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Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadl-Allāh
Fadlallah.jpg
Religion Twelver Shi`a Islam
Other name(s) Arabic: السيد محمد حسين فضل الله
Personal
Born November 16, 1935 (1935-11-16) (age 74)
- Najaf, Iraq
Senior posting
Based in Lebanon - Beirut, Lebanon
Title Grand Ayatollah
Period in office 1989 - Present
Religious career
Post Grand Ayatollah
Website bayynat.org.lb (Arabic, French, English)
bayynat.ir (Persian , Urdu)

Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadl-Allāh (Arabic: محمد حسين فضل الله‎) (also Muhammad Husayn Fadl-Allāh or Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadl-Allāh) (born 16 November 1935) is a prominent Lebanese Twelver Shi'a Muslim cleric who some claim is associated with the Shia Islamist group Hezbollah. According to Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT), some analysts regard him as Hezbollah’s spiritual leader[1], although the group denies this, as it reserves this title for Ayatollah Khomeini and Fadlallah also denies that he is affiliated with Hezbollah. [2]

From a Lebanese family, but born in Najaf, Iraq, Fadlallah studied Islamic sciences in Najaf before moving to Lebanon in 1952. In the following decades, he gave many lectures, engaged in intense scholarship, wrote dozens of books, founded several Islamic religious schools, and established the Mabarrat Association. Through that association he established a public library, a women's cultural center, and a medical clinic.

He supported the ideals of Iran's Islamic Revolution and advocated the corresponding Islamic movement in Lebanon. In his sermons, he called for armed resistance to the Israeli occupations of Lebanon, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip, along with opposition to the existence of Israel. He holds relatively liberal views on the status of women.

He was the target of several assassination attempts, including the allegedly CIA-sponsored and Saudi-funded March 8, 1985 Beirut car bombing that killed 80 people.[3][4]

Contents

Biography

Early life

Fadl-Allāh was born in the Iraqi Shia shrine city of Najaf on November 16, 1935. His parents, Abdulraouf Fadlullah and al-Hajja Raoufa Hassan Bazzi,[5] had migrated there from the village of 'Aynata in South Lebanon in 1928 to learn theology. By the time of his birth, his father was already a Muslim scholar. [6]

Education

Fadl-Allāh went first to a traditional school (Kuttāb) to learn the Quran and the basic skills of reading and writing. These schools were run by traditional sheiks and probably left a bad impression on him so Fadl-Allāh soon left and went to a modern school that was established by the publisher Jamiat Muntada Al-Nasher where he remained for two years and studied in the third and fourth elementary classes.

Thus he began studying the religious sciences at a very young age. He started to read the Ajroumiah when he was nine years old, and then he read Qatr al-Nada wa Bal Al-Sada (Ibn Hisham).

He completed Sutouh in which the student reads the book and listens to his teacher’s explanation. He also studied the Arabic language, logic and Jurisprudence, and did not need another teacher until he studied the second part of the course known as Kifayat at Usul which he studied with an Iranian teacher named Sheikh mujtaba Al-Linkarani. He attended the so-called Bahth Al-Kharij in which the teacher does not restrict himself to a certain book but gives more or less free lectures. Fadl-Allāh published a minor periodical before going to Lebanon. He was a gifted and precocious boy: at the tender age of ten, he put out a handwritten literary journal with some of his friends. [7]

Return to Lebanon

After 21 years of studying under the prominent teachers of the Najaf religious university he concluded his studies in 1966 and returned to Lebanon. He had already visited Lebanon in 1952 where he recited a poem eulogizing Muhsin Al-Amin at his funeral.

In 1966 Fadl-Allāh received an invitation from a group who had established a society called ”Usrat Ataakhi” (The family of Fraternity) to come and live with them in the area of Nabba’a in Eastern Beirut. He agreed, especially as the conditions at Najaf impelled him to leave.

In Naba’a Fadl-Allāh began his work, by organizing cultural seminars and delivering religious speeches that discussed social issues as well.

Nevertheless, Fadl-Allāh’s main concern was to continue to develop his academic work. Thus he founded a religious school called The Islamic Sharia Institute in which several students enrolled who later became prominent religious scholars including Martyr Sheikh Ragib Harb. He also established a public library, a women’s cultural center and a medical clinic.

When the Lebanese civil war forced him to leave the area, he moved to the Southern Suburbs where he started to give priority to teaching and educating the people. He used the mosque as his center for holding daily prayers giving lessons in Qur’anic interpretation, as well as religious and moral speeches, especially on religious occasions such as Ashura. He soon resumed his academic work and began to give daily lessons in Islamic principles, jurisprudence and morals. His students who used to meet him at his house very early in the morning were astonished at his enthusiasm and perseverance.

Assassination attempt

On 8 March 1985, a car bomb equivalent to 440 lb (200 kg) of dynamite exploded 9-45 metres[8][9] from his house in Beirut, Lebanon. The blast destroyed a 7 story apartment building, a cinema, killed 80 people and wounded 256. The attack was timed to go off as worshippers were leaving Friday Prayers. Most of the dead were girls and women, who had been leaving the mosque, though the ferocity of the blast "burned babies in their beds," "killed a bride buying her trousseau," and "blew away three children as they walked home from the mosque." It also "devastated the main street of the densely populated" West Beirut suburb. [10] [11] but Fadl-Allāh escaped injury. One of his bodyguards at the time was Imad Mughniyeh, who was later assassinated in a car-bombing in February 2008.[12]

The assassination attempt was believed by some to have been the work of Israel, or of the CIA, as a response to the Hezbollah bombings of the American embassy and of American and French peacekeeping headquarters in Beirut in October, 1983. [11]

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Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim Part of a series on Shī‘ah Islam
Twelvers

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The Fourteen Infallibles

Muhammad · Fatimah · Ali · Hasan · Husayn · al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq · al-Kadhim · al-Rida · al-Taqi · al-Naqi · al-Askari · al-Mahdi


The Twelve Imams
Ali · Hasan · Husayn
al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq
al-Kadhim · al-Rida · al-Taqi
al-Naqi · al-Askari · al-Mahdi

Concepts

Fourteen Infallibles
Occultation (Minor · Major)
Akhbar · Usul · Ijtihad
Taqleed · 'Aql · Irfan
Mahdaviat

Principles

Monotheism
Judgement Day · Justice
Prophethood · Imamate

Practices

Prayer · Fasting · Pilgrimage
Charity · Taxes · Jihad
Command Justice · Forbid Evil
Love the family of Muhammad
Dissociate from their Enemies

Holy cities

Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem
Najaf · Karbala · Mashhad
Samarra · Kadhimayn

Groups

Usuli · Akhbari · Shaykhi
Nimatullahi · Safaviya
Qizilbash · Alevism · Alawism
Bektashi · Tabarie

Scholarship

Marja · Ayatollah · Allamah
Hojatoleslam · Mujtahid
List of marjas · List of Ayatollahs

Hadith collections

Peak of Eloquence · The Psalms of Islam · Book of Fundamentals · The Book in Scholar's Lieu · Civilization of Laws · The Certainty · Book of Sulaym ibn Qays · Oceans of Light · Wasael ush-Shia · Reality of Certainty · Keys of Paradise

Israel and the Holocaust

In an interview with Al-Manar TV on March 21, 2008 (as translated by the MEMRI), Fadlallah stated that:

"The Hebrew state is preparing to celebrate its 60th anniversary – 60 years since it plundered Palestine - in a festival, which will be attended by the countries of the world, most of which still support the Jewish state and consider the resistance movement to be terrorism. This is what led German Chancellor Merkel to visit that plundering country, which extorted and continues to extort Germany, using as a pretext the German Hitlerist-Nazi past, and the placing of the Jews in a holocaust. Zionism has inflated the number of victims in this holocaust beyond imagination. They say there were six million Jews – not six million, not three million, or anything like that... But the world accepted this [figure], and it does not allow anyone to discuss this."[13]

US Foreign Policy

Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah opposes US foreign policy: "I say that America, in its policy that aspires to impose hegemony on the world is an evil with no good in it." and "After the tragic slaughter in Karbala and Qadhimiyya [suicide bombings], I said that the CIA, which was in Iraq even during the time of the previous regime, as was Israeli intelligence, the Mossad" [14] In the past he has issued a fatwa forbidding Muslims from helping the USA in its occupation of any Muslim country. Also, he has asked for a boycott of American products.

All American and Israeli goods and products should be boycotted in a way that undermines American and Israeli interests so as to act as deterrence to their war against Muslims and Islam that is being waged under the pretense of fighting terrorism.
This boycott should become an overwhelming trend that makes these two states feel that their economies are in a real and actual danger.[15]

In November 2007 Fadlallah accused the United States of trying to sabotage the elections going on in Lebanon. He stated "The insanity of the US president and its administration is reflected in Lebanon by their ambassador pressuring the Lebanese people and preventing them from reaching an agreement over the presidential election."[16]

Wilayat al-Faqih

Despite his ties with the Islamic Republic of Iran, Fadlallah has distanced himself from Khomeini legacy of Veleyat-e Faqih as theocratic rule by Islamic clerics and now is said to argue that "no Shia religious leader, not even Khomeini ... has a monopoly on the truth."[17] He also first endorsed Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani rather than Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as the marja for Shia in matters of religion, before claiming the role for himself.[18] In an 2009 interview, Fadlallah said that he does not believe wilayat al-faqih has a role in modern Lebanon.[19]

Women

Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah views women as equals to men. He believes that women have just as much of a responsibility towards society as men do. He believes that women should be role models for both men and women.[20]

Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah also believes that women have the same exact ability as men to fight their inner weaknesses.[21][22] He sees Hijab as something that makes a man see a woman not as a sex object, but instead as a human being. He believes that women should cover their entire body except for their face and hands, and that they should avoid wearing make-up when they go out in public.[23]

Fadlallah has also issued a fatwa on the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women that supports the right of a woman to defend herself against any act of violence whether social or physical. The fatwa reaffirms the rights of women, both at their workplace and at home, and states that Islam forbids men from exercising any form of violence against women and forbids men from depriving women of their legal rights. In his words "physical violence in which women are beaten, proves that these men are weak, for only the weak are in need of unjust violence".[24]

Abortion

In most cases he is opposed to abortion, however, in some circumstances he views as being permissible. In cases where the women is put in an abnormal amount of danger by the pregnancy, he believes it is permissible to have an abortion[25].

Social work

In addition to the academic work that Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah has done, he has also opened up schools, Islamic centers, and Orphanages.

Schools

  1. The Imam Al Khouie Orphanage, Beirut (Dawha)
  2. Imam Al-Baqir Secondary school, Beka`a (Hirmil)
  3. Imam Al-Jawed Secondary school, Beka`a (Ali Nahri)
  4. Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib school, South Lebanon (Ma`roub)
  5. Imam Hassan Secondary school, Beirut (Ruwais)
  6. Al-Mujtaba Secondary School, Beirut (Hay Al-Salum)
  7. Imam Ja`afar As-Sadiq school, South Lebanon (Jwaya)
  8. Al-Kauther Secondary school, Beirut (Bir Hassan)
  9. Imam Hussein School, Beka`a (Suh`mour) under construction
  10. Ali Al-Akbar Vocational Institute Beirut (Doha)

Islamic Centers

  1. The large Islamic Center, Beirut (Haret Hreik: Consists of the Al-Imamain Hassnian Mosque, the Zah`ra Hall and the Islamic Cultural Center.
  2. Imam Hasan Askari Center Beka`a’(Sira’in)
  3. Imam Hussein Center-Beka`a(Jlala)
  4. Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib center South Lebanon.(AL-Hawzah-Sour)
  5. Ahl Al-Beit Mosque Beka`a’ (Rayak)
  6. Imam Ja’far Al-Sadiq Mosque Beka`a (Hirmil)
  7. Ahl Al-Beit Center, North Lebanon (Tripoli)
  8. Sayyida Zaynab Mosque, Beka`a (Baalbeck)

Orphanages

  1. Imam Al-Khouie Orphanage (Beirut-Doha)
  2. Imam Zein Al-Abidine (A.S.) Orphanage Biqaa(Hirmil).
  3. Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib (A.S.) Orphanage, South Lebanon. (The Ma`roub-Sour road)
  4. Virgin Mary Orphanage (A.S.) South Lebanon(Jiwaya).
  5. Al- Sayyida Khadijah Al-Kubraa (A.S.) Orphanage, Beirut (Bir-Hassan).
  6. The Zaynab (A.S.) Orphanage West Biqaa (Suh`mour) Under construction.[26]

References

  1. ^ Death of a Terrorist: Imad Mugniyah
  2. ^ Key leader profile. Fadlallah, Sheikh Muhammed Hussein
  3. ^ BBC ON THIS DAY | 8 | 1985: Beirut car bomb kills dozens
  4. ^ 60 killed by Beirut car bomb | From the Guardian | The Guardian
  5. ^ http://www.bintjbeil.com/A/araa/2004/en/0601_sbazzi.html
  6. ^ Biographie
  7. ^ R. Scott Appleby (1996). Spokesmen for the Despised. University Of Chicago Press. p. 87
  8. ^ 60 killed by Beirut car bomb | Special reports | Guardian Unlimited. March 9 1985
  9. ^ Asia Times Online :: Asian News, A HISTORY OF THE CAR BOMB (Part 2). Apr 18, 2006
  10. ^ http://www.elmandjra.org/alternet_260208.htm
  11. ^ a b frontline: target America: terrorist attacks on Americans, 1979-1988 ... Bombing of U.S. Embassy annex northeast of Beirut
  12. ^ "The Assassination of Mughniyeh: A Death in Damascus". February 25, 2008. http://www.counterpunch.org/morris02252008.html. Retrieved 2008-03-22.  
  13. ^ Lebanese Shiite Leader Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadhlallah: Jews Extort Germany, Inflating Number of Holocaust Victims, MEMRI, Clip No. 1748, March 21, 2008
  14. ^ Clip Transcript, Lebanese Shiite Leader, Sheikh Fadhlallah: The CIA is Behind Terror Attacks in Iraq
  15. ^ Bayynat. Fatwa to Boycott Israeli and American Good and products
  16. ^ The Daily Star - Politics - Fadlallah slams US for 'insane' attempt to thwart consensus on presidency
  17. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.181
  18. ^ Wilfried Buchta, "Die Islamische Repuglik Iran und die religios-politische Kontroverse um die marja'iyat", Orient 36, 3 (1995): 459-60
  19. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123698785743625933.html
  20. ^ http://english.bayynat.org.lb/news%5CInterviews_20022009.htm
  21. ^ The Woman's Personality and Role in Life
  22. ^ The role of a woman I
  23. ^ The Moral Role of Hijab (part I)
  24. ^ "La femme peut répondre à la violence de l’homme par la violence". L'Orient-Le Jour. http://www.lorientlejour.com/page.aspx?page=article&id=358690. Retrieved 2007-11-28.  
  25. ^ Abortion: Fadlullah's perspective regarding Abortion
  26. ^ Biographie

See also

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah (born 1935 in Iraq) is one of the most famous Islamic religious leaders in the Middle East. He is one of the highest-ranking Twelver Shi'i religious scholars in Lebanon. He was the target of an assassination in the 1980's.

Contents

Sourced

Quotes Considered Controversial by Some Shi'i Muslims

  • The Ma'sumeen (infallibles) make errors.
    • Fikr wa al-Thaqafah, 29 June 1996.
  • The urges of Ali overcome his intellect, so he commits sins.
    • Fi rehab Doa al-Komayl, p.159
  • The heart of Ali aquired sins.
    • Fi rehab Doa al-Komayl, p.169
  • Ali drank wine.
    • Min Wahi al-Quran, vol.7, p.182
  • If Allah judges Ali (On the Judgement day) on the basis of his actions, he will deserve non other than the torture (of hell).
    • Fi rehab Doa al-Komayl, p.275
  • In the speech on the day of Ghadeer, The Messenger of God (SAW) indicated the preference of Imam Ali's (AS) khilafah and did not make it obligatory.
    • al-Insan wa al-Hayat, p.257
  • Absorption in Imam Husayn's affairs (his life and his person, etc.), away from his missionary side is backwardness.
    • al-Mawsem, No. 21-22, p.310
  • The whole of Ziyarat an-Naahiyah is a forgery, there are also forgeries (things added to) the Ziyarat al-Ashura.
    • al-Nadwah, vol.1, p.456 & 653.
  • Muslims (companions) misunderstood the speech of the Prophet on the day of Ghadeer.
    • al-Insan wa al-Hayat, p.257
  • The Imamah is not authentic in such a way that one cannot doubt it.
    • al-Asalah wa al-Tajdeed - al-Menhaj Magazine, No 2.
  • The recitation of the Third Testimony in the adhaan and the iqamah causes many evils.
    • al-Masa'il al-Feqhiyyah, vol.2, p.123
  • What is the benefit which comes to us by holding onto the Zaree? (Golden structure of a Holy persons grave)
    • al-Mawsem, No. 21-22, pg 299.
  • The rules of Abu Bakr (L), Umar (L) and Uthman (L) were wise.
    • As 'ilah wa Ajwibah min al-Qalb, p.83
  • Saying "Ameen" is permissible after reciting the Surah of al-Hamd in the Salat especially with the intention of supplication.
    • al-Masa'il al-Faqhiyyah, vol.1, p.92
  • Placing the right hand on the left hand (or vice versa) (al-Takfeer) during salaat, with the purpose of submissiveness to God, is permissible, unless it is done as a part of the salaat.
    • al-Masa'il al-Faqhiyyah, vol.1, p.91

Quotes about Islamic-Beliefs Considered Controversial by Some Muslims

  • There is a mistake in the Quran.
    • Min Wahi al-Quran, vol.7, p.539-540
  • The Prophet (Muhammed) engages in what a waste of time.
    • Min Wahi al-Quran, vol.24, p.67
  • The Prophet (Muhammed) misses another great opportunity.
    • Min Wahi al-Quran, vol.24, p.67
  • The Prophet (Muhammed) makes wrong assumptions.
    • Min Wahi al-Quran, vol.24, p.76
  • The Prophet (Muhammed) does not know his responsibility.
    • Min Wahi al-Quran, vol.24, p.67
  • The Healing power of the Qur'an is for the spiritual illenesses and not for physical ailments.
    • Fikr wa Thaqafah, p.3
  • The Prophets have weak points.
    • Min Wahi al-Quran, vol.5, p.171-172
  • Female masturbation is permissible unconditionally.
    • Fiqh al-Hayat, p.54
  • Male masturbation is permissible in special circumstances.
    • al-Masa'il al-Faqhiyyah, vol.1, p.188
  • Shaking hands with the strangers of opposite sex can be permissible.
    • al-Nadwah, vol.6, p.723

America

  • The American administration is trying to achieve any gain in the shadow of the embarrassment hitting it because of its failures in Iraq, Afghanistan and Palestine after the failure of Israel's war on Lebanon and the retreat of America's project in the region.
  • We believe US threats of an approaching World War III and their use of Iran's nuclear issue as an excuse is another form of American insanity.

Boycotting American and Israeli Goods

  • "All American and Israeli goods and products should be boycotted in a way that undermines American and Israeli interests so as to act as deterrence to their war against Muslims and Islam that is being waged under the pretense of fighting terrorism. This boycott should become an overwhelming trend that makes these two states feel that their economies are in a real and actual danger."

Love of the World

  • "What is meant here is that man should not become immersed in loving the world which will make him forget the responsibilities that Allah had ordered him to hold, but he has to look at the world in its reality, in which it represents a place for obeying Allah."

Reward for doing good

Repentance

  • "Allah wanted the people who have made sins to turn from their sins and make up for them in order to be near to Allah through gaining His satisfaction, for He has promised to accept their repentance and forgive the sinner

Purity

  • "On the other hand, Allah directs man to the spiritual purity through the act of giving that is represented by charity that the pious pays as "Zakat" and "Sadakat" almsgiving, and other financial obligations."
  • "Islam emphasized the internal purity of man that is achieved through the purity of the mind in realizing the Right and the purity of feelings through having the pure intention towards man, far away from the meanness of malevolence and hatred and through the purity of the movement that is not lunched except for the sake of justice, Good and life."

Women

  • "Taking the strong believing women as role models for both men and women, clearly indicates that the Quran acknowledges the woman's ability to be a strong person who can overcome any innate weakens in her."
  • "The difference in sex does not hinder the ability of being strong on the levels of thinking, giving, having a strong willpower and the ability to take the right decision and the right position after studying all options, once the circumstances that favor creativity and rational thinking are available."
  • "And just like men are responsible of the society, women also are equally responsible of the society they live in."
  • "From an Islamic point of view, women are as responsible as men to help people finding their way to God (S.W.T), and to guide society in the right path with all the power they have."

Love of Allah

  • "This Ayah indicates that the pious person should express his love to Allah by believing in His Prophet and following the Message, and through obeying the Prophet, abiding by his orders, leaving what he prohibits and obeying all what Allah has revealed to him, because that is the vivid expression of the practical love that fills his whole entity."

See also

External links

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