From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mondlango is an artificial language initiated in China in July 2002. The major founder of Mondlango is He Yafu, the other founders are Wangli, Qijiaqin, Luoxinxing, Arbsemo, Kulturo, Chenruihua , Zangyuhai, Niyundong, Zhaozhonghua, Oscar Mifsud, David Curtis, Dominique Kuster, Matthew Martin and J. Duke.
Mondlango was previously known as Ulango. The word Ulango is the short for "La Universa Lango" which means "The Universal Language". The name "Mondlango" means "world language". Ulango and Mondlango are the same language with different names.
According to its authors, Mondlango is not intended to supplant or replace any national language. Its purpose is only to be a common means of communication for people of different languages. To achieve that purpose, the authors have tried to create a language that is culturally neutral and easy to learn.
Mondlango is an offspring of Esperanto and Ido, and is therefore an example of an esperantido.
There are only a dozen grammatical rules in Mondlango.
The first to the tenth rules are about the article, the nouns, the verbs, the adjectives, the adverbs, the pronouns, the numerals, the prepositions, the conjunctions and the interjections respectively. The eleventh rule stipulates that the pronunciation of each word corresponds with spelling, and that the accent is always on the penultimate syllable. The twelfth rule stipulates that the basic word order is Subject+Verb+Object.
There are 26 letters in Mondlango:
A a [ a ] B b [ b ] C c [ tʃ ] D d [ d ] E e [ e ] F f [ f ] G g [ g ] H h [ h ] I i [ i ] J j [ dʒ ] K k [ k ] L l [ l ] M m [ m ] N n [ n ] O o [ o ] P p [ p ] Q q [ kw ] R r [ r ] S s [ s ] T t [ t ] U u [ u ] V v [ v ] W w [ w ] X x [ ʃ ] Y y [ j ] Z z [ z ]
Vowels: a e i o u
Consonants: b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v x z.
Semivowels: w y. Semivowels can be combined with vowels to form diphthongs, such as ay [ai], ey [ei], oy [oi], aw [au], ow [ou].
The alphabet of Mondlango is as in English. It therefore contains only letters which are commonly found on keyboards in many countries. There are no accented letters, so that Mondlango can be typed, printed or used on computers without the slightest difficulty.
The number of syllables in a word is given by the number of vowels. The accent is always on the next to last syllable. For example: Ulango [u'lango], Mondlango [mond'lango].
- In Mondlango, the letter c is pronounced ch as in "church".
- In Mondlango, the letter j is pronounced j as in "job".
- In Mondlango, the letter x is pronounced sh as in "ship".
- The letter q is only used for spelling proper names.
- In Mondlango, each letter represents only one sound, and each sound is represented only by one letter.
There is only one article in Mondlango -- the definite article la. The usage of la is similar to that of "the" in English. La is the same for singular and plural and for all genders.
Nouns end in -o: libro = book, domo = house.
Adjectives end in -a: guda = good, biga = big.
Adverbs are mostly derived from adjectives by changing the ending to -e. Examples: guda = good, gude = well, vera = true, vere = truly.
- Verbs in the infinitive end in -i: iri = to go, vidi = to see.
- The present tense is formed by replacing -i by -an: iran = go, vidan = see.
- The past tense is formed with the ending -in: irin = went, vidin = saw.
- The future tense is formed with the ending -on: iron = will go, vidon = will see.
- The conditional uses the ending -uz: If mi esuz yi. = If I were you.
- The imperative ending is -ez: Venez! = Come!
- Singular pronouns: mi = me, yi = you, hi = he, xi = she, ji = it, li = hi or she
- Plural pronouns: mu, yu, hu, xu, ju, lu
- Possessive adjectives are formed by adding the ending -a to the personal pronouns: mia = my, hia = his, mua = our, hua = their
- Cardinal numbers: un, bi, tri, kwar, kwin, siks, sep, ok, nev, dek, dek-un, dek-bi,..., bidek, bidek-un, ..., tridek,...,cent, mil, milion, bilion
- Ordinal numbers are formed by adding the ending -u to the cardinal numbers: unu=first, biu=second, triu=third.
en = in, al = to, sur = on, etc.
ay = and, or = or, if = if, sed = but, etc.
The basic word order is subject-verb-object.
Mondlango vs Esperanto
Mondlango is based on Esperanto and clearly claims this filiation. However, Mondlango tries to correct what is felt as defects by some people interested in artificial languages. These are:
- Esperanto does not use the letters q, w, x and y, but does have the inconvenience of six accented letters – ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ and ŭ – which (with the possible exception of the last) are not used in any other language. Because they are peculiar to Esperanto they have to be specially provided just for printing Esperanto. Theoretically the circumflex can be replaced by the letter h or the letter x, but this solution is felt by many to be a heavy and unattractive look.
- In Esperanto there is an ending -n for the accusative case. That makes the word order more flexible, but complicates grammar, and too much flexibility reduces word order standardisation.
- Esperanto requires adjectives to agree in number and case with the nouns they qualify, so an adjective has four possible endings. There is no real need for this complication, as English - with its invariable adjectives - shows.
- In Esperanto, the construction of some words doesn't accord with the word-building rules. For example, "to federate" in Esperanto is "federi", but "federation" is "federacio", which should logically be "federo".
- Most animal nouns in Esperanto aren't neutral, but masculine nouns. For example, in Esperanto, the word "bovo" means "bull", not "ox". There are no neutral personal pronouns in Esperanto.
- In Esperanto approximately 70% of words are derived from Latin. Today, as more and more people understand English, it is necessary to absorb more words from English.
- Esperanto has a history of more than 100 years, but it seems that its influence reached its limits. This was the main rationale for the creation of Mondlango.
Mondlango and Esperanto share many common points:
- Nouns have the ending -o;
- Adjectives have the ending -a;
- Derivative adverbs have the ending -e;
- Infinitive verbs have the ending -i;
- The pronunciation corresponds with spelling.
The differences between Mondlango and Esperanto are:
- The alphabet of Mondlango is the same as English and French, whereas in Esperanto there are six letters with a circumflex.
- The plural nouns end in -oj for Esperanto, but -os or -o for Mondlango.
- In Mondlango the verbs have the endings -an, -in, -on, -uz, -ez for present, past, future tense, subjunctive and imperative moods; but in Esperanto they are -as, -is, -os, -us, -u.
- Mondlango, unlike Esperanto, does not assume the male gender as the default, and thus does not define a cow, for example, as a female bull, as Esperanto does.
- In Esperanto, adjectives have number and case inflections, but in Mondlango, there are no such inflections.
- Admitting the increasing popularity of English, several English roots (phonetically) have substituted for the established Esperanto ones in many cases. (e.g.: "guda" instead of "bona" for "good").
- In Esperanto, there is a Bible: "La Fundamento de Esperanto", which will never change. But in Mondlango, there is no such Bible. It is admitted that changes will occur if necessary.
- The present, past and future tenses of verbs end in -an, -in, -on and not -as, -is, -os as in Esperanto. This seems logical as the present, past and future tenses of active participles end in -ant-, -int-, -ont-. The consequence is to free the -os ending for the plural noun: the -j was not felt natural for many speakers of occidental languages, -s is certainly a better choice.
- The second person pronouns use "yi" and "yu" in Mondlango instead of "vi" as in Esperanto. That is because in English, the first person plural pronoun is "we" which pronounce very similar to "vi". To avoid confusion, Mondlango uses "yi" (singular) and "yu" (plural). In English, both "ye" and "you" are second person pronouns .
- In Mondlango, the prefix which denote opposite is dis-, and not mal- as in Esperanto. This is because in English and other languages, the prefix mal- indicate "bad". For example, maltreat, malnutrition, etc. In English, there are many words with the prefix dis- which indicate opposite, eg. disappear, disarm, disinfect, disconnect, disqualify, etc.
The inventors claim that a person who knows English, can gain a basic knowledge of Mondlango in a few days, or even hours. A single day of study is enough to get a basic idea so that he or she can read and understand some texts.
Universa Deklaro de Huma Raytos, tradukita de He Yafu
Artiklo 1. Ciu humos esan denaske libera ay egala rilate digno ay raytos. Lu posedan racio ay kosienco ay devan kondukti un la alia en spirito de frateco.
Artiklo 2. Ciu raytos ay liberos difinita en tiu ci Deklaro validan same por ciu humos, sen kia diferos, cu rilate raso, dermkromo, sekso, lango, politika or alia opinio, naxa or socia deveno, posedacos, naskiso or alia statuso. More, nia difero esez farata surbaze de la lando or teritorio, al kiu apartenan la koncerna persono, senkonsidere cu ji esan sendependa, trusta, neselfgovernanta or sub ayn alia limo de la soverento.
Artiklo 3. Ciu havan la raytos de vivo, libero ay persona sekuro.
Artiklo 4. Niu esez tenata en serfeco or servitudo. Serfeco ay serfa trado esez dispermesi ye cia formos.
Artiklo 5. Niu suferez torturo or bruta nehuma or sendigna trakto or puno.
(See the full declaration on this link)