypothesized on the grounds of fossil as well as DNA evidence. According to the most common interpretation of the mitochondrial DNA data, the titles belong to the same hypothetical woman. Family trees (or "phylogenies") constructed on the basis of mitochondrial DNA comparisons show that the living humans whose mitochondrial lineages branched earliest from the tree are indigenous Africans, whereas the lineages of indigenous peoples on other continents all branch off from African lines. Researchers therefore reason that all living humans descend from Africans, some of whom migrated out of Africa and populated the rest of the world. If the mitochondrial analysis is correct, then because mitochondrial Eve represents the root of the mitochondrial family tree, she must have predated the exodus and lived in Africa. Therefore many researchers take the mitochondrial evidence as support for the "single-origin" or Out-of-Africa model.[2]

Some people use the mtDNA family tree as evidence of a population bottleneck (e.g. Toba catastrophe theory) giving rise to the human species. There are, however, many ways such family trees can be constructed. A tree can be constructed based on any gene, not just the mitochondrial DNA. When different such trees including the mtDNA tree are compared, no population bottleneck is found because different trees show different coalescent points. The inconsistencies between coalescent points indicate that there had been numerous gene interchanges between population groups around the world, even after the first exodus out of Africa. This idea forms the basis of Alan Templeton's 'Out of Africa Again and Again' theory.[9][2]

The Mitochondrial DNA provides another support for the Out of Africa hypothesis in the form of gene diversity. One finding not subject to interpretation is that the greatest diversity of mitochondrial DNA sequences exists among Africans. This diversity is widely believed to have accumulated because humans have been living longer in Africa than anywhere, although the same relative diversity can also be explained if just more people lived in Africa than in other regions - an interpretation of the past that all evolutionary models also accept, even those that contradict the African-origin theory, such as Multiregional evolution.

Academic investigation

Criticism of the original paper by Cann, Stoneking and Wilson[4] include:

  • Of the 147 persons sampled, only two were from sub-Saharan Africa. The other 18 'Africans' in the study were African-Americans.
  • The method to generate the tree was not guaranteed to find the most parsimonious tree.
  • The method used to root the tree placed it at the midpoint of the longest branch (midpoint rooting). This could lead to a wrong position of the root if for example the rate of evolution is higher in Africa.
  • Restriction-fragment length polymorphism is ill-suited for estimation of mutation rates which is essential in timing evolutionary events.
  • Weak statistical analysis.

Ingman et al. (2000)[10] repeated the study while avoiding its major pitfalls:

  • They sampled 53 persons, 32 of whom were Africans from different regions of sub-Saharan Africa.
  • They sequenced the complete mtDNA but excluded the rapidly evolving D-Loop in the analysis.
  • An outgroup (chimpanzee) mtDNA sequence was used to root the tree (outgroup rooting). Outgroup rooting is much more reliable than midpoint rooting.

The study by Ingman et al. verifies the major conclusions of Cann et al. of an African origin of human mtDNA within the past 172 000 ± 50 000 years.

In popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ a b See the chapter All Africa and her progenies in {{cite book | first = Richard | last = Dawkins | authorlink = Richard Dawkins | title = River Out of Eden
  2. ^ a b c d e Dawkins, Richard (2004). The Ancestor's Tale, A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-00583-8. 
  3. ^ Rohde DLT, Olson S, Chang JT (2004) "Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans". Nature 431: 562-566.
  4. ^ a b Cann, R.L., Stoneking, M., and Wilson, A.C., 1987, "Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution", Nature 325; pp 31–36. Online: Cann et al. (1987)
  5. ^ Rohde, DLT , On the common ancestors of all living humans. Submitted to American Journal of Physical Anthropology. (2005)
  6. ^ A. C. Wilson, R. L. Cann, S. M. Carr, M. George Jr., U. B. Gyllensten, K. Helm- Bychowski, R. G. Higuchi, S. R. Palumbi, E. M. Prager, R. D. Sage, and M. Stoneking (1985) "Mitochondrial DNA and two perspectives on evolutionary genetics". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 26:375-400
  7. ^ Bryan Sykes: The Science That Reveals Our Genetic Ancestry</cite>, W.W. Norton, 2001, hardcover, 306 pages, ISBN 0-393-02018-5
  8. ^ Bryan Sykes. New York: W. W. Norton.
  9. ^ Out of Africa Again and Again by Templeton in Nature
  10. ^ Nature 408, 708-713 (7 December 2000) | doi:10.1038/35047064. Online:Ingman et al. (2000)
  • Excoffier, L., and Yang, Z., "Substitution Rate Variation Among Sites in Mitochondrial Hypervariable Region I of Humans and Chimpanzees", 1999, Mol. Biol. Evol. 16; pp 1357–1368
  • Kaessmann, H., and Pääbo, S.: "The genetical history of humans and the great apes". Journal of Internal Medicine 251: 1–18 (2002). pubmed
  • Laurence Loewe and Siegfried Scherer, “Mitochondrial Eve: The Plot Thickens,” Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Vol. 12, 11 November 1997, p. 422.
  • Nicole Maca-Meyer , Ana M González , José M Larruga, Carlos Flores and Vicente M Cabrera (2001) "Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions". BMC Genetics Biomed central
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen. The Real Eve, Carroll & Graf; (September 9, 2004) ISBN 0-7867-1334-8
  • Vigilant, L., Pennington, R., Harpending, H., Kocher, T.D., Wilson, A.C., 1989, "Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Single Hairs from a Southern African Population", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86; pp 9350-9354
  • Thomas J. Parsons et al., “A High Observed Substitution Rate in the Human Mitochondrial DNA Control Region,” Nature Genetics, Vol. 15 April 1997, p. 365.
  • Vigilant, L., Stoneking, M., Harpending, H., Hawkes, K., Wilson, A.C., 1991, "African Populations and the Evolution of the Human Mitochondrial DNA", Science 253; pp 1503–1507 Pubmed
  • Watson E., Forster P., Richards M., Bandelt H.-J. (1997). "Mitochondrial Footprints of Human Expansions in Africa." American Journal of Human Genetics. 61: 691-704 pubmed
  • Spencer Wells The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey, Princeton University Press, January 2003, hardcover, 246 pages, ISBN 0-691-11532-X

External links

This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-04-22, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  most recent common mt-ancestor    
L0   L1  
L2 L3   L4 L5 L6 L7
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A I O   R   S W X Y
C Z B F pre-HV   pre-JT P  UK
HV JT U K
H V J T


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