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(יהדות מזרח Yahadut Mizrah)
|Regions with significant populations
| Israel 3,100,000 (2009)
41.3% of the Israeli population, (this figure includes all Jews of North African and Middle Eastern decsent in Israel)
| United States
| United Kingdom
Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, Marathi, Judeo-Malayalam, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Georgian, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic
|Related ethnic groups
Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs.
Mizrahi Jews or Mizrahim, (Hebrew: מזרחים, Modern Mizraḥim Tiberian Mizrāḥîm ; "Easterners"), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach (Communities of the East) are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East, Central Asia and the Caucasus. The term Mizrahi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries. This includes Iraqi Jews, Syrian Jews, Lebanese Jews, Yemenite Jews, Persian Jews, Afghan Jews, Bukharian Jews, Maghrebi Jews, Berber Jews, Kurdish Jews, Mountain Jews, Georgian Jews and Ethiopian Jews. It would also include the Jews of India, Jews of Pakistan, and Baghdadi Jews who settled in the last few centuries (in contrast to Jewish communities of the Indian subcontinent established millennia earlier).
Despite their heterogeneous origins, Mizrahi Jews generally practise rites identical or similar to traditional Sephardic Judaism, although with some differences among the minhagim of the particular communities. This has resulted in a conflation of terms, particularly in Israel, and in religious usage, where "Sephardi" is used in a broad sense to include Mizrahi Jews as well as Sephardim proper. Indeed, from the point of view of the official Israeli rabbinate, the Mizrahi rabbis in Israel are under the jurisdiction of the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel who, in most cases, is a Mizrahi Jew.
History and usage
"Mizrahi" is literally translated as "Eastern", מזרח (Mizrach), Hebrew for "east." In the past the word "Mizrahim", corresponding to the Arabic word Mashriqiyyun (Easterners), referred to the natives of Syria, Iraq and other Asian countries, as distinct from those of North Africa (Maghrabiyyun). For this reason some speakers object to the use of "Mizrahi" to include Moroccan Jews.
The term Mizrahim or Adot Hamizrah, Oriental communities, grew in Israel under the circumstances of the meeting of waves of immigrants from the Ashkenazi, Sephardic and Oriental Jewish collectivities. In modern Israeli usage, it refers to all Jews from North African and West Asian countries, many of them Arabic-speaking Muslim-majority countries. The term came to be widely used more by so-called Mizrahi activists in the early 1990s. Since then in Israel it has become an accepted semi-official and media designation.
Many "Mizrahi" ("Oriental" Jews) today reject this (or any) umbrella and simplistic description and prefer to identify themselves by their particular country of origin, or that of their immediate ancestors, e.g. "Iranian/Persian Jew", "Iraqi Jew", "Tunisian Jew", etc, or prefer to use the old term "Sefardic" in its broader meaning.
Many people, especially in Israel, identify all non-Ashkenazi Jews as Sephardim, in modern Hebrew "Sfaradim". This broader definition of "Sephardim" as including all or most Mizrahi Jews is also common in Jewish religious circles, especially those associated with the Shas political party in Israel. The Ethiopian Jewish religious leaders in Israel have also joined the Mizrahi -Sefardic rite collectivity and the Shas party circles.
The reason for this classification is that most Mizrahi communities use much the same religious rituals as Sephardim proper. The prevalence of the Sephardic rite among Mizrahim is partly a result of Sephardim joining some of their communities following the 1492 expulsion from Sepharad (Spain and Portugal). Over the last few centuries, the previously distinctive rites of the Mizrahi communities were influenced, superimposed upon or altogether replaced by the rite of the Sephardim, perceived as more prestigious. Even before this assimilation, the original rite of many Jewish Oriental communities was already closer to the Sephardi rite than to the Ashkenazi one. For this reason, "Sephardim" has come to mean not only "Spanish Jews" but "Jews of the Spanish rite", just as "Ashkenazim" is used for "Jews of the German rite", whose ancestors spoke the Judeo-German, Yiddish language, whether or not they originated from Germany.
Many of the Sephardic Jews exiled from Spain resettled in greater or lesser numbers in many Arabic-speaking countries, such as Syria and Morocco. In Syria, most eventually intermarried with and assimilated into the larger established community of Arabic-speaking Jews. In North African countries, by contrast, where the Sephardim came to outnumber the pre-existing Arab and Berber Jews, it was some of the latter who assimilated into the more prosperous and prestigious Sephardic communities. In Morocco a distinction remained between the purely Sephardic Gerush Castilia of the Spanish-speaking northern strip and the more ethnically mixed Arabic or Berber-speaking communities of the interior. Either way, this assimilation, combined with the use of the Sephardic rite, led to the popular designation and conflation of most non-Ashkenazic Jewish communities from the Middle East and North Africa as "Sephardic", whether or not they were descended from Spanish Jews, which is what the terms "Sephardic Jews" and "Sepharadim" properly implied when used in the ethnic as opposed to the religious sense.
In many Arab countries, older Arabic-speaking Jewish communities distinguished between themselves and the newer arrivals speaking Judeo-Romance languages, that is, Sephardim expelled from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1497. The established Arabic-speaking Jews called themselves Musta'arabim (Arabic for Arabizers), while the newer Sephardi arrivals called them Moriscos (Ladino for Moorish).
The term "Arab Jews" is controversial, used for self-identification by some members of the communities concerned but strongly opposed by others due to its political, social and ideological implications (see Arab Jews).
Most of the so-called Oriental Jewish or Mizrahi communities spoke Arabic and a number of Judeo-Arabic dialects such as Maghrebi, though these are now mainly used as a second language, especially by the older generation. Most of the many notable philosophical, religious and literary works of the Jews in the Orient were written in Arabic using a modified Hebrew alphabet.
Among other languages associated with Mizrahim are Judeo-Persian (Dzhidi), Georgian, Bukhori, Kurdish, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri, Marathi, Judeo-Malayalam and called by some Judeo-Aramaic dialects. Most Persian Jews speak standard Persian.
Neo-Aramaic is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. It is identified as a "Jewish language", since it is the language of major Jewish texts such as the Talmud and Zohar, and many ritual recitations such as the Kaddish. Traditionally, Aramaic has been a language of Talmudic debate in yeshivoth, as many rabbinic texts are written in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic. As spoken by the Jews of Kurdistan, Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects are descended from Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, as could be seen from its hundreds of reflexes in Jewish Neo-Aramaic.
By the early 1950s, virtually the entire Jewish community of Kurdistan—a rugged, mostly mountainous region comprising parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and the Caucasus, where Jews had lived since antiquity—relocated to Israel. The vast majority of Kurdish Jews, who were primarily concentrated in northern Iraq, left Kurdistan in the mass aliyah (emigration to Israel) of 1950-51. This ended thousands of years of Jewish history in what had been Assyria and Babylonia.
In 2007, an important book came out, by Mordechai Zaken, describing the unique relationship between Jews in urban and rural Kurdistan and the tribal society under whose patronage the Jews lived for hundreds of years. Tribal chieftains, or aghas, granted patronage to the Jews who needed protection in the wild tribal region of Kurdistan; the Jews gave their chieftains dues, gifts and services. The text provides numerous tales and examples about the skills, maneuvers and innovations used by kurdistani Jews in their daily life to confront their abuse and extortion by greedy chieftains and tribesmen. The text also tells the stories of Kurdish chieftains who saved and protected the Jews unconditionally.
After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and subsequent establishment of the state of Israel, most Mizrahi Jews (900 000) were either expelled by their Arab rulers or chose to leave and emigrated to Israel. Roughly half of Israeli Jews are of Mizrahi origin.
Anti-Jewish actions by Arab governments in the 1950s and 1960s, including the expulsion of 25,000 Mizrahi Jews from Egypt after the 1956 Suez Crisis, led to the overwhelming majority of Mizrahim leaving Arab countries. They became refugees. Most went to Israel. Many Moroccan and Algerian Jews went to France. Thousands of Lebanese, Syrian and Egyptian Jews emigrated to the United States.
Today, as many as 40,000 Mizrahim still remain in communities scattered throughout the non-Arab Muslim world, primarily in Iran, but also Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Turkey. There are few remaining in the Arab world. About 5,000 remain in Morocco and fewer than 2,000 in Tunisia. Other countries with remnants of ancient Jewish communities with official recognition, such as Lebanon, have 1,000 or fewer Jews. A trickle of emigration continues, mainly to Israel and the United States. A number have been arrested, mostly for alleged connections with Israel and the United States. Some have been executed, with religious intolerance often cited as the main contributing factor.
Absorption into Israeli society
Refuge in Israel was not without its tragedies: "in a generation or two, millennia of rooted Oriental civilization, unified even in its diversity,” had been wiped out, writes Mizrahi scholar Ella Shohat. The trauma of rupture from their countries of origin was further complicated by the difficulty of the transition upon arrival in Israel; Mizrahi immigrants and refugees were placed in rudimentary and hastily-erected tent cities (Ma'abarot) often in development towns on the peripheries of Israel. Settlement in Moshavim (cooperative farming villages) was only partially successful, because Mizrahim had historically filled a niche as craftsmen and merchants and most did not traditionally engage in farmwork. As the majority left their property behind in their home countries as they journeyed to Israel, many suffered a severe decrease in their socio-economic status aggravated by their cultural and political differences with the dominant Ashkenazi community. Furthermore, a policy of austerity was enforced at that time due to economic hardships.
Mizrahi immigrants arrived with many mother tongues. Many, especially those from North Africa and the fertile crescent, spoke Arabic dialects; those from Iran and Central Asia (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) spoke Persian; Baghdadi Jews from India arrived with English; the Bene Israel from Maharashtra, India arrived with Marathi, Mizrahim from elsewhere brought Georgian, Gruzinic, Tajik, Juhuri and various other languages with them. Hebrew had historically been a language only of prayer for most Jews not living in Israel, including the Mizrahim. Thus, with their arrival in Israel, the Mizrahim retained culture, customs and language distinct from their Ashkenazi counterparts, but with time they became more assimilated, creating a new, Israeli identity.
Disparities and integration
The cultural differences between Mizrahi and Ashkenazi Jews impacted the degree and rate of assimilation into Israeli society, and sometimes the divide between European and Middle Eastern Jews was quite sharp. Segregation, especially in the area of housing, limited integration possibilities over the years. Intermarriage between Ashkenazim and Mizrahim is increasingly common in Israel and by the late 1990's 28% of all Israeli children had multi-ethnic parents (up from 14% in the 1950s). It has been claimed that intermarriage does not tend to decrease ethnic differences in socio-economic status, however that does not apply to the children of inter-ethnic marriages.
Although social integration is constantly improving, disparities persist. A study conducted by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), Mizrahi Jews are less likely to pursue academic studies than Ashkenazi Jews. Israeli-born Ashkenazi are up to twice more likely to study in a university than Israeli-born Mizrahim. Furthermore, the percentage of Mizrahim who seek a university education remains low compared to second-generation immigrant groups of Ashkenazi origin, such as Russians. According to a survey by the Adva Center, the average income of Ashkenazim was 36 percent higher than that of Mizrahim in 2004.
- Nissim Gaon, Swiss businessman born in Sudan
- Charles Saatchi, advertising executive and art collector (born in Iraq)
- Maurice Saatchi, Baron Saatchi, advertising executive and chairman of the British Conservative Party
- Michael Kadoorie, businessman from Hong-Kong
- Isaac Mizrahi, fashion designer originating from Israel, as family of origin (Baghdadi Jew from India)
- Shlomo Moussaieff, Jewellery Designer/ Judaic Collector and Expert (Bukharian)
- Lev Leviev, Israeli businessman of Bukharian descent 
- David and Simon Reuben, British businessmen born in India, from a family of Baghdadi Jews
- Edmond Safra, banker from Lebanon
- Ben Biggio, Haitian businessman (Syrian Jewish ancestry)
- Yitzhak Teshuva, Israeli businessman of Libyan origin
- Shlomo Eliyahu, Israeli businessman
- Tzadik Bino, Israeli bankier and businessman
- Daniel Mizrai Fernandez, Business & Management Consultant
- Gad Elmaleh, Moroccan comedian, film director, and humorist
- Paula Abdul, American singer and choreographer (Syrian Jewish descent)
- Joe Amar, Israeli singer
- Etti Ankri, Israeli pop singer
- Zohar Argov, Israeli popular singer, called "the King" of the "Mizrahi" music (Yemenite)
- Gali Atari, Israeli singer and actress, won the Eurovision Song Contest (from a Yemenite family)
- Yona Atari, Israeli singer and actress
- Ilana Avital, Israeli singer
- Aliza Azikri, Israeli pop singer
- Ehud Banai, Israeli singer and composer
- Evyatar Banai, Israeli singer and composer
- Yuval Banai, Israeli rock singer and composer
- Gabri Banai, Israeli stand up comedian from "Hagashash Ha'iver" group
- Yossi Banai, Israeli singer and actor (from a Persian Jewish family settled in Jerusalem)
- Meir Banai, Israeli singer
- Shlomo Bar, Israeli singer and composer
- Yosef Bardanashvili Israeli-Georgian composer
- Amir Benayoun, Israeli pop singer and composer (Moroccan descent)
- Sonia Benezra, French Canadian radio and TV personality
- Gila Beshari, Israeli singer (Yemenite descent)
- Yaniv Bitton, Israeli comedian
- Lili Boniche, French-Algerian singer
- Patrick Bruel, French pop singer
- Yizhar Cohen, Israeli singer, won the Eurovision Song Contest (Yemenite family)
- Emmanuelle Chriqui, Canadian actress
- Yair Dallal, Israeli oud player and composer
- Shoshana Damari, Israeli singer (Yemen born)
- Dana International,(Cohen) Israeli pop singer, won the Eurovision Song Contest (Yemenite family)
- David D'or, Israeli pop and concert singer, countertenor (from a Jewish Libyan family)
- Corinne Ellal, Israeli pop singer and composer (born in Tunesia)
- Sasson Gabbay, Israeli theatre and cinema actor
- Miki Gabrielov, Israeli pop composer and singer
- Yehoram Gaon, Israeli singer and actor.
- Eyal Golan, Israel charm pop singer
- Zion Golan, Israeli singer (Yemenite descent)
- Hélène Grimaud French-born concert pianist/author of Berber-Jewish mother & Algerian-Jewish father
- Sarit Hadad, Israeli singer, from a Jewish family from Azerbaijan(Mountain Jew)
- Ofra Haza, Israeli pop and oriental singer (Yemenite family)
- Moshe Ivgy, Israeli cinema and theatre actor
- Malika Kalantarova, Famous Tajik-Bukharian dancer (People's Artist of USSR)
- Chris Kattan, U.S actor (son a Jewish-Iraqi origin father)
- Chemda Khalili, singer and co-host of Keith and the Girl
- Fatima Kuinova, Soviet-Bukharian singer (Merited Artist of USSR)
- Salah al Kuweiti, Iraki-Israeli violinist
- Mélanie Laurent, French actress and director
- Yehezkel Lazarov, Israeli actor
- Claude Lelouch, French cinema director
- Eli Luzon, Israeli "Mizrahi" popular singer (from a Libyan Jewish family)
- Enrico Macias, French singer and composer
- Filfil al Masri, Israeli singer
- Miri Messika, Israeli pop singer
- Rivka Michaeli, Israeli comedian and radio and TV mediator (from a Jewish family originating from Georgia)
- Sami Moghrabi, Moroccan singer
- Haim Moshe, Israeli-born "Mizrahi" and pop singer (Yemenite)
- Shoista Mullojonova, Bukharian legendary Shashmakom Folk Singer (People's Artist of Tajikistan
- Farhat Ezekiel Nadira (Nadira), Bollywood actress of the 1940s and 50s (Baghdadi Jew from India)
- Yaël Naïm, French-Israeli singer
- Achinoam Nini ("Noa"), Israeli born, Yemenite pop singer
- Haim Ouliel, Israeli pop singer and composer
- Kobi Oz, pop singer,composer and writer
- Avi Peretz, Israeli Oriental and pop singer
- Moshe Peretz, Israeli singer of "Oriental" and pop music
- Rita, Iranian born, Israeli pop singer
- Berry Sakharof, Israeli singer and composer
- Jerry Seinfeld, American comedian and actor (Syrian Jewish descent)
- Boaz Sharabi Israeli singer (born, Yemenite, Tunisian & Moroccan ancestry)
- Harel Skaat, Singer and "Kokhav Nolad" ("Israeli Idol") contestant (Yemenite descent)
- Bahar Soomekh, Persian Jewish-American actress
- Subliminal, Israeli rapper of Persian/Tunisian descent
- Shimi Tavori, Israeli singer
- Ninette Tayeb, Israel singer, won "A Star is Born" (Kokhav Nolad) Contest (Moroccan/Tunisian descent)
- Avi Toledano, Israeli pop singer and composer, with Sefardic Moroccan roots
- Elliott Yamin, American singer (Jewish Iraqi father)
- Idan Yaniv, Israeli singer of Bukharian descent (Israeli Artist of 2007)
- Yaffa Yarkoni, Israeli singer (from a Caucasian Jewish family)
- Ariel Zilber, Israeli singer and composer (son of a Yemenite Jewish-origin mother)
- Rivka Zohar, Israeli pop singer
Medicine and therapy
- Baruj Benacerraf - US scientist born in Venezuela, from a Moroccan Jewish family , Nobel prize winner
- Shlomo Laniado, Israeli physician
- Moshe Mani, Israeli physician
- Yisrael Mordecai Safeek, American Physician Executive: Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examiner.
- Shalomim Yahoshua HaLahawi, Naturopathic Physician, Diplomat of the College of Eastern Medicine, American Association of Integrative Medicine & Jewish Rabbi, Born in the United States, of Palestinian and Sephardi Jewish family, Sicily Italy
Politicians and military
- Yekutiel Adam, Israeli general (from a Caucasian Jewish family)
- Binyamin Ben-Eliezer, Israeli general, current Israeli minister of Infrastructure, former minister of Defense and Israel Labor Party chairman, (Iraqi Jew), commonly called by his Arabic name "Fuad"
- Aryeh Deri, former leader of Shas Party and minister of Internal Affairs, (Moroccan Jew)
- Yisrael Yeshayahu Sharabi, Minister of Post and Speaker of Knesset 1970s and 80s, ethnicity/country of origin: Yemen
- Les Gara, Democratic member of the Alaska State Legislature, former deputy state attorney general(Iraqi parents)
- Dalia Itzik, former Knesset speaker
- Avigdor Kahalani, former minister of Internal Security and decorated IDF tank commander
- Moshe Katsav, former President of the State of Israel and minister of Transportation, ethnicity/country of origin: Iran
- David Levy, former minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister (Moroccan Jew), minister of housing and transports
- Shaul Mofaz, former Israeli Minister of Defense and chief of the IDF General Staff, Iranian Jew
- Yitzhak Mordechai, retired IDF general, former minister of Defense and minister of Transportation, ethnicity/country of origin: Iraq
- Dorrit Moussaieff, First Lady of Iceland (Bukharian Jew)
- Abie Nathan, Israeli peace activist
- Yitzhak Navon, fifth president of Israel and former minister of Education, from a Sefardic Palestinian Jewish family
- Shlomo Hillel, was speaker of the Knesset, minister
- Amir Peretz, current Knesset member and former Israeli Minister of Defense, Labor Party chairman, and chairman of the Histadrut, ethnicity/country of origin: Morocco
- Silvan Shalom, former Israeli minister of Foreign Affairs, minister of Treasury and Deputy Prime Minister, Tunisian Jew
- Meir Sheetrit, current Israeli minister of Internal Affairs and former Deputy Prime Minister, minister of Treasury and of Education
- Moshe Levi, Israeli general, chief of the Idf General Staff
- Shlomo Ben Ami , Israeli historian, diplomat and diplomat, was minister of police
- Gabi Ashkenazi, Israeli general, chief of the IDF General Staff
- Dan Halutz, Israeli general , chief of the IDF General Staff
- Moshe Shahal,minister and lawyer
- Moshe Nissim, was Israeli finance and justice minister
- Eli Cohen, Israeli spy in Syria
- J. F. R. Jacob, Indian general, distinguished himself in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
- Shimon Sheetrit, Israeli lawman and politician, was justice minister, professor of law
- Ran Cohen, politician from the left liberal party Meretz, former MK
- Nissim Dahan, rabbi and politician from Shass party, was minister of health
- Tzvi Bar, Israeli border guards general, mayor of the city of Ramat Gan, (from a Kurdish Jewish family settled in Palestine- Barzani)
- Eli Ishai, rabbi and politician, minister of wealth affairs, vice-prime minister of Israel, leader of Shass party
- Shalom Simhon, Israeli politician, from Labor party, minister of agriculture
- Itzhak Peretz, Israeli rabbi and politician, among the founders of Shas founders, was a government minister
Sports and game players
- Yossi Benayoun, Israeli soccer player
- Doron Jamchi, Israeli basketball player
- Oded Kattash, Israeli basketball player
- Robert Mizrachi, poker player, Iraqi Jew
- Michael Mizrachi, poker player, Iraqi Jew
- Eli Ohana, Israeli soccer player
- Haim Revivo, Israeli soccer player
- Shahar Zubari, Israeli olympic medalist in windsurf.
Writers and academics
- Dan Benaya Seri, Israeli Hebrew writer (from a Yemenite origin Jewish family in Jerusalem)
- Erez Bitton, Israeli Hebrew poet
- Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, French physicist, Nobel Prize winner (from an Algerian Jewish family)
- Jacques Derrida, French philosopher (of Algerian Jewish descent)
- Sami Michael, Israeli Hebrew writer (born in Iraq)
- Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson, psychotherapist
- Samir Naqqash, Israeli Jewish writer in Arab language (born in Iraq)
- Yehouda Shenhav, Israeli sociologist (born in an Iraqi Jewish family ,Shahrabani)
- Saba Soomekh, professor/writer
- A.B. Yehoshua, Israeli Hebrew writer, professor (from a Sefardic family originating from Morocco)
- Avi ShlaimOxford University scholar;author specialising on the Israel-Palestine conflict and Zionism. Shlaim is originally from Iraq.
- Ella Shohat, Israeli-American sociologist and author
- Albert Memmi, French-Tunisian writer
- Eli Amir, Israeli Hebrew writer
- Hélène Cixous, French writer
- Jacques Attali, French thinker and author
- Shimon Adaf, Israeli Hebrew poet and writer
- Ronit Matalon, Israeli Hebrew writer, from a Sephardic Egyptian family
- Orly Castel Bloom, Israeli Hebrew writer (from an Egyptian Jewish family)
- Jean Pierre Changeux, French biology researcher
- Baruj Benacerraf, American-Venezuelian medical scientist, Nobel Prize, from a sephardic family with Moroccan roots
- Tobi Nathan, French psychotherapist (born in Egypt)
- Dorit Rabinyan, Israeli Hebrew writer (from a Persian Jewish family)
- Haim Sabato, Israeli rabbi and Hebrew writer
- Rachel Shabi. British/Israeli journalist and author of "Not the Enemy, Israel's Jews from Arab lands" about Mizrahi Jews in israel
- Roni Somek, Israeli Hebrew poet (from an Iraqi Jewish family)
- Sasson Somekh, Israeli Arabologist
- Nissim Ezekiel, Indian poet and art critic
- David Ohana, Israeli historian
- Andre Chouraqui, French-Israeli thinker and writer
- Meir Basri, Iraqi poet
- Shelley Silas, Calcutta-born writer.
- ^ 
- ^ Owen Bennett-Jones (2009-12-18). "Yemen's last remaining Jews: A community in decline". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8418990.stm. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- ^ In medieval and early modern times the corresponding Hebrew word ma'arav was used for North Africa. In Talmudic and Geonic times, however, this word "ma'arav" referred to the land of Israel as contrasted with Babylonia.
- ^ http://web.mit.edu/cis/www/mitejmes/issues/200105/download/Shohat.doc
- ^ Mordechai Zaken, Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan: A Study in Survival, Brill: Boston and Leiden, 2007.
Based on new oral sources, carefully analyzed, this book explores the relationships between Jewish subjects and their tribal chieftains in Kurdistan, focusing on the patronage and justice provided by the chieftains and the financial support provided by the Jews to endure troubles and caprices of chieftains. New reports and vivid tales unveil the status of Jews in the tribal setting; the slavery of rural Jews; the conversion to Islam and the defense mechanisms adopted by Jewish leaders to annul conversion of abducted women. Other topics are the trade and occupations of the Jews and their financial exploitation by chieftains. The last part explores the experience of Jewish communities in Iraqi Kurdistan between World War I and the mass-migration to Israel (1951-52).
The author, Mordechai Zaken, Ph.D. (2004) in Near Eastern Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, specializes in the history of the Kurds, the oriental Jewry, and the minorities in the region. He served as the Adviser on Arab Affairs to the Prime Minister of Israel (1997-99).
- ^ The Jewish Population of the World, The Jewish Virtual Library
- ^ The Jews of Iran, The Jewish Virtual Library
- ^ Ella Shohat: “Sephardim in Israel: Zionism from the Standpoint of its Jewish Victims,” Social Text, No.19/20 (1988), p.32
- ^ Blackwell Synergy - Int J Urban & Regional Res, Volume 24 Issue 2 Page 418-438, June 2000 (Article Abstract)
- ^ Barbara S. Okun, Orna Khait-Marelly. 2006. Socioeconomic Status and Demographic Behavior of Adult Multiethnics: Jews in Israel.
- ^ Project MUSE
- ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/351810
- ^ http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications/educ_demog_05/pdf/t16.pdf
- ^ 97_gr_.xls
- ^ Adva Center
- ^ Hebrew PDF
- Ella Shohat, "The Invention of the Mizrahim" in: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1. (Autumn, 1999), pp. 5-20.
- Mordechai Zaken, Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan: A Study in Survival, Brill: Boston and Leiden, 2007.