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Mohamed ElBaradei
محمد البرادعي


4th Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency
In office
December 1, 1997 – November 30, 2009
Preceded by Hans Blix
Succeeded by Yukiya Amano

Born June 17, 1942 (1942-06-17) (age 67)
Cairo, Egypt
Nationality Egyptian
Alma mater Cairo University
New York University School of Law
Religion Islam[1][2]

Dr. Mohamed Mostafa ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي‎, transliteration: Muḥammad al-Barādaʿī; born June 17, 1942) was the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations from December 1997 to November 2009. An Egyptian,[3] ElBaradei prefers the Latin writing of his name to be spelled ElBaradei rather than hyphenated (El-Baradei). ElBaradei and the IAEA were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005.

Contents

Family

ElBaradei was born and raised in Cairo, Egypt. He was one of five children of Mostafa ElBaradei, an attorney who headed the Egyptian Bar Association and often found himself at odds with the regime of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. ElBaradei's father was also a supporter of democratic rights in Egypt, supporting a free press and a legal system that was independent.[4] ElBaradei followed in his father's footsteps and earned his law degree at the University of Cairo in 1962.[5]

ElBaradei is married to Aida El-Kachef, an early childhood teacher. They have two children. Their daughter, Laila, is a lawyer and lives in London. His son, Mostafa, is a program manager at Microsoft Research.

Early career

ElBaradei earned a Bachelor's degree in law from the University of Cairo in 1962, followed by a DEA degree in International Law at the HEI in Geneva and a PhD in International Law at the New York University School of Law in 1974.

His diplomatic career began in 1964 in the Egyptian Ministry of External affairs, where he served in the Permanent Missions of Egypt to the United Nations in New York and in Geneva, in charge of political, legal, and arms control issues. From 1974 to 1978, he was a special assistant to the Egyptian Foreign Minister. In 1980, he became a senior fellow in charge of the International Law Program at the United Nations Institute for Training and Research. From 1981 to 1987, he was also an Adjunct Professor of International Law at New York University School of Law.

In 1984, ElBaradei became a senior staff member of the IAEA Secretariat, serving as the Agency's legal adviser (1984 to 1993) and Assistant Director General for External Relations (1993 to 1997).

ElBaradei is a current member of the International Law Association and the American Society of International Law.

Public career as IAEA Director General

ElBaradei began serving as Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on December 1, 1997, succeeding Hans Blix of Sweden.[6][7]. He was re-elected for two more four-year terms in 2001 and 2005. His third and last term ended in November 2009. Elbaradei's tenure has been marked by high profile non-proliferation issues including the inspections in Iraq preceding the March 2003 invasion and tensions over the nuclear program of Iran.

First term as director general

After being appointed by the General Conference in 1997, Elbaradei said in his speech that: “for international organizations to enjoy the confidence and support of their members, they have to be responsive to their needs; show concrete achievements; conduct their activities in a cost-effective manner; and respect a process of equitable representation, transparency, and open dialogue.”[8]

Just a couple of months before Dr. Elbaradei took office, the Model Additional Protocol was adopted, creating a new environment for IAEA verification by giving it greater authority to look for undeclared nuclear activities. When in office, Elbaradei launched a programme to establish “integrated safeguards” combining the IAEA’s comprehensive safeguards agreements with the newly adopted Additional Protocol. In his statement to the General Conference in 1998, he called upon all states to conclude the Additional Protocol saying: “One of the main purposes of the strengthened safeguards system can be better achieved with global adherence. I would therefore urge all States with outstanding safeguards agreements to conclude them and I would also urge all States to accelerate their consideration of the Model Additional Protocol and enter into consultations with the Agency at the earliest possible opportunity. We should work together to ensure that by the year 2000 all States have concluded outstanding safeguards agreements and also the Additional Protocol”. Elbaradei repeated this call through his years as the Director General of the IAEA. In November 2009, 93 countries had Additional Protocols in force.[9]

Elbaradei’s first term ended in November 2001, just two months after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. These attacks made clear that more needed to be done to protect nuclear material and installations against theft or a terrorist attack. As a consequence, ElBaradei established a nuclear security programme to combat the risk of nuclear terrorism by assisting States in strengthening the physical protection of their nuclear and radioactive material and installations. The Nuclear Security Fund.[10]

Second term as director general

One of the major issues during ElBaradei’s second term as the Director General of the IAEA was the Agency’s inspections in Iraq. ElBaradei disputed the US rationale for the 2003 invasion of Iraq from the time of the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis, when he, along with Hans Blix, led a team of UN weapons inspectors in Iraq. ElBaradei told the UN Security Council in March 2003 that documents purporting to show that Iraq had tried to acquire uranium from Niger were not authentic.

ElBaradei described the U.S. invasion of Iraq as "a glaring example of how, in many cases, the use of force exacerbates the problem rather than solving it."[11] ElBaradei further said "we learned from Iraq that an inspection takes time, that we should be patient, that an inspection can, in fact, work,"[12] and that he had "been validated" in concluding that Saddam Hussein had not revived his nuclear weapons program.[13]

In a 2004 op-ed piece on the dangers of nuclear proliferation, in the New York Times (February 12, 2004), ElBaradei stated "We must abandon the unworkable notion that it is morally reprehensible for some countries to pursue weapons of mass destruction, yet morally acceptable for others to rely on them for security - and indeed to continue to refine their capacities and postulate plans for their use."[14] He went on to say "If the world does not change course, we risk self-destruction."

Third and final term as director general

The United States initially voiced opposition to his election to a third four-year term in 2005.[15] In a May 2005 interview with the staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Lawrence Wilkerson, the chief of staff to former Secretary of State Colin Powell, charged former Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security John Bolton with an underhanded campaign to unseat ElBaradei.[16] “Mr. Bolton overstepped his bounds in his moves and gyrations to try to keep [ElBaradei] from being reappointed as [IAEA] head,” Wilkerson said. The Washington Post reported in December 2004 that the Bush administration had intercepted dozens of ElBaradei’s phone calls with Iranian diplomats and was scrutinizing them for evidence they could use to force him out.[16] IAEA spokesman Mark Gwozdecky said the agency worked on "the assumption that one or more entities may be listening to our conversations". "It's not how we would prefer to work, but it is the reality. At the end of the day, we have nothing to hide," he said. Iran responded to the Washington Post reports by accusing the United States of violating international law in intercepting the communications.[17]

The United States was the only country to oppose ElBaradei's reappointment and eventually failed to win enough support from other countries to oust ElBaradei. On 9 June 2005, after a meeting between US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and ElBaradei, the United States dropped its objections. Among countries that supported Elbaradei was China, Russia, Germany and France. China praised his leadership and objectivity.[15] and supported him for doing "substantial fruitful work, which has maintained the agency's role and credit in international non-proliferation and promoted the development of peaceful use of nuclear energy. His work has been universally recognized in the international community. China appreciates Mr. El Baradei's work and supports his reelection as the agency's director-general."[18] France, Germany, and some developing countries, have made clear their support for ElBaeadei as well.[16] Russia issued a strong statement in favor of re-electing him as soon as possible.

ElBaradei was unanimously re-appointed by the IAEA Board on 13 June 2005.[19]

Comments on no fourth term

In 2008, ElBaradei said he would not be seeking a fourth term as director general.[20] ElBaradei said he was "not available for a further term" in office in an IAEA document.[21] In its first five rounds of voting, the IAEA Board of Governors split on a decision of who should next fill the role of Director General. ElBaradei said, "I just hope that the agency has a candidate acceptable to all...north, south, east, west because that is what is needed."[22] After several rounds of voting, on 3rd of July 2009, Mr. Yukiya Amano, Japanese Ambassador to the International Atomic Energy Agency, was elected as the next IAEA Director General.

Role in addressing the nuclear program of Iran

In his last speech to the IAEA Board of Governors in June 2009, ElBaradei stated that “the Agency has been able to continue to verify the non-diversion of declared nuclear material in Iran." He regreted, however, that "Iran has not implemented any of the measures called for by the Security Council and by the Agency's Board of Governors”. ElBaradei also said he was encouraged “by the new initiative of the United States to engage the Islamic Republic of Iran in direct dialogue, without preconditions and on the basis of mutual respect” and expressed hope “that Iran will respond to the US initiative with an equal gesture of goodwill and trust-building.” This gesture “could include implementing again the Agency's design information requirements and applying the provisions of the additional protocol.”

The International Atomic Energy Agency Board of Governors and UN Security Council have commended the ElBaradei for "professional and impartial efforts" to resolve all outstanding issues with Iran.[23][24] The Non-Aligned Movement has also reiterated "its full confidence in the impartiality and professionalism of the Secretariat of the IAEA."[25][26]

Statements to the media

In an interview with CNN in May 2007, Dr ElBaradei gave one of his sternest warnings against using military action against Iran, a state signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Referring to "the extreme people who have extreme views" he said, "you do not want to give additional argument to some of the 'new crazies' who want to say let us go and bomb Iran."[27]

New York Times columnist Roger Cohen interviewed ElBaradei in April 2009. ElBaradei is quoted as saying, “Israel would be utterly crazy to attack Iran." He considers an attack on Iran's nuclear facilities would "turn the region into a ball of fire and put Iran on a crash course for nuclear weapons with the support of the whole Muslim world.”[28] ElBaradei believes the nuclear non-proliferation regime has "lost its legitimacy in the eyes of Arab public opinion because of the perceived double-standard" in relation to Israel's nuclear weapons program.[29]

In an interview with French newspaper Le Monde, ElBaradei said "I want to get people away from the idea that Iran will be a threat from tomorrow, and that we are faced right now with the issue of whether Iran should be bombed or allowed to have the bomb. We are not at all in that situation. Iraq is a glaring example of how, in many cases, the use of force exacerbates the problem rather than solving it."[11]

On October 4, 2009, the Xinhua News Agency reported that "At a joint press conference with Iran's Atomic Energy Organization chief Ali Akbar Salehi in Tehran, ElBaradei brought Israel under spotlight and said that the Tel Aviv regime has refused to allow inspections into its nuclear installations for 30 years, the report said.

  • 'Israel is the number one threat to the Middle East given the nuclear arms it possesses,' ElBaradei was quoted as saying."[30]

Reactions to Elbaradei's role in addressing the nuclear program of Iran

Former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has indirectly criticized ElBaradei for, in her perception, "muddying the message" to Iran and has also said "the IAEA is not in the business of diplomacy. The IAEA is a technical agency that has a board of governors of which the United States is a member." In response to Rice's comments, a senior official from the agency said "the IAEA is only doing now what the U.N. Security Council asked us to do."[31] ElBaradei notes that Rice said "from the U.S. perspective, I served with distinction",[32] and Rice has further said she appreciated his "stewardship of the nonproliferation regime".[33]

Former Prime Minister and current President of Israel Shimon Peres has said, "there are holes in the (IAEA) apparatus for deterring a culture of nuclear weapons, as in the case with Iran, but the agency certainly has done much in the prevention of nuclear weapons from reaching dangerous hands."[34] In a different reaction, former Israeli Deputy Prime Minister Shaul Mofaz has called for ElBaradei to be impeached.[35]

In September 2007, French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner, has warned the potential dangers of a nuclear Iran. He stated: "We have to prepare for the worst, and the worst is war."[36] In response to Kouchner, ElBaredei characterized talk of attacking Iran as "hype", and dismissed the notion of a possible attack on Iran. He referred to the war in Iraq, where "70,000 innocent civilians have lost their lives on the suspicion that a country has nuclear weapons."[37] He further added "I do not believe at this stage that we are facing a clear and present danger that requires we go beyond diplomacy."[38]

Iran points out that ElBaradei has highlighted the lack of evidence to prove Iran is after a nuclear bomb[39][40] and that ElBaradei says Iran is meeting its obligations to allow inspectors into its nuclear sites. Iran further says that the IAEA chief has consistently verified non-diversion in Iran's nuclear program and has said that his investigations show no military aspect in Iran's program.[41][42] According to the Tehran Times political desk, ElBaradei has reaffirmed in December 2008 that Iran's nuclear activities are "legal".[43][44]

Dr. Kaveh L Afrasiabi, author of After Khomeini: New Directions in Iran's Foreign Policy, said ElBaradei has been downplaying Iran's cooperation for some time, raising the ire of Tehran. Afrasiabi further says ElBaradei has given himself "the license to speculate on the timeline when Iran could convert its peaceful nuclear work into weaponization" which is irresponsible and inconsistent with his statements on other states.[45]

The Non-Aligned Movement has also reiterated "its full confidence in the impartiality and professionalism of the Secretariat of the IAEA." "NAM recognizes the IAEA as the sole competent authority for verification and expresses its full confidence in the professionalism and impartiality of the IAEA. In this regard, NAM strongly believes that all issues on safeguards and verification, including those of Iran, should be resolved only by the agency, within its framework, and be based on technical and legal grounds," the Non-Alignment movement said in another statement.[25][46]

Multinational control of the nuclear fuel cycle

In an op-ed he wrote for The Economist in 2003, Mohamed Elbaradei outlined his idea for the future of the nuclear fuel cycle. His suggestion was to “limit the processing of weapon-usable material in civilian nuclear programmes, as well as the production of new material by agreeing to restrict these operations exclusively to facilities under multinational control.” Also, “nuclear-energy systems should be deployed that, by design, avoid the use of materials that may be applied directly to making nuclear weapons”. He concluded by saying that “considerable advantages would be gained from international co-operation in these stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. These initiatives would not simply add more non-proliferation controls, to limit access to weapon-usable nuclear material; they would also provide access to the benefits of nuclear technology for more people in more countries.”[47]

Non-nuclear weapon states have been reluctant to embrace these proposals because of a perception that the commercial or strategic interests of nuclear weapon states motivated the proposals, a perception that the proposals produce a dependency on a limited number of nuclear fuel suppliers, and a concern that the proposal restricts their unalienable right to nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.[48]

Technical Cooperation and cancer control

Mohamed ElBaradei’s work does not only concentrate on nuclear verification. Another very important aspect is development through nuclear technology. In 2004, ElBaradei initiated a comprehensive global initiative to fight cancer known as the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). In one of his statements Elbaradei said: “A silent crisis in cancer treatment persists in developing countries and is intensifying every year. At least 50 to 60 per cent of cancer victims can benefit from radiotherapy, but most developing countries do not have enough radiotherapy machines or sufficient numbers of specialized doctors and other health professionals.” In the first year of operation, PACT undertook to build cancer treatment capacity in seven member states, using the IAEA's share of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize award.[49]

In his speech to the 2008 General Conference, ElBaradei said that “development activities remain central to our work. Our resources have long been insufficient to keep pace with requests for support, and we have increasingly made use of partnerships with other organizations, regional collaborations and country to country support. I again emphasise that technical cooperation is not a bargaining chip, part of a political 'balance' between the development and safeguards activities of the Agency.”[50]

Possible presidential candidacy

ElBaradei's name has been circulated by opposition groups as a possible candidate to succeed President Hosni Mubarak to Egypt's highest executive position. [51][52][53]


ElBaradei did not make any clear statements regarding his intentions to run for the office, however he has demanded that certain conditions have to be met to ensure fair elections accompanied by changes to the constitution that will allow more freedom for independent candidates before he would actually consider running for presidency. Several opposition groups and parties have endorsed him, considering him a neutral figure who could transition the country to greater democracy.

On 24th February 2010, ElBaradei met with several opposition leaders and notable intellects at his home in Cairo. The meeting was concluded with an announcement for the formation of a new non-party-political movement called "National Association for Change". The movement aims for general reforms in the political scene and mainly burke the Constitutional article#76 which places restrictions on true free presidential elections especially when it comes to independent candidates. Worth mentioning is that the banned political group the Muslim Brotherhood were represented by one of their key figures who attended the meeting however their stand in accepting a non-member of their group as a candidate is yet unclear. It is also unknown whether Amr Moussa the head of the Arab League who met with Elbaradei a day eariler will be part of the new movement.[54]

Awards

During his tenure as director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Dr. ElBaradei has been recognized with many awards for his efforts to ensure that nuclear energy is used for peaceful purposes.

2005 Nobel Peace Prize

On October 7, 2005, ElBaradei and the IAEA itself were announced as joint recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize for their "efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy, for peaceful purposes, is used in the safest possible way". ElBaradei donated all his winnings to building orphanages in his home city of Cairo. The IAEA's winnings are being spent on training scientists from developing countries to use nuclear techniques in combating cancer and malnutrition. ElBaradei is the fourth ethnic Egyptian to receive the Nobel Prize, following Ahmed Zewail (1999 in Chemistry), Anwar Sadat (1978 in Peace) and Naguib Mahfouz (1988 in Literature).

In his Nobel Speech, ElBaradei said that the changing landscape of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmanent may be defined by the emergence of an extensive black market in nuclear material and equipment, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and sensitive nuclear technology, and the stagnation in nuclear disarmament. To combat proliferation, ElBaradei has suggested keeping nuclear and radiological material out of the hands of extremist groups, tightening control over the operations for producing the nuclear material that could be used in weapons, and accelerating disarmanent efforts.[55] Dr. ElBaradei also stated that only 1% of the money spent on developing new weapons would be enough to feed the entire world and that, if we hope to escape self-destruction, then nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience, and no role in our security. Nobel Lecture.

United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan said he was delighted that the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize had been awarded to the UN nuclear watchdog and its head ElBaradei. "The secretary-general congratulates him and the entire staff of the agency, past and present, on their contributions to global peace," a spokesman for Annan said.[56]

Other awards and recognition

ElBaradei in the 45th Munich Security Conference 2009

ElBaradei has received many awards for his work as director of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Some of these awards include:

ElBaradei has also received honorary doctoral degrees from: New York University; the University of Maryland; the American University in Cairo; the Free Mediterranean University (LUM) in Bari, Italy; Soka University of Japan; Tsinghua University of Beijing; the Polytechnic University of Bucharest; the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid; Konkuk University in Seoul; the University of Florence; the University of Buenos Aires; the National University of Cuyo in Argentina; Amherst College and Cairo University.[72]

References

  1. ^ "Outgoing IAEA Chief Leaves Complex Legacy". The New York Times. 2009-12-01. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2009/11/30/world/AP-EU-UN-ElBaradeis-Legacy.html. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 

    ElBaradei, who describes himself as having a Muslim background, sometimes cites his favorite Christian prayer when speaking of his role on the world stage.

  2. ^ "MPAC Honors Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of IAEA, for Bolstering Human Security". Muslim Public Affairs Council. 2006-10-31. http://www.mpac.org/article.php?id=430. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica
  4. ^ Notable Biographies: Mohamed ElBaradei
  5. ^ Academy of Achievement: Mohamed ElBaradei (Biography)
  6. ^ IAEA Board Reappoints Director General Mohamed ElBaradei
  7. ^ IAEA: IAEA Board Meeting on Director General Appointment
  8. ^ ElBaradei, Mohamed (1997-09-29). "Strengthened Safeguards System: Status of Additional Protocols". IAEA. http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC41/Statements/gcelbard.html. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  9. ^ "Strengthened Safeguards System: Status of Additional Protocols". IAEA. 2009-11-26. http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/SV/Safeguards/sg_protocol.html. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  10. ^ ElBaradei, Mohamed (2005-09-23). "Nuclear Security - Measures to Protect Against Nuclear Terrorism". IAEA. http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC49/Documents/gc49-17.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  11. ^ a b Boyle, Jon (October 22, 2007). "Iran seen to need 3-8 yrs to produce bomb". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSL2214711120071022. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  12. ^ CNN: Iraq war wasn't justified, U.N. weapons experts say
  13. ^ Washington Post: U.N. Nuclear Agency Chief Urges Iran to Suspend Activities
  14. ^ ElBaradei, Mohamed (2004-12-02). "Saving Ourselves from Self Destruction". IAEA. http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Statements/2004/ebNYT20040212.html. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  15. ^ a b Voice of America: IAEA Postpones Decision on ElBaradei's Third Term
  16. ^ a b c Arms Control Today: ElBaradei Set to Win Third Term
  17. ^ BBC: ElBaradei 'has nothing to hide'
  18. ^ Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Liu Jianchao's Press Conference on 16 December 2004
  19. ^ "US agrees to back UN nuclear head". BBC News. 9 June 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4075496.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  20. ^ International Herald Tribune: IAEA chief ElBaradei will not seek fourth term
  21. ^ Voice of America: IAEA Chief ElBaradei Will Not Seek Another Term
  22. ^ Reuters: 5-Vote impasse reopens race to head UN atom watchdog
  23. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency: Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran (2006-14)
  24. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency: UN Security Council: Resolution 1747 (2007)
  25. ^ a b XinhuaNet: Non-aligned nations voice support deal between IAEA, Iran
  26. ^ Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Report Of The IAEA Director-General to the Board of Governors GOV/2008/15
  27. ^ "Transcript of Interview with IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei". CNN Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer. 28 October 2007. http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Transcripts/2007/cnn281007.html. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  28. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/13/opinion/13iht-edcohen.html?ref=opinion Realpolitik for Iran
  29. ^ Reuters: Israel seen undermining disarmament ElBaradei
  30. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-10/04/content_12181647.htm
  31. ^ Rice: ElBaradei "muddying the message" and Agency "not in the business of diplomacy"
  32. ^ Arms Control Association: "Tackling the Nuclear Dilemma: An Interview With IAEA Director-General Mohamed ElBaradei"
  33. ^ U.S. State Department: Remarks With International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Mohamed ElBaradei After Meeting
  34. ^ Jerusalem Post: IAEA, ElBaradei share Nobel Peace Prize
  35. ^ "Israel minister: Sack ElBaradei". BBC News. 8 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7085213.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  36. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6997935.stm France warning of war with Iran
  37. ^ IAEA boss warns against Iran attack UK Press Google, accessed September 22, 2007.
  38. ^ ElBaradei concerned over Iran row, BBC News, Sep. 17, 2007
  39. ^ PressTV: ElBaradei: Iran not after bomb
  40. ^ Atlantic Free Press: Threats of War Against Iran Continue to Escalate
  41. ^ PressTV: Soltaniyeh: Nothing new in ElBaradei's report
  42. ^ France24: ElBaradei: 'No evidence Iran is making nuclear weapons'
  43. ^ Tehran Times: ElBaradei says Iran’s nuclear program is legal: report
  44. ^ Mehr News: ElBaradei says Iran’s nuclear program is legal: report
  45. ^ Asia Times: IAEA 'mismanagement' raises Tehran's ire
  46. ^ South African Government: Notes following briefing by Deputy Minister Aziz Pahad on current international issues, Union Building, Pretoria - Iran
  47. ^ ElBaradei, Mohamed (2003-10-16). "Towards a Safer World". The Economist. http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/proliferation/fuel-cycle/elbaradei-economist.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  48. ^ American Society of International Law: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Taking Stock after the May 2008 Preparatory Committee Meeting
  49. ^ "IAEA Nobel Peace Prize Cancer and Nutrition Fund". IAEA. May 2006. http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Booklets/Nobel/nobelfund0506.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  50. ^ ElBaradei, Mohamed (2008-09-29). "IAEA At a Crossroads (Abridged Version)". IAEA. http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Statements/2008/ebsp2008n008a.html. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  51. ^ http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=204908
  52. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2009%5C10%5C07%5Cstory_7-10-2009_pg4_7
  53. ^ http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/291035,arab-league-chief-refuses-to-rule-out-egypt-presidential-bid.html
  54. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8534365.stm
  55. ^ The Nobel Foundation: Mohamed ElBaradei, The Nobel Peace Prize 2005
  56. ^ Peoples Daily: Int'l community hails IAEA, ElBaradei's winning of Nobel Peace Prize
  57. ^ Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Award Laureates since 1982
  58. ^ a b Yale University: ElBaradei Will Speak at Yale
  59. ^ Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: ElBaradei Remarks at Georgetown University
  60. ^ MPAC: Dr. Mohamed Elbaradei to be Presented with MPAC's Human Security Award
  61. ^ Arrivée de Graça Machel au Comité d’attribution du Prix Mo Ibrahim
  62. ^ American Nuclear Society: 2008 American Nuclear Society National Student Conference
  63. ^ a b Amherst: Amherst College To Honor Atomic Agency Head, Princeton President and Five Others at Commencement May 25
  64. ^ University Philosophical Society: Honorary Patrons
  65. ^ World Nuclear University: Inaugural Ceremony of the World Nuclear University - Part Two
  66. ^ Center za mir: "Centar za mir - Mostar"
  67. ^ ZERO NUCLEAR'S FOUR STATESMEN, ELBARADEI TO BE HONORED
  68. ^ Richard Erdman and the EastWest Institute: Statesman of the Year Award
  69. ^ Entrega del IV Premio Sevilla-Nodo
  70. ^ Indian Express: ElBaradei chosen for Indira Gandhi Peace Prize
  71. ^ University of Georgia: 2009 Delta Prize Recipient
  72. ^ IAEA: Biography of Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei

External links

External links relating to the nomination of ElBaradei

Political offices
Preceded by
Hans Blix
Director General of the IAEA
December 1, 1997 - November 30, 2009
Succeeded by
Yukiya Amano
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Wangari Muta Maathai
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
with International Atomic Energy Agency

2005
Succeeded by
Grameen Bank
and
Muhammad Yunus

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Some would say that it is too idealistic to believe in a society based on tolerance and the sanctity of human life, where borders, nationalities and ideologies are of marginal importance. To those I say, this is not idealism, but rather realism, because history has taught us that war rarely resolves our differences. Force does not heal old wounds; it opens new ones.

Mohamed ElBaradei [Arabic: محمدالبرادعئ] (born 17 June 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat, and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency. ElBaradei and the IAEA were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize of 2005.

Contents

Sourced

Breaking the Cycle (2003)

An interview in the Cairo Times (23 October 2003)
  • My father taught me that you have to stand by your principles. He was president of the bar association and was preaching civil liberties and human rights during some of the most repressive years of the Nasser era. He was the focus of a lot of pressure and intimidation, but he stood by his principles. And I think that's a lesson I remember from him — that you stand up for what you believe in.
  • Unilateral preemption should not in any way be the model for how we conduct international relations... [It] brings us into very dangerous territory and it could be used and abused by any other country. We need to continue to base our security on multilateralism, and on the Security Council.
  • I think we need to continue working hard on developing a nuclear weapons free zone in the Middle East... unfortunately things are not going in the right direction right now. We need to understand that without comprehensive peace in the Middle East, we have no security.
We humans are the same when we are three years old and when we are 50!
  • You remember that book called All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten? ... Well that's very much true. I find a lot in common in the way I manage things and the way she manages three-year olds. We humans are the same when we are three years old and when we are 50!
    • Comparing his work as an international diplomat to that of his wife, Aida Elkachef, a kindergarten teacher, with a mention of the book by Robert Fulghum.
  • I very much believe that we share the same human values... If you scan through all the religions — monotheistic and others — they all preach the same... I think all our fights, our wars, and all our disagreements are just expressions of frustration at our human condition at a particular time. I don't think it has to do with us believing in different values.
I think the ultimate sense of security will be when we come to recognize that we are all part of one human race. Our primary allegiance is to the human race and not to one particular color or border.
  • I think the ultimate sense of security will be when we come to recognize that we are all part of one human race. Our primary allegiance is to the human race and not to one particular color or border. I think the sooner we renounce the sanctity of these many identities and try to identify ourselves with the human race the sooner we will get a better world and a safer world.

Saving Ourselves From Self-Destruction (2004)

Op-Ed essay published in The New York Times (12 February 2004)
  • Nuclear proliferation is on the rise. Equipment, material and training were once largely inaccessible. Today, however, there is a sophisticated worldwide network that can deliver systems for producing material usable in weapons. The demand clearly exists: countries remain interested in the illicit acquisition of weapons of mass destruction.
    If we sit idly by, this trend will continue.
    Countries that perceive themselves to be vulnerable can be expected to try to redress that vulnerability — and in some cases they will pursue clandestine weapons programs. The supply network will grow, making it easier to acquire nuclear weapon expertise and materials. Eventually, inevitably, terrorists will gain access to such materials and technology, if not actual weapons.
    If the world does not change course, we risk self-destruction.
  • A fundamental part of the non-proliferation bargain is the commitment of the five nuclear States recognized under the non-proliferation treaty — Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States — to move toward disarmament. Recent agreements between Russia and the United States are commendable, but they should be verifiable and irreversible. A clear road map for nuclear disarmament should be established — starting with a major reduction in the 30,000 nuclear warheads still in existence, and bringing into force the long-awaited Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
We must combat terrorism with... an inclusive approach to security based on solidarity and the value of human life. In such a world, weapons of mass destruction have no place.
  • We must abandon the unworkable notion that it is morally reprehensible for some countries to pursue weapons of mass destruction yet morally acceptable for others to rely on them for security — and indeed to continue to refine their capacities and postulate plans for their use.
    Similarly, we must abandon the traditional approach of defining security in terms of boundaries — city walls, border patrols, racial and religious groupings. The global community has become irreversibly interdependent, with the constant movement of people, ideas, goods and resources. In such a world, we must combat terrorism with an infectious security culture that crosses borders — an inclusive approach to security based on solidarity and the value of human life. In such a world, weapons of mass destruction have no place.
Our security strategies have not yet caught up with the risks we are facing.

Nobel lecture (2005)

Address in Oslo, Norway (10 December 2005)
  • The International Atomic Energy Agency and I are humbled, proud, delighted and above all strengthened in our resolve by this most worthy of honours.
  • My sister-in-law works for a group that supports orphanages in Cairo. She and her colleagues take care of children left behind by circumstances beyond their control. They feed these children, clothe them and teach them to read.
    At the International Atomic Energy Agency, my colleagues and I work to keep nuclear materials out of the reach of extremist groups. We inspect nuclear facilities all over the world, to be sure that peaceful nuclear activities are not being used as a cloak for weapons programmes.
    My sister-in-law and I are working towards the same goal, through different paths: the security of the human family.
  • Why has this security so far eluded us?
    I believe it is because our security strategies have not yet caught up with the risks we are facing. The globalization that has swept away the barriers to the movement of goods, ideas and people has also swept with it barriers that confined and localized security threats.
  • A recent United Nations High-Level Panel identified five categories of threats that we face:
    1. Poverty, Infectious Disease, and Environmental Degradation;
    2. Armed Conflict — both within and among states;
    3. Organized Crime;
    4. Terrorism; and
    5. Weapons of Mass Destruction.
    These are all 'threats without borders' — where traditional notions of national security have become obsolete. We cannot respond to these threats by building more walls, developing bigger weapons, or dispatching more troops. Quite to the contrary. By their very nature, these security threats require primarily multinational cooperation.
In the real world, this imbalance in living conditions inevitably leads to inequality of opportunity, and in many cases loss of hope.
  • What is more important is that these are not separate or distinct threats. When we scratch the surface, we find them closely connected and interrelated.
    We are 1,000 people here today in this august hall. Imagine for a moment that we represent the world's population. These 200 people on my left would be the wealthy of the world, who consume 80 per cent of the available resources. And these 400 people on my right would be living on an income of less than $2 per day.
    This underprivileged group of people on my right is no less intelligent or less worthy than their fellow human beings on the other side of the aisle. They were simply born into this fate.
    In the real world, this imbalance in living conditions inevitably leads to inequality of opportunity, and in many cases loss of hope. And what is worse, all too often the plight of the poor is compounded by and results in human rights abuses, a lack of good governance, and a deep sense of injustice. This combination naturally creates a most fertile breeding ground for civil wars, organized crime, and extremism in its different forms.

    In regions where conflicts have been left to fester for decades, countries continue to look for ways to offset their insecurities or project their 'power'. In some cases, they may be tempted to seek their own weapons of mass destruction, like others who have preceded them.
  • Fifteen years ago, when the Cold War ended, many of us hoped for a new world order to emerge. A world order rooted in human solidarity — a world order that would be equitable, inclusive and effective.
    But today we are nowhere near that goal. We may have torn down the walls between East and West, but we have yet to build the bridges between North and South — the rich and the poor.
  • Consider our development aid record. Last year, the nations of the world spent over $1 trillion on armaments. But we contributed less than 10 per cent of that amount — a mere $80 billion — as official development assistance to the developing parts of the world, where 850 million people suffer from hunger.
  • My friend James Morris heads the World Food Programme, whose task it is to feed the hungry. He recently told me, "If I could have just 1 per cent of the money spent on global armaments, no one in this world would go to bed hungry."
  • It should not be a surprise then that poverty continues to breed conflict. Of the 13 million deaths due to armed conflict in the last ten years, 9 million occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, where the poorest of the poor live.
  • Consider also our approach to the sanctity and value of human life. In the aftermath of the September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, we all grieved deeply, and expressed outrage at this heinous crime — and rightly so. But many people today are unaware that, as the result of civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 3.8 million people have lost their lives since 1998.
    Are we to conclude that our priorities are skewed, and our approaches uneven?
  • There are three main features to this changing landscape: the emergence of an extensive black market in nuclear material and equipment; the proliferation of nuclear weapons and sensitive nuclear technology; and the stagnation in nuclear disarmament.
    Today, with globalization bringing us ever closer together, if we choose to ignore the insecurities of some, they will soon become the insecurities of all.
If we hope to escape self-destruction, then nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience, and no role in our security.
  • As long as some of us choose to rely on nuclear weapons, we continue to risk that these same weapons will become increasingly attractive to others.
    I have no doubt that, if we hope to escape self-destruction, then nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience, and no role in our security.

    To that end, we must ensure — absolutely — that no more countries acquire these deadly weapons.
    We must see to it that nuclear-weapon states take concrete steps towards nuclear disarmament.
    And we must put in place a security system that does not rely on nuclear deterrence.
  • Are these goals realistic and within reach? I do believe they are. But then three steps are urgently required.
    First, keep nuclear and radiological material out of the hands of extremist groups. ... we are in a race against time.
    Second, tighten control over the operations for producing the nuclear material that could be used in weapons. Under the current system, any country has the right to master these operations for civilian uses. But in doing so, it also masters the most difficult steps in making a nuclear bomb.
    To overcome this, I am hoping that we can make these operations multinational — so that no one country can have exclusive control over any such operation....
    Third, accelerate disarmament efforts. We still have eight or nine countries who possess nuclear weapons. We still have 27,000 warheads in existence. I believe this is 27,000 too many.
More than 15 years after the end of the Cold War, it is incomprehensible to many that the major nuclear-weapon states operate with their arsenals on hair-trigger alert...
  • A good start would be if the nuclear-weapon states reduced the strategic role given to these weapons. More than 15 years after the end of the Cold War, it is incomprehensible to many that the major nuclear-weapon states operate with their arsenals on hair-trigger alert — such that, in the case of a possible launch of a nuclear attack, their leaders could have only 30 minutes to decide whether to retaliate, risking the devastation of entire nations in a matter of minutes.
  • These are three concrete steps that, I believe, can readily be taken. Protect the material and strengthen verification. Control the fuel cycle. Accelerate disarmament efforts.
    But that is not enough. The hard part is: how do we create an environment in which nuclear weapons — like slavery or genocide — are regarded as a taboo and a historical anomaly?
We seem to agree today that we can share modern technology, but we still refuse to acknowledge that our values — at their very core — are shared values.
  • Whether one believes in evolution, intelligent design, or Divine Creation, one thing is certain. Since the beginning of history, human beings have been at war with each other, under the pretext of religion, ideology, ethnicity and other reasons. And no civilization has ever willingly given up its most powerful weapons. We seem to agree today that we can share modern technology, but we still refuse to acknowledge that our values — at their very core — are shared values.
"If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die?"
  • I am an Egyptian Muslim, educated in Cairo and New York, and now living in Vienna. My wife and I have spent half our lives in the North, half in the South. And we have experienced first hand the unique nature of the human family and the common values we all share.
    Shakespeare speaks of every single member of that family in The Merchant of Venice, when he asks: "If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?"
    And lest we forget:
    There is no religion that was founded on intolerance — and no religion that does not value the sanctity of human life.
    Judaism asks that we value the beauty and joy of human existence.
    Christianity says we should treat our neighbours as we would be treated.
    Islam declares that killing one person unjustly is the same as killing all of humanity.
    Hinduism recognizes the entire universe as one family.
    Buddhism calls on us to cherish the oneness of all creation.
    Some would say that it is too idealistic to believe in a society based on tolerance and the sanctity of human life, where borders, nationalities and ideologies are of marginal importance. To those I say, this is not idealism, but rather realism, because history has taught us that war rarely resolves our differences. Force does not heal old wounds; it opens new ones.
  • I have talked about our efforts to combat the misuse of nuclear energy. Let me now tell you how this very same energy is used for the benefit of humankind.
    At the IAEA, we work daily on every continent to put nuclear and radiation techniques in the service of humankind. In Vietnam, farmers plant rice with greater nutritional value that was developed with IAEA assistance. Throughout Latin America, nuclear technology is being used to map underground aquifers, so that water supplies can be managed sustainably. In Ghana, a new radiotherapy machine is offering cancer treatment to thousands of patients. In the South Pacific, Japanese scientists are using nuclear techniques to study climate change. In India, eight new nuclear plants are under construction, to provide clean electricity for a growing nation — a case in point of the rising expectation for a surge in the use of nuclear energy worldwide.
    These projects, and a thousand others, exemplify the IAEA ideal: Atoms for Peace.
    But the expanding use of nuclear energy and technology also makes it crucial that nuclear safety and security are maintained at the highest level.
Armed with the strength of our convictions, we will continue to speak truth to power. And we will continue to carry out our mandate with independence and objectivity
  • Since the Chernobyl accident, we have worked all over the globe to raise nuclear safety performance. And since the September 2001 terrorist attacks, we have worked with even greater intensity on nuclear security. On both fronts, we have built an international network of legal norms and performance standards. But our most tangible impact has been on the ground. Hundreds of missions, in every part of the world, with international experts making sure nuclear activities are safe and secure.
    I am very proud of the 2,300 hard working men and women that make up the IAEA staff — the colleagues with whom I share this honour. Some of them are here with me today. We come from over 90 countries. We bring many different perspectives to our work. Our diversity is our strength.
    We are limited in our authority. We have a very modest budget. And we have no armies.
    But armed with the strength of our convictions, we will continue to speak truth to power. And we will continue to carry out our mandate with independence and objectivity.
  • The picture I have painted today may have seemed somewhat grim. Let me conclude by telling you why I have hope.
    I have hope because the positive aspects of globalization are enabling nations and peoples to become politically, economically and socially interdependent, making war an increasingly unacceptable option.
    Among the 25 members of the European Union, the degree of economic and socio-political dependencies has made the prospect of the use of force to resolve differences almost absurd. The same is emerging with regard to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, with some 55 member countries from Europe, Central Asia and North America. Could these models be expanded to a world model, through the same creative multilateral engagement and active international cooperation, where the strong are just and the weak secure?
What is required is a new mindset and a change of heart, to be able to see the person across the ocean as our neighbour.
  • I have hope because civil society is becoming better informed and more engaged. They are pressing their governments for change — to create democratic societies based on diversity, tolerance and equality. They are proposing creative solutions. They are raising awareness, donating funds, working to transform civic spirit from the local to the global. Working to bring the human family closer together.
  • What is required is a new mindset and a change of heart, to be able to see the person across the ocean as our neighbour.
    Finally, I have hope because of what I see in my children, and some of their generation.
    I took my first trip abroad at the age of 19. My children were even more fortunate than I. They had their first exposure to foreign culture as infants, and they were raised in a multicultural environment. And I can say absolutely that my son and daughter are oblivious to colour and race and nationality. They see no difference between their friends Noriko, Mafupo, Justin, Saulo and Hussam; to them, they are only fellow human beings and good friends.
    Globalization, through travel, media and communication, can also help us — as it has with my children and many of their peers — to see each other simply as human beings.
  • Imagine what would happen if the nations of the world spent as much on development as on building the machines of war. Imagine a world where every human being would live in freedom and dignity. Imagine a world in which we would shed the same tears when a child dies in Darfur or Vancouver. Imagine a world where we would settle our differences through diplomacy and dialogue and not through bombs or bullets. Imagine if the only nuclear weapons remaining were the relics in our museums. Imagine the legacy we could leave to our children.
    Imagine that such a world is within our grasp.

2009

  • Israel is the number one rogue state threat to Middle Eastern peace with its nuclear arms and acts of outright aggression towards its peaceful neighbours Syria and Lebanon – and genocidal actions against the marginalised Palestinians of the West Bank – and Gaza in particular.
    • Speaking to reporters, October 7, 2009.[1]

Quotes about ElBaradei

  • At a time when the threat of nuclear arms is again increasing, the Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes to underline that this threat must be met through the broadest possible international cooperation. This principle finds its clearest expression today in the work of the IAEA and its director general. In the nuclear non-proliferation regime, it is the IAEA which ensures that nuclear energy is not misused for military purposes, and the director general has stood out as an unafraid advocate of new measures to strengthen that regime.
    • Norwegian Nobel Committee announcement of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize.
  • The overt message is that preventing nuclear proliferation is important...but I think there is a covert message as well: that it is a good idea to have ElBaradei at the IAEA because he was right about Iraq and the administration was wrong... It cannot escape people's attention that this was the man who stood up against the United States and said that Iraq was not reconstituting its nuclear program.
  • If they think they can get anyone who could have better handled the complex and difficult issues surrounding North Korea, Iran and other controversies, they are not understanding the world right now.

External links

Wikipedia
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Simple English

File:Mohamed
Mohamed ElBaradei

Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942, Egypt) most known as the former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1997 - 2009). The IAEA is an inter-governmental organization related to the United Nations. It is based in Vienna and tries to bring about the peaceful use of nuclear energy. ElBaradei and the IAEA were both awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. They got the prize for their efforts in Iraq, finding that there were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq.

ElBaradei has a doctorate in International law.


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