Monarchy in Nova Scotia: Wikis

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Queen in Right of Nova Scotia
Monarchy
Provincial/State
Coat of Arms of Nova Scotia.svg
Royal Coat of Arms of Nova Scotia
Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg
Incumbent:
Elizabeth II
Queen of Canada

Since 6 February 1952
Style: Her Majesty
First monarch: Victoria
Formation: 1 July 1867
Residence: Government House, Halifax

A Nova Scotia stamp issued between 1851 and 1857 bears the Royal Crown at its centre.

By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, the Canadian monarchy operates in Nova Scotia as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy;[1] and is thus the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the province's government.[2] As such, the Crown, as it operates in the jurisdiction, is referred to as The Crown in Right of Nova Scotia,[3] Her Majesty in Right of Nova Scotia,[4] or The Queen in Right of Nova Scotia.[5] The Constitution Act, 1867, however, leaves many royal duties in Nova Scotia specifically assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia,[1] whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy.[6]

Contents

Constitutional monarchy in Nova Scotia

The Crown functions in Nova Scotia in the same way it does in all of Canada's other provinces, with the Canadian monarch – since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II – being represented and her duties carried out by the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. This arrangement began with the 1867 British North America Act,[1] and continued an unbroken line of monarchical government extending back to the late 1500s. However, though Nova Scotia has a separate government headed by the Queen, as a province, Nova Scotia is not itself a kingdom.[7]

Government House in Halifax is used both as an official residence by the Lieutenant Governor, as well as the place where the sovereign and other members of the Canadian Royal Family will reside when in Nova Scotia. The mansion is owned by the sovereign in her capacity as Queen in Right of Nova Scotia, and not as a private individual; the house and other Crown property is held in trust for future rulers and cannot be sold by the monarch except by her Lieutenant Governor with the proper advice and consent from the Executive Council of Nova Scotia.

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Royal associations

Nova Scotia's monarchical status is illustrated via associations between the Crown and many organizations within the province, as well as through royal names applied regions, communities, schools, buildings, and monuments, many of which may also have a specific history with a member or members of the Royal Family. Those in the Royal Family perform ceremonial duties when on a tour of the province, officiating at ceremonial events, as well as visiting hospitals, charities, schools, communities, and the like, and there exist around Nova Scotia various monuments that mark these visits and/or honour the Crown.

Organizations in Nova Scotia may be founded by a Royal Charter, receive a royal prefix, and/or be honoured with the patronage of a member of the Royal Family, such as the Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo, which is under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth II and received its royal prefix from her in 2006. Further, though the monarch does not form a part of the constitutions of Nova Scotia's honours, they do stem from the Crown as the fount of honour, and so bear on the insignia a St. Edward's Crown and/or an effigy and/or Royal Cypher of the sovereign.

History

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, resided in Halifax between 1794 and 1800.

Between French and British crowns

New Brunswick's first monarchical connections were formed when Jacques Cartier in 1534 claimed the Baie des Chaleurs for King Francis I, though the area was not officially settled until King Henry IV in 1604 established a colony administered by the Governor of Acadia. Only slightly later, however, King James VI and I laid claim to and named as a part of the Scottish Crown's dominion, Nova Scotia, which encompassed what is today Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and part of Maine, with The Earl of Stirling appointed as the King's governor.[8][9] James' son, Charles I, later issued the Charter of New Scotland, which created the Baronets of Nova Scotia, many of which continue to exist today. By 1625, New Scotland was granted its first coat of arms by James' successor, King Charles I.

Over the course of the 17th century, the French Crown lost via war and treaties its Maritimes territories to the British sovereign. Due to ongoing conflicts with France elsewhere in North America, the British authorities in 1754 sought confirmation of the Acadians' loyalty to King George III, and gave them each one year to declare their allegiance or leave Nova Scotia, this time without the earlier exemption from bearing arms against the French of aboriginal peoples. The majority refused to give fealty under those conditions, resulting in the expulsion of the Acadians in what came to be known as the Great Upheaval. Then, as a result of the Treaty of Paris of 1763, all of the remaining French regions were ceded by King Louis XV to King George III in exchange for Guadeloupe, and on 7 October of the same year, a Royal Proclamation laid out the policy of the King regarding his newly acquired colonies of America.

The population of the province greatly increased when, during and after the American Revolution, some 30,000 colonists loyal to George III – dubbed as United Empire Loyalists – fled north from the United States, about 30,000 – some 3,000 of which were former slaves of African ancestry known as Black Loyalists – settling in Nova Scotia, where the King granted each family 200 acres (0.8 km²) of land. Continuing today, Nova Scotia residents descended from these original refugees retain the post-nominals UE, standing for United Empire.[10] They were not immediately made to feel comfortable, however, as many of the already settled residents were aligned with the United States and its republican cause; Colonel Thomas Dundas wrote from Saint John in 1786: "[The Loyalists] have experienced every possible injury from the old inhabitants of Nova Scotia, who are even more disaffected towards the British Government than any of the new States ever were. This makes me much doubt their remaining long dependent."[11] Amongst other geographic reasons, this mixing of political beliefs led George III to issue on 16 August 1784 an Order-in-Council dividing the colony into two regions – Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

One of the King's sons, Prince William (later King William IV), in 1786 arrived in the Canadian Maritimes and spent three years in the region, including a lengthy stay in Halifax.[10] His brother, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, was sent in 1794 to take command of Nova Scotia, where he, an amateur architect, designed many of Halifax's forts, oversaw the construction of numerous roads, devised a telegraph system, and left an indelible mark on the city in the form of public buildings of Georgian architecture. After he departed in 1800, he remained remembered for his deeds, such as the construction of both St. George's Round Church and the Halifax Town Clock, as well as improvements to the Grand Parade.[10] Edward's eponymous grandson, Prince Edward, Prince of Wales toured Nova Scotia in 1860, and another grandson, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, was from time to time between 1878 and 1883 stationed in Halifax as Commander of the Royal Navy's North Atlantic Squadron.[10]

Province of a new kingdom

The newly formed kingdom called Canada emerged with Confederation in 1867,[12][13][14] with the Crown continuing, though in a modified guise, as the core of governance in the new province of Nova Scotia; though the Fathers of Confederation had intended otherwise, Nova Scotia gained through the union its own semi-sovereign segment of the Crown's jurisdiction, with the Lieutenant Governor acting as the direct representative of the Queen, rather than her federal viceroy in Ottawa.[15][16] The third Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, Adams George Archibald, greeted Prince George (later King George V) when the Royal Navy ship he was serving on as a midshipman pulled into Halifax harbour. The Prince, by then Duke of Cornwall, later returned to the province with his wife, Mary, Duchess of Cornwall, as part of a cross-country tour, and his uncle, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, visited Nova Scotia with his wife and daughter while he served as Governor General between 1906 to 1912.

Queen Elizabeth II, tours the Fortress of Louisbourg, 1994.

The first reigning monarch to tour the province was King George VI, who, with his consort, Queen Elizabeth, ended his 1939 coast-to-coast trip around Canada at Halifax, where a farewell luncheon was held and the King and Queen each delivered a speech of thanks. That evening, the royal couple boarded the RMS Empress of Britain to return home; of their departure, Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King wrote in his diary: "The Empress of Britain ran past one end of the harbour where she was towed around, then came back the opposite way to pull out to sea. She was accompanied by British warships and our own destroyers. The Bluenose and other vessels also in the harbour as a sort of escort... The King and Queen were at the very top of the ship and kept waving... No farewell could have been finer..."[17] Over the ensuing years, other Canadian royals visited Nova Scotia, including George VI's daughters, Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, in 1951, and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, in 1958. Elizabeth returned in 1959 as monarch; her mother, the Queen Mother, came again to celebrate Canada's centennial in 1967; and Princess Alexandra arrived in Halifax in 1973 to mark the bicentennial of the arrival of the Hector, the first ship to land at Nova Scotia with Scottish colonists. Another milestone was the bicentennial in 1983 of the arrival of the first Empire Loyalists in Nova Scotia, the celebration of which was attended by Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, and his wife, Diana, Princess of Wales. Elizabeth II's other son, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, undertook his first tour of the province in 1986, during which, amongst other activities, he visited Halifax and skippered the Bluenose II.[18]

St. George's Round Church in Halifax, designed by Queen Elizabeth II's great-great-great-grandfather, was set alight by two boys on 2 June 1994, resulting in a rebuilding cost of $6 million. Continuing its royal connections, the fundraising effort received a donation from the Queen's son, the Prince of Wales, who had also attended service at the church in 1983. Later in 1994, Prince Philip visited St. George's, taking a personal interest after the fire at Windsor Castle two years earlier; the province's gift to the Queen and Duke during that visit was a $1,000 donation to the restoration project.[19]

In December 2003, Governor General Adrienne Clarkson read a the Royal Proclamation of 2003, declaring the Crown's acknowledgement of the expulsion of the Acadians from New Brunswick, and designating 28 July as "a Day of Commemoration of the Great Upheaval."[20] This was intended to close one of the longest open cases of the British courts in the history, initiated when the Acadian representatives first presented their grievances of forced dispossession of land, property, and livestock, in 1760, though the acknowledgement was issued by the Queen in Right of Canada and not the Queen in Right of the United Kingdom.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Victoria (29 March 1867), Constitution Act, 1867, III.9, V.58, Westminster: Queen's Printer, http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/ca_1867.html, retrieved 15 January 2009  
  2. ^ Privy Council Office (2008). Accountable Government: A Guide for Ministers and Ministers of State – 2008. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-100-11096-7. http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca/index.asp?lang=eng&page=information&sub=publications&doc=ag-gr/2008/ag-gr-eng.htm. Retrieved 17 May 2009.  
  3. ^ Transport Canada (1994). "Transport Canada > Safety > Transportation of Dangerous Goods > TDG Act & Regulations > Agreements Respecting Administration of the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, 1992 > Nova Scotia". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.tc.gc.ca/tdg/clear/agreements/ns.htm. Retrieved 9 July 2009.  
  4. ^ Transport Canada 1994, 18.a
  5. ^ Elizabeth II (2005), Municipal Funding Agreement, Halifax: Queen's Printer for Nova Scotia, http://www.gov.ns.ca/snsmr/petroleum/pdf/MFA_Rurals_with_Villages.pdf, retrieved 9 July 2009  
  6. ^ MacLeod, Kevin S. (2008), A Crown of Maples (1 ed.), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 16, ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1, http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/fr-rf/crnCdn/crn_mpls-eng.pdf  
  7. ^ Forsey, Eugene (31 December 1974), "Crown and Cabinet", in Forsey, Eugene, Freedom and Order: Collected Essays, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Ltd., ISBN 978-0771097737  
  8. ^ Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry. "Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. http://www.crht.ca/DiscoverMonarchyFiles/QueenElizabethII.html. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  
  9. ^ Fraser, Alistair B. (30 January 1998). "XVII: Nova Scotia". The Flags of Canada. University Park. http://fraser.cc/FlagsCan/Provinces/NS.html. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  
  10. ^ a b c d Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The Canadian Monarchy > 2005 Royal Visit > The Royal Presence in Canada - A Historical Overview". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/special/royalvisit2005/history_e.cfm. Retrieved 4 November 2007.  
  11. ^ Clark, S.D. (1978). Movements of Political Protest in Canada, 1640–1840. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 150–151.  
  12. ^ "Heritage Saint John > Canadian Heraldry". Heritage Resources of Saint John and New Brunswick Community College. http://www.saintjohn.nbcc.nb.ca/~HeritageSaintJohn/CorporateSeal/heraldry.htm. Retrieved 3 July 2009.  
  13. ^ The Royal Household. "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada > History and present government". Queen's Printer. http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth/Canada/Historyandpresentgovernment.aspx. Retrieved 3 July 2009.  
  14. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage (2005). The Crown in Canada. Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 7. http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/CH4-127-2003E.pdf. Retrieved 3 July 2009.  
  15. ^ Kenney, Jason (23 April 2007). Talking Points for The Honourable Jason Kenney. Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.pch.gc.ca/pc-ch/minstr/arc_disc-spch/kenney/2007/20070423-eng.cfm. Retrieved 14 May 2009.  
  16. ^ Watson, William (1892), Maritime Bank v. Receiver-General of New Brunswick, written at London, in Jackson, Michael, "Golden Jubilee and Provincial Crown", Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada) 7 (3): 6, 2003, http://www.monarchist.ca/cmn/2003/CMN_winter_spring_2003_Update-3.pdf, retrieved 11 June 2009  
  17. ^ King, William L.M. (24 May 1939), "Diary", in Hoogenraad, Maureen, Biography and People > A Real Companion and Friend > Politics, Themes, and Events from King's Life > The Royal Tour of 1939, Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/king/023011-1070.06-e.html, retrieved 24 June 2009  
  18. ^ "Royal Visits to Canada". CBC. http://www.cbc.ca/news/interactive/royalvisits/51.html. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  
  19. ^ West, Anne (1997). "Restoring Prince Edward's Church". Monarchy Canada (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). http://www.monarchist.ca/mc/restore.htm. Retrieved 10 July 2009.  
  20. ^ Elizabeth II (31 December 2003). "Proclamation Designating July 28 of Every Year as "A Day of Commemoration of the Great Upheaval", Commencing on July 28, 2005". Canada Gazette (Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada) 137 (27): 3202–3203. ISSN 1715-2224. http://gazette.gc.ca/archives/p2/2003/2003-12-31/pdf/g2-13727.pdf. Retrieved 9 July 2009.  

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