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Hans Hofmann, "The Gate", 1959–1960, collection: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. .Hofmann was renowned not only as an artist but also as a teacher of art, and a modernist theorist both in his native Germany and later in the U.S. During the 1930s in New York and California he introduced modernism and modernist theories to a new generation of American artists.^ The 1940s in New York City heralded the triumph of American Abstract expressionism , a modernist movement that combined lessons learned from Henri Matisse , Pablo Picasso , Surrealism , Joan Miró , Cubism , Fauvism , and early Modernism via great teachers in America like Hans Hofmann and John D. Graham .
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^ While in the downtown scene in New York 's East Village 10th Street galleries artists were formulating an American version of Pop Art.
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^ The skyscraper , such as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 's Seagram Building in New York (1956–1958), became the archetypal modernist building.
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.Through his teaching and his lectures at his art schools in Greenwich Village and Provincetown, Massachusetts, he widened the scope of modernism in America.^ Modernism: Latin America Jan 01, 2005; Modernism: Latin America Modernism (sometimes referred to as modern art or, even less precisely, as modernity in the arts) is a...
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[1]
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. .More specifically, the term describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.^ This progressive movement of society is associated with what has been described as modernity or modernism.
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^ Qualified orders over $25 ship free Sponsored Results Amazon.com/books Modernism Modernism describes an array of cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
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^ Surrealism, Cubism , Bauhaus , and Leninism are all examples of movements that rapidly found adopters far beyond their original geographic base.
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.The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world.^ Embracing change and the present, modernism encompasses the works of thinkers who rebelled against nineteenth century academic and historicist traditions , believing the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated; they directly confronted the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world.
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^ Part one deals with the passage from modernity to post-modernity in popular culture; part two with political-economic transformation; part three with the experience of space and time; and part four with the condition of post-modernity.
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^ Firstly, there is postmodern art - not just painting and sculpture but also architecture, music, literature, drama etc.
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.Modernism rejected the lingering certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and also that of the existence of a compassionate, all-powerful Creator.^ A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés , created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon.
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[2][3] .This is not to say that all modernists or modernist movements rejected either religion or all aspects of Enlightenment thought, rather that modernism can be viewed as a questioning of the axioms of the previous age.^ The most controversial aspect of the modern movement was, and remains, its rejection of tradition.
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^ Just as cars had replaced the horse , so modernist design should reject the old styles and structures inherited from Ancient Greece or from the Middle Ages .
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^ It rejected any notion that we were still within the modern era brought in by the Enlightenment, two hundred years ago.
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.A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness.^ As modernism gained traction in academia , it was developing a self-conscious theory of its own importance.
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.This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).^ Fluxus artists preferred to work with whatever materials were at hand, and either created their own work or collaborated in the creation process with their colleagues.
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^ Following this machine aesthetic, modernist designers typically reject decorative motifs in design, preferring to emphasize the materials used and pure geometrical forms.
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^ Process art as inspired by Pollock enabled artists to experiment with and make use of a diverse encyclopedia of style, content, material, placement, sense of time, and plastic and real space.
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[4] The poet Ezra Pound's paradigmatic injunction was to "Make it new!" Whether or not the "making new" of the modernists constituted a new historical epoch is up for debate. Philosopher and composer Theodor Adorno warns us:
"Modernity is a qualitative, not a chronological, category. Just as it cannot be reduced to abstract form, with equal necessity it must turn its back on conventional surface coherence, the appearance of harmony, the order corroborated merely by replication."[5]
.Adorno would have us understand modernity as the rejection of the false rationality, harmony, and coherence of Enlightenment thinking, art, and music.^ It rejected any notion that we were still within the modern era brought in by the Enlightenment, two hundred years ago.
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But the past proves sticky. .Pound's general imperative to make new, and Adorno's exhortation to challenge false coherence and harmony, faces T.S. Eliot's emphasis on the relation of the artist to tradition.^ By taking “tradition” itself as metacultural, they construct new ‘hybrids’ which challenge national and international modernisms on a formal level.

Eliot wrote:
"[W]e shall often find that not only the best, but the most individual parts of [a poet's] work, may be those in which the dead poets, his ancestors, assert their immortality most vigorously."[6]
Literary scholar Peter Childs sums up the complexity:
"There were paradoxical if not opposed trends towards revolutionary and reactionary positions, fear of the new and delight at the disappearance of the old, nihilism and fanatical enthusiasm, creativity and despair."[7]
.These oppositions are inherent to modernism: it is in its broadest cultural sense the assessment of the past as different to the modern age, the recognition that the world was becoming more complex, and that the old "final authorities" (God, government, science, and reason) were subject to intense critical scrutiny.^ Even as in the Middle Ages philosophy was often thought of as the "handmaiden of theology," modern philosophers have often thought of their discipline as little more than the "handmaiden of science."
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^ In the past, modernist studies often assumed the incompatibility of modernism and Ireland, juxtaposing an enlightened internationalism with an insular, conservative and repressive nationalist culture.

^ Recent criticism has re-examined the relationship between the Revival and literary modernism, specifically the shared Romantic stylistic influence and a fascination with the role of the past.

Current interpretations of modernism vary. .Some divide 20th century reaction into modernism and postmodernism, whereas others see them as two aspects of the same movement.^ Postmodernism is the transfer of all that heavy modernism baggage into literary criticism.
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^ In the 20th century, some philosophers began to think that they could go one better than this.
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^ In spite of losing momentum after World War II, modernism remains the most vital and important literary movement of the twentieth century.
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Contents

Present-day perspectives

.Some commentators approach Modernism as an overall socially progressive trend of thought, that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment, with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge or technology.^ It is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology or practical experimentation.
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^ Some writers declared that modernism had become so institutionalized that it was now "post avant-garde", indicating that it had lost its power as a revolutionary movement.
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^ Modernism, while it was still "progressive" increasingly saw traditional forms and traditional social arrangements as hindering progress, and therefore the artist was recast as a revolutionary, overthrowing rather than enlightening.
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[8]
.From this perspective, Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was 'holding back' progress, and replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end.^ Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was 'holding back' progress , and replacing it with new, progressive and therefore better, ways of reaching the same end.
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^ In the same way, then, as faith and science are alien to each other by reason of the diversity of their objects, Church and State are strangers by reason of the diversity of their ends, that of the Church being spiritual while that of the State is temporal.
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^ In the same way, the attempt fully to understand modern philosophic thought so as to grasp what is true in such systems, and to discover the points of contact with the old philosophy, is very far from being modernism.
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  • Modernism - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

Others focus on Modernism as an aesthetic introspection. .This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in The First World War, and anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Nietzsche to Samuel Beckett.^ The First World War, at once, fused the harshly mechanical geometric rationality of technology with the nightmarish irrationality of myth.
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^ Earlier in England in 1958 the term "Pop Art" was used by Lawrence Alloway to describe paintings that celebrated consumerism of the post World War II era.
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^ Thus, in the first fifteen years of the twentieth century a series of writers, thinkers, and artists made the break with traditional means of organizing literature, painting, and music.
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[9]

History of Modernism

Beginnings

.The first half of the nineteenth century for Europe was marked by a number of wars and revolutions, which contributed to an aesthetic "turning away" from the realities of political and social fragmentation, and so facilitated a trend towards Romanticism: emphasis on individual subjective experience, the sublime, the supremacy of "Nature" as a subject for art, revolutionary or radical extensions of expression, and individual liberty.^ The first half of the nineteenth century for Europe was marked by a number of wars and revolutions, which reveal the rise of the ideas and doctrines now identified as Romanticism : emphasis on individual subjective experience, the sublime , the supremacy of "Nature" as a subject for art, revolutionary or radical extensions of expression, and individual liberty.
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^ Out of this collision of ideals derived from Romanticism, and an attempt to find a way for knowledge to explain that which was as yet unknown, came the first wave of works, which, while their authors considered them extensions of existing trends in art, broke the implicit contract that artists were the interpreters and representatives of bourgeois culture and ideas.
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^ On the eve of the First World War a growing tension and unease with the social order, seen in the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the agitation of "radical" parties, also manifested itself in artistic works in every medium which radically simplified or rejected previous practice.
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.By mid-century, however, a synthesis of these ideas with stable governing forms had emerged, partly in reaction to the failed Romantic and democratic Revolutions of 1848.^ By mid-century, however, a synthesis of these ideas with stable governing forms had emerged, partly in reaction to the failed Romantic and democratic Revolutions of 1848 .
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^ It is always partly a revolution, or a reaction, from the work of the previous generation.” .
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^ The literary response to modernity , mostly since the failed revolutions of 1848.
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.It was exemplified by Otto von Bismarck's Realpolitik and by "practical" philosophical ideas such as positivism.^ It was exemplified by Otto von Bismarck 's Realpolitik and by "practical" philosophical ideas such as positivism .
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.Called by various names—in Great Britain it is designated the "Victorian era"—this stabilizing synthesis was rooted in the idea that reality dominates over subjective impressions.^ Every idea I have must have been caused by something that is at least as real [in objective reality, what Descartes calls "formal reality"] as what it is that the idea represents [in the subjective reality of my mind, what Descartes confusingly calls "objective reality"].
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.Central to this synthesis were common assumptions and institutional frames of reference, including the religious norms found in Christianity, scientific norms found in classical physics and doctrines that asserted that the depiction of external reality from an objective standpoint was not only possible but desirable.^ Central to this synthesis were common assumptions and institutional frames of reference, including the religious norms found in Christianity , scientific norms found in classical physics , especially electromagnetism, and doctrines that asserted that the depiction of external reality from an objective standpoint was not only possible but desirable.
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^ For if there is no external revelation, the only substitute possible is the subjective religious experience of men of particular gifts, experiences such as are worthy of being preserved for the community.
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^ I am referring here the reality of what happens, objectively speaking, to the soul of one who dares to defy anathematized statements proclaimed by the infallible authority of the Catholic Church.
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.Cultural critics and historians label this set of doctrines realism, though this term is not universal.^ Cultural critics and historians label this set of doctrines Realism , though this term is not universal.
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.In philosophy, the rationalist, materialist and positivist movements established a primacy of reason and system.^ In philosophy , the rationalist , materialist and positivist movements established a primacy of reason and system.
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.Against the current ran a series of ideas, some of them direct continuations of Romantic schools of thought.^ Against this current were a series of ideas.
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^ Some were direct continuations of Romantic schools of thought.
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^ Against the current were a series of ideas.
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Notable were the agrarian and revivalist movements in plastic arts and poetry (e.g. the .Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the philosopher John Ruskin).^ Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the philosopher John Ruskin ).
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.Rationalism also drew responses from the anti-rationalists in philosophy.^ Rationalism also drew responses from the anti-rationalists in philosophy.
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.In particular, Hegel's dialectic view of civilization and history drew responses from Friedrich Nietzsche and Søren Kierkegaard, who were major influences on existentialism.^ In particular, Hegel 's dialectic view of civilization and history drew responses from Friedrich Nietzsche and Søren Kierkegaard , who were major influences on Existentialism .
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^ Even for those who haven't thought that, the shadow of science, its spectacular success and its influence on modern life and history, has been hard to ignore.
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.All of these separate reactions together began to be seen as offering a challenge to any comfortable ideas of certainty derived by civilization, history, or pure reason.^ All of these separate reactions together began to be seen as offering a challenge to any comfortable ideas of certainty derived by civilization, history, or pure reason.
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^ (I skipped the book review listings when they began to be a separate section; I ignored Sylvia Hart Wright, a writer on architectural and civil engineering matters.
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^ From the 1870s onward, the ideas that history and civilization were inherently progressive and that progress was always good came under increasing attack.
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.From the 1870s onward, the ideas that history and civilization were inherently progressive and that progress was always good came under increasing attack.^ From the 1870s onward, the ideas that history and civilization were inherently progressive and that progress was always good came under increasing attack.
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^ All of these separate reactions together began to be seen as offering a challenge to any comfortable ideas of certainty derived by civilization, history, or pure reason.
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.Writers Wagner and Ibsen had been reviled for their own critiques of contemporary civilization and for their warnings that accelerating "progress" would lead to the creation of individuals detached from social values and isolated from their fellow men.^ Writers Wagner and Ibsen had been reviled for their own critiques of contemporary civilization and for their warnings that accelerating "progress" would lead to the creation of individuals detached from social norms and isolated from their fellow men.
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^ Modernism as leading to social organization would produce inquiries into sex and the basic bondings of the nuclear, rather than extended, family.
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^ The miseries of industrial urbanism, and the possibilities created by scientific examination of subjects brought changes that would shake a European civilization which had, until then, regarded itself as having a continuous and progressive line of development from the Renaissance .
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.Arguments arose that the values of the artist and those of society were not merely different, but that Society was antithetical to Progress, and could not move forward in its present form.^ Arguments arose that the values of the artist and those of society were not merely different, but that Society was antithetical to Progress, and could not move forward in its present form.
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^ The text [of the Second Vatican Council] also presents the various forms of bonds that rise from the different degrees of magisterial teaching.
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.Philosophers called into question the previous optimism.^ Philosophers called into question the previous optimism.
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.The work of Schopenhauer was labelled "pessimistic" for its idea of the "negation of the will", an idea that would be both rejected and incorporated by later thinkers such as Nietzsche.^ The work of Schopenhauer was labelled "pessimistic" for its idea of the "negation of the will", an idea that would be both rejected and incorporated by later thinkers such as Nietzsche .
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^ Both thinkers would spawn defenders and schools of thought that would become decisive in establishing modernism.
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.Two of the most significant thinkers of the period were, in biology, Charles Darwin, and in political science, Karl Marx.^ Two of the most significant thinkers of the period were, in biology, Charles Darwin , and in political science, Karl Marx .
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.Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection undermined the religious certainty of the general public, and the sense of human uniqueness of the intelligentsia.^ Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection undermined the religious certainty of the general public, and the sense of human uniqueness of the intelligentsia .
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.The notion that human beings were driven by the same impulses as "lower animals" proved to be difficult to reconcile with the idea of an ennobling spirituality.^ The notion that human beings were driven by the same impulses as "lower animals" proved to be difficult to reconcile with the idea of an ennobling spirituality .
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^ An [animal of burden] was being driven along a road leading down the mountain side, when he suddenly took it into his silly head to choose his own path.
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^ In the same way, then, as faith and science are alien to each other by reason of the diversity of their objects, Church and State are strangers by reason of the diversity of their ends, that of the Church being spiritual while that of the State is temporal.
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.Karl Marx argued there were fundamental contradictions within the capitalist system—and that the workers were anything but free.^ It contains within itself the seeds of its own internal contradiction, which is how there can be one view of "truth" at one time and another later.
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.Both thinkers would spawn defenders and schools of thought that would become decisive in establishing modernism.^ Both thinkers would spawn defenders and schools of thought that would become decisive in establishing modernism.
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^ But it was also a time when the avante-garde experiments that had preceded the war would, like the technological wonders of the airplane and the atom, inexorably establish a new dispensation, which we call modernism.
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^ They were willing to downplay doctrine for that goal, because they believed doctrine was inherently divisive and a fragmented church would become irrelevant in the modern age.

Historians have suggested various dates as starting points for modernism. .William Everdell has argued that modernism began with Richard Dedekind's division of the real number line in 1872 and Boltzmann's statistical thermodynamics in 1874. Clement Greenberg called Immanuel Kant "the first real Modernist",[10] but also wrote, "What can be safely called Modernism emerged in the middle of the last century—and rather locally, in France, with Baudelaire in literature and Manet in painting, and perhaps with Flaubert, too, in prose fiction.^ William Everdell has argued that Modernism began with Richard Dedekind 's division of the real number line in 1872 and Boltzmann 's statistical thermodynamics in 1874; but Clement Greenberg wrote, "What can be safely called Modernism emerged in the middle of the last century—and rather locally, in France , with Baudelaire in literature and Manet in painting, and perhaps with Flaubert , too, in prose fiction.
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^ Thus, in the first fifteen years of the twentieth century a series of writers, thinkers, and artists made the break with traditional means of organizing literature, painting, and music.
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^ In his book Jules Petroz retraces how the finding of a hidden painting by Edouard Manet can turn into a real thriller.
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.(It was a while later, and not so locally, that Modernism appeared in music and architecture).^ (It was a while later, and not so locally, that Modernism appeared in music and architecture, but it was in France again that it appeared first in sculpture.
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^ (It was a while later, and not so locally, that Modernism appeared in music and architecture).
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^ Modernism describes a series of reforming cultural movements in art and architecture , music , literature and the applied arts which emerged in the three decades before 1914.

"[11] .At first, modernism was called the "avant-garde," and the term remained to describe movements which identify themselves as attempting to overthrow some aspect of tradition or the status quo.^ The " avant-garde " was what Modernism was called at first, and the term remained to describe movements which identify themselves as attempting to overthrow some aspect of tradition or the status quo.
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^ The most controversial aspect of the modern movement was, and remains, its rejection of tradition.
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^ Hence it is that some Catholics, who are not quite steady in their faith and religion, attempt to revolt, and count themselves fortunate in having some doctrinal pretexts to cover their secession.
  • Modernism - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]
Separately, in the arts and letters, two ideas originating in France would have particular impact. .The first was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air).^ The first was Impressionism , a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors ( en plein air ).
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.Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself.^ Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself.
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.The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential.^ The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential.
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Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris Salon, the impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. .A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon.^ A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés , created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon.
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.While most were in standard styles, but by inferior artists, the work of Manet attracted tremendous attention, and opened commercial doors to the movement.^ While most were in standard styles, but by inferior artists, the work of Manet attracted tremendous attention, and opened commercial doors to the movement.
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^ Artists from many disciplines continue to work in modernist styles into the 21st century.
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Odilon Redon, Guardian Spirit of the Waters, 1878, charcoal on paper, The Art Institute of Chicago.
.The second school was symbolism, marked by a belief that language is expressly symbolic in its nature and a portrayal of patriotism, and that poetry and writing should follow connections that the sheer sound and texture of the words create.^ The second school was Symbolism , marked by a belief that language is expressly symbolic in its nature and a portrayal of patriotism, and that poetry and writing should follow connections that the sheer sound and texture of the words create.
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^ In time, they thought, a logically perfect artificial language would be created by logicians to replace the natural ones.
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^ The Positivists thought that mathematics or symbolic logic was real language, while natural languages were some sort of irrational mess that unreformed humanity was temporarily forced to use.
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.The poet Stéphane Mallarmé would be of particular importance to what would occur afterwards.^ The poet Stéphane Mallarmé would be of particular importance to what would occur afterwards.
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.At the same time social, political, and economic forces were at work that would become the basis to argue for a radically different kind of art and thinking.^ At the same time social, political, and economic forces were at work that would become the basis to argue for a radically different kind of art and thinking.
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^ From time to time these tendencies work out into systems, that are to renew the basis and superstructure of society , politics, philosophy , theology , of the Church herself and of the Christian religion ".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Modernism 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with modernism in the strict sense, which is directly theological , we find other kinds of modernism in philosophy , politics, and social science .
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.Chief among these was steam-powered industrialization, which produced buildings that combined art and engineering in new industrial materials such as cast iron to produce railroad bridges and glass-and-iron train sheds—or the Eiffel Tower, which broke all previous limitations on how tall man-made objects could be—and at the same time offered a radically different environment in urban life.^ Again the tendency to innovation is at times not at all general, but limited to some particular domain.
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  • Modernism - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, at the time, supporters of Copernicus could only contend, lamely, that the stars must all be so distant that their parallax could not be detected.
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^ Urged on by the finality that inspires him, man tends towards those objects which suit him, while at the same time objects offer themselves to him.
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.The miseries of industrial urbanism and the possibilities created by scientific examination of subjects brought changes that would shake a European civilization which had, until then, regarded itself as having a continuous and progressive line of development from the Renaissance.^ The miseries of industrial urbanism, and the possibilities created by scientific examination of subjects brought changes that would shake a European civilization which had, until then, regarded itself as having a continuous and progressive line of development from the Renaissance .
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^ Writers Wagner and Ibsen had been reviled for their own critiques of contemporary civilization and for their warnings that accelerating "progress" would lead to the creation of individuals detached from social norms and isolated from their fellow men.
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^ But while holding with life, progress and development, the Church rejects transitory dogmas that in the modernist theory would be forgotten unless replaced by contrary formulae.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Modernism 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

With the telegraph's harnessing of a new power, offering instant communication at a distance, the experience of time itself was altered.
Many modern disciplines (for example, physics, economics, and arts such as ballet and architecture) denote their pre-twentieth century forms as "classical." This distinction indicates the scope of the changes that occurred across a wide range of scientific and cultural pursuits during the period.

Turn of the century

In the 1890s a strand of thinking began to assert that it was necessary to push aside previous norms entirely, instead of merely revising past knowledge in light of current techniques. .The growing movement in art paralleled such developments as the Theory of Relativity in physics; the increasing integration of the internal combustion engine and industrialization; and the increased role of the social sciences in public policy.^ That is, a movement from a social hierarchy based on birth and standing within public (religious, governmental) organizations and towards a hierarchy based primarily on wealth, and associated with greater social mobility.
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.It was argued that, if the nature of reality itself was in question, and if restrictions which had been in place around human activity were falling, then art, too, would have to radically change.^ The Positivists thought that mathematics or symbolic logic was real language, while natural languages were some sort of irrational mess that unreformed humanity was temporarily forced to use.
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.Thus, in the first fifteen years of the twentieth century a series of writers, thinkers, and artists made the break with traditional means of organizing literature, painting, and music.^ He made this observation only six years after the first integrated circuits were produced.
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^ In Stock The Longman Anthology of British Literature, Volume 2C: The Twentieth Century and Beyond (4th Edition) by David Damrosch List Price: $45.33 .
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.Powerfully influential in this wave of modernity were the theories of Sigmund Freud and Ernst Mach, who argued, beginning in the 1880s, that the mind had a fundamental structure, and that subjective experience was based on the interplay of the parts of the mind.^ It really would not be until our own time that some understanding would begin to emerge of the interaction and interdependency between theory and observation, mathematics and experience in modern science.
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.All subjective reality was based, according to Freud's ideas, on the play of basic drives and instincts, through which the outside world was perceived.^ All subjective reality was based, according to Freud's ideas, on the play of basic drives and instincts, through which the outside world was perceived.
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^ AskART.com - Modernism Until the first decade of the 20th century, art, whether drawing, painting, or sculpture, was always essentially pictorial, and was based on themes and compositions representing real world ideas...
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^ In the turn of century crucial ideas were: the importance of the machine as being part of beauty, the importance of subjective experience, the necessity for system to replace the concept of "objective reality".
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.Ernst Mach developed a well-known philosophy of science, often called "positivism", according to which the relations of objects in nature were not guaranteed but only known through a sort of mental shorthand.^ Something new was happening in natural philosophy, however, and it was called the nova scientia , the "new" knowledge.
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^ Even as in the Middle Ages philosophy was often thought of as the "handmaiden of theology," modern philosophers have often thought of their discipline as little more than the "handmaiden of science."
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^ That raw nerve is now known as the Problem of Knowledge:   How can we have knowledge through perception of external objects?
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.This represented a break with the past, in that previously it was believed that external and absolute reality could impress itself, as it was, on an individual, as, for example, in John Locke's empiricism, with the mind beginning as a tabula rasa.^ For the Modernist believer, on the contrary, it is an established and certain fact that the reality of the divine does really exist in itself and quite independently of the person who believes in it.
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Freud's description of subjective states, involving an unconscious mind full of primal impulses and counterbalancing self-imposed restrictions, was combined by Carl Jung with a belief in natural essence to stipulate a collective unconscious that was full of basic typologies that the conscious mind fought or embraced. .Darwin's work had introduced the concept of "man, the animal" to the public mind, and Jung's view suggested that people's impulses toward breaking social norms were not the product of childishness or ignorance, but derived from the essential nature of the human animal.^ That is, a movement from a social hierarchy based on birth and standing within public (religious, governmental) organizations and towards a hierarchy based primarily on wealth, and associated with greater social mobility.
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.Friedrich Nietzsche championed a philosophy in which forces, specifically the 'Will to power', were more important than facts or things.^ Even as in the Middle Ages philosophy was often thought of as the "handmaiden of theology," modern philosophers have often thought of their discipline as little more than the "handmaiden of science."
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^ The most important thing about Descartes as a philosopher is that "first philosophy" changed because of what he did.
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^ It means that Descartes is forced into arguing that our idea of infinity must have been caused by an infinite thing, since an infinite thing is more real than us or anything in us.
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Similarly, the writings of Henri Bergson championed the vital 'life force' over static conceptions of reality. All these writers were united by a romantic distrust of Victorian positivism and certainty. Instead they championed, or, in the case of Freud, attempted to explain, irrational thought processes through the lens of rationality and holism. This was connected with the century-long trend to thinking in holistic terms, which would include an increased interest in the occult, and "the vital force".
.Out of this collision of ideals derived from Romanticism, and an attempt to find a way for knowledge to explain that which was as yet unknown, came the first wave of works, which, while their authors considered them extensions of existing trends in art, broke the implicit contract with the general public that artists were the interpreters and representatives of bourgeois culture and ideas.^ Instead, a work-study was detailed to go around and log in to each machine in turn and find out the machine name and to print out a label on a label printer, and apply said label to each machine in an appropriate way.
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^ To condemn and proscribe a work without the knowledge of the author, without hearing his explanations, without discussion, is something approaching to tyranny.
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These "modernist" landmarks include the atonal ending of Arnold Schoenberg's Second String Quartet in 1908, the expressionist paintings of Wassily Kandinsky starting in 1903 and culminating with his first abstract painting and the founding of the Blue Rider group in Munich in 1911, and the rise of fauvism and the inventions of cubism from the studios of Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and others in the years between 1900 and 1910.
.This wave of the modern movement broke with the past in the first decade of the twentieth century, and tried to redefine various artforms in a radical manner.^ This wave of the modern movement broke with the past in the first decade of the twentieth century, and tried to redefine various artforms in a radical manner.
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^ Strategies of representation most closely identified with late nineteenth-and twentieth-century movements in the arts that challenged the conventions of realism and romanticism.
  • modernism - Geography & Geology Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.geodz.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the period of "high modernism," from around 1910 to 1930, the major figures of modernism literature helped radically to redefine what poetry and fiction could be and do: figures like Woolf, Joyce, Eliot, Pound, Stevens, Proust, Mallarme, Kafka, and Rilke are considered the founders of twentieth-century modernism.
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Leading lights within the literary wing of this movement (or, rather, these movements) include:
Composers such as Schoenberg, Stravinsky, and George Antheil represent modernism in music. .Artists such as Gustav Klimt, Henri Rousseau, Wassily Kandinsky, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Georges Braque, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio De Chirico, Juan Gris, Piet Mondrian, and the movements Les Fauves, Cubism, Dada and Surrealism represent various strains of Modernism in the visual arts, while architects and designers such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe brought Modernist ideas into everyday urban life.^ Once we notice that idea, then life, the universe, and everything falls into place.
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^ The Modern Phoenix Neighborhood Network features photographic documentation, articles and interactive discussion of classic midcentury design, art and architecture in Phoenix, Arizona.
  • Regional Modern Real Estate Websites - Maps - Dwell 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.dwell.com [Source type: General]

^ A remodelling, a renewal according to the ideas of the twentieth century — such is the longing that possesses the modernists.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Modernism 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Artistic modernism also influenced figures outside the movement; for example, John Maynard Keynes was friends with Woolf and other writers of the Bloomsbury group.^ Other aspects of Pascendi Dominci Gregis have been analyzed in Modernism's Eternal Foe, Our Eternal Friend .
  • Modernism Then, Conciliarism Now 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.christorchaos.com [Source type: Original source]

Explosion, 1910–1930

Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910, oil on canvas, 100 x 73 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
On the eve of the First World War a growing tension and unease with the social order, seen in the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the agitation of "radical" parties, also manifested itself in artistic works in every medium which radically simplified or rejected previous practice. .In 1913—the year of Edmund Husserl's Ideas, Niels Bohr's quantized atom, Ezra Pound's founding of imagism, the Armory Show in New York, and, in Saint Petersburg, the "first futurist opera," Victory Over the Sun by Alexey Kruchenykh, Velimir Khlebnikov and Kasimir Malevich—another Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, working in Paris for Sergei Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes, composed The Rite of Spring for a ballet, choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky, that depicted human sacrifice.^ For a long time, philosophers as diverse as David Hume , Karl Marx , and Edmund Husserl have seen the value of their work in the claim that they were making philosophy "scientific."
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^ In Stock The Cantos of Ezra Pound (New Directions Paperbook) by Ezra Pound ( 27 ) List Price: $25.95 .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with modernism 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Meanwhile, young painters such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse were causing a shock with their rejection of traditional perspective as the means of structuring paintings—a step that none of the impressionists, not even Cézanne, had taken.
.These developments began to give a new meaning to what was termed 'modernism': It embraced discontinuity, rejecting smooth change in everything from biology to fictional character development and moviemaking.^ The conciliarists, who are heirs to Modernism by means of the "New Theology," have anathematized themselves with their own words.
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It approved disruption, rejecting or moving beyond simple realism in literature and art, and rejecting or dramatically altering tonality in music. .This set modernists apart from 19th century artists, who had tended to believe not only in smooth change ('evolutionary' rather than 'revolutionary') but also in the progressiveness of such change—'progress.'^ Truth to tell, it is only the moderate Modernists who make this appeal to an exigency for the Catholic religion.
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^ For the Modernist believer, on the contrary, it is an established and certain fact that the reality of the divine does really exist in itself and quite independently of the person who believes in it.
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^ Only a fool would believe himself wiser than Pope Saint Pius X. Modernism has always been and continues to be the work of fools.
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.Writers like Dickens and Tolstoy, painters like Turner, and musicians like Brahms were not 'radicals' or 'Bohemians,' but were instead valued members of society who produced art that added to society, even sometimes while critiquing its less desirable aspects.^ Modernist doctrine , too, may be more or less radical, and it is swallowed in doses that vary with each one's likes and dislikes.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Modernism 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Modernism, while still "progressive," increasingly saw traditional forms and traditional social arrangements as hindering progress, and therefore recast the artist as a revolutionary, overthrowing rather than enlightening.^ The most embarrassing forms of this, however, tend to be found in English rather than in Philosophy departments, and the analytic tradition, although damaged by this history, often maintains a modicum of good sense, as in John Searle .
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Futurism exemplifies this trend. In 1909, the Parisian newspaper Le Figaro published F.T. Marinetti's first manifesto. Soon afterward a group of painters (Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo, and Gino Severini) co-signed the Futurist Manifesto. Modeled on the famous "Communist Manifesto" of the previous century, such manifestoes put forward ideas that were meant to provoke and to gather followers. Strongly influenced by Bergson and Nietzsche, Futurism was part of the general trend of Modernist rationalization of disruption.
.Modernist philosophy and art were still viewed as only a part of the larger social movement.^ On this head the Modernists differ from the Rationalists only to fall into the views of the Protestants and pseudo-mystics.
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.Artists such as Klimt and Cézanne, and composers such as Mahler and Richard Strauss were "the terrible moderns"—those farther to the avant-garde were more heard of than heard.^ There were many more stars in the sky than could be seen with the eye; and the Milky Way, which always was just a glow, was itself composed of stars.
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^ Even as in the Middle Ages philosophy was often thought of as the "handmaiden of theology," modern philosophers have often thought of their discipline as little more than the "handmaiden of science."
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^ Thus has he prepared the way for a form of modernism more temperate than that of Schleiermacher.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Modernism 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Polemics in favour of geometric or purely abstract painting were largely confined to 'little magazines' (like The New Age in the UK) with tiny circulations. Modernist primitivism and pessimism were controversial, but were not seen as representative of the Edwardian mainstream, which was more inclined towards a Victorian faith in progress and liberal optimism.
Illustration of the Spirit of St. Louis
.However, the Great War and its subsequent events were the cataclysmic upheavals that late 19th century artists such as Brahms had worried about, and avant-gardists had embraced.^ As of 1998, about 50 events were being found per year that might be due to such planets.
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.First, the failure of the previous status quo seemed self-evident to a generation that had seen millions die fighting over scraps of earth—prior to the war, it had been argued that no one would fight such a war, since the cost was too high.^ There is no need to prove that the modernist spirit of movement and evolution is in perfect harmony with its concept of ever-changing dogma and is unintelligible without it; the matter is self-evident.
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  • Modernism - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Protestantism has generated them little by little, it did not understand from the beginning that such would be its sequel.
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  • Modernism - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In their writings and addresses they seem not unfrequently to advocate doctrines which are contrary one to the other, so that one would be disposed to regard their attitude as double and doubtful.
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Second, the birth of a machine age changed the conditions of life—machine warfare became a touchstone of the ultimate reality. .Finally, the immensely traumatic nature of the experience dashed basic assumptions: realism seemed bankrupt when faced with the fundamentally fantastic nature of trench warfare, as exemplified by books such as Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front.^ The Sacred Books are in every religion a collection of religious experiences of an extraordinary nature.
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Moreover, the view that mankind was making slow and steady moral progress came to seem ridiculous in the face of the senseless slaughter. The First World War fused the harshly mechanical geometric rationality of technology with the nightmarish irrationality of myth.
André Masson, Pedestal Table in the Studio 1922, early example of Surrealism
.Thus modernism, which had been a minority taste before the war, came to define the 1920s.^ The Japanese victory over Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) thus came as a shock to Europe.
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It appeared in Europe in such critical movements as Dada and then in constructive movements such as surrealism, as well as in smaller movements such as the Bloomsbury Group. .Each of these "modernisms," as some observers labelled them at the time, stressed new methods to produce new results.^ Why are we so far below the old saints, and even the modern apostles of these latter times, in the abundance of our conversations?
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Again, impressionism was a precursor: breaking with the idea of national schools, artists and writers adopted ideas of international movements. Surrealism, cubism, Bauhaus, and Leninism are all examples of movements that rapidly found adopters far beyond their geographic origins.
Exhibitions, theatre, cinema, books and buildings all served to cement in the public view the perception that the world was changing. Hostile reaction often followed, as paintings were spat upon, riots organized at the opening of works, and political figures denounced modernism as unwholesome and immoral. At the same time, the 1920s were known as the "Jazz Age," and the public showed considerable enthusiasm for cars, air travel, the telephone and other technological advances.
.By 1930, modernism had won a place in the establishment, including the political and artistic establishment, although by this time modernism itself had changed.^ It is possible, therefore, for one construction to be put on "truth" at one time and quite another at a different time given the historical context in which the "reappraisal" of "truth" takes place, including the "needs" of "modern" man.
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There was a general reaction in the 1920s against the pre-1918 modernism, which emphasized its continuity with a past while rebelling against it, and against the aspects of that period which seemed excessively mannered, irrational, and emotionalistic. The post-World War period, at first, veered either to systematization or nihilism and had, as perhaps its most paradigmatic movement, Dada.
While some writers attacked the madness of the new modernism, others described it as soulless and mechanistic. Among modernists there were disputes about the importance of the public, the relationship of art to audience, and the role of art in society. Modernism comprised a series of sometimes contradictory responses to the situation as it was understood, and the attempt to wrestle universal principles from it. In the end science and scientific rationality, often taking models from the 18th-century Enlightenment, came to be seen as the source of logic and stability, while the basic primitive sexual and unconscious drives, along with the seemingly counter-intuitive workings of the new machine age, were taken as the basic emotional substance. .From these two seemingly incompatible poles, modernists began to fashion a complete weltanschauung that could encompass every aspect of life.^ From the combination and, as it were, fusion of these two elements, the common mind which draws up the formula and the authority which imposes it, arises, according to the Modernists, the notion of the ecclesiastical magisterium.
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Second generation, 1930–1945

Piet Mondrian, Composition No. 10, 1939-42, oil on canvas, 80 x 73 cm, private collection.
.By 1930, Modernism had entered popular culture.^ Art History Literary representations of science Literary Theory Literature and cinema Literature and Visual Arts Modernist Literature (Literary Modernism) Popular Culture Visual Studies .
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With the increasing urbanization of populations, it was beginning to be looked to as the source for ideas to deal with the challenges of the day. As modernism gained traction in academia, it was developing a self-conscious theory of its own importance. Popular culture, which was not derived from high culture but instead from its own realities (particularly mass production) fueled much modernist innovation. By 1930 The New Yorker magazine began publishing new and modern ideas by young writers and humorists like Dorothy Parker, Robert Benchley, E.B. White, S.J. Perelman, and James Thurber, amongst others. .Modern ideas in art appeared in commercials and logos, the famous London Underground logo, designed by Edward Johnston in 1919, being an early example of the need for clear, easily recognizable and memorable visual symbols.^ Art Surrealism Baroque Art and Literature Visual Rhetoric French Cinema Comparative Literature Romanticism French Literature Aesthetics Modernism Cognitive Psychology ( More ) ( Collapse ) .
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.Another strong influence at this time was Marxism.^ Another strong influence at this time was Marxism .
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^ Another strong influence at this time was Marxism.
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.After the generally primitivistic/irrationalist aspect of pre-World War I Modernism, which for many modernists precluded any attachment to merely political solutions, and the neoclassicism of the 1920s, as represented most famously by T. S. Eliot and Igor Stravinsky—which rejected popular solutions to modern problems—the rise of Fascism, the Great Depression, and the march to war helped to radicalise a generation.^ British Women Writers Modern Poetry Modernist Literature (Literary Modernism) Twentieth Century Literature World Literatures Service Learning Travel Writing Creative Nonfiction .
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^ Colonialism Colonial literature Conrad, Joseph History Humanities Literature Arthur Conan Doyle Literary History Modernist Literature (Literary Modernism) Postcolonial Literature World War I Writing ( More ) ( Collapse ) .
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^ German Studies Fascism British History Modernism Fascism Women and War Studies Youth Culture Youth Work .
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The Russian Revolution catalyzed the fusion of political radicalism and utopianism, with more expressly political stances. Bertolt Brecht, W. H. Auden, André Breton, Louis Aragon and the philosophers Antonio Gramsci and Walter Benjamin are perhaps the most famous exemplars of this modernist Marxism. .This move to the radical left, however, was neither universal, nor definitional, and there is no particular reason to associate modernism, fundamentally, with 'the left'. Modernists explicitly of 'the right' include Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Salvador Dalí, Wyndham Lewis, William Butler Yeats, T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, the Dutch author Menno ter Braak and many others.^ Thus, once one moves sufficiently far to the left or right, one considers the vast majority of opinion (to one's right or left, resp.
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^ There are many definitions, but a popular one is since 1500 , or about since Columbus reached America.
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^ Literature Experimental Literature Modernism Modernist Literature (Literary Modernism) Wyndham Lewis .
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Must be modern to keep up
.One of the most visible changes of this period was the adoption of objects of modern production into daily life.^ One of the most important points made by Pope Saint Pius X in Pascendi Dominci Gregis is that Modernism is a mixture of truth and error, the synthesis of all heresies.
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Electricity, the telephone, the automobile—and the need to work with them, repair them and live with them—created the need for new forms of manners and social life. .The kind of disruptive moment that only a few knew in the 1880s became a common occurrence.^ Nevertheless, it may be noted that only a few decades later, tunneling by bare and dressed particles became a widely accepted violation of classical physical law.
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For example, the speed of communication reserved for the stock brokers of 1890 became part of family life.
.Modernism as leading to social organization would produce inquiries into sex and the basic bondings of the nuclear, rather than extended, family.^ Modernism as leading to social organization would produce inquiries into sex and the basic bondings of the nuclear, rather than extended, family.
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^ Rather than a lockstep, organized unity, it is better to see modernism as taking a series of responses to the situation as it was understood, and the attempt to wrestle universal principles from it.
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^ Similar insights, pursued on the level of the individual rather than the community, are of course to be found throughout the work of the father of modern psychology, Sigmund Freud .
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.The Freudian tensions of infantile sexuality and the raising of children became more intense, because people had fewer children, and therefore a more specific relationship with each child: the theoretical, again, became the practical and even popular.^ The Freudian tensions of infantile sexuality and the raising of children became more intense, because people had fewer children, and therefore a more specific relationship with each child: the theoretical, again, became the practical and even popular.
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^ But we also a man who seemed to have an exceptionally fun and playful attitude towards life even while raising children; and someone who knew how to “ham it up” for the camera.
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^ Of course circumstances and situations and even people influence you because you take on different responsibilities.
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Modernism after World War II (The visual and performing arts)

Jackson Pollock, No. 5, 1948, oil on fiberboard, 244 x 122 cm. (96 x 48 in.), private collection
.In Britain and America, modernism as a literary movement is generally considered to be relevant up to the early 1930s, and "modernist" is rarely used to describe authors prominent after 1945. This is somewhat true for all areas of culture, with the exception of the visual and performing arts.^ Postmodernism is the transfer of all that heavy modernism baggage into literary criticism.
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^ Indeed, Modernists do not deny, but actually maintain, some confusedly, others frankly, that all religions are true.
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^ Moore Clement Clarke Moore was a prominent Protestant theologian in the early nineteenth century, a rich farmer in midtown Manhattan, and author of the leading Hebrew dictionary of his day.
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The post-war period left the capitals of Europe in upheaval with an urgency to economically and physically rebuild and to politically regroup. In Paris (the former center of European culture and the former capital of the art world) the climate for art was a disaster. Important collectors, dealers, and modernist artists, writers, and poets had fled Europe for New York and America. The surrealists and modern artists from every cultural center of Europe had fled the onslaught of the Nazis for safe haven in the United States. Many of those who didn't flee perished. A few artists, notably Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Pierre Bonnard, remained in France and survived.
.The 1940s in New York City heralded the triumph of American abstract expressionism, a modernist movement that combined lessons learned from Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, surrealism, Joan Miró, cubism, Fauvism, and early modernism via great teachers in America like Hans Hofmann and John D. Graham.^ American Culture Jewish Studies Jewish History Material culture created by, for and about Jews Jewish-American Literature American Literature American modernism Modernist Magazines Aesthetics Poetics Poetry Modernism ( More ) ( Collapse ) .
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^ In order to clarify the concept, high school chemistry teachers since the dawn of time have used nontraditional learning materials like songs .
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^ Queens College of the City University of New York .
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American artists benefited from the presence of Piet Mondrian, Fernand Léger, Max Ernst and the André Breton group, Pierre Matisse's gallery, and Peggy Guggenheim's gallery The Art of This Century, as well as other factors.

Pollock and abstract influences

During the late 1940s Jackson Pollock's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all contemporary art that followed him. To some extent Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso's innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via cubism and constructed sculpture, Pollock redefined the way art gets made. His move away from easel painting and conventionality was a liberating signal to the artists of his era and to all who came after. .Artists realized that Jackson Pollock's process—placing unstretched raw canvas on the floor where it could be attacked from all four sides using artistic and industrial materials; dripping and throwing linear skeins of paint; drawing, staining, and brushing; using imagery and non-imagery—essentially blasted artmaking beyond any prior boundary.^ In Stock E.M. Forster: Four Novels (Library of Essential Writers Series) by E. M. Forster ( 1 ) 15 used & new from $8.45 .
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Abstract expressionism generally expanded and developed the definitions and possibilities available to artists for the creation of new works of art.
Barnett Newman, Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow and Blue?, 1966. Typical of Newman's later work, with the use of pure and vibrant color.
The other abstract expressionists followed Pollock's breakthrough with new breakthroughs of their own. In a sense the innovations of Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Robert Motherwell, Peter Voulkos and others opened the floodgates to the diversity and scope of all the art that followed them. .Rereadings into abstract art by art historians such as Linda Nochlin,[15] Griselda Pollock [16] and Catherine de Zegher [17] critically show, however, that pioneering women artists who produced major innovations in modern art had been ignored by official accounts of its history.^ Read: 28 times Last updated: 10/1/09 Rated: Not rated yet Tags: adventure , art , art dealer , art history , artists , biography .
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In the 1960s after abstract expressionism

In abstract painting during the 1950s and 1960s several new directions like hard-edge painting and other forms of geometric abstraction began to appear in artist studios and in radical avant-garde circles as a reaction against the subjectivism of abstract expressionism. .Clement Greenberg became the voice of post-painterly abstraction when he curated an influential exhibition of new painting that toured important art museums throughout the United States in 1964. Color field painting, hard-edge painting and lyrical abstraction[18] emerged as radical new directions.^ It is the only museum in the Western United States that exclusively features contemporary Latin American art.''
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^ People came to realize that the American Revolution was offering a model of a modern State that differed from the theoretical model with radical tendencies that had emerged during the second phase of the French Revolution..
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^ In Stock Poetry State Forest (NEW DIRECTIONS PAPERBOOK) by Bernadette Mayer List Price: $17.95 .
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By the late 1960s however, postminimalism, process art and Arte Povera[19] also emerged as revolutionary concepts and movements that encompassed both painting and sculpture, via lyrical abstraction and the postminimalist movement, and in early conceptual art.[19] .Process art as inspired by Pollock enabled artists to experiment with and make use of a diverse encyclopedia of style, content, material, placement, sense of time, and plastic and real space.^ We could no longer use their styles and materials sincerely, the modernists argued, since nobody believed in those old ideals.
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^ Style ought to be defined so that anyone, however uninspired, can make good use of it and add thereby to the public dwelling space that is our common possession.
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^ In order to clarify the concept, high school chemistry teachers since the dawn of time have used nontraditional learning materials like songs .
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.Nancy Graves, Ronald Davis, Howard Hodgkin, Larry Poons, Jannis Kounellis, Brice Marden, Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, Alan Saret, Walter Darby Bannard, Lynda Benglis, Dan Christensen, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Eva Hesse, Keith Sonnier, Richard Serra, Sam Gilliam, Mario Merz and Peter Reginato were some of the younger artists who emerged during the era of late modernism that spawned the heyday of the art of the late 1960s.^ People came to realize that the American Revolution was offering a model of a modern State that differed from the theoretical model with radical tendencies that had emerged during the second phase of the French Revolution..
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[20]

Pop art

.In 1962 the Sidney Janis Gallery mounted The New Realists, the first major pop art group exhibition in an uptown art gallery in New York City.^ In Stock Edouard Manet, 1832-1883: The First of the Moderns (Taschen Basic Art) by Gilles Neret ( 2 ) 22 used & new from $5.71 .
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^ In New York City .
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Janis mounted the exhibition in a 57th Street storefront near his gallery at 15 E. 57th Street. The show sent shockwaves through the New York School and reverberated worldwide. Earlier in England in 1958 the term "Pop Art" was used by Lawrence Alloway to describe paintings that celebrated consumerism of the post World War II era. .This movement rejected abstract expressionism and its focus on the hermeneutic and psychological interior in favor of art that depicted and often celebrated material consumer culture, advertising, and iconography of the mass production age.^ I heard this expression today in an advertisement: ``Acme's, [let's say] fertilizer grows more [grass] when compared with competitors' products.''
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The early works of David Hockney and the works of Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi were considered seminal examples in the movement. Meanwhile in the downtown scene in New York's East Village 10th Street galleries artists were formulating an American version of pop art. Claes Oldenburg had his storefront, and the Green Gallery on 57th Street began to show the works of Tom Wesselmann and James Rosenquist. .Later Leo Castelli exhibited the works of other American artists, including those of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein for most of their careers.^ In other words, Pope Leo XIII was exhorting the Catholic bishops of this country to work for the Catholicization of this country.
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There is a connection between the radical works of Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray, the rebellious Dadaists with a sense of humor, and pop artists like Claes Oldenburg, Andy Warhol, and Roy Lichtenstein, whose paintings reproduce the look of Benday dots, a technique used in commercial reproduction.

Minimalism

By the early 1960s minimalism emerged as an abstract movement in art (with roots in geometric abstraction of Kazimir Malevich, the Bauhaus and Piet Mondrian) that rejected the idea of relational and subjective painting, the complexity of abstract expressionist surfaces, and the emotional zeitgeist and polemics present in the arena of action painting. Minimalism argued that extreme simplicity could capture all of the sublime representation needed in art. Associated with painters such as Frank Stella, minimalism in painting, as opposed to other areas, is a modernist movement. Minimalism is variously construed either as a precursor to postmodernism, or as a postmodern movement itself. .In the latter perspective, early minimalism yielded advanced modernist works, but the movement partially abandoned this direction when some artists like Robert Morris changed direction in favor of the anti-form movement.^ If the Modernists have not yet openly proceeded so far, they ask the Church in the meanwhile to follow of her own accord in the direction in which they urge her and to adapt herself to the forms of the State.
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Postminimalism
Smithson's "Spiral Jetty" from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005. It was created in 1970 and still exists although it has often been submerged by the fluctuating lake level. It consists of some 6500 tons of basalt, earth and salt.
.In the late 1960s Robert Pincus-Witten[19] coined the term postminimalism to describe minimalist-derived art which had content and contextual overtones that minimalism rejected.^ He coined the term Gelbe Gefahr , `Yellow Peril,' to describe the threat (he had a cartoon executed to illustrate his brainstorm).
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The term was applied by Pincus-Whitten to the work of Eva Hesse, Keith Sonnier, Richard Serra and new work by former minimalists Robert Smithson, Robert Morris, and Sol LeWitt, and Barry Le Va, and others. Other minimalists including Donald Judd, Dan Flavin, Carl Andre, Agnes Martin, John McCracken and others continued to produce late modernist paintings and sculpture for the remainders of their careers.
In the 1960s the work of the avant-garde minimalist composers La Monte Young, Philip Glass, Steve Reich, and Terry Riley also achieved prominence in the New York art world.
Since then, many artists have embraced minimal or postminimal styles and the label "postmodern" has been attached to them.

Collage, assemblage, installations

Robert Rauschenberg Untitled Combine, 1963
.Related to abstract expressionism was the emergence of combining manufactured items with artist materials, moving away from previous conventions of painting and sculpture.^ For more Jamaica-related linguistic lapses, see the Van Morrison material discussed under this Cleveland BROWNS item.
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The work of Robert Rauschenberg exemplifies this trend. His "combines" of the 1950s were forerunners of pop art and installation art, and used assemblages of large physical objects, including stuffed animals, birds and commercial photographs. Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Larry Rivers, John Chamberlain, Claes Oldenburg, George Segal, Jim Dine, and Edward Kienholz were among important pioneers of both abstraction and pop art. Creating new conventions of art-making, they made acceptable in serious contemporary art circles the radical inclusion in their works of unlikely materials. .Another pioneer of collage was Joseph Cornell, whose more intimately-scaled works were seen as radical because of both his personal iconography and his use of found objects.^ Hence, the danger is present almost in the very veins and heart of the Church, whose injury is the more certain from the very fact that their knowledge of her is more intimate.
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^ Both IGFET and MOST are relatively rare terms, and one hears ``an MOS'' used for an MOST. This is equivocal in principle, because there are also MOS capacitors .
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Neo-Dada

.In the early 20th century Marcel Duchamp exhibited a urinal as a sculpture.^ The early 20th Century - Novelists and essay writers .
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His professed his intent that people look at the urinal as if it were a work of art because he said it was a work of art. He referred to his work as "readymades." Fountain was a urinal signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt, the exhibition of which shocked the art world in 1917. This and Duchamp's other works are generally labelled as Dada. Duchamp can be seen as a precursor to conceptual art, other famous examples being John Cage's 4'33", which is four minutes and thirty three seconds of silence, and Rauschenberg's Erased de Kooning. Many conceptual works take the position that art is the result of the viewer viewing an object or act as art, not of the intrinsic qualites of the work itself. Thus, because Fountain was exhibited, it was a sculpture.
Marcel Duchamp famously gave up "art" in favor of chess. Avant-garde composer David Tudor created a piece, Reunion (1968), written jointly with Lowell Cross, that features a chess game in which each move triggers a lighting effect or projection. Duchamp and Cage played the game at the work's premier.
Another trend in art associated with neo-Dada is the use of a number of different media together. Intermedia, a term coined by Dick Higgins and meant to convey new artforms along the lines of Fluxus, concrete poetry, found objects, performance art, and computer art. Higgins was publisher of the Something Else Press, a concrete poet, husband of artist Alison Knowles and an admirer of Marcel Duchamp.

Performance and happenings

Carolee Schneemann, performing her piece Interior Scroll
During the late 1950s and 1960s artists with a wide range of interests began to push the boundaries of contemporary art. .Yves Klein in France, and in New York City, Carolee Schneemann, Yayoi Kusama, Charlotte Moorman and Yoko Ono were pioneers of performance-based works of art.^ In New York City .
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Groups like The Living Theater with Julian Beck and Judith Malina collaborated with sculptors and painters creating environments, radically changing the relationship between audience and performer especially in their piece Paradise Now. The Judson Dance Theater, located at the Judson Memorial Church, New York; and the Judson dancers, notably Yvonne Rainer, Trisha Brown, Elaine Summers, Sally Gross, Simonne Forti, Deborah Hay, Lucinda Childs, Steve Paxton and others; collaborated with artists Robert Morris, Robert Whitman, John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and engineers like Billy Klüver. Park Place Gallery was a center for musical performances by electronic composers Steve Reich, Philip Glass and other notable performance artists including Joan Jonas. These performances were intended as works of a new art form combining sculpture, dance, and music or sound, often with audience participation. They were characterized by the reductive philosophies of minimalism and the spontaneous improvisation and expressivity of abstract expressionism.
During the same period, various avant-garde artists created Happenings. Happenings were mysterious and often spontaneous and unscripted gatherings of artists and their friends and relatives in various specified locations, often incorporating exercises in absurdity, physicality, costuming, spontaneous nudity, and various random or seemingly disconnected acts. Notable creators of happenings included Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Red Grooms, and Robert Whitman.

Fluxus

Fluxus was named and loosely organized in 1962 by George Maciunas (1931-78), a Lithuanian-born American artist. .Fluxus traces its beginnings to John Cage's 1957 to 1959 Experimental Composition classes at the New School for Social Research in New York City.^ The new city of glass, concrete, and parkland would be a city without social pretense, where people would live in exemplary uniformity and be rewarded with equal respect.
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^ New York City .
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^ In New York City .
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Many of his students were artists working in other media with little or no background in music. Cage's students included Fluxus founding members Jackson Mac Low, Al Hansen, George Brecht and Dick Higgins.
Fluxus encouraged a do-it-yourself aesthetic and valued simplicity over complexity. Like Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. Fluxus artists preferred to work with whatever materials were at hand, and either created their own work or collaborated in the creation process with their colleagues.

Late period

Ronnie Landfield, Garden of Delight, 1971, lyrical abstraction from the early 1970s
Artists from many disciplines continue to work in modernist styles into the 21st century. The continuation of abstract expressionism, color field painting, lyrical abstraction, geometric abstraction, minimalism, abstract illusionism, process art, pop art, postminimalism, and other late 20th century modernist movements in both painting and sculpture continue through the first decade of the 21st century.
However, by the early 1980s the postmodern movement in art and architecture began to establish its position through various conceptual and intermedia formats. Postmodernism in music and literature began to take hold even earlier, some say by the 1950s. .While postmodernism implies an end to modernism, many theorists and scholars contend that late modernism continues into the 21st century.^ Postmodernism is the transfer of all that heavy modernism baggage into literary criticism.
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Goals of the movement

The 'Glass Palace' (1935) in the Netherlands - functional and open
.Many modernists believed that by rejecting tradition they could discover radically new ways of making art.^ Many modernists believed that by rejecting tradition they could discover radically new ways of making art.
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^ Modernism's goals Many modernists believed that by rejecting tradition they could discover radically new ways of making art.
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^ Arnold Schoenberg believed that by rejecting traditional tonal harmony, the hierarchical system of organizing works of music which had guided music making for at least a century and a half, and perhaps longer, he had discovered a wholly new way of organizing sound, based in the use of twelve-note rows (See Twelve-tone technique ).
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Arnold Schoenberg rejected traditional tonal harmony, the hierarchical system of organizing works of music that had guided music making for at least a century and a half. He believed he had discovered a wholly new way of organizing sound, based in the use of twelve-note rows. Abstract artists, taking as their examples the impressionists, as well as Paul Cézanne and Edvard Munch, began with the assumption that color and shape, not the depiction of the natural world, formed the essential characteristics of art. Wassily Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, and Kazimir Malevich all believed in redefining art as the arrangement of pure color. The use of photography, which had rendered much of the representational function of visual art obsolete, strongly affected this aspect of modernism. .However, these artists also believed that by rejecting the depiction of material objects they helped art move from a materialist to a spiritualist phase of development.^ However, these artists also believed that by rejecting the depiction of material objects they helped art move from a materialist to a spiritualist phase of development.
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^ These rules should evidently apply best to homogeneous materials that are close to isotropic in their properties, so they don't have a ``softer'' side, but they have been applied with consistent success to crystalline materials.
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^ Many modernists believed that by rejecting tradition they could discover radically new ways of making art.
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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's 330 North Wabash (formerly IBM Plaza) in Chicago
Other modernists, especially those involved in design, had more pragmatic views. .Modernist architects and designers believed that new technology rendered old styles of building obsolete.^ Modernist architects and designers believed that new technology rendered old styles of building obsolete.
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^ Just as cars had replaced the horse , so modernist design should reject the old styles and structures inherited from Ancient Greece or from the Middle Ages .
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^ Many modernists believed that by rejecting tradition they could discover radically new ways of making art.
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Le Corbusier thought that buildings should function as "machines for living in", analogous to cars, which he saw as machines for traveling in. Just as cars had replaced the horse, so modernist design should reject the old styles and structures inherited from Ancient Greece or from the Middle Ages. In some cases form superseded function. Following this machine aesthetic, modernist designers typically rejected decorative motifs in design, preferring to emphasize the materials used and pure geometrical forms. The skyscraper, such as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Seagram Building in New York (1956–1958), became the archetypal modernist building. Modernist design of houses and furniture also typically emphasized simplicity and clarity of form, open-plan interiors, and the absence of clutter. Modernism reversed the 19th-century relationship of public and private: in the 19th century, public buildings were horizontally expansive for a variety of technical reasons, and private buildings emphasized verticality—to fit more private space on increasingly limited land. Conversely, in the 20th century, public buildings became vertically oriented and private buildings became organized horizontally. .Many aspects of modernist design still persist within the mainstream of contemporary architecture today, though its previous dogmatism has given way to a more playful use of decoration, historical quotation, and spatial drama.^ Many aspects of modernist design still persist within the mainstream of contemporary architecture today, though its previous dogmatism has given way to a more playful use of decoration, historical quotation, and spatial drama.
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^ There were many more stars in the sky than could be seen with the eye; and the Milky Way, which always was just a glow, was itself composed of stars.
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^ Many modernists believed that by rejecting tradition they could discover radically new ways of making art.
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.In other arts such pragmatic considerations were less important.^ In other arts such pragmatic considerations were less important.
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^ Some are important and difficult, such as the Cantos of Pound, others are a storehouse of wisdom such as Ulysses by Joyce...all important in their own right.
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^ For others, such as, for example, art critic Robert Hughes, postmodernism represents an extension of modernism.
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.In literature and visual art some modernists sought to defy expectations mainly in order to make their art more vivid, or to force the audience to take the trouble to question their own preconceptions.^ In literature and visual art some modernists sought to defy expectations mainly in order to make their art more vivid, or to force the audience to take the trouble to question their own preconceptions.
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^ It is only if one accepts the modernist position on art and literature that becoming a modernist assumes a crucial evaluative role.
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^ Postmodernism in music and literature began to take hold even earlier, some say by the 1950s.
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This aspect of modernism has often seemed a reaction to consumer culture, which developed in Europe and North America in the late 19th century. Whereas most manufacturers try to make products that will be marketable by appealing to preferences and prejudices, high modernists rejected such consumerist attitudes in order to undermine conventional thinking. The art critic Clement Greenberg expounded this theory of modernism in his essay Avant-Garde and Kitsch.[21] Greenberg labelled the products of consumer culture "kitsch", because their design aimed simply to have maximum appeal, with any difficult features removed. For Greenberg, modernism thus formed a reaction against the development of such examples of modern consumer culture as commercial popular music, Hollywood, and advertising. Greenberg associated this with the revolutionary rejection of capitalism.
.Some modernists did see themselves as part of a revolutionary culture—one that included political revolution.^ The politically correct exhibits have one overriding purpose: to flatten out the landscape of our national culture and to put a bland, "inclusive" multiculture in its place.
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^ The paradox here is exactly that of revolutionary politics: human equality is to be achieved by an elite to whom all is permitted, including the coercion of the rest of us.
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Others rejected conventional politics as well as artistic conventions, believing that a revolution of political consciousness had greater importance than a change in political structures. Many modernists saw themselves as apolitical. Others, such as T. S. Eliot, rejected mass popular culture from a conservative position. Some [22] even argue that modernism in literature and art functioned to sustain an elite culture which excluded the majority of the population.

Criticisms of modernism

Franz Marc, The fate of the animals, 1913, oil on canvas. Displayed at the exhibition of Entartete Kunst in Munich, Nazi Germany, 1937.
.The most controversial aspect of the modern movement was, and remains, its rejection of tradition.^ Most liberation and enfranchisement movements, and unionism, of course, are associated with modernity.
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Modernism's stress on freedom of expression, experimentation, radicalism, and primitivism disregards conventional expectations. In many art forms this often meant startling and alienating audiences with bizarre and unpredictable effects, as in the strange and disturbing combinations of motifs in surrealism or the use of extreme dissonance and atonality in modernist music. In literature this often involved the rejection of intelligible plots or characterization in novels, or the creation of poetry that defied clear interpretation.
After the rise of Stalin, the Soviet Communist government rejected modernism on the grounds of alleged elitism, although it had previously endorsed futurism and constructivism. The Nazi government of Germany deemed modernism narcissistic and nonsensical, as well as "Jewish" and "Negro" (see Anti-semitism). The Nazis exhibited modernist paintings alongside works by the mentally ill in an exhibition entitled Degenerate Art. .Accusations of "formalism" could lead to the end of a career, or worse.^ Accusations of "formalism" could lead to the end of a career, or worse.
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.For this reason many modernists of the post-war generation felt that they were the most important bulwark against totalitarianism, the "canary in the coal mine," whose repression by a government or other group with supposed authority represented a warning that individual liberties were being threatened.^ Many of the early museumgoers have felt screwed, but they don't mean that in a nice way.
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Louis A. Sass compared madness, specifically schizophrenia, and modernism in a less fascist manner by noting their shared disjunctive narratives, surreal images, and incoherence.[23]
.In fact, modernism flourished mainly in consumer/capitalist societies, despite the fact that its proponents often rejected consumerism itself.^ In fact, modernism flourished mainly in consumer/capitalist societies, despite the fact that its proponents often rejected consumerism itself.
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^ This merging of consumer and high versions of modernist culture led to a radical transformation of the meaning of " modernism " itself.
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^ This aspect of modernism has often seemed a reaction to consumer culture , which developed in Europe and North America in the late 19th century.
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However, high modernism began to merge with consumer culture after World War II, especially during the 1960s. In Britain, a youth sub-culture emerged calling itself "modernist" (usually shortened to Mod), following such representative music groups as The Who and The Kinks. The likes of Bob Dylan, Serge Gainsbourg and The Rolling Stones combined popular musical traditions with modernist verse, adopting literary devices derived from James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, James Thurber, T. S. Eliot, Guillaume Apollinaire, Allen Ginsberg, and others. The Beatles developed along similar lines, creating various modernist musical effects on several albums, while musicians such as Frank Zappa, Syd Barrett and Captain Beefheart proved even more experimental. Modernist devices also started to appear in popular cinema, and later on in music videos. Modernist design also began to enter the mainstream of popular culture, as simplified and stylized forms became popular, often associated with dreams of a space age high-tech future.
.This merging of consumer and high versions of modernist culture led to a radical transformation of the meaning of "modernism". First, it implied that a movement based on the rejection of tradition had become a tradition of its own.^ Based on ista'raba , `to become an Arab,' the participle musta'rib could be understood to mean `someone who adopts Arab customs.'
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Second, it demonstrated that the distinction between elite modernist and mass consumerist culture had lost its precision. .Some writers declared that modernism had become so institutionalized that it was now "post avant-garde", indicating that it had lost its power as a revolutionary movement.^ Some writers declared that modernism had become so institutionalized that it was now "post avant-garde", indicating that it had lost its power as a revolutionary movement.
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^ Artists such as Klimt, Paul Cezanne and Mahler and Richard Strauss were "the terrible moderns" - those farther to the avant-garde were more heard of, than heard.
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^ Some divide the 20th century into modern and post-modern periods, where as others see them as two parts of the same larger period.
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Many have interpreted this transformation as the beginning of the phase that became known as postmodernism. .For others, such as art critic Robert Hughes, postmodernism represents an extension of modernism.^ Postmodernism is the transfer of all that heavy modernism baggage into literary criticism.
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"Anti-modern" or "counter-modern" movements seek to emphasize holism, connection and spirituality as remedies or antidotes to modernism. Such movements see modernism as reductionist, and therefore subject to an inability to see systemic and emergent effects. Many modernists came to this viewpoint, for example Paul Hindemith in his late turn towards mysticism. Writers such as Paul H. Ray and Sherry Ruth Anderson, in The Cultural Creatives: How 50 Million People Are Changing the World (2000), Fredrick Turner in A Culture of Hope and Lester Brown in Plan B, have articulated a critique of the basic idea of modernism itself — that individual creative expression should conform to the realities of technology. Instead, they argue, individual creativity should make everyday life more emotionally acceptable.
.In some fields the effects of modernism have remained stronger and more persistent than in others.^ In some fields the effects of modernism have remained stronger and more persistent than in others.
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^ Artists such as Klimt, Paul Cezanne and Mahler and Richard Strauss were "the terrible moderns" - those farther to the avant-garde were more heard of, than heard.
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^ For some, the relaxation of progress and rationality represent a betrayal of modernism, for others, for whom modern and contemporary are close synonyms, it was merely modernism by other means.
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.Visual art has made the most complete break with its past.^ Visual art has made the most complete break with its past.
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.Most major capital cities have museums devoted to 'Modern Art' as distinct from post-Renaissance art (circa 1400 to circa 1900).^ MoMA, MOMA Museum Of Modern Art .
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.Examples include the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Tate Modern in London, and the Centre Pompidou in Paris.^ MoMA, MOMA Museum Of Modern Art .
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These galleries make no distinction between modernist and postmodernist phases, seeing both as developments within 'Modern Art'.

Differences between modernism and postmodernism

Modernism is an encompassing label for a wide variety of cultural movements. .Postmodernism is essentially a centralized movement that named itself, based on socio-political theory, although the term is now used in a wider sense to refer to activities from the 20th Century onwards which exhibit awareness of and reinterpret the modern.^ Now, I haven't been in here often enough to be sure, but it seems to me that there used to be a machine named mahler, and I think I know what happened to it.
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^ Also in that century the word momentum was reborrowed from Latin and used primarily in technical senses related to mathematics and physics.
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^ Given the expansion of the acronym, it appears the acronym originally refered to an individual floodgate at an earlier stage in the project development, but MOSE is now used as the name for a larger project.
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[24][25][26]
Postmodern theory asserts that the attempt to canonise modernism "after the fact" is doomed to undisambiguable contradictions.[27]
In a narrower sense, what was modernist was not necessarily also postmodern. Those elements of modernism which accentuated the benefits of rationality and socio-technological progress were only modernist.[28]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Hans Hofmann biography, retrieved January 30, 2009
  2. ^ Pericles Lewis, Modernism, Nationalism, and the Novel (Cambridge University Press, 2000). pp 38-39.
  3. ^ "[James] Joyce's Ulysses is a comedy not divine, ending, like Dante's, in the vision of a God whose will is our peace, but human all-too-human..." Peter Faulkner, Modernism (Taylor & Francis, 1990). p 60.
  4. ^ Gardner, Helen, Horst De la Croix, Richard G. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick. Gardner's Art Through the Ages (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991). ISBN 0155037706. p. 953.
  5. ^ Adorno, Theodor. Minima Moralia. Verso 2005, p. 218.
  6. ^ Tradition and the individual talent" (1919), in Selected Essays. Paperback Edition. (Faber & Faber, 1999).
  7. ^ Childs, Peter. Modernism (Routledge, 2000). ISBN 0415196477. p. 17. Accessed on 2009-02-08.
  8. ^ "In the twentieth century, the social processes that bring this maelstrom into being, and keep it in a state of perpetual becoming, have come to be called 'modernization'. These world-historical processes have nourished an amazing variety of visions and ideas that aim to make men and women the subjects as well as the objects of modernization, to give them the power to change the world that is changing them, to make their way through the maelstrom and make it their own. Over the past century, these visions and values have come to be loosely grouped together under the name of 'modernism'" (Berman 1988, 16)
  9. ^ Lee Oser, The Ethics of Modernism: Moral ideas in Yeats, Eliot, Joyce, Woolf and Beckett (Cambridge University Press, 2007); F.J. Marker & C.D. Innes, Modernism in European Drama: Ibsen, Stringdberg, Pirandello, Beckett; Morag Shiach, "Situating Samuel Beckett" pp234-247 in The Cambridge Companion to the Modernist Novel, (Cambridge University Press, 2007); Kathryne V. Lindberg, Reading Pound Reading: Modernism After Nietzsche (Oxford University Press, 1987); Pericles Lewis, The Cambridge Introduction to Modernism (Cambridge University Press, 2007). pp21
  10. ^ Frascina and Harrison 1982, p. 5.
  11. ^ Clement Greenberg: Modernism and Postmodernism, seventh paragraph of the essay. URL accessed on 15 June 2006
  12. ^ Fred Orton and Griselda Pollock, Avant-Gardes and Partisans Reviewed. Manchester University, 1996.
  13. ^ Modernism eNotes.com
  14. ^ Ulysses, has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire [Modernist] movement". Beebe, Maurice (Fall 1972). "Ulysses and the Age of Modernism". James Joyce Quarterly (University of Tulsa) 10 (1): p. 176.
  15. ^ Nochlin, Linda, Ch.1 in: Women Artists at the Millennium (edited by C. Armstrong and C. de Zegher) MIT Press, 2006.
  16. ^ Pollock, Griselda, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge, 2007.
  17. ^ De Zegher, Catherine, and Teicher, Hendel (eds.), 3 X Abstraction. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2005.
  18. ^ Aldrich, Larry. Young Lyrical Painters, Art in America, v.57, n6, November-December 1969, pp.104-113.
  19. ^ a b c Movers and Shakers, New York, "Leaving C&M", by Sarah Douglas, Art+Auction, March 2007, V.XXXNo7.
  20. ^ Martin, Ann Ray, and Howard Junker. The New Art: It's Way, Way Out, Newsweek 29 July 1968: pp.3,55-63.
  21. ^ Clement Greenberg, Art and Culture, Beacon Press, 1961
  22. ^ Clement Greenberg, Art and Culture, Beacon Press, 1961
  23. ^ Sass, Louis A. (1992). Madness and Modernism: Insanity in the Light of Modern Art, Literature, and Thought. .New York: Basic Books.^ New York: Basic Books.
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    .Cited in Bauer, Amy (2004).^ Cited in Bauer, Amy (2004).
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    "Cognition, Constraints, and Conceptual Blends in Modernist Music", in The Pleasure of Modernist Music. ISBN 1-58046-143-3.
  24. ^ Askoxford.com
  25. ^ Merriam-Webster's definition of postmodernism
  26. ^ Ruth Reichl, Cook's November 1989; American Heritage Dictionary's definition of the postmodern
  27. ^ Postmodernism. Georgetown university
  28. ^ Wagner, British, Irish and American Literature, Trier 2002, p. 210-2

Further reading

  • Armstrong, Carol and de Zegher, Catherine (eds.), .Women Artists as the Millennium, Cambridge, MA: October Books, MIT Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Aspray, William & Philip Kitcher, eds., History and Philosophy of Modern Mathematics, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science vol XI, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988
  • Baker, Houston A., Jr., Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987
  • Berman, Marshall, All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity. Second ed.^ Postmodernism is the transfer of all that heavy modernism baggage into literary criticism.
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    London: Penguin, 1988. ISBN 0140109625.
  • Bradbury, Malcolm, & James McFarlane (eds.), .Modernism: A Guide to European Literature 1890–1930 (Penguin "Penguin Literary Criticism" series, 1978, ISBN 0-14-013832-3).
  • Brush, Stephen G., The History of Modern Science: A Guide to the Second Scientific Revolution, 1800-1950, Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1988
  • Centre George Pompidou, Face a l'Histoire, 1933-1996.^ Postmodernism is the transfer of all that heavy modernism baggage into literary criticism.
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    ^ The Centre was President Pompidou's idea, and he conceived it as a way of announcing to the world that he was, in the last analysis, on the side of history and a friend of the anti-culture of 1968.
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    ^ In other words, the era of modern history since the time that powerful new European nation-states with strong economies (first mercantilist, then capitalist) and advanced technologies began a broad program of imperialism that dramatically changed the face of the world.
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    Flammarion, 1996. ISBN 2-85850-898-4.
  • Crouch, Christopher, Modernism in art design and architecture, New York: St. Martins Press, 2000
  • Everdell, William R., The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth Century Thought, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997
  • Eysteinsson, Astradur, The Concept of Modernism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992
  • Frascina, Francis, and Charles Harrison (eds.). Modern Art and Modernism: A Critical Anthology. Published in association with The Open University. London: Harper and Row, Ltd. Reprinted, London: Paul Chapman Publishing, Ltd., 1982.
  • Gates, Henry Louis. "The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. .W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004.
  • Hughes, Robert, The Shock of the New: Art and the Century of Change (Gardners Books, 1991, ISBN 0-500-27582-3).
  • Kenner, Hugh, The Pound Era (1971), Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1973
  • Kern, Stephen, The Culture of Time and Space, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983
  • Kolocotroni, Vassiliki et al., ed.,Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998).
  • Levenson, Michael (ed.^ In other words, the era of modern history since the time that powerful new European nation-states with strong economies (first mercantilist, then capitalist) and advanced technologies began a broad program of imperialism that dramatically changed the face of the world.
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    ), The Cambridge Companion to Modernism (Cambridge University Press, "Cambridge Companions to Literature" series, 1999, ISBN 0-521-49866-X).
  • Lewis, Pericles. .The Cambridge Introduction to Modernism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
  • Nicholls, Peter, Modernisms: A Literary Guide (Hampshire and London: Macmillan, 1995).
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus, Pioneers of Modern Design: From William Morris to Walter Gropius (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10571-1).
  • —, The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design (Thames & Hudson, "World of Art" series, 1985, ISBN 0-500-20072-6).
  • Pollock, Griselda, Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts.^ Last month there took place in Bologna, sponsored by the city, the latest in a series of traveling conferences devoted to classical architecture, showcasing modern but premodernist buildings and allowing their architects to explain them to the world.
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    (Routledge, London, 1996. ISBN 0-415-14128-1)
  • Pollock, Griselda, and Florence, Penny, Looking Back to the Future: Essays by Griselda Pollock from the 1990s. (New York: G&B New Arts Press, 2001. ISBN 90-5701-132-8)
  • Sass, Louis A. (1992). .Madness and Modernism: Insanity in the Light of Modern Art, Literature, and Thought.^ High Modernism International style (architecture) Late Modernism Modern architecture Modern furniture Modernism (music) Modernist literature Modernist poetry in English Postmodern art References & Notes .
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    ^ Arts/Literature/Periods_and_Movements/Modernism/ .
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    ^ In his insistence there on the importance of national art combining both ‘subjective’ and ‘objective’ tendencies, he is echoing arguments made in the Catholic press in Ireland on the nature of a modern national literature, which themselves are related to strands of Catholic social thought.

    .New York: Basic Books.^ New York: Basic Books.
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    .Cited in Bauer, Amy (2004).^ Cited in Bauer, Amy (2004).
    • Modernism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Cognition, Constraints, and Conceptual Blends in Modernist Music", in The Pleasure of Modernist Music.^ "Cognition, Constraints, and Conceptual Blends in Modernist Music", in The Pleasure of Modernist Music .
    • Modernism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 1-58046-143-3.
  • Schwartz, Sanford, The Matrix of Modernism: Pound, Eliot, and Early Twentieth Century Thought, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985
  • Van Loo, Sofie (ed.), Gorge(l). .Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp, 2006. ISBN 9076979359; ISBN 9789076979359.
  • Weston, Richard, Modernism (Phaidon Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7148-4099-8).
  • de Zegher, Catherine, Inside the Visible.^ MoMA, MOMA Museum Of Modern Art .
    • SBF Glossary: .mo to Mozilla 8 January 2010 23:023 UTC www.plexoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996).

External links


Simple English

, The fate of the animals, 1913, oil on canvas. Displayed at the exhibition of Entartete Kunst in Munich, Nazi Germany, 1937.]]

File:55Broadway EricGill
Eric Gill's modernist North Wind, 1928, for the London Underground's headquarters, at 55 Broadway.

Modernism was a cultural movement in the first part of the 20th century. It occurred in art, literature, music, architecture and drama.[1]

Modernism is marked by a rejection of tradition, and an interest in new ways of doing old things. Also, there was a belief that the application of science and technology could change the world for the better. The changes began in the late 19th century and carried on until about 1950. The details differ greatly, and the term covers some movements which are somewhat contradictory.[2]

Contents

Art

Art is where people can find Modernism. Modern art is what replaced classical art. It included Abstract art, Cubism, Pop art, Minimalism, and Dadaism. It affected sculpture quite strongly, though at the beginning sculptors like Rodin and Epstein made both traditional and modernist works. Henry Moore is one of the most famous modernist sculptors.

Typical modernist painters were Picasso, Braque, Matisse, Kandinsky and Mondrian.

Music

Composers such as Stravinsky, George Antheil and Schonberg are modernists.

Literature

James Joyce's Ulysses is the classic example of modernism in the novel. Ulysses has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire Modernist movement".[3]

Architecture

File:Seagram
Seagram Building in New York, architects Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson

Modernism in architecture is found in the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe. Le Corbusier's famous remark "A building is a machine for living in" shows how different his thinking was to architects of the 19th century. The skyscraper, such as Mies van der Rohe's Seagram Building in New York (1956–1958), became the archetypal modernist building.

Criticism

A criticism of the modern movement is that it doesn't value tradition, and that it goes in for change for the sake of change. What Modernists want most is freedom of expression, or, perhaps, freedom of experimentation. This is why many modern paintings avoid making visual copies of real things. In modernist literature, an author may leave out plots or narrative or characterization in books.

These experiments were not random. They drew on the ideas of their day: mass media, science and technology, Marxism, Freudian psychology, consumerism and so on. There was a general search for new materials, new methods and new ideas. There was often a rejection of elitism, and a love of populism and popular culture.

References

  1. Childs, Peter 2000. Modernism. Routledge, London.
  2. Lewis, Pericles 2000, Modernism, nationalism, and the novel. Cambridge University Press.
  3. Beebe, Maurice 1972. "Ulysses and the Age of Modernism". James Joyce Quarterly (University of Tulsa) 10 (1): p176.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

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