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Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701).
.A Monarch is the person who heads a monarchy, a form of government in which a country or entity is usually ruled or controlled by an individual who normally rules for life or until abdication.^ Monarchy is the best form of government..
  • Is Democracy a superior form of government? - Religion & Politics - General Discussion - MMORPG.com Forums 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ I just long for the day when Australians take a "who cares" attitude to the monarchy, so what if Prince W is charming, personable affable etc.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Monarchs may be autocrats (absolute monarchy) or may be ceremonial heads of state who exercise little or no power or only reserve power, with actual authority vested in a parliament or other body (constitutional monarchy).^ Hence we already have an Australian "Head of State" who is NOT the monarch.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means while we have the British monarch as our head of state, the British Parliament overrides our head of state!
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no mention of "head of State" in our Constitution.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most states only have a single monarch at any given time, although a regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, not present or debilitated.^ Although the opposition has stated a good example of human development in Cuba currently, it doesn’t prove that life in Fidel’s time is better than Batista’s time.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The previous sciences must first be studied, and will, we may add, continue to be studied till the end of time, although in a sense different from any which Plato could have conceived.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Great and terrible as the tyrant may appear enthroned amid his satellites, let us not be afraid to go in and ask; and the answer is, that the monarchical is the happiest, and the tyrannical the most 577 miserable of States.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Two monarchs have ruled simultaneously in some countries, as in the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta or the joint sovereignty of spouses or relatives (eg.^ Two countries that was ruled under dictatorship era, South Korea and Taiwan, revert from the dictatorship to democracy.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In that case,’ said he, ‘he will never be a politician.’ Yes, but he will, in his own city; though probably not in his native country, unless by some divine accident.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No more POI were answered since the rule 1.4.1 states that the POI "are limited to two per team per debate."
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

William and Mary of Kingdom of England and Scotland, Peter and Ivan of Russia, Charles and Joanna of Castile, etc).
.Monarchs have various titles — king or queen, prince or princess (eg.^ There is no such thing as a king, queen, prince or princess.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As monarch, Queen Victoria was well within her rights to consent, if you will, to her own marriage to a foreign prince.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sovereign Prince of Monaco), emperor or empress (eg. Emperor of Japan, Emperor of India), Shah of Iran), or even duke or grand duke (eg. Grand Duke of Luxembourg). Many monarchs are distinguished by titles and styles. .They often take part in certain ceremonies, such as a coronation.^ And will our pupils, when they hear this, refuse to take their turn at the toils of State, when they are allowed to spend the greater part of their time with one another in the heavenly light?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But if they are to be courageous, must they not learn other lessons besides these, and lessons of such a kind as will take away the fear of death?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Countries applies certain policies that can further develop the economy, but the question is what kind of economic advice do they take NOT what kind of government do they have.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

.Monarchy are associated with political or sociocultural in nature hereditary rule; most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family (over a period of time called a dynasty) and trained for future duties.^ For children can only be brought up in families.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They can differ on the magnitude of the governing clique, the military or civil nature of the authority, economic liberties granted for citizens, legality of political associations, legal framework, etc.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In what may be called the epilogue of the discussion with Thrasymachus, Plato argues that evil is not a principle of strength, but of discord and dissolution, just touching the question which has been often treated in modern times by theologians and philosophers, of the negative nature of evil (cp.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority (Salic law).^ I believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law.
  • Anarchy at Sea - William Langewiesche 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.wesjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such differences commonly originate in a disagreement about the use of the terms ‘mine’ and ‘not mine,’ ‘his’ and ‘not his.’ .
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such differences commonly originate in a disagreement about the use of the terms "mine" and "not mine," "his" and "not his."
  • Plato: Republic: Book V 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.While traditionally most monarch have been male, female monarchs have also ruled in history; the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, while a queen consort refers to the wife of a reigning king.^ In one of the most shameful episodes in the history of U.S. jurisprudence, the Supreme Court ruled in the infamous 1927 Buck v.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He would confine the terms King or State to the rule of reason and justice, and he will not concede that title either to a democracy or to a monarchy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some monarchies are non-hereditary.^ Many non-natives favored the overthrow, but some supported the monarchy.
  • Was the 1893 overthrow of the monarchy illegal? Was it a theft of a nation owned by kanaka maoli and stolen by non-kanaka maoli? 10 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

In an elective monarchy, the monarch is elected but otherwise serves as any other monarch. .Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors (chosen by prince-electors but often coming from the same dynasty) and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.^ By "her enthusiastic endorsement of Prince William on Channel 9 on Friday 15 January, it seems that Ms. Buttrose has come back to the monarchy," Flint enthused.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The monarchy is a remnat from a bloody feudal time and belongs in the same historic garbage bin as slavery.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and the pope of the Roman Catholic Church, who serves as Sovereign of the Vatican City State and is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals.^ Now he was one of those who came from heaven, and in a former life had dwelt in a well-ordered State, but his virtue was a matter of habit only, and he had no philosophy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church “Hijacked” Peter and now call him the first Pope!
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was one of those who had come from heaven, and in his previous life had been a citizen of a well-ordered State, but he had only habit and no philosophy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Monarchies have existed throughout the world, although in recent centuries many states have abolished the monarchy and becomes republics.^ I say before we waste any more breath on the future of the monarchy lets abolish state governments and get rid of corruption once and for all.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually, Tax, there are many workable models that have been "come up" with - many of them are in practice around the world, and have been for centuries.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No doubt, after so many populist polls are taken, our nation will become a republic.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Advocacy of republics is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchies is called monarchism.^ It would thus appear that the freedom of a monarchy depends on the monarch, just as the freedom of a republic depends upon the public.
  • xkcd • View topic - Should Australia become a republic? 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you're going to argue that monarchies are better than republics for respecting the rights of minorities, you're going to have to imply that the monarch is capable of using their power for good and not evil.
  • xkcd • View topic - Should Australia become a republic? 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the author of the classic text on Australian republican government, Monarchy to Republic: Australian Republican Government (1986).
  • From Constitutional Convention to Republic Referendum: A Guide to the Processes, the Issues and the Participants (Research Paper 25 1998-99) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

The principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of leadership, with a usually short interregnum (as seen in the classic phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!").
.Form of government may be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as family dictatorship or political families present in many democracies.^ Such, then, is the form and such are the evils of oligarchy; and there may be many other evils.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We are then dumbstruck, when the proposition redrew the categories of the world’s previous and current form of government and created a category of a Democratic yet Dictatorship country.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such is true in our former rebuttal against their point in "Dictatorship outperforms democracy in growth and economic development" .
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Etymology

.The word monarch (Latin: monarcha) comes from the Greek μόναρχος (from μόνος, one, singular and ἀρχός, leader, guide, chief) which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler.^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split names " Symon comes de Monteforti " as one of the leaders of the army which landed at Zadar in Oct 1203 [1787] .
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

.With time, the word has been succeeded in this meaning by others, such as autocrat or dictator.^ Words evolve in meaning with the passage of time.
  • The American Spectator : Totalitarian Sentimentality 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These words and phrases (in Hebrew pershar in the singular, persharim in the plural) had the same meaning each time they were used.
  • Dragon Society - Real History, Dragon Philosophy and The Importance of Royal Bloodlines 10 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.bibliotecapleyades.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Individualism" means the absence of such communal thinking or the striving to abandon it; the word has an extremely negative connotation.
  • Mikhail Epstein 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.emory.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In modern usage the word monarch is generally used when referring to a traditional system of hereditary rulership, with elective monarchies often considered as exceptions.^ The thing I like about our monarchy is that both the Monarch and the Vice-Regal representative don't generally aspire to the position.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In classical political sciences, the word also refers to a person who has taken a position of power outside of hereditary (no longer applicable except for monarchies) or constitutional frameworks.

^ Propaganda, in its most basic form of acceptance, refers to using speeches, media channels, and other means for disseminating information to the general public.

Classification

.A particular case is the French co-prince of Andorra, a position held by the elected President of France.^ An elected president means adopting the American or French model rather than the current Westminster model, which has served us well.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A directly elected president voted on by all the people of Australia should not be in second position to a prime minister who got the votes of some people in suburban Brisbane.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people want a president and want that person elected by the people because they say they don't want a politician filling the position.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nonetheless, he is still generally considered a monarch because of the traditional use of a monarchical title (even though Andorra is, strictly speaking, a diarchy.^ But in other cases, it is not in general requisite that they should be truly stated, because they are not required to be strictly proved.
  • Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition - Letter N 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, a notice to produce papers ought to be given in writing, and state the title of the cause in which it is proposed to use the papers or instruments required.
  • Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition - Letter N 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The general assembly will be considered in the same order that has been observed in speaking of the senate.
  • Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition - Letter N 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

) .Similarly, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the office for five years at a time.^ During fifteen years, 35-50, they are to hold office.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, several life-time dictators around the world have not been formally classified as monarchs, but that may be more to do with international political sensitivities than with semantics.^ She is shown as the daughter of Gilbert in Europische Stammtafeln [394] , but this may be no more than speculation.
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the opposition has stated a good example of human development in Cuba currently, it doesn’t prove that life in Fidel’s time is better than Batista’s time.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lastly we do not have to defend any kind of democratic values and on the other hand we have stated time and again that dictatorships are a very stable and stabilizing government.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

Succession

Hereditary succession within one family has been most common. The usual hereditary succession is based on some cognatic principles and on seniority, though sometimes merit has played a part. .Thus, the most common hereditary system in feudal Europe was based on cognatic primogeniture, where a lord was succeeded by his eldest son, and failing sons, by either daughters or by sons of daughters.^ He succeeded his father as Comte d'Eu , indicating presumably that he was the eldest son.
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

^ No indication has been found about the parentage of Hawise, but if she was a member of the main Gournay family she may have been the daughter either of Hugues de Gournay or of his son Gerard de Gournay.
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

^ Certainly he would not; for every one whom they meet will be regarded by them either as a brother or sister, or father or mother, or son or daughter, or as the child or parent of those who are thus connected with him.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight also to merits and capability.
.The Quasi-Salic succession provided firstly for male members of the family to succeed, and secondarily males descended from female lines.^ Kerrebrouck [1672] refers to the claim by the family d'Artois of Artois (extinct in the male line in 1885) to descend from this possible illegitimate son of Charles d'Artois Comte d'Eu.
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

^ Her descendants, in the male line until 1356, are discussed by Delisle [1855] .
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

^ He left descendants, extinct in the male line in 13 th century [2127] .
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

.In most feudal fiefs, females (such as daughters and sisters) were allowed to succeed, should the male line fail, but usually the husband of the heiress became the real lord and most often also received the title, jure uxoris.^ The elderly and the very young are usually at the front of the line for influenza vaccines because they are most likely to die or develop serious complications.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Orderic Vitalis names her as sister of Giroie, stating that she became the mother of 3 sons and 11 daughters [178] .
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

^ The book is not really what to most persons the title of it would imply, and belongs to an age which has passed away.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Great Britain and Spain today continue this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture. In more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, and outcomes were often idiosyncratic.
.As the average life span among the nobility increased (thanks to lords limiting their personal participation in dangerous battles, and generally improved sustenance and living conditions among the wealthy), an eldest son was more likely to reach majority age before the death of his father, and primogeniture became increasingly favoured over proximity, tanistry, seniority and election.^ He succeeded his father as Comte d'Eu , indicating presumably that he was the eldest son.
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

^ The ‘spectator of all time and of all existence’ sees more of ‘the increasing purpose which through the ages ran’ than formerly: but to the inhabitant of a small state of Hellas the vision was necessarily limited like the valley in which he dwelt.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fear of death and the consciousness of sin become more vivid in old age; and to be rich frees a man from many temptations.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Later, when lands were strictly divided among noble families and tended to remain fixed, agnatic primogeniture (practically the same as Salic Law) became more usual: the succession would go to the eldest son of the monarch, or, if the monarch had no sons, the throne would pass to the nearest male relative through the male line, to the total exclusion of females.^ And yet there is a worse stage of the same disease—when men have learned to take a pleasure and pride in the twists and turns of the law; not considering how much better it would be for them so to order their lives as to have no need of a nodding justice.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Should I let you go on, you will ruin fifty thousand families, and that would be my sin!

^ Kerrebrouck [1672] refers to the claim by the family d'Artois of Artois (extinct in the male line in 1885) to descend from this possible illegitimate son of Charles d'Artois Comte d'Eu.
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

.In some countries however, inheritance through the female line was never wholly abandoned, so that if the monarch had no sons, the throne would pass to the eldest daughter and to her posterity.^ Who can imagine that a man who sold his son or daughter into slavery for money, especially if he sold them into the hands of fierce and evil men, would be the gainer, however large might be the sum which he received?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He has had no education, or he would never have allowed the blind god of riches to lead the dance within him.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The country is then no longer Australia, but some corrupted version that attempts to appease everyone.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(This, cognatic primogeniture, was the rule that let Elizabeth II become Queen.)
.In 1980, Sweden became the first monarchy to declare equal primogeniture or full cognatic primogeniture, meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, whether female or male, ascends to the throne.^ Why, clearly, he said, then he and his boon companions, whether male or female, will be maintained out of his father’s estate.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The last extreme of popular liberty is when the slave bought with money, whether male or female, is just as free as his or her purchaser; nor must I forget to tell of the liberty and equality of the two sexes in relation to each other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First, by robbing the temples of their treasures, which will enable him to lighten the taxes; then he will take all his father’s property, and spend it on his companions, male or female.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[1] Other kingdoms (the Netherlands in 1983, Norway in 1990, and Belgium in 1991) have since followed suit.
.In some monarchies, such as Saudi Arabia, succession to the throne usually first passes to the monarch's next eldest brother, and only after that to the monarch's children (agnatic seniority).^ Some of the best enactments in the Republic, such as the reverence to be paid to parents and elders, and some of the worst, such as the exposure of deformed children, are borrowed from the practice of Sparta.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ May as well stay a Monarchy until we can instigate some REAL change with such a referendum.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Republic, Socrates has definitely settled in all a few questions only; such as the community of women and children, the community of property, and the constitution of the state.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

In some other monarchies (e.g. Jordan), the monarch chooses who will be his successor, who need not necessarily be his eldest son.

History

Tigranes the Great, monarch of Armenia from 95 BC to 55 BC

Monarchs in Africa

.A series of Pharaohs ruled Ancient Egypt over the course of three millennia (circa 3150 BC to 31 BC) until it was conquered by the Roman Empire.^ It is not ‘the ghost of the dead Roman Empire sitting crowned upon the grave thereof,’ but the legitimate heir and successor of it, justified by the ancient virtues of the Romans and the beneficence of their rule.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

In the same time period, several kingdoms flourished in the nearby Nubia region.
Central Africa hosted the Kanem Empire (700 - 1376).
In East Africa, the Aksumite Empire and later the Ethiopian Empire (1270-1974) were ruled by a series of monarchs. Haile Selassie, the last Emperor of Ethiopia, was deposed in a communist coup.
.Southern Africa was isolated from other cultures until the modern era, but did later feature kingdoms like the Kingdom of Kongo (1400 – 1914).^ The State is all-sufficing for the wants of man, and, like the idea of the Church in later ages, absorbs all other desires and affections.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The difficulty in this passage may be explained, like many others, from differences in the modes of conception prevailing among ancient and modern thinkers.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like many other thinkers both in ancient and modern times his mind seems to be filled with a vacant form which he is unable to realize.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

As part of the Scramble for Africa, Europeans conquered, bought, or established African kingdoms and styled themselves as a monarch.
Currently, the African nation of Morocco is a monarchy.

Monarchs in Europe

Prince was a common title within the Holy Roman Empire, along with a number of higher titles listed below. .Such titles were granted by the Emperor, while the titulation of rulers of sovereign states was generally left to their own discretion, most often choosing King or Queen.^ Whereas the truth is that the State in which the rulers are most reluctant to govern is always the best and most quietly governed, and the State in which they are most eager, the worst.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How different are the terms which are applied to the rulers in other States and in our own!
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution of the United States provides that no state shall " grant any title of nobility; and no person can become a citizen ot' the United States until he has renounced all titles of nobility."
  • Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition - Letter N 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Such titulations could cause diplomatic problems, and especially the elevation to Emperor or Empress was seen as an offensive action.^ Such a state had never been seen, and therefore could not be conceived by them.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But where an agreement is entered into by deed, that deed gives, in itself, a substantive cause of action, and the giving such deed may be sufficient accord and satis- faction for a simple contract debt.
  • Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition - Letter N 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries most small monarchies in Europe disappeared, merging to form larger entities, and so King the most common title for male rulers and Queen has become the most common title today for female rulers.^ In the initial phases of a monarchy, as history would show, normally the kings are powerful and virtuous leaders, however over time it seems those good qualities are diluted and the direct sons of the previous leaders become unfit rulers.
  • Is Democracy a superior form of government? - Religion & Politics - General Discussion - MMORPG.com Forums 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He would confine the terms King or State to the rule of reason and justice, and he will not concede that title either to a democracy or to a monarchy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The new form of government resembles the ideal in obedience to rulers and contempt for trade, in having common meals, and in devotion to warlike and gymnastic exercises.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Today in Europe, there are twelve surviving monarchies: seven kingdoms, one grand duchy, one papacy, and two principalities, as well as the diarchy of Andorra.^ There is one genuine pleasure, and two spurious ones: the tyrant goes beyond even the latter; he has run away altogether from law and reason.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For in every state there are two hostile nations, rich and poor, which you may set one against the other.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The sphere of the intelligible will also have two divisions,—one of mathematics, in which there is no ascent but all is descent; no inquiring into premises, but only drawing of inferences.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Monarchs in Asia

In China, "king" is the usual translation for the term wang 王, the sovereign before the Qin dynasty and during the Ten Kingdoms period. .During the early Han dynasty, China had a number of small kingdoms, each about the size of a county and subordinate to the Empress or Emperor of China.^ Because they reproduce 5 of other small links which further frustrates their need to simply be happy with their size and number.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

The Japanese monarchy is now the only monarchy to still use the title of Emperor. .Until 1979, Iran was ruled by an Emperor that used the title of "Shahanshah" (or "King of Kings" in Persian).^ He would confine the terms King or State to the rule of reason and justice, and he will not concede that title either to a democracy or to a monarchy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Malaysia, following constitutional change, the Kings who rule each state lost their national authority: they are using their intra-state authority to provide a national stability that transcends national politics.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then how can you be justified in saying that cities will not cease from evil until philosophers rule in them, when philosophers are acknowledged by us to be of no use to them?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thailand is currently still a monarchy ruled by a king.^ A Queen or a King -it is still a monarchy.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He would confine the terms King or State to the rule of reason and justice, and he will not concede that title either to a democracy or to a monarchy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Saudi Arabia and parts of the United Arab Emirates, such as Dubai, are still ruled by monarchs. .The Kingdom of Jordan is one of the Middle East's more modern monarchies.^ And most of us working class and lower middle class unfashionable (and undoubtedly more numerous) types actually don't mind having a monarchy.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nepal abolished their monarchy in 2008.

Monarchs in the Americas

.The concept of monarchy existed in the Americas long before the arrival of European colonialists.^ As long as you exist as an independent country, however long that may be, we here in America will always have our eyes on you .

[2][3] .When the Europeans arrived they referred to these tracts of land within territories of different aboriginal groups to be kingdoms, and the leaders of these groups were often referred to by the Europeans as Kings, particularly hereditary leaders.^ Members of these groups [Editor´s Note: the Illuminati] will think they are one with us never knowing the truth.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Modern and Christian writers have often fallen short of these; they can hardly be said to have gone beyond them.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In accordance with the difference of men’s natures, one of these three principles is in the ascendant, and they have their several pleasures corresponding to them.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[4] Many of the leaders were queens, but this was not understood by the Europeans, who had no knowledge of the indigenous history or languages, much less an understanding of matrilineality
Pre-colonial titles that were used included:
.The first local monarch to emerge in North America after colonization was Augustin I, who declared himself Emperor of Mexico in 1822. Mexico again had an emperor, Maximilian I from 1863 to 1867. In South America, Brazil had a Portuguese royal house ruling as emperor between 1822 and 1889, under Emperors Pedro I and Pedro II.^ And is there not a maker of the works of all workmen, who makes not only vessels but plants and animals, himself, the earth and heaven, and things in heaven and under the earth?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For this is he who is able to make not only vessels of every kind, but plants and animals, himself and all other things—the earth and heaven, and the things which are in heaven or under the earth; he makes the gods also.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The philosopher himself has lost the love of truth, and the soldier, who is of a simpler and honester nature, rules in his stead.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.These American emperors were deposed due to complex issues, including pressure from the highly republican United States, which had declared itself independent of the British monarch in 1776. The British, worried about U.S. colonial expansion, invasion following the American Civil War, and the fact that the U.S. had aided the Mexican republican rebels in overthrowing Maximilian I, pushed for the union of the Canadian provinces into a country in 1867. With Confederation, Canada became a self-governing nation which was considered a kingdom in its own right,[5] though it remained subordinate to the United Kingdom; thus, Victoria was monarch of Canada, but not sovereign of it.^ Republic, he admits that the perfect state of communism and philosophy was impossible in his own age, though still to be retained as a pattern.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact this twit talks about population control in our nation yet the government can’t bring in enough people in to make up for the population decline?
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (When will the United States create a commission to investigate its own torture?

.It was not until the passing of the Statute of Westminster that Canada was considered to be under a distinct Canadian Crown, separate to that the British, and not until 1953 that the Canadian monarch, at the time Elizabeth II, was titled by Canadian law as Queen of Canada.^ The religious and ethical aspect of Plato’s education will hereafter be considered under a separate head.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Between 1931 and 1983 nine other previous British colonies attained independence as kingdoms, all, including Canada, in a personal union relationship under a shared monarch.^ What about all the other kingdoms that have vanished?
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other is a conflict that America did not seek; one in which we are joined by 42 other countries — including Norway — in an effort to defend ourselves and all nations from further attacks.

^ All to support or maintain the British Empire, and Australias, like all of the colonies troops were sacrificed in gay abandon by incompetant .
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, though today there are legally ten American monarchs, one person occupies each distinct position.^ One could be excused for thinking that there is no better illustration of the cult of personality than in the monarchist reaction to Prince William.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think, I said, that there might be a reform of the State if only one change were made, which is not a slight or easy though still a possible one.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many examples of dictatorships that are not personal but cliques (as in one party systems).
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

Male Title Female Title Realm Latin Examples
Emperor Empress Empire Imperator (Imperatrix) Brazil, Mexico, Sapa Inca
King Queen Kingdom Rex (Regina) Canada, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Saint Kitts and Nevis

Titles

.The normal monarch title in Europe — i.e., the one used if the monarch has no higher title — is prince or princess, by convention.^ It appears that, at any one time, there were no more than a dozen or so different nobles who are named in contemporary documentation with the title " dux " or ealdorman.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was granted the town of Leicester by Henry I King of England, and is thereby said to have become Earl of Leicester but there is no record of his having used this title [2160] .
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

^ NOMINAL PLAINTIFF. One who is named as the plaintiff in an action, but who has no interest in it, having assigned the cause or right of action to another, for whose use it is brought.
  • Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition - Letter N 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

As an absolute ruler, a monarch can choose a title. However, titles are usually defined by tradition and diplomatic considerations.
Note that some of these titles have several meanings and do not necessarily designate a monarch. .A Prince may be a person of royal blood (some languages uphold this distinction, see Fürst).^ Just as a matter of interest, Prince William may have some constituional role in one or more nations at some future date, but he has none now.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A Duke may be a British peer. In Imperial Russia, a Grand Duke was a son or grandson of the Tsar or Tsarina. Holders of titles in these alternative meanings did not enjoy the same status as the monarchs of the same title.
.Within the Holy Roman Empire, there were even more titles that were used occasionally for monarchs although they were normally noble; Margrave, Count Palatine, and Landgrave.^ It appears that, at any one time, there were no more than a dozen or so different nobles who are named in contemporary documentation with the title " dux " or ealdorman.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the Interpreter placed on the ground before them the samples of lives; and there were many more lives than the souls present, and they were of all sorts.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no question that Monarchies work best, heck, even my Bratislava had one of the House of Hapsburg as King, one of the most original Royal Families ever, dating back to the Royal Roman Empire.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A monarch with such a low title was still regarded as more important than a noble Duke.^ Either these so-called sons of gods were not the sons of gods, or they were not such as the poets imagine them, any more than the gods themselves are the authors of evil.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The two philosophers had more in common than they were conscious of; and probably some elements of Plato remain still undetected in Aristotle.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Get over it people there are much more important reasons for becoming a republic than doffing our hats to the Windsors - whichever of their brood it is ...
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
Male version Female version Realm Adjective Latin Examples
Emperor Empress Empire imperial Imperator (Imperatrix) .Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Russia , First and Second French Empire, Austria, Mexico, Brazil, German Empire (none left in Europe after 1918), Empress of India (ceased to be used after 1947 when India was granted independence from the British Empire), Japan (the only remaining enthroned emperor in the world).^ It seems to have arisen out of the impression left on the human mind by the growth of the Roman Empire and of the Christian Church, and to be due to the political and social improvements which they introduced into the world; and still more in our own century to the idealism of the first French Revolution and the triumph of American Independence; and in a yet greater degree to the vast material prosperity and growth of population in England and her colonies and in America.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two remain—the Dorian and Phrygian, the first for war, the second for peace; the one expressive of courage, the other of obedience or instruction or religious feeling.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Her second marriage took place with the dispensation of Pope Paschal II, granted although her first husband was still living [1891] .
  • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

King Queen Kingdom royal Rex (Regina) Common in larger sovereign states
Viceroy Vicereine Viceroyalty viceroyal Proconsul Historical: Spanish Empire (Peru, New Spain, Rio de la Plata, New Granada), Portuguese Empire, (India, Brazil), British Empire
Grand Duke Grand Duchess Grand duchy Grand Ducal Magnus Dux Today: Luxembourg; historical: Lithuania, Baden, Finland, Tuscany et al.
Archduke Archduchess Archduchy archducal Arci Dux Historical: Unique only in Austria, Archduchy of Austria; title used for member of the Habsburg dynasty
Prince Princess Principality, Princely state princely Princeps Today: Monaco, Liechtenstein, Wales[6]; Andorra (Co-Princes). Historical: Albania, Serbia
Duke Duchess Duchy ducal Dux There are none left currently. Though historical examples include Normandy.
Count Countess County countly, comital Comes Most common in the Holy Roman Empire, translated in German as Graf; historical: Barcelona, Brandenburg, Baden, numerous others
Baron Baroness Barony Baronial Baro There are normal baronies and sovereign baronies, a sovereign barony can be compared with a principality, however, this is an historical exception; sovereign barons no longer have a sovereign barony, but only the title and style
Pope Females cannot hold the office of Pope Papacy papal Papa Monarch of the Papal States and later Sovereign of the State of Vatican City
The pope is the Bishop of Rome (a celibate office always forbidden to women), in English however, reports of female popes such as (Pope Joan) refer to them as pope and Popess is used, among other things, for the second trump in the Tarot deck; some European languages also have a feminine form of the word pope, such as the Italian papessa, the French papesse, and the German Päpstin

Titles by region

When a difference exists below, male titles are placed to the left and female titles are placed to the right of the slash.
Region Title Description and use
Africa Almami Fulani people of west Africa
Asantehene Ashanti, title of the King of the Ashanti People in Ghana
Chieftain Leader of a people
Eze Igbo people of Nigeria
Kabaka Baganda people of Buganda in Uganda
Negus Ethiopia
Oba Yoruba people of Nigeria
Omukama Bunyoro, title of some kings in Uganda
Tutsi Mwami Kings of Rwanda and Burundi
Asia
Arasan/Arasi Tamil Nadu(India), Sri Lanka
Chakrawarti Raja India Sri Lanka
Chogyal "Divine Ruler"; ruled Sikkim until 1975
Datu pre-colonial Philippines
Druk Gyalpo Hereditary title given to the king of Bhutan
Emperor of China
Engku or Ungku Malaysia, to denote particular family lineage akin to royalty
Hari Filipino title for king
Huángdì Imperial China Emperor
Hwangje States that unified Korea
Maha Raja Used in India and Sri Lanka
Meurah Title used in Aceh before Islam
Padshah
Shahinshah
Shah
Emperor of Iran or Hindustan (India)
Preah Karuna Preah Bat Sâmdech Preah Bâromneath .King of Cambodia Khmer , the title literally means "The feet of the Greatest Lord who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal title doesn't refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, according to traditions).^ These matters, however, as I was saying, had better be referred to Damon himself, for the analysis of the subject would be difficult, you know?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Make the proclamation yourself.’ The son of Ariston ( the best ) is of opinion that the best and justest of men is also the happiest, and that this is he who is the most royal master of himself; and that the unjust man is he who is the greatest tyrant of himself and of his State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Need we hire a herald, or shall I announce, that the son of Ariston [the best] has decided that the best and justest is also the happiest, and that this is he who is the most royal man and king over himself; and that the worst and most unjust man is also the most miserable, and that this is he who being the greatest tyrant of himself is also the greatest tyrant of his State?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
Patabenda Sub- king Sri lanka
Phrabat Somdej Phrachaoyuhua .King of Thailand (Siam), the title literally means "The feet of the Greatest Lord who is on the heads (of his subjects)" (This royal title doesn't refer directly to the king himself but to his feet, according to traditions.^ Would it mean that Australia's head to state be the President or "Lord Protector" of Great Britain?....
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These matters, however, as I was saying, had better be referred to Damon himself, for the analysis of the subject would be difficult, you know?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Make the proclamation yourself.’ The son of Ariston ( the best ) is of opinion that the best and justest of men is also the happiest, and that this is he who is the most royal master of himself; and that the unjust man is he who is the greatest tyrant of himself and of his State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

)[citation needed]
Qaghan Central Asian Tribes
Racha Thailand same meaning as Raja
Raja .Malaysia, Raja denotes royalty in Perak and certain Selangor royal family lineages, is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess.^ Reconstruction of the families of, and relationships between, Anglo-Saxon nobility of non-royal lineage presents considerable challenges.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Royal Marriages Act requires the monarch to provide consent to certain marriages by members of the Royal Family, particularly where they are to marry into foreign families.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Raja Nepal King
Raja pre-colonial Philippines
Rani Nepali Queen
Rao or Maharao Used in Indian states
Rawal or Maharawal Used in northern and western India, Yaduvanshis.
Susuhunan or Sunan The Indonesian princely state of Surakarta.
Saopha Shan, king of Shan, today as a part of Myanmar
Sayyid Honorific title given throughout the Islamic regions. Title given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Syed/Sharifah in Perlis if suffixed by the royal clan name, is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess.
Shogun Japanese military dictator, always a Samurai
Sultan Aceh, Brunei Darussalam, Java, Oman, Malaysia, Sultan is the title of seven (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Terengganu) of the nine rulers of the Malay states.
Sumeramikoto,Okimi Japan, king
Tengku Malaysia, Tengku (also spelled Tunku in Johor, Negeri Sembilan and Kedah is roughly equivalent to Prince or Princess
Tennō or Mikado Japan
Veyndhan, ko/Arasi Tamil Nadu (India)
Wang Pre-Imperial China. In China, "king" is the usual translation for the term wang 王.
Wang The king of Korea that control over all of Korea. It is called 'Im-Geum-nym' or 'Im-Geum'
Yang di-Pertuan Agong Monarch of Malaysia, elected each five years among the reigning Sultan of each Malaysian state
Europe
Arqa/Thagavor Armenian King
Autocrator Greek term for the Byzantine Emperor
Ban
Medieval Romania (Wallachia, Oltenia)
Basileus Greek King
Despot Medieval Romania, Serbia (originating from Byzantium)
Domn
Medieval Romania (Moldova, Wallachia)
Fejedelem Ancient/Medieval Hungarian
Germanic king
Giray Crimean King
High King of Ireland Also known as Rí, Rúirí, Rí Rúireach and Ard Rí. King, local overking, regional King, and High King in pre-Norman Ireland
Imperator The Ruler of Imperial Russia
Jupan Romania
Kaiser Imperial Germany
Knyaz Kievan Rus'/Serbia. Generally translated as "prince."
Kralj Croatia, Serbia
Kunigaikshtis (Kunigaikštis) Lithuanian, duke as in Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Mbret Albanian King
Tsar/Tsaritsa Bulgaria, pre-imperial Russia, Serbia
Vezér Ancient Hungarian
Voivode, Voievod Serbian/Hungarian/Romanian Title
Župan Serbia, Croatia
Africa &
Middle-East
Pharaoh Ancient Egypt
Shah Persian/Iranian and Afghanistan King
Shahenshah Persian/Iranian "King of Kings" or Emperor
Sheikh Arabic leader, King or Prince (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE)
Malik Arabic King, (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco)
Emir Arabic Prince, (Kuwait, Qatar, UAE)
Sultan/Sultana Arabic King (Oman and Ottoman Empire)
Oceania
Chieftain Leader of a tribe or clan.
Houʻeiki, matai, aliʻi, tūlafale, tavana, ariki Usually translated as "chief" in various Polynesian countries.
Mo'i Normally translated as King, a title used by Hawaiian monarchs since unification in 1810. The last person to hold that title was Queen Lili'uokalani.
Tuʻi or Tui Kings in Oceania: Tonga, Wallis and Futuna, Nauru

Current monarchs

NOTE: The table comprises all sovereign monarchs of the world today, but is severely incomplete with regard to the non-sovereign monarchs.
Name Born Title Since Royal House Succession Heir
Azlan Shah 1928 Sultan of Perak (in Malaysia) 1984 Crown Prince Nazrin Shah
Bhumibol Adulyadej 1927 King of Thailand 1946 Chakri Maha Vajiralongkorn
Elizabeth II 1926 Queen of Antigua and Barbuda
Queen of Australia
Queen of the Bahamas
Queen of Barbados
Queen of Belize
Queen of Canada
Paramount Chief of Fiji
Queen of Grenada
Queen of Jamaica
Lord of the Isle of Mann
Queen of New Zealand
Duke of Normandy (Channel Islands)
Queen of Papua New Guinea
Queen of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Queen of Saint Lucia
Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Queen of the Solomon Islands
Queen of Tuvalu
Queen of the United Kingdom
1981
1952
1973
1966
1981
1952
1998
1974
1962
1952
1952
1952
1973
1983
1979
1979
1978
1978
1952
Windsor Cognatic primogeniture The Prince of Wales
Hassanal Bolkiah 1946 Sultan of Brunei 1967 Bolkiah Agnatic primogeniture Crown Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah
Goodwill Zwelethini 1948 King of the Zulus (in South Africa) 1968
Qaboos 1940 Sultan of Oman 1970 Sa'id Hereditary
Margrethe II 1940 Queen of Denmark 1972 Glucksburg Cognatic primogeniture Crown Prince Frederik
Carl XVI Gustaf 1946 King of Sweden 1973 Bernadotte Equal primogeniture Crown Princess Victoria
Ahmad Shah 1930 Sultan of Pahang (in Malaysia) 1974 Hereditary Crown Prince Tengku Abdullah
Shaikh Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi 1949 Emir of Fujairah (one of the United Arab Emirates) 1974 AL Sharqi Chosen by the Emir Sheikh Mohammed Bin Hamad Al Sharqi
Juan Carlos I 1938 King of Spain 1975 Bourbon Cognatic primogeniture The Prince of Asturias
Ismail Petra 1949 Sultan of Kelantan (in Malaysia) 1979 Hereditary Crown Prince Tengku Faris Petra
Beatrix 1938 Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 1980 Orange-Nassau Equal primogeniture The Prince of Orange
Muhammadu Kabir Usman Emir of Katsina (in Nigeria) 1981
Rashid ibn Ahmad Al Mu'alla 1930 Emir of Umm al-Qaiwain (one of the United Arab Emirates) 1981
Iskandar 1932 Sultan of Johor (in Malaysia) 1981 Hereditary Crown Prince Ibrahim Ismail
Humayd ibn Rashid Al Nuaimi 1931 Emir of Ajman (one of the United Arab Emirates) 1981
Mswati III 1968 King of Swaziland 1986 Dlamini
Sultan ibn Muhammad Al-Qasimi 1939 Emir of Sharjah (one of the United Arab Emirates) 1987
vacant Giacomo dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto acting 1929 Prince Great Master of the Sovereign Order of Malta 1988 Election by a council
Hans-Adam II 1945 Prince of Liechtenstein 1989 Liechtenstein Agnatic-cognatic primogeniture Hereditary Prince Alois
Akihito 1933 Emperor of Japan 1989 Agnatic primogeniture Crown Prince Naruhito
Harald V 1937 King of Norway 1991 Oldenburg Equal primogeniture Crown Prince Haakon
Muwenda Mutebi II 1955 King of Buganda (in Uganda) 1993
Albert II 1934 King of the Belgians 1993 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Equal primogeniture The Duke of Brabant
Solomon Gafabusa Iguru 1949 King of Bunyoro-Kitara (in Uganda) 1994
Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani 1950 Emir of Qatar 1995 Al-Thani Appointed from within Royal Family Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Al Thani
Letsie III 1963 King of Lesotho 1996 Seeiso Appointment by College of Chiefs
Abdullah II 1962 King of Jordan 1999 Hashemite Choice by predecessor Prince Hussein
Mohammed VI 1963 King of Morocco 1999 Alaouite Agnatic primogeniture Prince Moulay Hassan
Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin 1943 Raja of Perlis (in Malaysia) 2000 Dynasty of Jamalullail Hereditary Crown Prince Tuanku Syed Faizzuddin.
Henri 1955 Grand Duke of Luxembourg 2000 Bourbon-Parma Cognatic primogeniture Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume
Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj 1945 Sultan of Selangor (in Malaysia) 2001 Hereditary Crown Prince Tengku Amir Shah.
Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah 1950 King of Bahrain 1999 Al-Khalifa Agnatic primogeniture Crown Prince Salman
Soane Patita Maituku 1947 King of Alo (in Wallis and Futuna, a French territory in the Pacific Ocean) 2002 Chosen by tribe commission
Joan Enric Vives Sicília 1949 Episcopal Co-prince of Andorra 2003 Appointed
Visesio Moeliku 1922 King of Sigave (in Wallis and Futuna) 2004 Chosen by tribe commission
Norodom Sihamoni 1953 King of Cambodia 2004 Norodom Election by 9-member "throne council"
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan 1948 Emir of Abu Dhabi, President and Sheikh of United Arab Emirates 2004
Albert II 1958 Prince of Monaco 2005 Grimaldi Cognatic primogeniture Hereditary Princess Caroline
Benedict XVI 1927 Pope of the Catholic Church (Sovereign of the State of Vatican City) 2005 Election by College of Cardinals Election by College of Cardinals upon death
Abdullah Al Saud 1924 King of Saudi Arabia 2005 Saud Election by family Crown Prince Sultan
Tuheitia Paki 1955 Māori King (in New Zealand) 2006 Te Wherowhero Elected by participating tribal leaders
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum 1949 Emir of Dubai (one of the United Arab Emirates) 2006
Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah 1929 Emir of Kuwait 2006 Al-Sabah Appointment by Emir Sheikh Nawaf
George Tupou V 1948 King of Tonga 2006 Tupou Cognatic primogeniture 'Aho'eitu 'Unuaki'otonga Tuku'aho
Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck 1980 King of Bhutan 2006 Cognatic primogeniture Jigyel Ugyen Wangchuck
Mizan Zainal Abidin 1962 Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) 2006 Election among local monarchs
Sultan of Terengganu (in Malaysia) 1998 Hereditary

Use of titles by non-sovereigns

.It is not uncommon that people who are not generally seen as monarchs nevertheless use monarchical titles.^ Permanently sterilizing people who the authorities deem have already had too many children or who have contributed to “general social deterioration”.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Australians in general are some of the most egalitarian people in the world, and this is in no way affected by having a Monarch.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its modern use, the word tyrant refers to a person in a position of power who tends to put his or her personal interests, or that of a small oligarchy, over the interests of the general population.

There are four cases of this:
  • Claiming an existing title, challenging the current holder. This has been very common historically. .For centuries, the British monarch used, among his other titles, the title King of France, despite the fact that he had had no authority over French territory since the fifteenth century.^ We have a monarch with no power other than to remind people of what good manners are.
    • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As we noted here the other day , there’s no time for depth, context, history — or even facts — when the “frame” is screaming “Terror!” .

    ^ She surrendered Breteuil to Philippe II King of France in 1206 in return for other lands [1777] .
    • NORMANDY NOBILITY 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: Academic]

    .Such as any one of the numerous antipopes who have claimed the Holy See.
  • Retaining the title of an extinct monarchy.^ We are currently trying to introduce anarchic ideals into Western Civilization, and as we are seeing, people such as myself who enjoy Western Civilization are opposed.
    • Portugal parliament approves of gay marriage - Religion & Politics - General Discussion - MMORPG.com Forums 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is a work such as one might expect to have been written by a philosopher and man of genius who was also a friar, and who had spent twenty-seven years of his life in a prison of the Inquisition.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So please don’t click the link if you are one of those people who sees nothing!
    • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

    This can be coupled with a claim that the monarchy was in fact never, or should never have been, extinct. An example of the first case is the Prince of Seborga. Examples of the second case are several deposed monarchs or otherwise pretenders to thrones of abolished monarchies, e.g., Leka, Crown Prince of Albania who is styled by some as the "King of The Albanians." Retaining the title of an extinct monarchy can, however, be totally free of claims of sovereignty, for example it was customary of numerous European Monarchies to include "King of Jerusalem" in their full titles. When it comes to deposed monarchs, it is customary to continue the usage of their monarchical title (e.g., Constantine II, King of the Hellenes) as a courtesy title, not a constitutional office, for the duration of their lifetime. .However the title then dies with them and cannot be used by anyone else unless the crown is restored constitutionally.^ Whether we remain a Monarchy or convert to a republic is a moot point, however, as unless we use the change to revamp an archaic political setup nothing will change.
    • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Why this Prince is no president 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Monarchs who have freely abdicated lose their right to use their former title.^ Nay, hardly even the workers in brass and leather who make them; only the horseman who knows how to use them—he knows their right form.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Say to him, that, in deeming the best votaries of philosophy to be useless to the rest of the world, he is right; but also tell him to attribute their uselessness to the fault of those who will not use them, and not to themselves.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ NOMINAL PLAINTIFF. One who is named as the plaintiff in an action, but who has no interest in it, having assigned the cause or right of action to another, for whose use it is brought.
    • Bouvier's Law Dictionary, 1856 Edition - Letter N 2 February 2010 16:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

    However where a monarch abdicated under duress (e.g., Michael I of Romania), it is customary to see the abdication as invalid and to treat them as deposed monarchs entitled to use their monarchical style for their lifetime.
  • Inventing a new title. This is common by founders of micronations, and also may or may not come with a claim of sovereignty. When it does, it is disregarded by state leaders. A notable example is Paddy Roy Bates, styling himself the "Prince of Sealand," but not recognized as such by any national government, thus failing at least the constitutive condition for statehood (see Sealand for a fuller discussion of his claims).

See also

References

  1. ^ SOU 1977:5 Kvinnlig tronföljd, p.16.
  2. ^ Canada: History
  3. ^ Ferguson, Will; The Lost Kingdom; Macleans, October 27, 2003
  4. ^ The Four Indian Kings
  5. ^ The Crown in Canada
  6. ^ Prince of Wales is a courtesy title given to the eldest son (if there is one) of the King/Queen of Great Britain and Nthn Ireland — he is not a monarch in his own right

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also monarch

Contents

German

Noun

Monarch m.
  1. monarch (head of state in a monarchy)

Related terms

See also


Simple English

.]] A monarch is a ruler who rules because his parents ruled. A male monarch is called a king. A female monarch is called a queen. Some monarchs are called emperors or empresses. It is a system of ruling ,in which ruling starts off by a member of a family and is ruled ,one by one by a member,and continues till end of a family Monarchs were very common in history. A lot of countries used to have a monarch, but no longer have them. They are now republics. Some countries that still have monarchs have other leaders that actually have the power. These are called constitutional monarchies.

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Constitutional monarchy, which are similar to those in the above article.








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