Monarchy in Prince Edward Island: Wikis

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Queen in Right of Prince Edward Island
Monarchy
Provincial/State
Coat of Arms of Prince Edward Island.png
Royal Coat of Arms of Prince Edward Island
Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg
Incumbent:
Elizabeth II
Queen of Canada

Since 6 February 1952
Style: Her Majesty
First monarch: Victoria
Formation: 1 July 1873
Residence: Government House, Charlottetown

By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, the Canadian monarchy operates in Prince Edward Island as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy;[1] and is thus the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the province's government.[2] As such, the Crown, as it operates in the jurisdiction, is referred to as The Crown in Right of Prince Edward Island,[3] Her Majesty in Right of Prince Edward Island,[4] or The Queen in Right of Prince Edward Island.[5] The Constitution Act, 1867, however, leaves many royal duties in Prince Edward Island specifically assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island,[1] who's direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy.[6]

Contents

Constitutional monarchy in Prince Edward Island

The Crown functions in Prince Edward Island in the same way it does in all of Canada's other provinces, with the Canadian monarch – since 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II – being represented and her duties carried out by the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island. This arrangement began with an 1873 Order-in-Council by Queen Victoria,[7] and continued an unbroken line of monarchical government extending back to the early 1500s. However, though Prince Edward Island has a separate government headed by the Queen, as a province, Prince Edward Island is not itself a kingdom.[8]

Government House in Charlottetown is used both as an official residence by the Lieutenant Governor, as well as the place where the sovereign and other members of the Canadian Royal Family will reside when in Prince Edward Island. The mansion is owned by the sovereign in her capacity as Queen in Right of Prince Edward Island, and not as a private individual; the house and other Crown property is held in trust for future rulers and cannot be sold by the monarch except by her Lieutenant Governor with the proper advice and consent from the Executive Council of Prince Edward Island.

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Royal associations

Prince Edward Island's monarchical status is illustrated via associations between the Crown and many organizations within the province, as well as through royal names applied regions, communities, schools, buildings, and monuments, many of which may also have a specific history with a member or members of the Royal Family. Those in the Royal Family perform ceremonial duties when on a tour of the province, officiating at ceremonial events, as well as visiting hospitals, charities, schools, communities, and the like, and there exist around Prince Edward Island various monuments that mark these visits and/or honour the Crown.

Organizations in Prince Edward Island may be founded by a Royal Charter, receive a royal prefix, and/or be honoured with the patronage of a member of the Royal Family, such as the Central Agricultural Society, which was under the patronage of Albert, Prince Consort after 1843.[9] Further, though the monarch does not form a part of the constitutions of Prince Edward Island's honours, they do stem from the Crown as the fount of honour, and so bear on the insignia a St. Edward's Crown and/or an effigy and/or Royal Cypher of the sovereign.

History

What is today Prince Edward Island was discovered and claimed for King Henry VII by John Cabot, though it was later, in 1523, also claimed by Giovanni da Verrazzano for King Francis I, putting Île Saint-Jean, as Verrazzno called it, under the sovereignty of the French Crown until 1758. In that year, the French settlement of Louisbourg (in present day Nova Scotia) fell to the Royal Navy, and with the 1762 Treaty of Fontainbleau, sovereignty over the island was officially transferred by King Louis XV to King George III.[10] The following year, The Earl of Egmont presented an elaborate memorial to the King, asking that the Island of Saint John, while under the sovereignty of the Crown indefinitely, be granted to him and divided into Baronies. George III initially denied Egmont's request,[11] though, after Edgemont again presented his petition in 1767, the King this time approved. On 19 July 1769, Saint John Island was separated from the jurisdiction of Nova Scotia and became its own colony of the British Crown.[12]

Prince Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in 1864, four years after he visited Prince Edward Island, making him the first royal to do so.

Prince Edward, fourth son the George III, arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1794, and, while he never visited Saint John Island, as Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in North America, he ordered that new barracks be built in Charlottetown and defences constructed to protect the harbour.[13] Recognising the Prince's interest in the island, its legislature passed a bill on 1 February 1799 that changed the colony's name in honour of Edward.[14] By 1843 construction of Province House was begun, and the laying of the cornerstone was followed by a Royal Salute and three cheers for Queen Victoria.[15] Not four years later, the Legislative Assembly adopted an address to the Queen, asking for the establishment of responsible government in the colony, snd the request was soon thereafter granted.[16]

The first member of the Royal Family to arrive in Prince Edward Island was Prince Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who, after visiting other parts of the Maritimes, landed at Charlottetown on 10 August 1860. The Prince was welcomed by Governor George Dundas, and proceeded to Government House, where he held audience with the Executive Council. Over the course of the visit, Albert Edward toured the countryside around Charlottetown, held a levee at Government House, and visited Province House, where he received the addresses of the Executive Council and later attended a ball that lasted until 3:00 am. Upon his departure, he left with the Governor £150 for charitable use.[17] In 1951, his great-granddaughter, Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, along with her husband, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, toured the province as a part of their cross-country trip on behalf of the ailing King George VI, and again eight years later, on Elizabeth's pan-Canadian tour as the newly crowned monarch. The Queen also celebrated the centennial of the Confederation Conferences in Charlottetown in 1964; her mother, the Queen Mother, in 1967 marked Canada's centennial in the province; and Elizabeth returned yet again for the 100th anniversary of Prince Edward Island's entry into Confederation.

Beginning in 1987, Prince Edward, the Queen's youngest son, visited the province on a number of occasions. After 2000,[18] by that time The Earl of Wessex, the Prince was accompanied by his wife, Sophie, Countess of Wessex; her arrival that year marked her first official tour outside of the United Kingdom.[19] In 2007, Edward was appointed as Colonel-in-Chief of the Prince Edward Island Regiment, and was also awarded an honorary degree by the University of Prince Edward Island.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Victoria (29 March 1867), Constitution Act, 1867, III.9, V.58, Westminster: Queen's Printer, http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/ca_1867.html, retrieved 15 January 2009  
  2. ^ Privy Council Office (2008). Accountable Government: A Guide for Ministers and Ministers of State – 2008. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-100-11096-7. http://www.pco-bcp.gc.ca/index.asp?lang=eng&page=information&sub=publications&doc=ag-gr/2008/ag-gr-eng.htm. Retrieved 17 May 2009.  
  3. ^ Elizabeth II (1985), Transboundary Pollution (Reciprocal Access) Act, 7, Charlottetown: Queen's Printer for Prince Edward Island, http://www.gov.pe.ca/law/statutes/pdf/t-05.pdf, retrieved 11 July 2009  
  4. ^ Elizabeth II (1985), Prince Edward Island Science and Technology Corporation Act, 2.7, Charlottetown: Queen's Printer for Prince Edward Island, http://www.gov.pe.ca/law/statutes/pdf/p-19_1.pdf, retrieved 11 July 2009  
  5. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage (31 March 2006). "Official Languages > Canada-Prince Edward Island Agreement on French-Language Services 2005-06 to 2008-09". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/lo-ol/entente-agreement/services/ip-e/amendment-index-eng.cfm. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  
  6. ^ MacLeod, Kevin S. (2008), A Crown of Maples (1 ed.), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 16, ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1, http://www.pch.gc.ca/pgm/ceem-cced/fr-rf/crnCdn/crn_mpls-eng.pdf  
  7. ^ Victoria (26 June 1873), Prince Edward Island Terms of Union, Schedule, Westminster: Queen's Printer, http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/peitu.html, retrieved 16 June 2009  
  8. ^ Forsey, Eugene (31 December 1974), "Crown and Cabinet", in Forsey, Eugene, Freedom and Order: Collected Essays, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Ltd., ISBN 978-0771097737  
  9. ^ Campbell, Duncan (1875). History of Prince Edward Island. Charlottetown: Bremner Brothers. p. 98. http://www.islandregister.com/campbell/ch1.html. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  
  10. ^ Campbell 1875, p. 2
  11. ^ Campbell 1875, pp. 10-11
  12. ^ Campbell 1875, p. 19
  13. ^ Campbell 1875, p. 54
  14. ^ Campbell 1875, p. 56
  15. ^ Campbell 1875, p. 97
  16. ^ Campbell 1875, p. 101
  17. ^ Campbell 1875, pp. 128-130
  18. ^ Queen's Printer for Prince Edward Island (4 May 2000). "Their Royal Highnesses The Earl and Countess of Wessex to Visit the Province". Press release. http://www.gov.pe.ca/news/getrelease.php3?number=1591. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  
  19. ^ Burke, Scott; Aimers, John (2001). "Wessexs' Tour a Triumph". Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). http://www.monarchist.ca/cmn/2001/wessex.htm. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  
  20. ^ "Prince Edward gives medals to P.E.I. soldiers" (in English). CTV. 14 October 2007. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20071014/prince_071014/20071014?hub=TopStories&s_name=. Retrieved 11 July 2009.  

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