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Kingdom of Mon

9thcentury–1752
Red is show Mon kingdom
Capital Mottama (9thcentury-1383)
Pegu (1383 - 1580)
Moulmein(1580-1752)
Language(s) Mon language
Religion Buddhism
Government Monarchy
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Formation 9thcentury
 - Annexxed by Konbaung dynasty 1752
This article is part of
the History of Burma series
Burmapeacockforhistory.svg
Early history of Burma
Pyu city-states (c. 100 BC–c. 840 AD)
Mon kingdoms (9th–11th, 13th–16th, 18th c.)
Bagan Dynasty (849–1287, 1st Empire)
Ava (1364–1555)
Pegu (1287–1539, 1747–1757)
Mrauk U (1434–1784)
Taungoo Dynasty (1486–1752, 2nd Empire)
Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885, 3rd Empire)
Wars with Britain (1824–1826, 1852, 1885)
British Arakan (1824–1852)
British Tenasserim (1824–1852)
British Lower Burma (1852–1886)
British Upper Burma (1885–1886)
British rule in Burma (1824–1942, 1945–1948)
Nationalist movement in Burma (after 1886)
Ba Maw
Aung San
Japanese occupation of Burma (1942–1945)
Democratic period (1948–1962)
U Nu and U Thant
1st military rule (1962–1989)
Ne Win
8888 Uprising (1988)
Aung San Suu Kyi
2nd military rule (1989–present)
Saffron Revolution (2007)
Cyclone Nargis (2008)
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Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries.

The first recorded kingdom that can indisputably be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.

About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia. The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.

After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.

A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states . These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.

Contents

Origin

Religion

Mon Religion are Buddhism in 7-9century Arab trader come from Middle East Mon Kingdoms Become Muslim State

List of Mon monarchs

Mon monarchs ruled lower Burma from 1287 to 1539 with a brief revival during 1550-53.

Mon name Dates BE years Succession Death Burmese Pali Other names Muslim Name
Wareru 1287-96 649 19 murdered Magadu, Wa Roe, Warow, Wariru
Hkun Law 1296-1310 668 4 brother murdered Hkun Law Tha-na-ran-bya-keit
Saw U 1310-24 672 13 nephew murdered Saw O Theng-mhaing
Saw Zein 1324-31 685 7 brother murdered Binga-ran-da
Zein Pun 1331 murderer murdered
Saw E Gan Gaung 1331 murdered
Banya E Law 1331-48 692 18 cousin Binnya E Law
Binnya U 1348-83 710 37 son natural death Binnya U Tsheng-phyu-sheng
Rajadhirat 1383-1421 747 39 son accident Razadarit Binnya Nwe
Banya Dhamraja 1423-26 785 3 son murdered Binnyadammayaza
Binnya Ram I 1426-46 788 20 brother Binnyaran Ramarajadhirat Binnya Rankit
Banyabarow 1446-50 808 4 nephew Binnyawaru Jayaddisarajadhirat Banyabarvor,
Banya Ken Dau 1450-53 812 3 cousin Dhammatrailokyanatha Banya Ken, Binya Keng, Banya Kyan
Mawdaw 1453 815 cousin
Baña Thau 1453-1472 815 7 abdicated Shin Sawbu Viharadevi
Dhammacedi 1472-92 822 31 son-in-law natural death Dammazedi Ramadhipati Dhammazedi, Damazedi, Dhammachedi, Dhammaceti
Binnya Ram II 1492-1526 853 35 son Binnyaran
Takayutpi 1526-39 888 14 son Takayutpi
Smim Sawhtut 1550 usurper murdered Smim Sawhtut
Smim Htaw 1551-53 2 usurper executed Smim Htaw

See also

References

  • Guillon, Emmanuel (tr. ed. James V. Di Crocco) (1999) The Mons: A civilization of Southeast Asia, Bangkok: The Siam Society.
  • Harvey, G.E. (1925) History of Burma: From the earliest times to 10 March 1824 the beginning of the English conquest, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co.
  • Phayre, Arthur Purves. History of Burma including Burma Proper, Pegu, Taungu,
  • Tenasserim, and Arakan: From the Earliest Time to the End of the First War With British India. London: Trübner & Company. 1883; Reprint: Bibliotheca Orientalism, Bangkok: Orchid Press, 1998.
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