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3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane.
.A molecule is defined as an electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by very strong (covalent) chemical bonds.^ In most covalent compounds, molecules consist of groups of atoms held together by covalent or coordinate bonds.

^ Followings are some basic concepts of inorganic chemistry: Periodic Table - A molecule is a compound composed of a group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
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^ Write the formula of the neutral molecule;   the subscripts show the number of atoms needed to make the molecule neutral.

[1][2] Molecules are distinguished from polyatomic ions in this strict sense. .In organic chemistry and biochemistry, the term molecule is used less strictly and also is applied to charged organic molecules and biomolecules.^ In chemistry, a term often used to describe the dissolution of a gas into a liquid or solid.

.In the kinetic theory of gases, the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition.^ Often, the term is used for a reversible aggregation of particles in which the forces holding the particles together are weak and the colloid can be redispersed by agitation.

^ In chemistry, a term often used to describe the dissolution of a gas into a liquid or solid.

.According to this definition noble gas atoms are considered molecules despite the fact that they are composed of a single non-bonded atom.^ Consisting of molecules that have only single bonds (i.e.

^ Followings are some basic concepts of inorganic chemistry: Periodic Table - A molecule is a compound composed of a group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
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^ EXPLANATION :   Just as your demeanor and appearance change in different situations - in church, in   school, with friends, on a date, or on the playground - so do atoms change when they   react and bond with other atoms to form a molecule.

[3]
.A molecule may consist of atoms of a single chemical element, as with oxygen (O2), or of different elements, as with water (H2O).^ Atom with aSymbol chemical symbol to the molecule.

^ Consisting of molecules that have only single bonds (i.e.

^ Pure water is a compound containing the chemical elements hydrogen      and oxygen.

.Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds are generally not considered single molecules.^ Hydrogen with one valence electron forms a single covalent bond.
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^ Elements joined by ionic or covalent bonds .
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^ Consisting of molecules that have only single bonds (i.e.

.No typical molecule can be defined for ionic crystals (salts) and covalent crystals (network solids), although these are often composed of repeating unit cells that extend either in a plane (such as in graphene) or three-dimensionally (such as in diamond or sodium chloride).^ Ferrous chloride Ferrous chloride is a pale greenish salt-like crystal or powder, which is soluble in water.

^ Argyria is known to be caused by ingesting; 1) silver salts (compounds) such as silver nitrate, 2) high concentrations of ionic silver, 3) protein based silver products aka "silver protein" or "mild silver protein" .

^ The most familiar salt is sodium chloride , the principal component of common table salt.

The theme of repeated unit-cellular-structure also holds for most condensed phases with metallic bonding. .In glasses (solids that exist in a vitreous disordered state), atoms may also be held together by chemical bonds without any definable molecule, but also without any of the regularity of repeating units that characterises crystals.^ Silver ions exist as individual entities in solution and do not cluster together to form particles like atoms.

^ Such changes are now described in terms of changes in the oxidation number, or oxidation state, of the atom or molecule (see valence ).

^ Atoms are called monovalent, divalent, trivalent, or tetravalent, according to whether they form one, two, three, or four bonds (see chemical bond ).

Contents

Molecular science

.The science of molecules is called molecular chemistry or molecular physics, depending on the focus.^ The strongly synthetic character of chemistry sets it apart from the "discovery" sciences such as physics, biology, astronomy and the Earth sciences.
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^ It is the study of the phenomena in these two categories, which constitute the sciences of chemistry and physics, respectively.
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.Molecular chemistry deals with the laws governing the interaction between molecules that results in the formation and breakage of chemical bonds, while molecular physics deals with the laws governing their structure and properties.^ Many of the chemical and physical properties of the transition elements are due to their unfilled d orbitals.

^ There is a chemical bond between two atoms or groups of atoms when the forces acting between them are strong enough to lead to the formation of an aggregate with sufficient stability to be regarded as an independent species.

^ This is because water molecules help form hydrogen bonds between DNA's phosphate groups.
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In practice, however, this distinction is vague. .In molecular sciences, a molecule consists of a stable system (bound state) comprising two or more atoms.^ Followings are some basic concepts of inorganic chemistry: Periodic Table - A molecule is a compound composed of a group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
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^ Molecules are made up of one or more atoms.
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^ For example, the molecular mass of water, which has two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen, is 18 (i.e., 2 + 16).
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.Polyatomic ions may sometimes be usefully thought of as electrically charged molecules.^ A positive or negative electric charge possessed by an ion as a result of the gain or loss of one or more orbital electrons .

^ Ionic compounds do not have single molecules, being collections of oppositely charged ions.

^ A material that conducts electricity with ions as charge carriers.

The term unstable molecule is used for very reactive species, i.e., short-lived assemblies (resonances) of electrons and nuclei, such as radicals, molecular ions, Rydberg molecules, transition states, van der Waals complexes, or systems of colliding atoms as in Bose-Einstein condensate

History and etymology

.According to Merriam-Webster and the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word "molecule" derives from the Latin "moles" or small unit of mass.^ These chains are made up of small repeating units of molecules called monomers.
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^ Molecule is   the Latin word for "little mass."

  • Molecule (1794) - "extremely minute particle," from Fr. molécule (1678), from Mod.L. molecula, dim. of L. moles "mass, barrier". A vague meaning at first; the vogue for the word (used until late 18th century only in Latin form) can be traced to the philosophy of Descartes.
.Although the existence of molecules has been accepted by many chemists since the early 19th century as a result of Dalton's laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions (1803-1808) and Avogadro's law (1811), there was some resistance among positivists and physicists such as Mach, Boltzmann, Maxwell, and Gibbs, who saw molecules merely as convenient mathematical constructs.^ Such situation does not bother practical physicists, who just carry out routine calculations or experiments, as long as the rules of quantum theory yield consistent results, and it is kept in mind that mathematical models do not always make sense to our everyday experience.
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^ Biological molecules, such as proteins and DNA, can be made up of many thousands of atoms.
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^ How many total atoms are there in the neutral molecule?

The work of Perrin on Brownian motion (1911) is considered to be the final proof of the existence of molecules.
The definition of the molecule has evolved as knowledge of the structure of molecules has increased. .Earlier definitions were less precise, defining molecules as the smallest particles of pure chemical substances that still retain their composition and chemical properties.^ The smallest particle of a substance that has all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 24 January 2010 16:37 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An atom is the smallest particle of an      element with the properties of that element.

^ A chemical substance added to a dispersion capable of maintaining the dispersed particles in suspension .

[4] .This definition often breaks down since many substances in ordinary experience, such as rocks, salts, and metals, are composed of large networks of chemically bonded atoms or ions, but are not made of discrete molecules.^ Biological molecules, such as proteins and DNA, can be made up of many thousands of atoms.
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^ Molecules are made up of atoms that are bonded to one-another.

^ When an atom or molecule combines with oxygen, it tends to give up electrons to the oxygen in forming a chemical bond .

Molecular size

.Most molecules are far too small to be seen with the naked eye, but there are exceptions.^ An instrument that is used to look at cells and other small objects that cannot be seen with the eye alone.
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^ Molecules are small objects not susceptible of direct observation even under the most powerful microscope.
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.DNA, a macromolecule, can reach macroscopic sizes, as can molecules of many polymers.^ Biological molecules, such as proteins and DNA, can be made up of many thousands of atoms.
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The smallest molecule is the diatomic hydrogen (H2), with an overall length of roughly twice the 74 picometres (0.74 Å) bond length. .Molecules commonly used as building blocks for organic synthesis have a dimension of a few Å to several dozen Å.^ Cyclopropane carboxylic acid Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid is a clear liquid used in organic synthesis.

^ Isoprene ( H , C , V , JM ) The building block for terpenes and rubber, and the molecule that makes the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, blue.
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^ In practice, there are a few commonly-used (and usually commercially available) electrode assemblies that have an electrode potential independent of the electrolyte used in the cell.

.Single molecules cannot usually be observed by light (as noted above), but small molecules and even the outlines of individual atoms may be traced in some circumstances by use of an atomic force microscope.^ When the distance separating individual atoms is only a few atomic diameters, the force of attraction can exceed 100,000 G-forces.

^ (Note: mono- is not affixed to first element of compound if there is only one atom per molecule, e.g., CO 2 is carbon dioxide, not monocarbon dioxide).
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^ Think of an      element as something that we can see and touch whereas a single atom is invisible even      in a microscope.

Some of the largest molecules are macromolecules or supermolecules.

Radius

.Effective molecular radius is the size a molecule displays in solution.^ Therefore, the effectiveness of colloidal solutions increases with decreasing particle size.

[5][6] The table of permselectivity for different substances contains examples.

Molecular formula

.A compound's empirical formula is the simplest integer ratio of the chemical elements that constitute it.^ Elements in a group have similar chemical properties and formulas.

^ Note: Isomers are chemical compounds with identical chemical formula but different arrangements of elements.
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^ The chemical formula for an ionic salt is an empirical formula; it does not represent a molecule but shows the proportion of atoms of the elements that make up the salt.

.For example, water is always composed of a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms, and ethyl alcohol or ethanol is always composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 2:6:1 ratio.^ Protein - Proteins are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
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^ The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule, based on a scale in which the atomic masses of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are 1, 12, 14, and 16, respectively.
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^ Similarly, reduction referred to a decrease in the amount of oxygen in a substance or its complete removal, e.g., the reaction of cupric oxide and hydrogen to form copper and water.

.However, this does not determine the kind of molecule uniquely - dimethyl ether has the same ratios as ethanol, for instance.^ However, when molecules consist of several polar bonds, the arrangement of the bonds determines whether it is a polar or nonpolar molecule.
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.Molecules with the same atoms in different arrangements are called isomers.^ It has the same chemical formula as glucose (the chief source of energy for living organisms) but has a different arrangement of atoms.
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^ Note: Isomers are chemical compounds with identical chemical formula but different arrangements of elements.
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^ If they contain more than one atom, the atoms can be the same (an oxygen molecule has two oxygen atoms) or different (a water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom).
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.Also carbohydrates, for example, have the same ratio (carbon:hydrogen:oxygen= 1:2:1) (and thus the same empirical formula) but different total numbers of atoms in the molecule.^ A small molecule made of one carbon and three hydrogen atoms.
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^ The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule, based on a scale in which the atomic masses of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are 1, 12, 14, and 16, respectively.
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^ Protein - Proteins are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
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.The molecular formula reflects the exact number of atoms that compose the molecule and so characterizes different isomers.^ Such changes are now described in terms of changes in the oxidation number, or oxidation state, of the atom or molecule (see valence ).

^ Note: Isomers are chemical compounds with identical chemical formula but different arrangements of elements.
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^ The chemical formula for an ionic salt is an empirical formula; it does not represent a molecule but shows the proportion of atoms of the elements that make up the salt.

The empirical formula is often the same as the molecular formula but not always. For example the molecule acetylene has molecular formula C2H2, but the simplest integer ratio of elements is CH.
.The molecular mass can be calculated from the chemical formula and is expressed in conventional atomic mass units equal to 1/12th of the mass of a neutral carbon-12 (12C isotope) atom.^ The atoms in a molecule are shown by their atomic   symbols and the combination is the molecular formula .

^ The average atomic mass of an element compared to 1/12 the mass of carbon 12.

^ The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule, based on a scale in which the atomic masses of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are 1, 12, 14, and 16, respectively.
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.For network solids, the term formula unit is used in stoichiometric calculations.^ In chemistry, a term often used to describe the dissolution of a gas into a liquid or solid.

Molecular geometry

Molecules have fixed equilibrium geometries—bond lengths and angles— about which they continuously oscillate through vibrational and rotational motions. A pure substance is composed of molecules with the same average geometrical structure. .The chemical formula and the structure of a molecule are the two important factors that determine its properties, particularly its reactivity.^ An important property in determining the particle surface area .

^ Elements in a group have similar chemical properties and formulas.

^ Hydrogen bonds are important in fixing properties such as solubilities, melting points, and boiling points, and in determining the form and stability of crystalline structures.
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.Isomers share a chemical formula but normally have very different properties because of their different structures.^ Elements in a group have similar chemical properties and formulas.

^ The reason for the word "periodic" is because as   elements increase in atomic number and atomic mass, similar chemical and physical   properties occur over and over.

^ It has the same chemical formula as glucose (the chief source of energy for living organisms) but has a different arrangement of atoms.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 24 January 2010 16:37 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Stereoisomers, a particular type of isomers, may have very similar physico-chemical properties and at the same time different biochemical activities.^ They therefore tend to have similar chemical properties.
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^ There are several types of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, and patients with each type may develop different types of cancer.
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^ Specific biomarkers may be linked to particular types of cancer.
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Molecular spectroscopy

Molecular spectroscopy deals with the response (spectrum) of molecules interacting with probing signals of known energy (or frequency, according to Planck's formula). Molecules have quantized energy levels that can be analyzed by detecting the molecule's energy exchange through absorbance or emission.[7] .Spectroscopy does not generally refer to diffraction studies where particles such as neutrons, electrons, or high energy X-rays interact with a regular arrangement of molecules (as in a crystal).^ It is being studied in the treatment of cancer symptoms such as lack of energy, pain, swelling, and depression.
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^ Interactions occur when a real particle come close enough (as in high energy collision) for one or more of the virtual particles in the cloud to be absorbed by the other real particle.
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^ Mass spectroscopy techniques such as ICP-MS which are based on the mass/charge ratios of the neutrons and protons in the nucleus of the atom remain unaffected by the rearranged orbital electrons and are able to detect the ORMEs.

Theoretical aspects

.The study of molecules by molecular physics and theoretical chemistry is largely based on quantum mechanics and is essential for the understanding of the chemical bond.^ The transition from classical to quantum in theoretical physics is most elegantly prescribed by path integral.
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^ Followings are some basic concepts of inorganic chemistry: Periodic Table - A molecule is a compound composed of a group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
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^ When an atom or molecule combines with oxygen, it tends to give up electrons to the oxygen in forming a chemical bond .

.The simplest of molecules is the hydrogen molecule-ion, H2+, and the simplest of all the chemical bonds is the one-electron bond.^ Hydrogen with one valence electron forms a single covalent bond.
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^ The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule, based on a scale in which the atomic masses of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are 1, 12, 14, and 16, respectively.
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^ This is because water molecules help form hydrogen bonds between DNA's phosphate groups.
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.H2+ is composed of two positively-charged protons and one negatively-charged electron, which means that the Schrödinger equation for the system can be solved more easily due to the lack of electron–electron repulsion.^ The negative charge results because there are more electrons than protons in the anion.

^ The charge results because there are more protons than electrons in the cation due to missing orbital electrons.

^ A neutral hadron that is stable in the atomic nucleus but decays into a proton , an electron , and antineutrino with a mean life of 12 minutes outside the nucleus.

.With the development of fast digital computers, approximate solutions for more complicated molecules became possible and are one of the main aspects of computational chemistry.^ The measurement of the conductivity of an electrolyte solution is more complicated than a similar measurement with a metallic conductor.

^ Molecules are made up of one or more atoms.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 24 January 2010 16:37 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If they contain more than one atom, the atoms can be the same (an oxygen molecule has two oxygen atoms) or different (a water molecule has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 24 January 2010 16:37 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When trying to define rigorously whether an arrangement of atoms is "sufficiently stable" to be considered a molecule, IUPAC suggests that it "must correspond to a depression on the potential energy surface that is deep enough to confine at least one vibrational state".[1] This definition does not depend on the nature of the interaction between the atoms, but only on the strength of the interaction.^ Overall colloid stability depends on the interaction between individual particles.

^ Symbol eV. A unit of energy equal to the work done on an electron in moving it through a potential difference of one volt.

^ Whether the movement of the fluid is due to "forced" or "natural" convection, a thin layer of fluid will always remain completely immobile at the surface of the solid due to the solid-liquid interactive forces.

.In fact, it includes weakly-bound species that would not traditionally be considered molecules, such as the helium dimer, He2, which has one vibrational bound state[8] and is so loosely bound that it is only likely to be observed at very low temperatures.^ While the latter is linked to the oscillating state of the molecule, which occurs only at certain resonant energy so that the emitting or absorbing photon can carry only .
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^ Such changes are now described in terms of changes in the oxidation number, or oxidation state, of the atom or molecule (see valence ).

^ The former is related to the initial and final states of the molecule, which favors the one step change in the rotational configuration.
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See also

References

  1. ^ a b International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1994). "molecule". Compendium of Chemical Terminology Internet edition.
  2. ^ Pauling, Linus (1970). General Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-65622-5.  
    Ebbin, Darrell, D. (1990). General Chemistry, 3rd Ed.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.. ISBN 0-395-43302-9.  
    Brown, T.L. (2003). Chemistry – the Central Science, 9th Ed.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-066997-0.  
    Chang, Raymond (1998). Chemistry, 6th Ed.. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-115221-0.  
    Zumdahl, Steven S. (1997). Chemistry, 4th ed.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-669-41794-7.  
  3. ^ Chandra, Sulekh. Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry. New Age Publishers. ISBN 8122415121.  
  4. ^ Molecule Definition (Frostburg State University)
  5. ^ Chang RL, Deen WM, Robertson CR, Brenner BM. (Oct 1975). "Permselectivity of the glomerular capillary wall: III. Restricted transport of polyanions". Kidney Int. 8 (4): 212–218. PMID 1202253.  
  6. ^ Chang RL, Ueki IF, Troy JL, Deen WM, Robertson CR, Brenner BM. (Sept 1975). "Permselectivity of the glomerular capillary wall to macromolecules. II. Experimental studies in rats using neutral dextran". Biophys J. 15 (9): 887–906. PMID 1182263.  
  7. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1997,2006). "spectroscopy". Compendium of Chemical Terminology Internet edition.
  8. ^ Anderson JB (May 2004). "Comment on "An exact quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the helium-helium intermolecular potential" [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 4546 (2001)]". J Chem Phys 120 (20): 9886–7. doi:10.1063/1.1704638. PMID 15268005.  

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