Mitosis: Wikis

  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Mitosis

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mitosis divides the chromosomes in a cell nucleus.
.Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei.^ In contrast, mitosis produces two identical daughter cells.
  • PLoS Biology: Turning Meiosis into Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitosis results in two diploid cells.
  • Quizmoz - Mitosis Cell Cycle Quiz, Mitosis Cell Cycle Facts Quiz 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In A, the Hoechst fluorescence shows the nuclei of two daughter cells after division of the same mother cell.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.^ It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis which divides the cytoplasm and cell membrane .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Telophase is followed by cytokinesis, or the division of the cytoplasm into two daughter cells.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This results in two identical daughter cells with a roughly equal distribution of organelles and other cellular components.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle - the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell.^ File:Chromosomes during mitosis.svg Chromosome during mitosis The primary result of mitosis is the division of the parent cell's genome into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The daughter cells that result from this process have identical genetic compositions.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In A, the Hoechst fluorescence shows the nuclei of two daughter cells after division of the same mother cell.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.This accounts for approximately 10% of the cell cycle.^ (Top) Cyclin-CDK complexes in higher eukaryotes, and their approximate times of activity during the cell cycle.
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After refeeding into the proliferative cycle, cells reach a mitotic index of 10-18% after 24 h.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.Mitosis occurs exclusively in eukaryotic cells, but occurs in different ways in different species.^ Mitosis occurs exclusively in eukaryotic cells.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, while mitosis is universal in eukaryotic species, meiosis is merely ubiquitous, consistent with its loss in some eukaryotic lineages.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LITERATURE CITED In the evolution of the eukaryotes, it can be assumed that the earliest eukaryotic species were single-cell haploid forms, possessing just a single set of chromosomes, and that they propagated by mitosis.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, animals undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus.^ A new nuclear envelope forms around the separated sister chromosomes.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It is when chromosomes condense and become visible It is when nuclear envelope breaks down and spindle fibers become visible What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Envelope breaks down .
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission.^ Prokaryotic cells undergo a process similar to mitosis called binary fission.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In multicellular organisms, the somatic cells undergo mitosis, while germ cells — cells destined to become sperm in males or ova in females — divide by a related process called meiosis .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.The process of mitosis is complex and highly regulated.^ The process of mitosis is complex and highly regulated.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers now know that mitosis is a highly regulated process involving hundreds of different cellular proteins.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This complex phenotype is most simply interpreted as an abnormality in the regulation or control of recombination manifested in both mitosis and meiosis.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.The sequence of events is divided into phases, corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next.^ The sequence of events is divided into phases, corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, if you follow the "next" links, there is an excellent interactive activity that can be used to help students understand the amount of time that cells spend in the various phases.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end of the whole process one cell divides into two, Making the mitosis process successful after all the phases it had to go through.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.^ This is anaphase, after Metaphase, and before Telophase.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase Are some you should learn.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase Are all a part of mitosis.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell.^ What are the stages of the cell cycle during mitosis?
  • Quizmoz - Mitosis Cell Cycle Quiz, Mitosis Cell Cycle Facts Quiz 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The length of these kinetochore-attached microtubules then decreases during mitosis, pulling sister chromatids to opposite poles of the spindle.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flemming divided mitosis into two broad parts: a progressive phase, during which the chromosomes condensed and aligned at the center of the spindle, and a regressive phase, during which the sister chromatids separated.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells.^ Then eukaryotic cell comes by, and divides them into two daughter cells.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is two new daughter cells What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thats where cells divide into two .
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Because cytokinesis usually occurs in conjunction with mitosis, "mitosis" is often used interchangeably with "mitotic phase". However, there are many cells where mitosis and cytokinesis occur separately, forming single cells with multiple nuclei.^ Cells in organisms are alike in many ways however there are differences.
  • Cells and Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www2.semo.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mitosis has many phases that it goes through by dividing, There are four phases.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The phase of cell division, including mitosis and cytokinesis , is called the M phase.
  • Mitosis and the Cell Cycle 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC iws.ccccd.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This occurs most notably among the fungi and slime moulds, but is found in various different groups.^ This occurs most notably among the fungi and slime moulds , but is found in various different groups.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Even in animals, cytokinesis and mitosis may occur independently, for instance during certain stages of fruit fly embryonic development.^ What are the stages of the cell cycle during mitosis?
  • Quizmoz - Mitosis Cell Cycle Quiz, Mitosis Cell Cycle Facts Quiz 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students independently learned about the concepts of mitosis as they researched the subject during a Web search on the Internet.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inactivation of K03E5.3 by RNAi causes highly variable defects, with animals arresting as embryos or during various larval stages [ 25 ].
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Errors in mitosis can either kill a cell through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to cancer.^ Errors in mitosis can either kill a cell through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to cancer .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ We found that the kap104-E604K mutation suppressed the temperature-sensitive growth of cdc15-2 cells by promoting the exit from mitosis and suppressed the temperature sensitivity of various mitotic-exit mutations.
  • Feedback control of mitosis in budding yeast. 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC lib.bioinfo.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ At the end of the whole process one cell divides into two, Making the mitosis process successful after all the phases it had to go through.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Overview

.The primary result of mitosis is the division of the parent cell's genome into two daughter cells.^ File:Chromosomes during mitosis.svg Chromosome during mitosis The primary result of mitosis is the division of the parent cell's genome into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This groove eventually deepens and the cell is split into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis. 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC staff.jccc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cell mitosis is part of the process of cell division.
  • Questions about Mitosis - Ask.com 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

.The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes - complexes of tightly-coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for proper cell function.^ The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes , complexes of tightly-coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for proper cell function.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ File:Chromosomes during mitosis.svg Chromosome during mitosis The primary result of mitosis is the division of the parent cell's genome into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ How is all of that DNA packaged so tightly into chromosomes and squeezed into a tiny nucleus?
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis.^ The daughter cells that result from this process have identical genetic compositions.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitosis results in two diploid cells.
  • Quizmoz - Mitosis Cell Cycle Quiz, Mitosis Cell Cycle Facts Quiz 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, mitosis produces two identical daughter cells.
  • PLoS Biology: Turning Meiosis into Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.This occurs during S phase, in interphase, the period that precedes the mitotic phase in the cell cycle where preparation for mitosis occurs.^ [My paper] William J Bosl , Rong Li The exit from mitosis is the last critical decision during a cell-division cycle.
  • Feedback control of mitosis in budding yeast. 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC lib.bioinfo.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ Surface functions during mitosis I: phagocytosis, pinocytosis and mobility of surface-bound ConA. Cell 15 , 327-341.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this report we have examined the capacity of cells to internalize molecules during the cell cycle.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.Each new chromosome now contains two identical copies of itself, called sister chromatids, attached together in a specialized region of the chromosome known as the centromere.^ Each chromosome forms two kinetochores at the centromere, one attached at each chromatid.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Each sister chromatid is not considered a chromosome in itself, and a chromosome does not always contain two sister chromatids.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Each chromosome now contains two identical copies of itself, called sister chromatids , attached together in a specialized region of the chromosome known as the centromere .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Each sister chromatid is not considered a chromosome in itself, and a chromosome does not always contain two sister chromatids.^ Each sister chromatid is not considered a chromosome in itself, and a chromosome does not always contain two sister chromatids.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Each chromosome now contains two identical copies of itself, called sister chromatids , attached together in a specialized region of the chromosome known as the centromere .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.In most eukaryotes, the nuclear envelope that separates the DNA from the cytoplasm disassembles.^ In most eukaryotes , the nuclear envelope that separates the DNA from the cytoplasm degrades, and its fluid spills out into the cytoplasm.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A new nuclear envelope, using fragments of the parent cell's nuclear membrane, forms around each set of separated sister chromosomes.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A new nuclear envelope forms around the separated sister chromosomes.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.The chromosomes align themselves in a line spanning the cell.^ The chromosomes align themselves in a line spanning the cell.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Next is metaphase: The centrioles make fibers and line up the chromosomes to the center of the cell.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is when centrioles appear It is when chromosomes move to anti line up at center of cells What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microtubules, essentially miniature strings, splay out from opposite ends of the cell and shorten, pulling apart the sister chromatids of each chromosome.^ Describe a chromosome and contrast it with a sister chromatid .

^ Spindle fibers continue to shorten, pulling chromatids to opposite poles.
  • Cell Division 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Microtubules , essentially miniature strings, splay out from opposite ends of the cell and shorten, pulling apart the sister chromatids of each chromosome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

[6] .As a matter of convention, each sister chromatid is now considered a chromosome, so they are renamed to sister chromosomes.^ Describe a chromosome and contrast it with a sister chromatid .

^ They are now referred to as single chromosomes.

^ Now each sister chromatid represents a single chromosome.
  • Mitosis and Meiosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.und.nodak.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the cell elongates, corresponding sister chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends.^ The centrioles are moving to opposite ends of the cell.

^ The chromosomes move toward poles of cell.

^ T he spindles go to opposite ends of the cell.
  • World Builders 1 Chapter 4 Asexual Reproduction E Viau CSULA 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.world-builders.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A new nuclear envelope forms around the separated sister chromosomes.^ Telophase rebuilds the nuclear envelopes around the daughter chromosomes.
  • Mitosis and the Cell Cycle 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC iws.ccccd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally the nuclear envelope or membrane is formed around the chromosomes.
  • WikiAnswers - What is mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is when new nuclear envelope forms and spindle fibers disappear What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As mitosis completes cytokinesis is well underway.^ As mitosis completes cytokinesis is well underway.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytokinesis is a separate process that follows mitosis in order to complete cell division.
  • Mitosis | Tocris Bioscience 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.tocris.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The actual process of Mitosis only lasts an hour (Which includes Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase, as well as Cytokinesis.
  • What is the longest stage of Mitosis? - Yahoo!7 Answers 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.In animal cells, the cell pinches inward where the imaginary line used to be (the pinching of the cell membrane to form the two daughter cells is called cleavage furrow), separating the two developing nuclei.^ It is two new daughter cells What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To visualize plant or animal cells we need to use a m___________.
  • Mitosis and Meiosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Replacing dead cells with new cells, The daughter cell grows, And becomes DNA. Wrapping it up, The protein in the chromosomes, They were two complicated daughter cells, But without them, We wouldn't be complete.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In plant cells, the daughter cells will construct a new dividing cell wall between each other.^ It is two new daughter cells What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Replacing dead cells with new cells, The daughter cell grows, And becomes DNA. Wrapping it up, The protein in the chromosomes, They were two complicated daughter cells, But without them, We wouldn't be complete.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eukaryotic cells divide the chromosomes Making it into daughter cells.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually, the mother cell will be split in half, giving rise to two daughter cells, each with an equivalent and complete copy of the original genome.^ This groove eventually deepens and the cell is split into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis. 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC staff.jccc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Original cell and daughter cells are all diploid.
  • Cell division: mitosis and meiosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.biosci.ohiou.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Daughter cells differ from each other as well as from the original mother cell.
  • PinkMonkey.com Biology Study Guide - 6.4 Comparison Between Mitosis and Meiosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.pinkmonkey.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prokaryotic cells undergo a process similar to mitosis called binary fission.^ Prokaryotic cells undergo a process similar to mitosis called binary fission.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In multicellular organisms, the somatic cells undergo mitosis, while germ cells — cells destined to become sperm in males or ova in females — divide by a related process called meiosis .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.However, prokaryotes cannot be properly said to undergo mitosis because they lack a nucleus and only have a single chromosome with no centromere.^ Chromosome Segregation in Mitosis: The Role of Centromeres Without centromeres, cells cannot divide properly and the overall process of mitosis fails.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Without centromeres, cells cannot divide properly and the overall process of mitosis fails.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cohesin is retained, however, at the most constricted part of the chromosome, the centromere .
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[7]

Phases of cell cycle and mitosis

Interphase

The cell cycle
.The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle.^ Detailed examination of uptake in mitotic cells reveals it takes place from advanced prophase to early telophase periods of mitosis (Figure 1 , top 4 panels).
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After refeeding into the proliferative cycle, cells reach a mitotic index of 10-18% after 24 h.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In higher eukaryotes, the transitions between successive phases of the cell cycle are controlled by the activities of multiple CDKs in combination with different families of cyclins (figure 3 ).
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

.It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for cell division.^ Interphase is not part of Mitosis, but part of cell division.
  • Quizmoz - Mitosis Cell Cycle Quiz, Mitosis Cell Cycle Facts Quiz 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regardless, when students have to prepare to be able to teach others, they internalize the concepts and retain them much longer.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After cell divisions grown in the interphase, It then moves to the second process, which is prophase.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Interphase is therefore not part of mitosis.^ Interphase is not part of Mitosis, but part of cell division.
  • Quizmoz - Mitosis Cell Cycle Quiz, Mitosis Cell Cycle Facts Quiz 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Interphase is divided into three phases, G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap).^ Mitosis Is Divided into Well-Defined Phases .
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the end of the whole process one cell divides into two, Making the mitosis process successful after all the phases it had to go through.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 8 Today, mitosis is divided into seven phases based on the physical state of the chromosomes and spindle (Figure 8).
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.During all three phases, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles.^ Radiating protein strands at poles of an animal cell during M-phase.

^ During all three phases, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ C. G 2 Phase: Cell growth and protein synthesis.

.However, chromosomes are replicated only during the S phase.^ However, they did not mention the names of the phases nor did they mention any structures other than the chromosomes.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, chromosomal DNA is duplicated during a subportion of interphase known as the S, or synthesis, phase.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, we show herein that this facilitation is only effective during mitosis and not at other times in the cell cycle.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, a cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and finally divides (M) before restarting the cycle.^ In multicellular organisms, the somatic cells undergo mitosis, while germ cells — cells destined to become sperm in males or ova in females — divide by a related process called meiosis .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitosis is asexual duplication, more like cloning.
  • Mitosis - Lolcats 'n' Funny Pictures of Cats - I Can Has Cheezburger? 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC icanhascheezburger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Replacing dead cells with new cells, The daughter cell grows, And becomes DNA. Wrapping it up, The protein in the chromosomes, They were two complicated daughter cells, But without them, We wouldn't be complete.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Preprophase

.In plant cells only, prophase is preceded by a pre-prophase stage.^ The germ cells exit pachytene, and progress through diplotene arresting for a second time in diakinesis, the final stage of meiotic prophase.
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

.In highly vacuolated plant cells, the nucleus has to migrate into the center of the cell before mitosis can begin.^ In highly vacuolated plant cells, the nucleus has to migrate into the center of the cell before mitosis can begin.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ File:Chromosomes during mitosis.svg Chromosome during mitosis The primary result of mitosis is the division of the parent cell's genome into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

This is achieved through the formation of a phragmosome, a transverse sheet of cytoplasm that bisects the cell along the future plane of cell division. .In addition to phragmosome formation, preprophase is characterized by the formation of a ring of microtubules and actin filaments (called preprophase band) underneath the plasma membrane around the equatorial plane of the future mitotic spindle.^ In addition to phragmosome formation, preprophase is characterized by the formation of a ring of microtubules and actin filaments (called preprophase band ) underneath the plasmamembrane around the equatorial plane of the future mitotic spindle and predicting the position of cell plate fusion during telophase .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The network of microtubules is the beginning of the mitotic spindle .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, dma1Delta dma2Delta cells fail to activate the spindle position checkpoint in response to the lack of dynein, whereas ectopic expression of DMA2 prevents unscheduled mitotic exit of spindle checkpoint mutants treated with microtubule-depolymerizing drugs.
  • Feedback control of mitosis in budding yeast. 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC lib.bioinfo.pl [Source type: Academic]

This band marks the position where the cell will eventually divide. .The cells of higher plants (such as the flowering plants) lack centrioles: with microtubules forming a spindle on the surface of the nucleus and then being organized into a spindle by the chromosomes themselves, after the nuclear membrane breaks down.^ It is when chromosomes condense and become visible It is when nuclear envelope breaks down and spindle fibers become visible What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are four stages of process First prophase, Chromosomes condense and become visible Fibers become visible & nucleus breaks down Second metaphase, Chromosomes line up in the center Each held by fibers attached to kinetochore This anaphase, two chromatids separate & form chromosomes Chromosomes move opposite poles of cell & the fibers shortened Four telophase, chromosomes at the end of cell & new nuclear envelope form Fibers disappear and Now is the Mitosis!
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chromosomes begin to become visible, The nuclear envelope around the nucleus breaks down, The network of the spindle fibers become visible, Step one of Mitosis not Meiosis Chromosomes move to the center of the cell, Line up along the equator, Are held in place by the Microtubules which are attached by the Kinetochora Step two of Mitosis not Meiosis Chromosomes move toward opposite poles of The cell, as the fibers attached to them begin to get short, shorter, step three of mitosis not meiosis Chromosomes at opposite end of the cell, Uncoils, forms a new nuclear envelope, The spindle fibers that become visible in step two Breaks and disappears mitosis is complete But mitosis end cytokinesis begins, The final And Three Sixty (360) of Mitosis not Meiosis .
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] The preprophase band disappears during nuclear envelope disassembly and spindle formation in prometaphase.[9]
.Prophase: The two round objects above the nucleus are the centrosomes.^ File:Prophase.jpg Prophase: The two round objects above the nucleus are the centrosomes.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Just outside the nucleus are two centrosomes .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Two centrosomes, and their forming radial arrays of astral microtubules, separating on the surface of an early prophase newt lung cell nucleus.
  • The Rieder Lab: Studies on Mitosis and the Cell Cycle - Research Summary and Focus 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.wadsworth.org [Source type: Academic]

The chromatin has condensed.  
.
Prometaphase: The nuclear membrane has degraded, and microtubules have invaded the nuclear space.^ File:Prometaphase.jpg Prometaphase: The nuclear membrane has degraded, and microtubules have invaded the nuclear space.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Prometaphase-flourescent.jpg Early prometaphase: The nuclear membrane has just degraded, allowing the microtubules to quickly interact with the kinetochores on the chromosomes, which have just condensed.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The nuclear envelope dissolves and microtubules invade the nuclear space.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.These microtubules can attach to kinetochores or they can interact with opposing microtubules.^ These microtubules can attach to kinetochores or they can interact with opposing microtubules.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the molecular mechanism for microtubule-kinetochore interactions remains poorly understood.
  • Feedback control of mitosis in budding yeast. 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC lib.bioinfo.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ A kinetochore is a complex protein structure that is analogous to a ring for the microtubule hook; it is the point where microtubules attach themselves to the chromosome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

 
.
Metaphase: The chromosomes have aligned at the metaphase plate.^ (C) Metaphase I. The five bivalent are aligned on the metaphase plate.
  • PLoS Biology: Turning Meiosis into Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ File:Metaphase.jpg Metaphase: The chromosomes have aligned at the metaphase plate.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Observation of chromosome behaviour during male and female meiosis revealed a mitotic-like division: ten univalents aligned on the metaphase plate and sister chromatids separated at anaphase ( Figure 6 ).
  • PLoS Biology: Turning Meiosis into Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

 
.
Early anaphase: Kinetochore microtubules shorten.^ These sister chromatids turned sister chromosomes are pulled apart by shortening kinetochore microtubules and toward the respective centrosomes to which they are attached.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Prometaphase-flourescent.jpg Early prometaphase: The nuclear membrane has just degraded, allowing the microtubules to quickly interact with the kinetochores on the chromosomes, which have just condensed.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When every kinetochore is attached to a cluster of microtubules and the chromosomes have lined up along the metaphase plate, the cell proceeds to anaphase.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

 
.
Telophase: The decondensing chromosomes are surrounded by nuclear membranes.^ Chromosomes become visible when the cell membrane surrounds the nuclei becomes less usable.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new nuclear envelope, using fragments of the parent cell's nuclear membrane, forms around each set of separated sister chromosomes.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Cell membrane surrounding the nuclei becomes less visible And chromosomes become more visible.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note cytokinesis has already begun, the pinching is known as the cleavage furrow.^ File:Telophase.jpg Telophase: The pinching is known as the cleavage furrow .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In animal cells, a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be, pinching off the separated nuclei.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In animal cells , the cell pinches inward where the imaginary line used to be,(the pinching of the cell membrane to form the two daughter cells is called cleavage furrow.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

 

Prophase

Micrograph showing condensed chromosomes in blue and the mitotic spindle in green during prometaphase of mitosis
.Normally, the genetic material in the nucleus is in a loosely bundled coil called chromatin.^ Normally, the genetic material in the nucleus is in a loosely bundled coil called chromatin .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.At the onset of prophase, chromatin condenses together into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome.^ At the onset of prophase, chromatin condenses together into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Throughout prophase, the chromosomes condense and shorten.
  • Mitosis and the Cell Cycle: Introduction 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC biology.wsc.ma.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The genetic material ( DNA ), which normally exists in the form of chromatin condenses into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome .
  • Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.bio-medicine.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitosis - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since the genetic material has already been duplicated earlier in S phase, the replicated chromosomes have two sister chromatids, bound together at the centromere by the cohesion complex.^ Since the genetic material has already been duplicated earlier in S phase, the replicated chromosomes have two sister chromatids, bound together at the centromere by the protein cohesin.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Of two chromatids joined by a centromere .
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each chromosome forms two kinetochores at the centromere, one attached at each chromatid.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Chromosomes are visible at high magnification through a light microscope.^ The chromosomes disperse and are no longer visible under the light microscope.
  • The Life of a Cell: Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC dbs.umt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The kinetochores are not visible with the light microscope.
  • Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.life.umd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout interphase, the chromosomes are extended and are not visible in the light microscope (Figure 6).

Close to the nucleus are structures called centrosomes, which are made of a pair of centrioles. .The centrosome is the coordinating center for the cell's microtubules.^ Each centrosome, which was replicated earlier independent of mitosis, acts as a coordinating center for the cell's microtubules .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Next, the nonkinetochore microtubules elongate, pushing the centrosomes (and the set of chromosomes to which they are attached) apart to opposite ends of the cell.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.A cell inherits a single centrosome at cell division, which replicates before a new mitosis begins, giving a pair of centrosomes.^ File:Chromosomes during mitosis.svg Chromosome during mitosis The primary result of mitosis is the division of the parent cell's genome into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In highly vacuolated plant cells, the nucleus has to migrate into the center of the cell before mitosis can begin.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.The two centrosomes nucleate microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) to form the spindle by polymerizing soluble tubulin.^ The two centrosomes sprout microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) by polymerizing free-floating tubulin protein.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ As microtubules find and attach to kinetochores in prometaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene along the metaphase plate or equatorial plane , an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Molecular motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell.^ By repulsive interaction of these microtubules with each other, the centrosomes push themselves to opposite ends of the cell (although new research has shown that there might be a mechanism inside the centromeres that also grab the microtubules and pull the chromatids apart).
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When a microtubule connects with the kinetochore, the motor activates, using energy from ATP to "crawl" up the tube toward the originating centrosome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In both animal and plant cells, cell division is also driven by vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus , which move along microtubules to the middle of the cell.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Although centrioles help organize microtubule assembly, they are not essential for the formation of the spindle, since they are absent from plants,[8] and centrosomes are not always used in meiosis.^ Some centrosomes contain a pair of centrioles that may help organize microtubule assembly, but they are not essential to formation of the mitotic spindle.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When a microtubule connects with the kinetochore, the motor activates, using energy from ATP to "crawl" up the tube toward the originating centrosome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Next, the nonkinetochore microtubules elongate, pushing the centrosomes (and the set of chromosomes to which they are attached) apart to opposite ends of the cell.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

[10]

Prometaphase

.The nuclear envelope disassembles and microtubules invade the nuclear space.^ The nuclear envelope dissolves and microtubules invade the nuclear space.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ File:Prometaphase.jpg Prometaphase: The nuclear membrane has degraded, and microtubules have invaded the nuclear space.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, spindle microtubules aggregate on the surface of the nuclear envelope during prophase.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.This is called open mitosis, and it occurs in most multicellular organisms.^ This is called open mitosis, found in most multicellular forms.
  • Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.bio-medicine.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitosis - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This usually occurs with mitosis, but in some organisms this is not so .
  • Cell Division 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This is called open mitosis, and it occurs in most multicellular organisms.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Fungi and some protists, such as algae or trichomonads, undergo a variation called closed mitosis where the spindle forms inside the nucleus or its microtubules are able to penetrate an intact nuclear envelope.^ BENDICH, A., 2007 The size and form of chromosomes are constant in the nucleus, but highly variable in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While the various similarities between the two forms of cell division argue for a close evolutionary relationship between them, the greater complexity of meiosis indicates that it is the derived process.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This uptake of macromolecules during mitosis still takes place in the presence of cytochalasin D or nocodazole, showing no requirement for intact microtubules or actin filaments in this process.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

[11][12]
.Each chromosome forms two kinetochores at the centromere, one attached at each chromatid.^ Each chromosome forms two kinetochores at the centromere, one attached at each chromatid.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ As microtubules find and attach to kinetochores in prometaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene along the metaphase plate or equatorial plane , an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.A kinetochore is a complex protein structure that is analogous to a ring for the microtubule hook; it is the point where microtubules attach themselves to the chromosome.^ Kinetochore microtubules are attached to the chromosomes.

^ A kinetochore is a complex protein structure that is analogous to a ring for the microtubule hook; it is the point where microtubules attach themselves to the chromosome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a complex protein structure that may be thought of as an 'eyelet' for the microtubule 'rope' - it is the attaching point by which chromosomes may be secured.
  • Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.bio-medicine.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitosis - Biocrawler, the free encyclopedia 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.biocrawler.com [Source type: Academic]

[13] Although the kinetochore structure and function are not fully understood, it is known that it contains some form of molecular motor.[14] .When a microtubule connects with the kinetochore, the motor activates, using energy from ATP to "crawl" up the tube toward the originating centrosome.^ The kinetochore attaches to the microtubules that make up the spindles from the centrosomes.
  • Free GeneticsLesson Three : Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.synapses.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ When a microtubule connects with the kinetochore, the motor activates, using energy from ATP to "crawl" up the tube toward the originating centrosome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The microtubules of the assembly make contact to the kinetochores and through elongation and shortening of the microtubules the chromosomes are lined up between the two poles (metaphase 2).
  • Mitosis, Cell cycle control, meiosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.prism.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids.^ This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The two centrosomes sprout microtubules (which may be thought of as cellular ropes or poles) by polymerizing free-floating tubulin protein.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.When the spindle grows to sufficient length, kinetochore microtubules begin searching for kinetochores to attach to.^ The kinetochore attaches to the microtubules that make up the spindles from the centrosomes.
  • Free GeneticsLesson Three : Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.synapses.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ When the spindle grows to sufficient length, kinetochore microtubules begin searching for kinetochores to attach to.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When the spindle grows to sufficient length, the microtubules begin searching for kinetochores to attach to.

.A number of nonkinetochore microtubules find and interact with corresponding nonkinetochore microtubules from the opposite centrosome to form the mitotic spindle.^ The microtubules, also called spindle fibers , form from an area of the cell called the centrosome .

^ A number of nonkinetochore microtubules find and interact with corresponding nonkinetochore microtubules from the opposite centrosome to form the mitotic spindle.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The network of microtubules is the beginning of the mitotic spindle .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Prometaphase is sometimes considered part of prophase.^ Prometaphase is sometimes considered part of prophase.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitosis is almost always accompanied by cell division (cytokinesis), and the latter is sometimes considered a part of the mitotic process.
  • Mitosis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • mitosis Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some biology texts do not include this phase, considering it a part of prophase.

In the fishing pole analogy, the kinetochore would be the "hook" that catches a sister chromatid or "fish". The centrosome acts as the "reel" that draws in the spindle fibers or "fishing line".

Metaphase

A cell in late metaphase. All chromosomes (blue) but one have arrived at the metaphase plate.
.As microtubules find and attach to kinetochores in prometaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene along the metaphase plate or equatorial plane, an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles.^ As microtubules find and attach to kinetochores in prometaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene along the metaphase plate or equatorial plane , an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Each chromosome forms two kinetochores at the centromere, one attached at each chromatid.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When every kinetochore is attached to a cluster of microtubules and the chromosomes have lined up along the metaphase plate, the cell proceeds to anaphase.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

[15] .This even alignment is due to the counterbalance of the pulling powers generated by the opposing kinetochores, analogous to a tug-of-war between people of equal strength.^ This even alignment is due to the counterbalance of the pulling powers generated by the opposing kinetochores, analogous to a tug-of-war between equally strong people.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.In certain types of cells, chromosomes do not line up at the metaphase plate and instead move back and forth between the poles randomly, only roughly lining up along the midline.^ Pairs of chromosomes are lined up at the center.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DNA lines up in the center of the cell.
  • MYSTERIES OF MITOSIS  18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.kedt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During anaphase, the chromosomes move toward poles of cell.

Metaphase comes from the Greek μετα meaning "after."
.Because proper chromosome separation requires that every kinetochore be attached to a bundle of microtubules (spindle fibres), it is thought that unattached kinetochores generate a signal to prevent premature progression to anaphase without all chromosomes being aligned.^ Because proper chromosome separation requires that every kinetochore be attached to a bundle of microtubules (spindle fibers) , it is thought that unattached kinetochores generate a signal to prevent premature progression to anaphase [1] without all chromosomes being aligned.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When every kinetochore is attached to a cluster of microtubules and the chromosomes have lined up along the metaphase plate, the cell proceeds to anaphase.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.The signal creates the mitotic spindle checkpoint.^ The signal creates the mitotic spindle checkpoint .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitotic checkpoint: a signaling pathway that allows a single unattached kinetochore to inhibit mitotic exit.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

[16]

Anaphase

.When every kinetochore is attached to a cluster of microtubules and the chromosomes have lined up along the metaphase plate, the cell proceeds to anaphase (from the Greek ανα meaning “up,” “against,” “back,” or “re-”).^ After recombination, the chromosomes condense further and the paired homologs become aligned on the metaphase plate.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Shown is the fluorescence taken up in a metaphase (1) and a pair of telophase (2) cells.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.Two events then occur; First, the proteins that bind sister chromatids together are cleaved, allowing them to separate.^ Lu X, Horvitz HR: lin-35 and lin-53 , two genes that antagonize a C. elegans Ras pathway, encode proteins similar to Rb and its binding protein RbAp48.
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It, in turn, is followed by metaphase II and then by anaphase II, in which the sister chromatids are separated and segregated to opposite poles, yielding two haploid nuclei with single (nonreplicated) chromatids.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As noted above and summarized in Table 1 , the cytological events specific to meiosis are the following: (1) the acquisition of homolog pairing (and its concomitant, homolog separation), (2) the occurrence of efficient intergenic recombination between homologs during pairing, (3) the suppression of sister-chromatid separation in the first division, and (4) the absence of S phase at the start of the second division.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.These sister chromatids, which have now become distinct sister chromosomes, are pulled apart by shortening kinetochore microtubules and move toward the respective centrosomes to which they are attached.^ Microtubules , essentially miniature strings, splay out from opposite ends of the cell and shorten, pulling apart the sister chromatids of each chromosome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These sister chromatids turned sister chromosomes are pulled apart by shortening kinetochore microtubules and toward the respective centrosomes to which they are attached.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ As a matter of convention, each sister chromatid is now considered a chromosome, so they are renamed to sister chromosomes .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Next, the nonkinetochore microtubules elongate, pulling the centrosomes (and the set of chromosomes to which they are attached) apart to opposite ends of the cell.^ They understood that mitosis was a method for cells to reproduce and they associated mitosis with chromosomes.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LITERATURE CITED In the evolution of the eukaryotes, it can be assumed that the earliest eukaryotic species were single-cell haploid forms, possessing just a single set of chromosomes, and that they propagated by mitosis.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When the two sets of chromosomes produced by MI are enclosed within nuclei, they are already replicated.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

The force that causes the centrosomes to move towards the ends of the cell is still unknown, although there is a theory that suggests that the rapid assembly and breakdown of microtubules may cause this movement.[17]
.These two stages are sometimes called early and late anaphase.^ These two stages are sometimes called early and late anaphase.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Direct cell division, in which the nucleus simply cleaves in two (sometimes but not always followed by division of the cytoplasm), is called amitosis and is very rare.
  • Mitosis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • mitosis Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These daughter cells are now entering the early interphase stage.

.Early anaphase is usually defined as the separation of the sister chromatids, while late anaphase is the elongation of the microtubules and the chromosomes being pulled farther apart.^ Fibers pull chromosomes further and further apart.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chromatids separate, and move apart.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This motor activity, coupled with polymerisation and depolymerisation of microtubules, provides the pulling force necessary to later separate the chromosome's two chromatids.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.At the end of anaphase, the cell has succeeded in separating identical copies of the genetic material into two distinct populations.^ Anaphase : Chromosomes separate into two genetically identical groups and move to opposite ends of the spindle.
  • Inside the Cell: Chapter 4: Cellular Reproduction: Multiplication by Division - National Institute of General Medical Sciences 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC publications.nigms.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cell divides by pinching into two.

^ Mitosis is the process by which a cell separates its duplicated genome into two identical halves.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

Telophase

.Telophase (from the Greek τελος meaning "end") is a reversal of prophase and prometaphase events.^ Telophase is a reversal of prophase and prometaphase events.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, telophase and anaphase.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

It "cleans up" the after effects of mitosis. .At telophase, the nonkinetochore microtubules continue to lengthen, elongating the cell even more.^ At telophase, the nonkinetochore microtubules continue to lengthen, elongating the cell even more.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When normal cells contact neighboring cells, they stop dividing; cancer cells can continue to divide even with such contact.
  • Mitosis and the Cell Cycle 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC iws.ccccd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsequent generations would have even more chromosomes per cell.
  • Inside the Cell: Chapter 4: Cellular Reproduction: Multiplication by Division - National Institute of General Medical Sciences 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC publications.nigms.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Corresponding sister chromosomes attach at opposite ends of the cell.^ As the cell elongates, corresponding sister chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Corresponding sister chromosomes attach at opposite ends of the cell.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In anaphase each chromatid pair separates into two identical chromosomes that are pulled to opposite ends of the cell by the spindle fibres.
  • mitosis (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.A new nuclear envelope, using fragments of the parent cell's nuclear membrane, forms around each set of separated sister chromosomes.^ Two new nuclear membranes form, one around each set of daughter chromosomes.

^ Are the two sets of daughter chromosomes identical to those in the parent cell?

^ Telophase - Nuclear envelopes begin to form around the new two sets of chromosomes.

.Both sets of chromosomes, now surrounded by new nuclei, unfold back into chromatin.^ Chromatin condenses into chromosomes?
  • Great Teaching Ideas lesson & unit viewer | SuccessLink 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.successlink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both sets of chromosomes, now surrounded by new nuclei, unfold back into chromatin.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Consequently, the lost chromosome never properly groups with others into a new nuclear envelope , and it is left in the cytoplasm , where it will not be transcribed.
  • Mitosis, Meiosis, and Inheritance | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.Mitosis is complete, but cell division is not yet complete.^ The Mitosis process begins with interphase, This is when cell divisions are growing in such a rapid pace.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chromosomes are on the opposite side of the cell Two nucleus form As you have now learned on this sheet Mitosis is complete.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cody and Michael could recall little about mitosis other than it had something to do with cell division.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cytokinesis

.Cytokinesis is often mistakenly thought to be the final part of telophase; however, cytokinesis is a separate process that begins at the same time as telophase.^ Centrioles pulled them from side to side Like strings in a webbed line Slowly and delicately organized So they can evenly divided In Anaphase the creation of life begins, And the chromatids separate And the centromeres divide, In telophase the nucleus regains, And then once again the organelles Separate since the time when life began; From cytokinesis to Interphase The chromosomes copies and the process starts again...
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cytokinesis is technically not even a phase of mitosis, but rather a separate process, necessary for completing cell division.^ R indicates the Restriction point, beyond which cells do not required growth-factor signaling to complete cell division.
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Based on P rnr ::GFP expression, the delay in cell division is due to a prolonged G1 phase.
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the end of the whole process one cell divides into two, Making the mitosis process successful after all the phases it had to go through.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In animal cells, a cleavage furrow (pinch) containing a contractile ring develops where the metaphase plate used to be, pinching off the separated nuclei.^ In the future, research in C. elegans will continue to help elucidate the functioning of the cell-cycle machinery and the interplay between animal development and cell division.
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The development of reliable macromolecular transfer techniques for use in gene therapy requires an improved understanding of the ways in which cells internalize macromolecules.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The only effects on embryonic development were found in cyd-1 mutant animals, which fail to undergo the final embryonic divisions of 4 intestinal precursor cells [ 65 ] and 2 coelomocyte precursor cells [ 66 ].
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] .In both animal and plant cells, cell division is also driven by vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus, which move along microtubules to the middle of the cell.^ While the various similarities between the two forms of cell division argue for a close evolutionary relationship between them, the greater complexity of meiosis indicates that it is the derived process.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After cell divisions grown in the interphase, It then moves to the second process, which is prophase.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "This Web site has some excellent, high-quality pictures of mitosis in both plant and animal cells.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .In plants this structure coalesces into a cell plate at the center of the phragmoplast and develops into a cell wall, separating the two nuclei.^ Thats where cells divide into two .
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In A, the Hoechst fluorescence shows the nuclei of two daughter cells after division of the same mother cell.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Then eukaryotic cell comes by, and divides them into two daughter cells.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The phragmoplast is a microtubule structure typical for higher plants, whereas some green algae use a phycoplast microtubule array during cytokinesis.[20] .Each daughter cell has a complete copy of the genome of its parent cell.^ If a parent cell is 2N, the daughter cells are also 2N. .
  • Mitosis and the Cell Cycle 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC iws.ccccd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If the parent cell is diploid, the daughter cells will also be diploid.

^ If the parent cell is haploid (N), then the daughter cells will be haploid.

The end of cytokinesis marks the end of the M-phase.

Significance

.Mitosis is important for the maintenance of the chromosomal set; each cell formed receives chromosomes that are alike in composition and equal in number to the chromosomes of the parent cell.^ The importance of mitosis is the maintenance of the chromosomal set; each cell formed receives chromosomes that are alike in composition and equal in number to the chromosomes of the parent cell.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ File:Chromosomes during mitosis.svg Chromosome during mitosis The primary result of mitosis is the division of the parent cell's genome into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Because each resultant daughter cell should be genetically identical to the parent cell, the parent cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Transcription is generally believed to cease during mitosis, but epigenetic mechanisms such as bookmarking function during this stage of the cell cycle to ensure that the "memory" of which genes were active prior to entry into mitosis are transmitted to the daughter cells.^ Mitosis, Mitosis divided into four stages.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surface functions during mitosis.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first cyclin dependent kinase studied in C. elegans is encoded by the cdk-1 gene (originally named ncc-1 for Nematode Cell Cycle) [ 24 ].
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

[21]

Consequences of errors

An abnormal (tripolar) mitoses (12 o'clock position) in a precancerous lesion of the stomach. H&E stain
.Although errors in mitosis are rare, the process may go wrong, especially during early cellular divisions in the zygote.^ Using such methods, researchers determined that although mitosis and meiosis are both forms of cell division , the results of these processes are actually quite different.
  • Mitosis, Meiosis, and Inheritance | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [My paper] William J Bosl , Rong Li The exit from mitosis is the last critical decision during a cell-division cycle.
  • Feedback control of mitosis in budding yeast. 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC lib.bioinfo.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ At the end of the whole process one cell divides into two, Making the mitosis process successful after all the phases it had to go through.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mitotic errors can be especially dangerous to the organism because future offspring from this parent cell will carry the same disorder.^ This is the same number that the parents each had in their somatic cells.
  • Biological Basis of Heredity: Cell Reproduction 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC anthro.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What process and what ploidy number of the parent organism are shown in the cell in figure 3.4?

^ Eukaryotes, by contrast, especially in multicellular organisms, have several chromosomes per cell.
  • IUS Biology Faculty Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC homepages.ius.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In non-disjunction, a chromosome may fail to separate during anaphase.^ In non-disjunction , a chromosome may fail to separate during anaphase.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In anaphase each chromatid pair separates into two identical chromosomes that are pulled to opposite ends of the cell by the spindle fibres.
  • mitosis (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During anaphase, the chromosomes move toward poles of cell.

.One daughter cell will receive both sister chromosomes and the other will receive none.^ Chromosomes are "random" with respect to each other in cell.
  • Meioisis and Mitosis - Biology-Online 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One daughter cell will receive both sister chromosomes and the other will receive none.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Each daughter cell receives one of each kind of chromosome.
  • Mitosis and the Cell Cycle 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC iws.ccccd.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This results in the former cell having three chromosomes containing the same genes (two sisters and a homologue), a condition known as trisomy, and the latter cell having only one chromosome (the homologous chromosome), a condition known as monosomy.^ This results in the former cell having three chromosomes coding for the same thing (two sisters and a homologue), a condition known as trisomy , and the latter cell having only one chromosome (the homologous chromosome), a condition known as monosomy .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ File:Chromosomes during mitosis.svg Chromosome during mitosis The primary result of mitosis is the division of the parent cell's genome into two daughter cells.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Replacing dead cells with new cells, The daughter cell grows, And becomes DNA. Wrapping it up, The protein in the chromosomes, They were two complicated daughter cells, But without them, We wouldn't be complete.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These cells are considered aneuploid, a condition often associated with cancer.[22]
.Mitosis is a traumatic process.^ Mitosis is a traumatic process.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.The cell goes through dramatic changes in ultrastructure, its organelles disintegrate and reform in a matter of hours, and chromosomes are jostled constantly by probing microtubules.^ The cell goes through dramatic changes in ultrastructure, its organelles disintegrate and reform in a matter of hours, and chromosomes are jostled constantly by probing microtubules.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Human somatic cells go through the 6 phases of mitosis in 1/2 to 1 1/2 hours, depending on the kind of tissue being duplicated.
  • Biological Basis of Heredity: Cell Reproduction 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC anthro.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DNA content and chromosome number as cells progress through the cell-cycle.
  • Lab 1. Cells, Epithelia, Glands & Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.downstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Occasionally, chromosomes may become damaged.^ Occasionally, chromosomes may become damaged.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.An arm of the chromosome may be broken and the fragment lost, causing deletion.^ Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Cytogeneticists can now go "FISH-ing" for chromosomal abnormalities, which are deletions and duplications that can cause disease.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

The fragment may incorrectly reattach to another, non-homologous chromosome, causing translocation. .It may reattach to the original chromosome, but in reverse orientation, causing inversion.^ It may reattach to the original chromosome, but in reverse orientation, causing inversion .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The fragment may incorrectly reattach to another, non-homologous chromosome, causing translocation .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Or, it may be treated erroneously as a separate chromosome, causing chromosomal duplication .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

Or, it may be treated erroneously as a separate chromosome, causing chromosomal duplication. The effect of these genetic abnormalities depends on the specific nature of the error. .It may range from no noticeable effect to cancer induction or organism death.^ It may range from no noticeable effect, cancer induction, or organism death.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, phosphorylation on the corresponding sites in Cdk2 may have no or limited effect on its activity [ 17 , 18 ].
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

Endomitosis

.Endomitosis is a variant of mitosis without nuclear or cellular division, resulting in cells with many copies of the same chromosome occupying a single nucleus.^ CELL DIVISION see cell ; mitosis ; meiosis .
  • Mitosis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are cells that result from mitosis clones?
  • Mitosis and Meiosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.und.nodak.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Endomitosis is a variant of mitosis without nuclear or cellular division, resulting in cells with many copies of the same chromosome occupying a single nucleus.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.This process may also be referred to as endoreduplication and the cells as endoploid.^ This process may also be referred to as endoreduplication and the cells as endoploid .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

[4] .An example of a cell that goes through endomitosis is the megakaryocyte.^ First, it goes through interphase: The cell makes a copy of its DNA and the chromosomes start to appear.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Telophase: The two new cells are split into two as it goes through cytokinesis.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mitosis Goes through many phases Duplicating then dividing Facing five phases is what a cell must go through Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase And last the telophase.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

Timeline in pictures

Real mitotic cells can be visualized through the microscope by staining them with fluorescent antibodies and dyes. .These light micrographs are included below.^ These light micrographs are included below.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

  1. ^ Rubenstein, Irwin, and Susan M. Wick. "Cell." World Book Online Reference Center. 2008. 12 January 2008 <http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar102240>
  2. ^ De Souza CP, Osmani SA (2007). "Mitosis, not just open or closed". Eukaryotic Cell 6 (9): 1521–7. doi:10.1128/EC.00178-07. PMID 17660363. 
  3. ^ Maton, Anthea; Hopkins, Jean Johnson, Susan LaHart, David, Quon Warner, David, Wright, Jill D (1997). Cells: Building Blocks of Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 70–4. ISBN 0-13423476-6. 
  4. ^ a b Lilly M, Duronio R (2005). "New insights into cell cycle control from the Drosophila endocycle". Oncogene 24 (17): 2765–75. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208610. PMID 15838513. 
  5. ^ a b Blow J, Tanaka T (2005). "The chromosome cycle: coordinating replication and segregation. Second in the cycles review series". EMBO Rep 6 (11): 1028–34. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400557. PMID 16264427. 
  6. ^ Zhou J, Yao J, Joshi H (2002). "Attachment and tension in the spindle assembly checkpoint". J Cell Sci 115 (Pt 18): 3547–55. doi:10.1242/jcs.00029. PMID 12186941. 
  7. ^ Nanninga N (2001). "Cytokinesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: common principles and different solutions". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 65 (2): 319–33. doi:10.1128/MMBR.65.2.319-333.2001. PMID 11381104. 
  8. ^ a b Lloyd C, Chan J (February 2006). "Not so divided: the common basis of plant and animal cell division". Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 7 (2): 147–52. doi:10.1038/nrm1831. PMID 16493420. 
  9. ^ Raven, Peter H.; Ray F. Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers. pp. 58–67. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2. 
  10. ^ Varmark H (April 2004). "Functional role of centrosomes in spindle assembly and organization". Journal of cellular biochemistry 91 (5): 904–14. doi:10.1002/jcb.20013. PMID 15034926. 
  11. ^ Heywood P. (1978). "Ultrastructure of mitosis in the chloromonadophycean alga Vacuolaria virescens". J Cell Sci. 31: 37–51. PMID 670329. 
  12. ^ Ribeiro K, Pereira-Neves A, Benchimol M (2002). "The mitotic spindle and associated membranes in the closed mitosis of trichomonads". Biol Cell 94 (3): 157–72. doi:10.1016/S0248-4900(02)01191-7. PMID 12206655. 
  13. ^ Chan G, Liu S, Yen T (2005). "Kinetochore structure and function". Trends Cell Biol 15 (11): 589–98. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2005.09.010. PMID 16214339. 
  14. ^ a b Maiato H, DeLuca J, Salmon E, Earnshaw W (2004). "The dynamic kinetochore-microtubule interface". J Cell Sci 117 (Pt 23): 5461–77. doi:10.1242/jcs.01536. PMID 15509863. 
  15. ^ a b Winey M, Mamay C, O'Toole E, Mastronarde D, Giddings T, McDonald K, McIntosh J (1995). "Three-dimensional ultrastructural analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle". J Cell Biol 129 (6): 1601–15. doi:10.1083/jcb.129.6.1601. PMID 7790357. 
  16. ^ Chan G, Yen T. "The mitotic checkpoint: a signaling pathway that allows a single unattached kinetochore to inhibit mitotic exit". Prog Cell Cycle Res 5: 431–9. PMID 14593737. 
  17. ^ Kenneth R. Miller. (2000). "Anaphase". Biology.: 169–170. 
  18. ^ Glotzer M (2005). "The molecular requirements for cytokinesis". Science 307 (5716): 1735–9. doi:10.1126/science.1096896. PMID 15774750. 
  19. ^ Albertson R, Riggs B, Sullivan W (2005). "Membrane traffic: a driving force in cytokinesis". Trends Cell Biol 15 (2): 92–101. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2004.12.008. PMID 15695096. 
  20. ^ Raven, Peter H.; Ray F. Evert, Susan E. Eichhorn (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers. pp. 64–7, 328–9. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2. 
  21. ^ Zhou G, Liu D, Liang C (2005). "Memory mechanisms of active transcription during cell division". Bioessays 27 (12): 1239–45. doi:10.1002/bies.20327. PMID 16299763. 
  22. ^ Draviam V, Xie S, Sorger P (2004). "Chromosome segregation and genomic stability". Curr Opin Genet Dev 14 (2): 120–5. doi:10.1016/j.gde.2004.02.007. PMID 15196457. 
  23. ^ Italiano JE, Shivdasani RA (2003). "Megakaryocytes and beyond: the birth of platelets". J. Thromb. Haemost. 1 (6): 1174–82. doi:10.1046/j.1538-7836.2003.00290.x. PMID 12871316. 

Further reading

  • Morgan, David L. (2007). .The cell cycle: principles of control.^ Cell cycle control in higher eukaryotes .
    • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In higher eukaryotes, the transitions between successive phases of the cell cycle are controlled by the activities of multiple CDKs in combination with different families of cyclins (figure 3 ).
    • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ang XL, Wade Harper J: SCF-mediated protein degradation and cell cycle control.
    • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

    London: Published by New Science Press in association with Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-9539181-2-2.
     
  • Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, and Walter P (2002). "Mitosis". .Molecular Biology of the Cell.^ Molecular Cell Biology }}{{#if: .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 7 , 311–322 (2002) doi:10.1038/nrm1909 ( link to article ) .
    • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Molecular Cell Biology .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    Garland Science. .http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?highlight=mitosis&rid=mboc4.section.3349.^ Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=Overview+of+the+Cell+Cycle+and+Its+Control+AND+106176%5Buid%5D&rid=mcb.section.3463 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=mitosis+AND+cooper%5Bbook%5D+AND+166086%5Buid%5D&rid=cooper.section.2470 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=mitosis+AND+mboc4%5Bbook%5D+AND+374238%5Buid%5D&rid=mboc4.section.3349 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    .Retrieved 2006-01-22.
     
  • Campbell, N. and Reece, J. (December 2001).^ Retrieved on January 22 {{#if: 2006 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    "The Cell Cycle". Biology (6th ed.). .San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings/Addison-Wesley.^ Benjamin Cummings/Addison-Wesley .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ San Francisco: }}Benjamin Cummings/Addison-Wesley }}{{ .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    pp. 217–224. .ISBN 0-8053-6624-5. 
  • Cooper, G. (2000).^ ISBN 0-8053-6624-5 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ISBN 0-8053-6624-5 }}{{ .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    "The Events of M Phase". .The Cell: A Molecular Approach.^ The Cell: A Molecular Approach .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Cell: A Molecular Approach }}{{#if: .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    .Sinaeur Associates, Inc.^ Sinaeur Associates, Inc .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sinaeur Associates, Inc{{#if: Cooper, G. .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    .http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?highlight=M%20Phase,Events&rid=cooper.section.2470.^ Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=Overview+of+the+Cell+Cycle+and+Its+Control+AND+106176%5Buid%5D&rid=mcb.section.3463 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=mitosis+AND+cooper%5Bbook%5D+AND+166086%5Buid%5D&rid=cooper.section.2470 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=mitosis+AND+mboc4%5Bbook%5D+AND+374238%5Buid%5D&rid=mboc4.section.3349 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    .Retrieved 2006-01-22.
     
  • Freeman, S (2002).^ Retrieved on January 22 {{#if: 2006 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    "Cell Division". Biological Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 155–174. .ISBN 0-13-081923-9. 
  • Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky L, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J (2000).^ ISBN 0-13-081923-9 }}{{ .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ISBN 0-13-081923-9 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky L, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J }}]] .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ."Overview of the Cell Cycle and Its Control".^ Cell cycle control in higher eukaryotes .
    • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In higher eukaryotes, the transitions between successive phases of the cell cycle are controlled by the activities of multiple CDKs in combination with different families of cyclins (figure 3 ).
    • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ang XL, Wade Harper J: SCF-mediated protein degradation and cell cycle control.
    • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Molecular Cell Biology.^ Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 7 , 311–322 (2002) doi:10.1038/nrm1909 ( link to article ) .
    • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Molecular Cell Biology .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 2 , 72–75 (2001) doi:10.1038/35048077 ( link to article ) .
    • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Mitosis, Meiosis, and Inheritance | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

    W.H. Freeman. .http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?highlight=Overview,Control,Cell+Cycle&rid=mcb.section.3463.^ Overview of the Cell Cycle and Its Control .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Overview of the Cell Cycle and Its Control }}}} }}{{#if: .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Search&db=books&doptcmdl=GenBookHL&term=Overview+of+the+Cell+Cycle+and+Its+Control+AND+106176%5Buid%5D&rid=mcb.section.3463 .
    • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2006-01-22
    . 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Crystal Clear app kaddressbook.png
Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ "In this video you will see me guide one lab team as they learned to use the Swift microscope that has the digital photo capture feature.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But you don't need your own microscope to see cells dividing.
  • Inside the Cell: Chapter 4: Cellular Reproduction: Multiplication by Division - National Institute of General Medical Sciences 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC publications.nigms.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chromosomes and Disease This learning path will help you understand the ways that chromosomes are linked to some human diseases and will discuss some of the techniques involved in studying chromosomes.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

Please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects.

Further Reading

.Mitosis is the process by which nucleated cells duplicate.^ A. What do the processes of Mitosis and Cytokinesis accomplish for the cell?
  • IUS Biology Faculty Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC homepages.ius.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In multicellular organisms, the somatic cells undergo mitosis, while germ cells — cells destined to become sperm in males or ova in females — divide by a related process called meiosis .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Using such methods, researchers determined that although mitosis and meiosis are both forms of cell division , the results of these processes are actually quite different.
  • Mitosis, Meiosis, and Inheritance | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

See more at [[[w:Mitosis]]]

Introduction

File:Http://www.uhh.hawaii.edu/~ronald/392/Mitosis.JPG
Mitosis is one of the phases of the cell cycle, which is described in below:
.The cell cycle is a concept that describes the life of a cell, from its “birth” to its “death”.^ Each cell goes through a regular life cycle , similar to the cycle of life in humans.

^ What are the major events that occur during each of the stages in the life cycle of a cell such as a skin cell, i.e., Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokinesis?
  • The Case of the Dividing Cell: Mitosis and Meiosis in the Cellular Court - Part I - Case Study Collection - National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.sciencecases.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was discovered in the 1950s that DNA replicated during this period, and the concept of the cell cycle emerged.
  • Mitosis and the Cell Cycle 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC iws.ccccd.edu [Source type: Academic]

Although this introduction will be of a basic nature, cell cycling problems are of extreme interest to scientists. .Cells that will not progress normally through their life cycle are at the heart of many human diseases, such as neurogenerative disease, tuberous sclerosis, arthritis, glomerular disease, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, just to name a few.^ DNA content and chromosome number as cells progress through the cell-cycle.
  • Lab 1. Cells, Epithelia, Glands & Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.downstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Each cell goes through a regular life cycle , similar to the cycle of life in humans.

^ Errors in mitosis can either kill a cell through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to cancer .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.For example, a cancerous cell is simply a cell has speeded up the reproductive process and it will not die easily.^ As shown in Figure 3 A, for trypsinized cells, it can be assumed that a similar cell rounding is involved together with membrane remodeling, a process allowing macromolecules to be effectively taken up into cells.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In sexual reproduction, i.e., by the union of two gametes, the complex process of meiosis takes place, which produces cells that each contain only half the normal number of chromosomes.
  • Mitosis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is one way that the large amount of DNA in a cell is packaged, so that it may be divided up more easily.
  • MYSTERIES OF MITOSIS  18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.kedt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The “brain” of a cell is its DNA. DNA stands for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, a chemical name that describes the nature of DNA molecules.^ Section C: Cells Grade 9-12 (Benchmark 4 of 8) The genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules.

^ A number of reports have described the direct vectorization of macromolecules, particularly plasmid DNA into cells by synthetic oligopeptides (Midoux et al.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

DNA has four different nucleic acids, which are referred to by their first letters: A (Adenosine), T (tyrosine), G (guanine), and C (cytosine). The chains of nucleic acids are stored in the nucleus as coiled helices called chromosones. .Humans have 46 chromosones which appear X-shaped under the microscope, with the exception that the 46th chromosone may instead be the Y-shaped chromosone which establishes the gender of its carrier as male.^ Gender Verification Dividing human cells can be photographed during prophase and metaphase, and all the 46 chromosome doublets can be arranged into 23 homologous pairs.

.The four acids in different combinations provide the code so that the cell may synthesize all the materials (proteins) which make up the body.^ All available homologues are included for the selected range of species, with the species of origin being indicated by a two letter code preceding each protein identifier.
  • PLoS Biology: Turning Meiosis into Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Replacing dead cells with new cells, The daughter cell grows, And becomes DNA. Wrapping it up, The protein in the chromosomes, They were two complicated daughter cells, But without them, We wouldn't be complete.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end of the whole process one cell divides into two, Making the mitosis process successful after all the phases it had to go through.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During interphase, (G1) the gap phase of the cell cycle when the cell is just growing larger, the DNA is kept loose so that enzymes can access and “read” its code to make proteins.^ During all three phases, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Calculate the percent of cells in each phase of the cell cycle.
  • MYSTERIES OF MITOSIS  18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.kedt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cell Cycle I.   Interphase : Period of cell cycle when cell is not dividing.

.Eventually, the cell will need to copy its DNA in order to pass it on to two daughter cells.^ It is two new daughter cells What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are my two daughter cells.
  • Biology: Mitosis vs. Meiosis | MindBites.com 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.mindbites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually, the mother cell will be split in half, giving rise to two daughter cells, each with an equivalent and complete copy of the original genome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

This phase of the cell cycle is known as S phase, for the “synthesis” of the copy of the DNA.
.After S phase, there is another interphase, known as Gap 2, or G2. Then mitosis starts off the M phase.^ This occurs during the middle of interphase , the period that precedes the mitotic phase in the cell cycle where preparation for mitosis occurs.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, chromosomal DNA is duplicated during a subportion of interphase known as the S, or synthesis, phase.
  • Cell Division: Stages of Mitosis | Learn Science at Scitable 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interphase is divided into three phases, G 1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G 2 (second gap).
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.In M phase, the two copies of DNA are seperated from each other and one copy each is given to each “daughter”.^ Eventually, the mother cell will be split in half, giving rise to two daughter cells, each with an equivalent and complete copy of the original genome.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Two new nuclear membranes form, one around each set of daughter chromosomes.

^ One daughter cell will receive both sister chromosomes and the other will receive none.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.The daughters are actually the cell itself divided into two halves, each half having what a whole cell needs.^ Then eukaryotic cell comes by, and divides them into two daughter cells.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is two new daughter cells What is it?
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thats where cells divide into two .
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During mitosis, the DNA becomes visible within the nucleus of the cell (its home) because the chromosones are duplicates folded up tightly.^ Mitosis is preceded by an exact duplication of the DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus.
  • Lab 1. Cells, Epithelia, Glands & Mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.downstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the stages of the cell cycle during mitosis?
  • Quizmoz - Mitosis Cell Cycle Quiz, Mitosis Cell Cycle Facts Quiz 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In multicellular organisms, the somatic cells undergo mitosis, while germ cells — cells destined to become sperm in males or ova in females — divide by a related process called meiosis .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.Then they are lined up across the middle of the nucleus and then the copies are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell.^ So they line up again and do it once more.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Centrioles pull the chromosomes to the sides, They line up in the middle and prepare to divide.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In certain types of cells, chromosomes do not line up at the metaphase plate and instead move back and forth between the poles randomly, only roughly lining up along the midline.
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

After this has occurred, cytokinesis can then ensue. .In this process, the cell itself divides, and each “pole” becomes a new nucleus in the new cells.^ And become 4 new cells .
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In multicellular organisms, the somatic cells undergo mitosis, while germ cells — cells destined to become sperm in males or ova in females — divide by a related process called meiosis .
  • Mitosis - Hwiki 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Replacing dead cells with new cells, The daughter cell grows, And becomes DNA. Wrapping it up, The protein in the chromosomes, They were two complicated daughter cells, But without them, We wouldn't be complete.
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cells of the skin, gut, immune system, and hair go through the cycle much more often than other tissues of the body.^ Same now the two cells go through the cycle again .
  • Student poems - mitosis 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.starsandseas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your body is composed of more than a billion cells.

^ Although cells in interphase are also capable of taking up macromolecules through endocytosis (as confirmed herein with dextran at the GO/G1 transition), this remains on a much lower scale and far less efficient than the internalization observed in mitotic cells.
  • Macromolecular Uptake Is a Spontaneous Event during Mitosis in Cultured Fibroblasts: Implications for Vector-dependent Plasmid Transfection -- Pellegrin et al. 13 (2): 570 -- Molecular Biology of the Cell 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.molbiolcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.If a cell is not supposed to continue reproducing, it exits the cell cycle and enters a state called G0. The cell cycle is regulated by checkpoints at end of each phase.^ Calculate the percent of cells in each phase of the cell cycle.
  • MYSTERIES OF MITOSIS  18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.kedt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [My paper] William J Bosl , Rong Li The exit from mitosis is the last critical decision during a cell-division cycle.
  • Feedback control of mitosis in budding yeast. 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC lib.bioinfo.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of video is intended to link the static images of the phases of mitosis, as seen through the microscope, with the dynamic processes of the cell cycle as seen in living cells.
  • MYSTERIES OF MITOSIS  18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.kedt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before it can continue to the next phase, the cell first has to have miminal levels of DNA damage.^ Also, if you follow the "next" links, there is an excellent interactive activity that can be used to help students understand the amount of time that cells spend in the various phases.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Mitosis in Cyberspace 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contemporary eukaryotic cells, such events are avoided through the use of DNA damage checkpoints, which halt chromosome separations until repair is achieved.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cell growth and DNA replication continue throughout the cell cycle.
  • Quizmoz - Mitosis Cell Cycle Quiz, Mitosis Cell Cycle Facts Quiz 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.quizmoz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.DNA is damaged by free radicals such as those from sunlight and junk food.^ In contemporary eukaryotic cells, such events are avoided through the use of DNA damage checkpoints, which halt chromosome separations until repair is achieved.
  • The Evolution of Meiosis From Mitosis -- Wilkins and Holliday 181 (1): 3 -- Genetics 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.genetics.org [Source type: Academic]

.The cycling of the cell is controlled by proteins known as cell cycle regulators such as cell cycle inhibitors, one of which is p53, and cyclins (and their dependent kinases).^ Cell cycle control in higher eukaryotes .
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hong Y, Roy R, Ambros V: Developmental regulation of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor controls postembryonic cell cycle progression in Caenorhabditis elegans .
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ C. elegans cell-cycle regulators .
  • Cell Division | Full text | Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans 18 January 2010 10:48 UTC www.celldiv.com [Source type: Academic]

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Mitosis at Wikipedia.
Commons-logo.svg Search Wikimedia Commons for images, sounds and other media related to: Mitosis
Wikimedia-logo.svg Search for Mitosis on the following projects:
Smiley green alien whatface.svg Lost on Wikiversity? Please help by choosing project boxes to classify this resource by:
  • subject
  • educational level
  • resource type

Simple English

Mitosis is when a cell divides itself in half to make two identical copies.[1] Before mitosis, the cell creates an identical set of genetic information - this is called DNA replication or 'Interphase'. The duplicated genetic information then winds up into a visible object called a chromosome. A chromosome is made up of two chromatids joined at the centromere.

Mitosis happens in all types of cells in the human body except with sperm and ova cells. The sperm and ova are also called gametes or sex cells. The gametes go through a different division method called meiosis.

Contents

Phases of Mitosis

File:Major events in
A short diagram of Mitosis. Click to make the image larger.

There are six phases of mitosis. Each phase is used to describe what kind of change the cell is going through. The phases are Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokinesis. Some may consider Pro-metaphase as part of the phases but most believe it is part of metaphase and some of prophase. Each phase is important to mitosis.

Interphase

Interphase is part of mitosis. It is the beginning stage where chromatin start to duplicate inside the nuclear envelope.

Prophase

During Prophase chromosomes in the nucleus condense, pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus, spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell, and the nuclear envelope breaks down.

Metaphase

During metaphase, the chromosomes are pulled by microtubules called spindle fibers into place. The chromosomes line up on the cell's equator, or center line, and are prepared for division.

Anaphase

During anaphase, the chromosomes move from the cell's equator (metaphase plate) to their respective poles of the cell. The cell begins to stretch out as the opposite ends are pushed apart.

Telophase

Telophase is the final stage in mitosis, as the cell itself is ready to divide. One complete set of chromosomes is now at each pole of the cell. The spindle fibers begin to disappear, and a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes. Also a nucleolus appears within each new nucleus and single stranded chromosomes uncoil into invisible strands of chromatin.

Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis, even though it is a very important to cell division, is not considered a mitotic stage. During cytokinesis, the cell physically splits. This occurs just after anaphase and during telophase. The cleavage furrow, which is the pinch caused by the ring of proteins, pinches off completely, closing off the cell. The cell now has reproduced itself successfully. After cytokinesis, the cell goes back into interphase, where the cycle is repeated. If cytokinesis were to occur to a cell that had not gone through mitosis, then the daughter cells would be different or not function properly. One would still have the nucleus and the other would lack a nucleus. Cytokinesis is different in both animals and plant cells. In Plant cells, instead of splitting into two halves, it forms a cell plate.

References

  1. Rubenstein, Irwin, and Susan M. Wick. "Cell." World Book Online Reference Center. 2008. 12 January 2008 < http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar102240>

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mitosis, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message