Money: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Money

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Money is anything that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts.[1][2] The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value, and occasionally, a standard of deferred payment.[3][4]
Money originated as commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money.[3] Fiat money is without intrinsuc use value as a physical commodity, and derives its value by being declared by a government to be legal tender; that is, it must be accepted as a form of payment within the boundaries of the country, for "all debts, public and private".
.The money supply of a country consists of currency (banknotes and coins) and demand deposits or 'bank money' (the balance held in checking accounts and savings accounts).^ Intertel, however, established that the check for the book had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for "H.R.Hughes" by Clifford Irving's wife, who was using the name "Helga Hughes".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The money for the Mexican checks originated from the account of the Gulf Resources and Chemical Corporation of Texas.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four certified checks totaling $89,000 — which had been issued by a Mexican bank and evidently endorsed by a Mexican lawyer — had been deposited in Barker's account on April 19.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These demand deposits usually account for a much larger part of the money supply than currency.[5][6] Bank money is intangible and exists only in the form of various bank records. Despite being intangible, bank money still performs the basic functions of money, being generally accepted as a form of payment.[7]

Contents

History of money

A 640 BCE one-third stater electrum coin from Lydia.
.The use of barter-like methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago, though there is no evidence of a society or economy that relied primarily on barter.^ It may then be adjusted using the transformation methods.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The collapseToEnd() method must raise an INVALID_STATE_ERR DOM exception if there are no ranges in the list.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the two years that these shenanigans were going on, 60,000 American men died of prostate cancer, which seemed to be of no concern to this particular network of miscreants.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Instead, non-monetary societies operated largely along the principles of gift economics.^ If only one of the two is zero, then the method will draw a line instead (the path for the outline is just a straight line along the non-zero dimension).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

When barter did occur, it was usually between either complete strangers or potential enemies.[9]
Many cultures around the world eventually developed the use of commodity money. The shekel was originally both a unit of currency and a unit of weight.[10]. .The first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC. Societies in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia used shell money – usually, the shell of the money cowry (Cypraea moneta) were used.^ In the following fragment, the term "GDO" is first defined in the first paragraph, then used in the second.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ho visited ports in Asia, Europe, Africa and America.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Herodotus, and most modern scholars, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coin.^ Gold was unlikely to take that risk, so it was clear to most people that the meeting in Chicago was going to be a triumph for Dendreon.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] It is thought that these first stamped coins were minted around 650–600 BC.[12]
The system of commodity money eventually evolved into a system of representative money..December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This occurred because gold and silver merchants or banks would issue receipts to their depositors – redeemable for the commodity money deposited.^ Four certified checks totaling $89,000 — which had been issued by a Mexican bank and evidently endorsed by a Mexican lawyer — had been deposited in Barker's account on April 19.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually, these receipts became generally accepted as a means of payment and were used as money.^ Generally, these commands would be used to implement editor UI, for example having a "delete" button on a toolbar.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In general, authors should use these elements only if the absence of those elements would change the meaning of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Nixon decided to use B-52s as a means of striking into these sanctuaries.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Paper money or banknotes were first used in China during the Song Dynasty. .These banknotes, known as "jiaozi" evolved from promissory notes that had been used since the 7th century.^ The term "JavaScript" is used to refer to ECMA262, rather than the official term ECMAScript, since the term JavaScript is more widely known.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.However, they did not displace commodity money, and were used alongside coins.^ The North Vietnamese did not agree to withdraw their troops, however, because they still insisted that they had no forces in South Vietnam at all.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Banknotes were first issued in Europe by Stockholms Banco in 1661, and were again also used alongside coins.^ Frank Wisner's first priority was to create a network of agents in Eastern Europe after the pattern of the successful undergrounds which had been used against Hitler.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gold standard, a monetary system where the medium of exchange are paper notes that are convertible into pre-set, fixed quantities of gold, replaced the use of gold coins as currency in the 17th-19th centuries in Europe.^ On setting, the given value must be converted to the shortest possible string representing the number as a valid non-negative integer and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When forms are submitted, the data in the form is converted into the form specified by the enctype , and then sent to the destination specified by the action using the given method .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, the given value must be converted to the best representation of the floating point number and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

These gold standard notes were made legal tender, and redemption into gold coins was discouraged. By the beginning of the 20th century almost all countries had adopted the gold standard, backing their legal tender notes with fixed amounts of gold.
.After World War II, at the Bretton Woods Conference, most countries adopted fiat currencies that were fixed to the US dollar.^ World War II conflicts between the communist and non-communist resistance forces were rampant throughout Europe and Asia — considerably undermining the war effort.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CIA contributed three fighter planes and three World War II B-26 bombers to the project.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During World War II the Japanese gave Huynh support to build an army and continue making converts.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The US dollar was in turn fixed to gold. In 1971 the US government suspended the convertibility of the US dollar to gold. After this many countries de-pegged their currencies from the US dollar, and most of the world's currencies became unbacked by anything except the governments' fiat of legal tender.

Etymology

The word "money" is believed to originate from a temple of Hera, located on Capitoline, one of Rome's seven hills. In the ancient world Hera was often associated with money. The temple of Juno Moneta at Rome was the place where the mint of Ancient Rome was located.[13] .The name "Juno" may derive from the Etruscan goddess Uni (which means "the one", "unique", "unit", "union", "united") and "Moneta" either from the Latin word "monere" (remind, warn, or instruct) or the Greek word "moneres" (alone, unique).^ The value must be either text or an item with one organization-name property and zero or more organization-unit properties.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the Soviets indicated that they were preparing to make a surgical strike on their own, Moscow was warned that a nuclear strike against China could mean a Soviet confrontation with the United States.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any number of properties with the name organization-unit may be present within the item that forms the value of the org property of an item with the type vcard .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In the Western world, a prevalent term for coin-money has been specie, stemming from Latin in specie, meaning 'in kind'.[14]

Functions

Economics
GDP PPP Per Capita IMF 2008.svg
General categories
Fields and subfields
Techniques
Lists
Business and Economics Portal
In the past, money was generally considered to have the following four main functions, which are summed up in a rhyme found in older economics textbooks: "Money is a matter of functions four, a medium, a measure, a standard, a store." That is, money functions as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a standard of deferred payment, and a store of value.[4] .However, most modern textbooks now list only three functions, that of medium of exchange, unit of account, and store of value, not considering a standard of deferred payment as a distinguished function, but rather subsuming it in the others.^ The selectAllChildren( parentNode ) method must invoke the collapse() method with the parentNode value as the first argument and 0 as the second argument, and must then invoke the selectNodeContents() method on the first (and only) range in the list with the parentNode value as the argument.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Otherwise, for each entry in input list whose unit is percentage , set the corresponding value in output list to the number of the entry in input list multiplied by the input dimension and divided by 100.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the value of onerror is a Function The function must be invoked with three arguments.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[3][15][16]
.There have been many historical disputes regarding the combination of money's functions, some arguing that they need more separation and that a single unit is insufficient to deal with them all.^ The figure element represents some flow content , optionally with a caption, that is self-contained and is typically referenced as a single unit from the main flow of the document.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A Dr. Chappell said, “There’s a degree of belief, and ‘establish’ implies much more certainty…you need please, to specify, at least to me, what you mean.” .
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If an attribute using the single-quoted attribute syntax is to be followed by another attribute, then there must be a space character separating the two.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.One of these arguments is that the role of money as a medium of exchange is in conflict with its role as a store of value: its role as a store of value requires holding it without spending, whereas its role as a medium of exchange requires it to circulate.^ These values must be compared to the argument in an ASCII case-insensitive manner.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Let type be the value of the first argument, if there is one, or " text/html " otherwise.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the second argument isn't one of the allowed values, throws a SYNTAX_ERR exception.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[4] .Others argue that storing of value is just deferral of the exchange, but does not diminish the fact that money is a medium of exchange that can be transported both across space and time.^ If publication date and update date both still have no value, then let them both value a value that is a valid global date and time string representing the global date and time of the moment that this algorithm was invoked.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Initially, the volume must be 1.0, but user agents may remember the last set value across sessions, on a per-site basis or otherwise, so the volume may start at other values.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[17] .The term 'financial capital' is a more general and inclusive term for all liquid instruments, whether or not they are a uniformly recognized tender.^ Whether they be journalists tied to Cramer, financial analysts, or hedge fund managers, they are unusual among financial professionals in that they take overt pride in their thuggish manner.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having said that, unless specified elsewhere, the requirements defined in this section do apply to all user agents, whether they are Web browsers or not.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After all, the identities of the naked short sellers and the real amount of failed trades they are generating are, as far as the SEC is concerned, still a big secret.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Medium of exchange

When money is used to intermediate the exchange of goods and services, it is performing a function as a medium of exchange. It thereby avoids the inefficiencies of a barter system, such as the 'double coincidence of wants' problem.

Unit of account

.A unit of account is a standard numerical unit of measurement of the market value of goods, services, and other transactions.^ Cost, Value and Foreign Market Entry Mode: The Transaction and the Firm.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Testing Alternative Theories of the Firm: Transaction Cost, Knowledge-Based, and Measurement Explanations For Make-or-Buy Decisions In Information Services.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

Also known as a "measure" or "standard" of relative worth and deferred payment, a unit of account is a necessary prerequisite for the formulation of commercial agreements that involve debt. To function as a 'unit of account', whatever is being used as money must be:
.
  • Divisible into smaller units without loss of value; precious metals can be coined from bars, or melted down into bars again.
  • Fungible: that is, one unit or piece must be perceived as equivalent to any other, which is why diamonds, works of art or real estate are not suitable as money.
  • A specific weight, or measure, or size to be verifiably countable.^ Other values must be ignored.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The value must be text with one of the following values: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ OSS analysts went to work for the State Department whereas the intelligence operatives were incorporated into the Strategic Services Unit of the War Department.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    For instance, coins are often made with ridges around the edges, so that any removal of material from the coin (lowering its commodity value) will be easy to detect.

Store of value

.To act as a store of value, a money must be able to be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved – and be predictably usable as a medium of exchange when it is retrieved.^ The user agent must act as if, for the purposes of the == and != operators in JavaScript, the object returned for all is equal to the undefined value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a CanvasPixelArray object is indexed to retrieve an indexed property index , the value returned must be the value of the index th component in the array.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the Window object is indexed for property retrieval using a name name , then the user agent must return the value obtained using the following steps: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The value of the money must also remain stable over time.^ If the user agent provides a user interface for selecting a time , then the value must be set to a valid time string representing the user's selection.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the user agent provides a user interface for selecting a local date and time , then the value must be set to a valid local date and time string representing the user's selection.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The min attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a valid global date and time string .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In that sense, inflation by reducing the value of money, diminishes the ability of the money to function as a store of value.[3]

Standard of deferred payment

.While standard of deferred payment is distinguished by some texts,[4] particularly older ones, other texts subsume this under other functions.^ However, with other alternative text, this might not work, and putting all the alternative text into one image in each case might make more sense: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[3][15][16] .A "standard of deferred payment" is an accepted way to settle a debt – a unit in which debts are denominated, and the status of money as legal tender, in those jurisdictions which have this concept, states that it may function for the discharge of debts.^ By May 1973 the United States was dropping nearly as many bombs per month on Cambodia as had been dropped during the whole of 1972.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May 1954 the United States signed military agreements with Nicaragua and Honduras preparatory to a clandestine paramilitary operation by the CIA against the Arbenez government.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A scam that was more sophisticated than those perpetrated by the bucket shops of yore, and whose every component may have been technically legal.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When debts are denominated in money, the real value of debts may change due to inflation and deflation, and for sovereign and international debts via debasement and devaluation.^ User agents may change the punctuation of values that the user enters.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ User agents may also update other aspects of the document view when the location changes in this way, for instance the scroll position, values of form fields, etc.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Money supply

In economics, money is a broad term that refers to any financial instrument that can fulfill the functions of money (detailed above). These financial instruments together are collectively referred to as the money supply of an economy. .Since the money supply consists of various financial instruments (usually currency, demand deposits and various other types of deposits), the amount of money in an economy is measured by adding together these financial instruments creating a monetary aggregate.^ Items ( [ types ] ) Returns a NodeList of the elements in the Document that create items , that are not part of other items , and that are of one of the types given in the argument, if any are listed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Seven of these modes, namely " in head ", " in body ", " in table ", " in table body ", " in row ", " in cell ", and " in select ", are special, in that the other modes defer to them at various times.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Modern monetary theory distinguishes among different types of monetary aggregates, using a categorization system that focuses on the liquidity of the financial instrument used as money.^ A URL in the list can be flagged with multiple different types, and thus an entry can end up being categorized as multiple entries.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a user agent uses different heuristics for content type detection than the server expects, security problems can occur.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Even if the resource is then found to have a different type, it is still used as part of a nested browsing context ; this algorithm doesn't restart with the new resource.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Market liquidity

Market liquidity describes how easily an item can be traded for another item, or into the common currency within an economy. Money is the most liquid asset because it is universally recognised and accepted as the common currency. In this way, money gives consumers the freedom to trade goods and services easily without having to barter.
Liquid financial instruments are easily tradable and have low transaction costs. .There should be no (or minimal) spread between the prices to buy and sell the instrument being used as money.^ Meanwhile, it should be noted that Cougar Biotechnology experienced almost no naked short selling, according to SEC “failures to deliver” data.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Authors should not use the wildcard keyword ("*") in the targetOrigin argument in messages that contain any confidential information, as otherwise there is no way to guarantee that the message is only delivered to the recipient to which it was intended.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Void elements can't have any contents (since there's no end tag, no content can be put between the start tag and the end tag).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Measures of money

The money supply is the amount of financial instruments within a specific economy available for purchasing goods or services. .The money supply is usually measured as three escalating categories M1, M2 and M3. The categories grow in size with M1 being currency (coins and bills) and checking account deposits.^ The following examples all represent a measurement of three quarters (of the maximum of whatever is being measured): .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Intertel, however, established that the check for the book had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for "H.R.Hughes" by Clifford Irving's wife, who was using the name "Helga Hughes".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The money for the Mexican checks originated from the account of the Gulf Resources and Chemical Corporation of Texas.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.M2 is currency, checking account deposits and savings account deposits, and M3 is M2 plus time deposits.^ Intertel, however, established that the check for the book had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for "H.R.Hughes" by Clifford Irving's wife, who was using the name "Helga Hughes".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four certified checks totaling $89,000 — which had been issued by a Mexican bank and evidently endorsed by a Mexican lawyer — had been deposited in Barker's account on April 19.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

M1 includes only the most liquid financial instruments, and M3 relatively illiquid instruments.
.Another measure of money, M0, is also used, although unlike the other measures, it does not represent actual purchasing power by firms and households in the economy.^ The actual HTTP headers and other metadata, not the headers as mutated or implied by the algorithms given in this specification, are the ones that must be used when determining the character encoding according to the rules given in the above specifications.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Notice how only one is defined; the other, with no expansion associated with it, does not use the abbr element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the kbd element is nested inside another kbd element, it represents an actual key or other single unit of input as appropriate for the input mechanism.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

M0 is base money, or the amount of money actually issued by the central bank of a country. It is measured as currency plus deposits of banks and other institutions at the central bank. M0 is also the only money that can satisfy the reserve requirements of commercial banks.

Types of money

Money is an abstraction, idea or concept, token instances of which are the physical bills or coins which are carried and traded. Currently, most modern monetary systems are based on fiat money. .However, for most of history, almost all money was commodity money, such as gold and silver coins.^ Such UI models should be based upon the single undo transaction history described in this section, however, such that to a script there is no detectable difference.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.As economies developed, commodity money was eventually replaced by representative money, such as the gold standard, as traders found the physical transportation of gold and silver burdensome.^ One of its traders was found to be running money for the Gambino Mafia family.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fiat currencies gradually took over in the last hundred years, especially since the breakup of the Bretton Woods system in the early 1970s.^ It is this network that attacked the big banks last year, helping trigger the collapse of the financial system.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Commodity money

.Many items have been used as commodity money such as naturally scarce precious metals, conch shells, barley, beads etc., as well as many other things that are thought of as having value.^ His reluctance to accept things at face-value made him well suited for counterintelligence.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, it is probably correct to say that Madoff stole a lot of his investors’ money, but he seems to have used at least some of that money to generate phantom stock.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Commodity money value comes from the commodity out of which it is made. The commodity itself constitutes the money, and the money is the commodity.[18] .Examples of commodities that have been used as mediums of exchange include gold, silver, copper, rice, salt, peppercorns, large stones, decorated belts, shells, alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, candy, etc.^ Notes 1 xx-small 2 small 3 medium 4 large 5 x-large 6 xx-large 7 xxx-large' value is a non-CSS value used here to indicate a font size one "step" larger than 'xx-large'.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the logo is merely used as decorative material (as branding, or, for example, as a side image in an article that mentions the entity to which the logo belongs), then the entry below on purely decorative images applies.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These items were sometimes used in a metric of perceived value in conjunction to one another, in various commodity valuation or Price System economies.^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To add a property to an item, the itemprop attribute is used on one of the item's descendants.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one adr property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Use of commodity money is similar to barter, but a commodity money provides a simple and automatic unit of account for the commodity which is being used as money. .Although some gold coins such as the Krugerrand are considered legal tender, there is no record of their face value on either side of the coin.^ The difference would be made in deciding whether the agents fingered by either man had already been so compromised as to no longer be of value.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There would be no declaration of war, however, because such an act might spur Russia or China to enter the fight in response to treaty obligations.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And even if it can be proven to work, no one knows how long it will take to clear all the legal and regulatory hurdles it will face.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The rationale for this is that emphasis is laid on their direct link to the prevailing value of their fine gold content.[19] American Eagles are imprinted with their gold content and legal tender face value.[20]

Representative money

.In 1875 economist William Stanley Jevons described what he called "representative money," i.e., money that consists of token coins, or other physical tokens such as certificates, that can be reliably exchanged for a fixed quantity of a commodity such as gold or silver.^ ISSUE-31 (missing-alt) blocks progress to Last Call The requirements for the alt attribute depend on what the image is intended to represent, as described in the following sections.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To achieve this end he borrowed large quantities of money from other members of the Syndicate — eventually to the tune of $6 million.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When such restrictions are defined, the tokens must all fit within those restrictions; other values are non-conforming.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The value of representative money stands in direct and fixed relation to the commodity that backs it, while not itself being composed of that commodity.[21]

Fiat money

.Fiat money or fiat currency is money whose value is not derived from any intrinsic value or guarantee that it can be converted into a valuable commodity (such as gold).^ If of the elements whose corresponding item is item , there are any with a property name equal to the string " about ", and the first such element is a URL property element , and its value is not an item , let subject be the value of that property.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If there is a property named type in subitem , and the first such property has a value that is not an item and whose value consists only of alphanumeric ASCII characters , then add a parameter named " TYPE " whose value is the value of that property to parameters .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If a media element whose networkState has the value NETWORK_EMPTY is inserted into a document , the user agent must invoke the media element 's resource selection algorithm .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Instead, it has value only by government order (fiat). .Usually, the government declares the fiat currency (typically notes and coins from a central bank, such as the Federal Reserve System in the U.S.) to be legal tender, making it unlawful to not accept the fiat currency as a means of repayment for all debts, public and private.^ Thieu was also told that if he refused to sign, Nixon would publically declare that the South Vietnamese government obstructs peace — and thereafter terminate all military and economic aid.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Icahn was the man behind Ladenburg Thalmann, an investment bank that financed many companies through so-called PIPEs – private investments in public equities.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Federal Reserve Bank kept a record of the serial numbers of new hundred dollar bills.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22][23]
.Some bullion coins such as the Australian Gold Nugget and American Eagle are legal tender, however, they trade based on the market price of the metal content as a commodity, rather than their legal tender face value (which is usually only a small fraction of their bullion value).^ The element may have a span content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer greater than zero.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Rather than sell the bits, he only allowed them to be leased.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20][24]
.Fiat money, if physically represented in the form of currency (paper or coins) can be accidentally damaged or destroyed.^ American compensation money intended for Vietnamese whose property was damaged or destroyed was usually retained by South Vietnamese officials.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, fiat money has an advantage over representative or commodity money, in that the same laws that created the money can also define rules for its replacement in case of damage or destruction.^ If these rules result in the creation of a new browsing context , it must be navigated with replacement enabled .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the replace is true, then replacement must be enabled ; otherwise, it must not be enabled unless the browsing context was just created as part of the the rules for choosing a browsing context given a browsing context name .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

For example, the U.S. government will replace mutilated Federal Reserve notes (U.S. fiat money) if at least half of the physical note can be reconstructed, or if it can be otherwise proven to have been destroyed.[25] By contrast, commodity money which has been lost or destroyed cannot be recovered.

Commercial bank money

.Commercial bank money or demand deposits are claims against financial institutions that can be used for the purchase of goods and services.^ Rebozo claims he kept the money in a safety deposit box until 1973 when the Internal Revenue Service learned of the matter and began asking why taxes had never been paid on the mysterious gift.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intertel, however, established that the check for the book had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for "H.R.Hughes" by Clifford Irving's wife, who was using the name "Helga Hughes".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During negotiations for the purchase of Los Angeles Airways, a helicopter commuter service, Maheu had guaranteed bank loans.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A demand deposit account is an account from which funds can be withdrawn at any time by check or cash withdrawal without giving the bank or financial institution any prior notice.^ Intertel, however, established that the check for the book had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for "H.R.Hughes" by Clifford Irving's wife, who was using the name "Helga Hughes".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four certified checks totaling $89,000 — which had been issued by a Mexican bank and evidently endorsed by a Mexican lawyer — had been deposited in Barker's account on April 19.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the video seems to show Penson Financial confirming that it had “located” many billions of the unnamed big bank’s shares – altogether, five times as many shares as were then in circulation.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Banks have the legal obligation to return funds held in demand deposits immediately upon demand (or 'at call').^ As of the end of March, 2007, a hedge fund called Perceptive Advisors held more than 600,000 put options in Dendreon.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When an algorithm B says to return to another algorithm A, it implies that A called B. Upon returning to A, the implementation must continue from where it left off in calling B. .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Consider that when the FBI investigated Elgindy, it also stumbled upon a hedge fund called Gryphon Partners.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Demand deposit withdrawals can be performed in person, via checks or bank drafts, using automatic teller machines (ATMs), or through online banking.^ Intertel, however, established that the check for the book had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for "H.R.Hughes" by Clifford Irving's wife, who was using the name "Helga Hughes".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four certified checks totaling $89,000 — which had been issued by a Mexican bank and evidently endorsed by a Mexican lawyer — had been deposited in Barker's account on April 19.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liddy flew to Miami to convert the checks to cash through Bernard Barker's bank.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.Commercial bank money is created through fractional-reserve banking, the banking practice where banks keep only a fraction of their deposits in reserve (as cash and other highly liquid assets) and lend out the remainder, while maintaining the simultaneous obligation to redeem all these deposits upon demand.^ All of these treatments had undergone only Phase 2 trials, whereas Dendreon had completed Phase 3 trials on 170 patients.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the space characters in fn , if any, are not all contiguous, then skip the remainder of these substeps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But, of course, it was not ordinary Americans who hid their money at UBS. It was only the wealthiest of people, including hedge fund managers, who stashed billions upon billions of dollars in secret accounts at UBS, while perhaps taking advantage of the bank’s other “services” as well.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27][28] .Commercial bank money differs from commodity and fiat money in two ways, firstly it is non-physical, as its existence is only reflected in the account ledges of banks and other financial institutions, and secondly, there is some element of risk that the claim will not be fulfilled if the financial institution becomes insolvent.^ The immediate user selection changes as the user selects different elements (either by pointing at them with a pointing device, or by selecting them in some other way).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the ins and del elements do not affect paragraphing , it is possible, in some cases where paragraphs are implied (without explicit p elements), for an ins or del element to span both an entire paragraph or other non- phrasing content elements and part of another paragraph.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are two attributes that determine the current task completion represented by the element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The process of fractional-reserve banking has a cumulative effect of money creation by commercial banks, as it expands money supply (cash and demand deposits) beyond what it would otherwise be. .Because of the prevalence of fractional reserve banking, the broad money supply of most countries is a multiple larger than the amount of base money created by the country's central bank.^ Because the Vietminh had became the most powerful resistance movement in Japanese-controlled Vietnam, the OSS began sending supplies as well as advisors to work with Ho.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam, rather than other more needy countries, benefited from American largesse simply because of its strategic significance in the struggle against World Communism.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That multiple (called the money multiplier) is determined by the reserve requirement or other financial ratio requirements imposed by financial regulators.^ This was a gross violation of securities regulations that require traders to have “affirmative determination” that a stock can, in fact, be borrowed.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The money supply of a country is usually held to be the total amount of currency in circulation plus the total amount of checking and savings deposits in the commercial banks in the country.^ Intertel, however, established that the check for the book had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for "H.R.Hughes" by Clifford Irving's wife, who was using the name "Helga Hughes".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four certified checks totaling $89,000 — which had been issued by a Mexican bank and evidently endorsed by a Mexican lawyer — had been deposited in Barker's account on April 19.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Monetary policy

.When gold and silver are used as money, the money supply can grow only if the supply of these metals is increased by mining.^ These sanctuaries, within five miles of the South Vietnamese border, were heavily provisioned with troops, and materials used to supply communist forces in South Vietnam.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, authors should use these elements only if the absence of those elements would change the meaning of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These elements must be used only to mark up typographical conventions with specific meanings, not for typographical presentation for presentation's sake.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.This rate of increase will accelerate during periods of gold rushes and discoveries, such as when Columbus discovered the new world and brought back gold and silver to Spain, or when gold was discovered in California in 1848.^ Articles on the Guatemalan training appeared in The Nation, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal and US News and World Report during the months of November and December.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This causes inflation, as the value of gold goes down. .However, if the rate of gold mining cannot keep up with the growth of the economy, gold becomes relatively more valuable, and prices (denominated in gold) will drop, causing deflation.^ And just in case you still didn’t get this – it caused Dendreon’s share price to lose more than 65% of its value – in just 75 seconds flat.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At any rate, while the congressional investigation was being stopped in its tracks, Milken’s Prostate Cancer Foundation was becoming more brazen.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At any rate, it is likely that short sellers, recognizing that it was now going to be more difficult to prevent Dendreon from getting FDA approval, used the opportunity of that sharp price drop to cover their short positions.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deflation was the more typical situation for over a century when gold and paper money backed by gold were used as money in the 18th and 19th centuries.^ During the 19th and early 20th century more than a million Sicilians immigrated to the United States.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern day monetary systems are based on fiat money and are no longer tied to the value of gold.^ The difference would be made in deciding whether the agents fingered by either man had already been so compromised as to no longer be of value.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, suppose the share price has already been significantly hammered, so the company can no longer raise money through the stock market.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The control of the amount of money in the economy is known as monetary policy. Monetary policy is the process by which a government, central bank, or monetary authority manages the money supply to achieve specific goals. Usually the goal of monetary policy is to accommodate economic growth in an environment of stable prices. For example, it is clearly stated in the Federal Reserve Act that the Board of Governors and the Federal Open Market Committee should seek “to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.”[29]
A failed monetary policy can have significant detrimental effects on an economy and the society that depends on it. .These include hyperinflation, stagflation, recession, high unemployment, shortages of imported goods, inability to export goods, and even total monetary collapse and the adoption of a much less efficient barter economy.^ Finally, if the optimum point is higher than the high boundary, then the situation is reversed; the region between the high boundary and the maximum value must be treated as the optimum region, the region between the high boundary and the low boundary must be treated as a suboptimal region, and the remaining region between the low boundary and the minimum value must be treated as an even less good region.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Otherwise, if the optimum point is less than the low boundary, then the region between the minimum value and the low boundary must be treated as the optimum region, the region between the low boundary and the high boundary must be treated as a suboptimal region, and the region between the high boundary and the maximum value must be treated as an even less good region.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.This happened in Russia, for instance, after the fall of the Soviet Union.^ In the Fall of 1959, shortly after he was discharged from the Marine Corps, Lee Harvey Oswald defected to the Soviet Union.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Governments and central banks have taken both regulatory and free market approaches to monetary policy. Some of the tools used to control the money supply include:
.In the US, the Federal Reserve is responsible for controlling the money supply, while in the Euro area the respective institution is the European Central Bank.^ The Federal Reserve Bank kept a record of the serial numbers of new hundred dollar bills.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After working as a bank examiner for two years, he bought enough shares (with money borrowed from his father and his father's friends) to gain control of a neighborhood bank and make himself president.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other central banks with significant impact on global finances are the Bank of Japan, People's Bank of China and the Bank of England.
.For many years much of monetary policy was influenced by an economic theory known as monetarism.^ Although Chile was gripped by economic chaos in the following years, it is difficult to know how much of this was due to outside pressure and how much was due to Allende's policies.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Monetarism is an economic theory which argues that management of the money supply should be the primary means of regulating economic activity. .The stability of the demand for money prior to the 1980s was a key finding of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz[30] supported by the work of David Laidler,[31] and many others.^ But the subject of inquiry became the Teamsters, who had supported Eisenhower and many other Republicans in 1956.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The nature of the demand for money changed during the 1980s owing to technical, institutional, and legal factors and the influence of monetarism has since decreased.

See also

References

  1. ^ Mishkin, Frederic S. (2007). The Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial Markets (Alternate Edition). Boston: Addison Wesley. p. 8. ISBN 0-321-42177-9. 
  2. ^ What Is Money? By John N. Smithin [1] Retrieved July-17-09
  3. ^ a b c d e Mankiw, N. Gregory (2007). "2". Macroeconomics (6th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. pp. 22–32. ISBN 0-7167-6213-7. 
  4. ^ a b c d T.H. Greco. Money: Understanding and Creating Alternatives to Legal Tender, White River Junction, Vt: Chelsea Green Publishing (2001). ISBN 1-890132-37-3
  5. ^ "Learn More About Coins and Money — Treasure Trove - Philadelphia Fed". Philadelphia Fed.. http://www.philadelphiafed.org/education/money-in-motion/treasure-trove/. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 
  6. ^ "On2 Money / A History of Money". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/on2/money/history.html. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 
  7. ^ Bernstein, Peter, A Primer on Money and Banking, and Gold, Wiley, 2008 edition, pp29-39
  8. ^ Mauss, Marcel. 'The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies.' pp. 36-37.
  9. ^ Graeber, David. 'Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value'. pp. 153-154.
  10. ^ Kramer, History Begins at Sumer, pp. 52–55.
  11. ^ Herodotus. Histories, I, 94
  12. ^ "Goldsborough, Reid. "World's First Coin"". Rg.ancients.info. 2003-10-02. http://rg.ancients.info/lion/article.html. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 
  13. ^ D'Eprio, Peter & Pinkowish, Mary Desmond (1998). What Are The Seven Wonders Of The World? First Anchor Books, p.192. ISBN 0-385-49062-3
  14. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=specie&searchmode=phrase. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 
  15. ^ a b Krugman, Paul & Wells, Robin, Economics, Worth Publishers, New York (2006)
  16. ^ a b Abel, Andrew; Bernanke, Ben (2005). "7". Macroeconomics (5th ed.). Pearson. pp. 266–269. 
  17. ^ Theory of Money and Credit– Library of Economics and Liberty
  18. ^ Mises, Ludwig von. The Theory of Money and Credit, (Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, Inc., 1981), trans. H. E. Batson. Available online here [2]; accessed 9 May 2007; Part One: The Nature of Money, Chapter 3: The Various Kinds of Money, Section 3: Commodity Money, Credit Money, and Fiat Money, Paragraph 25.
  19. ^ RandRefinery.com Retrieved July-18-09
  20. ^ a b USMINT.gov Retrieved July-18-09
  21. ^ Jevons, William Stanley (1875). "XVI: Representative Money". Money and the Mechanism of Exchange. http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=318&chapter=9990&layout=html&Itemid=27. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  22. ^ Deardorff, Prof. Alan V. (2008). "Deardorff's Glossary of International Economics". Department of Economics, University of Michigan. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~alandear/glossary/f.html. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  23. ^ Black, Henry Campbell (1910). "A Law Dictionary Containing Definitions Of The Terms And Phrases Of American And English Jurisprudence, Ancient And Modern", page 494. West Publishing Co. Black’s Law Dictionary defines the word "fiat" to mean "a short order or warrant of a Judge or magistrate directing some act to be done; an authority issuing from some competent source for the doing of some legal act"
  24. ^ Tom Bethell (1980-02-04). "Crazy as a Gold Bug". New York (New York Media) 13 (5): p. 34. http://books.google.com/books?id=6OUCAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA33&dq=silver+krugerrand.  Retrieved July-18-09
  25. ^ Shredded & mutilated: Mutilated Currency, Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
  26. ^ Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 258. ISBN 0130630853. 
  27. ^ The Bank Credit Analysis Handbook: A Guide for Analysts, Bankers and Investors by Jonathan Golin. Publisher: John Wiley & Sons (August 10, 2001). ISBN 0471842176 ISBN 978-0471842170
  28. ^ Bankintroductions.com - Economic Definitions
  29. ^ The Federal Reserve. 'Monetary Policy and the Economy". (PDF) Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, (2005-07-05). Retrieved 2007-05-15.
  30. ^ Milton Friedman, Anna Jacobson Schwartz, (1971). Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00354-8. 
  31. ^ David Laidler, (1997). Money and Macroeconomics: The Selected Essays of David Laidler (Economists of the Twentieth Century). Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-85898-596-X. 

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Money is commonly defined by the functions attached to any good or token that functions in trade as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account, although economics offers various definitions.

Contents

Sourced

  • Throw money at a problem and it will remain.
    • Tony Kakko (Sonata Arctica), Abandoned, Pleased, Brainwashed, Exploited
  • Ploratur lacrimis amissa pecunia veris.
  • Lost money is wept for with real tears.
  • Crescit amor nummi quantum ipsa pecunia crescit,
    Et minus hanc optat, qu non habet.
  • Translation: Increase of wealth increases our desires
    And hew, who least possesses, least requires.
  • Alt. Translation: The love of money grows as the money itself grows.
  • If I can acquire money and also keep myself modest and faithful and magnanimous, point out the way, and I will acquire it.
    • Epictetus, "The Encheiridion, or Manual, XXIV" (c. 135 A.D.), as translated by George Long, The Discourses of Epictetus with the Encheiridion and Fragments (1890), p. 388
  • Quid faciant leges, ubi sola pecunia regnat?
  • What power has law where only money rules?
  • That's just a lie we tell poor people to keep them from rioting in the streets.^ She told a friend, "If he keeps avoiding me, I might just call a press conference and tell them about it..."
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Money, now this has to be some good shit.
  • For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.^ In an executive session of a Senate investigating committee she was asked why so many men gave her expensive presents and money.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • No servant can serve two masters.^ Although no more than 10 or 15 percent of the population was Catholic, the Catholics constituted a high proportion of civil servants and government officials.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other.^ Instead, one would either not include the meter element, or use the meter element with a defined range to give the dimensions in context compared to other pies: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    You cannot serve both God and Money.
  • I think it a greater theft to Rob the dead of their Praise, then the Living of their Money.
    • Edward Ravenscroft, Preface to Titus Andronicus, or the Rape of Lavinia (1686); quoted in The Shakespeare Allusion-Book: A Collection of Allusions to Shakespeare from 1591-1700, vol 2, ed. .John Munro (1932)
  • But as they all say if we sell our home what will we have for it, money, and what is the use of that money, money goes and after it is gone then where are we, beside we have all we want, what can we do with money except lose it, money to spend is not very welcome, if you have it and you try to spend it, well spending money is an anxiety, saving money is a comfort and a pleasure, economy is not a duty it is a comfort, avarice is an excitement, but spending money is nothing, money spent is money non-existent, money saved is money realised...^ They all use the DragEvent interface.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ These values are all case-sensitive — they must be used exactly as shown.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ John Dean unsuccessfully tried to persuade Walters to have the CIA pay bail for the Watergate burglars — and put them on salary if they were sentenced to prison.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Keith (Eric Stoltz): You can't tell a book by its cover.
    .Watts (Mary Stuart Masterson): No, but you can tell how much it's gonna cost you.^ When he was taken before the Ervin Committee and asked, "Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God?", Liddy simply answered "No".
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Late to bed and late to wake will keep you long on money and short on mistakes.
    • Aaron McGruder (American cartoonist and comic strip artist), taken from The Boondocks, 7-10-2001
  • I look at Paris Hilton, think about her parents' fortune and her grandparents' fortune. She thought she had it all together. A whole lot of people think that, that when you got money you can do anything you want to do. .But I want to tell you there are some things money can't do for you; Money can buy you a house, but can't buy you a home; Money can buy you food to put on your table, but can't buy an appetite; Money can buy you one of the most finest matresses in the world, but can't buy you sleep.^ Some elements, most notably area , can correspond to more than one distinct focusable area.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If there are multiple matching browsing contexts, the user agent should select one in some arbitrary consistent manner, such as the most recently opened, most recently focused, or more closely related.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ There must be at least one event loop per user agent, and at most one event loop per unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Money couldn't buy friends, but you got a better class of enemy.^ This violation is motivated by a desire for compatibility with two classes of legacy content: one that uses the presence of document.all as a way to detect legacy user agents, and one that only supports those legacy user agents and uses the document.all object without testing for its presence first.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Things that you can't do with this specification because they are better handled using other technologies that are further described herein .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Money is the source of the greatest vice, and that nation which is most rich, is most wicked.
    • Frances Burney (1752–1840), British diarist. .The Journals and Letters of Fanny Burney, journal entry for 17th November 1768
  • It's a kind of spiritual snobbery that makes people think they can be happy without money.^ These rules make errors for resources listed in the manifest fatal, while making it possible for other resources to be removed from caches when they are removed from the server, without errors, and making non-manifest resources survive server-side errors.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Where large sums of money are concerned, it is advisable to trust nobody.
  • Sex is like money; only too much is enough.
  • That wretched alchemist called money can turn a man’s heart into a stone!
  • Money isn't everything but neither is it nothing.
  • Your lovin' gives me a thrill/But your lovin' don't pay my bills/I need money
    • Money (That's What I Want) Various artists
  • The grabbing hands / Grab all they can / All for themselves, after all / It's a competitive world / Everything counts in large amounts
  • No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.^ Since they are not all spaces, they are handled as per the "anything else" rules in the " in table " insertion mode, which defer to the " in body " insertion mode but with foster parenting .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Would make it potentially easier to expire server-held state when the server limitations come into play.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ However, with other alternative text, this might not work, and putting all the alternative text into one image in each case might make more sense: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • The Constitution of the United States, Article 1, Section 10, Clause 1[1]
  • Divitiæ bona ancilla, pessima domina.
  • Translations:
    Riches are a good handmaid, but the worst mistress.
    Wealth is a good servant, a very bad mistress
    L'argent est un bon serviteur, et un méchant maître
    Money is a good servant, a dangerous master.
    .
    • Francis Bacon, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (1623), Book Six
    • The last two have sometimes been attributed to Dominique Bouhours, but are probably just translations of Bacon's words.
  • Money is like muck, not good except it be spread.^ The value IDL attribute must act like the element's textContent IDL attribute, except that on setting, in addition, before the child nodes are changed, the element's value mode flag must be set to value .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The alt attribute must not contain text like the word "logo", as it is not the fact that it is a logo that is being conveyed, it's the entity itself.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • ’Tis money that begets money.
  • Penny saved is a penny got.
  • Si possis recte, si non, quocumque mondo rem.
    By right means, if you can, but by any means make money.
  • Money never made any man rich. .Contrariwise, there is not any man that hath gathered store of it together that is not become more covetous.^ Custom data attributes are intended to store custom data private to the page or application, for which there are no more appropriate attributes or elements.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Seneca, Ad Lucilium epistulae morales
  • Pecunia non olet
    • Translation: Money does not smell.
      (His response on being reproached by his son on taking money as a tax on urine, collected from public urinals in Rome.) .Originally from Suetonius, Vespasian
    • Vespasian
  • A man will be generally very old and feeble before he forgets how much money he has in the funds.^ The progress is either indeterminate, indicating that progress is being made but that it is not clear how much more work remains to be done before the task is complete (e.g.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • It may interest some if I state that during the last twenty years I have made by literature something near £70,000. As I have said before in these pages, I look upon the result as comfortable, but not splendid.^ In these cases, the alt attribute must contain some suitable alternative text, but it may be somewhat brief.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Conformance checkers must distinguish between pages that have no conformance errors and have none of these obsolete features, and pages that have no conformance errors but do have some of these obsolete features.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Some states have more complicated behavior and can consume several characters before switching to another state.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Money is a new form of slavery, and distinguishable from the old simply by the fact that it is impersonal – that there is no human relation between master and slave.^ Void elements can't have any contents (since there's no end tag, no content can be put between the start tag and the end tag).
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ There is no semantic difference, for instance, between the following two examples: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If there is no html element , returns the empty string and ignores new values.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • We could never imagine what a strange disproportion a few or a great many pieces of money make between men, if we did not see it every day with our own eyes.^ He watched her, day-in, day-out, hoping she would notice him, but she never did.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Money. Cause of all evil, Auri sacra fames. The god of the day—but not to be confused with Apollo. Politicians call it emoluments; lawyers, retainers; doctors, fees; employees, salary; workmen, pay; servants, wages. “Money is not happiness.”
  • The earning of money should be a means to an end; for more than thirty years—I began to support myself at sixteen—I had to regard it as the end itself.
  • Money, which represents the prose of life, and is hardly spoken of in parlors without apology, is, in its effects and laws, as beautiful as roses.
  • What a dignity it gives an old lady, that balance at the bankers! How tenderly we look at her faults if she is a relative; what a kind, good-natured old creature we find her!
  • Money often costs too much.
  • Ah, take the Cash in hand and waive the rest;
    Oh, the brave Music of a distant Drum!
  • Ask a great money-maker what he wants to do with his money,—he never knows. He doesn’t make it to do anything with it. He gets it only that he may get it.
  • So pleasant it is to have money, heigh-ho!
    So pleasant it is to have money.
  • Men hate the individual whom they call avaricious only because nothing can be gained from him.
    • Voltaire [François Marie Arouet] (1694–1778), ‘Avarice’, Philosophical Dictionary (1764)
  • It is more easy to write on money than to obtain it; and those who gain it, jest much at those who only know how to write about it.
  • When it is a question of money, everybody is of the same religion.
    • Voltaire. Letter to Mme. D’Épinal Ferney, 26th December 1760
  • Truly, it is not want, but rather abundance, that breeds avarice.
    • Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592), French essayist. ‘That the taste of good and evil depends, for a good part, on the idea we have of them’, The Essays, Bk. I, Ch. 14, 1st edition (1580)
  • Therefor my theme is yet, and ever was—
    ‘Radix malorum est cupiditas.’
    Thus can I preche agayn that same vyce
    Which that I use, and that is avaryce.
  • Would you know what money is, go borrow some.
  • LEAR. No, they cannot touch me for coining; I am the king himself.
  • No money is better spent than what is laid out for domestic satisfaction.
    • Samuel Johnson, Stated on April 14th 1776, quoted in Boswell’s Life of Samuel Johnson (1791)
  • The use of money is all the advantage there is in having money.
  • If you'd lose a troublesome visitor, lend him money. .
  • If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some.^ They could at least have tried for some sort of, I don't know, sequence of rounded squares with varying shades of green and bold white outlines, at least that would look good on the cover of a blue book.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • Gold and silver are but merchandise, as well as cloth or linen; and that nation that buys the least, and sells the most, must always have the most money.^ There must be at least one event loop per user agent, and at most one event loop per unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl Chesterfield (1694–1773). Letter, ‘Miscellaneous Pieces,’ Letters to his Son, 5th ed. (1774), Vol. IV, p. 332
  • The accuser of sins by my side doth stand,
    And he holds my money bag in his hand;
    For my worldly things God makes him pay;
    And he’d pay for more, if to him I would pray.
    • William Blake, As quoted in Alexander Gilchrist’s ‘Life of William Blake’, ‘Pictor Ignotus’, 1863
  • Money well managed deserves, indeed, the apotheosis to which she was raised by her Latin adorers; she is Diva Moneta — a goddess.
  • Money never made a man happy yet, nor will it. There is nothing in its nature to produce happiness. The more a man has, the more he wants. Instead of its filling a vacuum, it makes one. If it satisfies one want, it doubles and trebles that want another way. That was a true proverb of the wise man, rely upon it: "Better is little with the fear of the Lord, than great treasure, and trouble therewith."
    • David Alfred Doudney "Old Jonathan's" jottings; or, Light and lessons from daily life (1869), p. 18; published earlier in the magazine Old Jonathan, or the Parish Helper
    • Often misattributed to Benjamin Franklin
  • I never heard of an old man forgetting where he had buried his money. Old people remember what interests them: the dates fixed for their lawsuits, and the names of their debtors and creditors.
  • Endless money forms the sinews of war
  • Money never made any man rich. .Contrariwise, there is not any man that hath gathered store of it together that is not become more covetous.^ Custom data attributes are intended to store custom data private to the page or application, for which there are no more appropriate attributes or elements.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
    • Seneca, Ad Lucilium epistulae morales, letter 119
  • And there is all the difference in the world between paying and being paid.^ There is no semantic difference, for instance, between the following two examples: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The difference between setDragImage() and addElement() is that the latter automatically generates the image based on the current rendering of the elements added, whereas the former uses the exact specified image.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    The act of paying is perhaps the most uncomfortable infliction that the two orchard thieves entailed upon us. But being paid, – what will compare with it? .
  • Money is human happiness in the abstract; and so the man who is no longer capable of enjoying such happiness in the concrete, sets his whole heart on money.^ When the current playback position changes such that the last frame rendered is no longer the frame corresponding to the current playback position in the video, the new frame must be rendered.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If the element is an object element The value is the absolute URL that results from resolving the value of the element's data attribute relative to the element at the time the attribute is set, or the empty string if there is no such attribute or if resolving it results in an error.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If no such set of allowed values is provided, then all values are conforming.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • In reality money, like numbers and law, is a category of thought. There is a monetary, just as there is a juristic and a mathematical and a technical, thinking of the world-around.
    • Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West; German edition: Der Untergang des Abenlandes, (1918-22)
  • The usual definition of the functions of money are that money is a medium of exchange, a measure of value, a standard of deferred payment and a store of value.
  • Public opinion always wants easy money, that is, low interest rates.
  • Meanwhile Hollywood has gone nuts. Carol [his wife] turned down a writing job for me at five thousand a week. .She said, “Why Jesus Christ then I’d have to find a new bank every week.” Just what in hell could a writing man do that would be worth five thousand a week.^ If a site uses a consistent navigation tool bar on every page, then the link that would normally link to the page itself could be marked up using an a element: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In Example One , he writes The man said Things that are impossible just take longer .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    The whole place is nuts...
    • John Steinbeck, Letter (written in California) to the film editor and director, Lloyd Nestor, 17th May 1939
  • I know of nothing more despicable and pathetic than a man who devotes all the hours of the waking day to the making of money for money’s sake.
    • John D. Rockefeller (1839–1937), American industrialist. As quoted in Lewis H. Lapham’s Money and Class in America, note to Ch. 8; published in 1988
  • To be controlled in our economic pursuits means to be always controlled unless we declare our specific purpose. Or, since when we declare our specific purpose we shall also have to get it approved, we should really be controlled in everything. .
    • Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (1944), Chapter 7, "Economic Control and Totalitarianism"
  • A dollar is something that you multiply – something that causes an expansion of your house and your mechanical equipment, something that accelerates like speed; and that may be also slowed up or deflated.^ For instance, if the title attribute contained the caption of the control, assistive technology could end up saying something like The text you have entered does not match the required pattern.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ For example, a blog post would be marked up using article , a chapter using section , a page's navigation aids using nav , and a group of form controls using fieldset .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    It is a value that may be totally imaginary, yet can for a time provide half-realized dreams.
  • It is when money looks like manna that we truely delight in it.
  • Money is only a tool. It will take you wherever you wish, but it will not replace you as the driver. .
  • To be clever enough to get all that money, one must be stupid enough to want it.^ Subsequent lines, if any, must all be one of the following: A blank line Blank lines must consist of zero or more U+0020 SPACE and U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION (tab) characters only.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The value must be unique amongst all the IDs in the element's home subtree and must contain at least one character.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This one selection must be shared by all the content of the browsing context (though not by nested browsing contexts ), including any editing hosts in the document.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • G. K. Chesterton, ‘The Paradise of Thieves’, The Wisdom of father Brown, 1914
  • As a general rule, nobody has money who ought to have it.
  • Worldly success, measured by the accumulation of money, is no doubt a very dazzling thing; and all men are naturally more or less the admirers of worldly success.
    • Samuel Smiles (1812-1904), Scottish author and reformer. ‘Money: Its Use and Abuse’, Self-Help (1856), Ch. 10
  • Simple rules for saving money.
    To save half: When you are fired by an eager impulse to contribute to a charity, wait, and count to forty.
    To save three-quarters, count sixty.
    To save it all, count sixty-five. .
    • Mark Twain, More Tramps Abroad (1897), Chapter 50
  • If all the rich men in the world divided up their money amongst themselves, there wouldn’t be enough to go round.^ If there is no cell covering slot ( x , y ), or if there is more than one cell covering slot ( x , y ), return to the substep marked loop .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Christina Stead (1902–1983), Australian novelist. House of All Nations, Sc. .12 (written in 1938), published by Angus and Robertson (1988)
  • As a rule, there is nothing that offends us more than a new kind of money.^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one adr property item with a type property whose value is pref .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one email property item with a type property whose value is pref .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Robert Lynd, The Pleasures of Ignorance (1921), p. 215
  • To borrow money, big money, you have to wear your hair in a certain way, walk in a certain way, and have about you an air of solemnity and majesty — something like the atmosphere of a Gothic cathedral.
  • With money, so they all profess—
    And I’ve no wish to beg the question—
    One cannot purchase Happiness
    Or Peace of Mind, or yet Success,
    Or a robust digestion;
    But one can buy a good cigar
    And plovers’ eggs and caviare!^ When no video data is available (the element's readyState attribute is either HAVE_NOTHING , or HAVE_METADATA but no video data has yet been obtained at all), the video element represents either the poster frame , or nothing.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
    • Harry Graham, ‘The Millionaire’, The World’s Workers (1928)
  • The flour merchant, the house-builder, and the postman charge us no less on account of our sex; but when we endeavour to earn money to pay all these, then, indeed, we find the interest.^ If the Document object has no parser, or its parser has stopped parsing , or the user agent has reason to believe the user is no longer interested in scrolling to the fragment identifier, then abort these substeps.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Lucy Stone (1818–1893), U.S. suffragist. As quoted in Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings, part 3, by Miriam Schnier (1972)
  • Cash. I just am not happy when I don't have it. The minute I have it I have to spend it. And I just buy STUPID THINGS.
  • Money is the MOMENT to me.
    Money is my MOOD.
  • The best way to keep money in perspective is to have some.
  • My father told me that when you're working, don't stop to count your money.
    • Pelé, as reported in Pelé: A biography (1976), James Haskins, p. .132
  • If women didn't exist, all the money in the world would have no meaning.^ Content attributes: Global attributes DOM interface: interface HTMLDivElement : HTMLElement {}; The div element has no special meaning at all.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Aristotle Onassis, quoted in Aristotle Onassis: A Biography (1977), by Nicholas Fraser
  • “I would not steal a penny, for my income’s very fair—
    I do not want a penny—I have pennies and to spare—
    And if I stole a penny from a money-bag or till,
    The sin would be enormous—the temptation being nil.
    • W. S. Gilbert, Fifty ‘Bab’ Ballards, ‘Mister William’ (1876)
  • But for money and the need of it, there would not be half the friendship in the world. It is powerful for good if divinely used. Give it plenty of air, and it is sweet as the hawthorn; shut it up, and it cankers and breeds worms.
  • They may talk of the plugging and sweating
    Of our coinage that’s minted of gold,
    But to me it produces no fretting
    Of its shortness of weight to be told:
    All the sov’reigns I’m able to levy
    As to lightness can never be wrong,
    But must surely be some of the heavy,
    For I never can carry them long.
    • Thomas Hood (1799-1845), ‘Epigram on the Depreciated Money’, Hood’s Own, Second Series (1861)
  • If our nation can issue a dollar bond, it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good, makes the bill good, also. .The difference between the bond and the bill is the bond lets money brokers collect twice the amount of the bond and an additional 20%, whereas the currency pays nobody but those who contribute directly in some useful way.^ The immediate user selection changes as the user selects different elements (either by pointing at them with a pointing device, or by selecting them in some other way).
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Here are some more examples showing the same picture used in different contexts, with different appropriate alternate texts each time.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The Communication APIs This section describes some mechanisms that applications written in HTML can use to communicate with other applications from different domains running on the same client.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    It is absurd to say that our country can issue $30 million in bonds and not $30 million in currency. Both are promises to pay, but one promise fattens the usurers and the other helps the people.
  • I have never seen more senators express discontent with their jobs. ... I think the major cause is that, deep down in our hearts, we have been accomplices to doing something terrible and unforgivable to this wonderful country. Deep down in our hearts, we know that we have bankrupted America and that we have given our children a legacy of bankruptcy. .. We have defrauded our country to get ourselves elected.
    • John Danforth, Republican senator from Missouri, reported in the Arizona Republic of April 21, 1992
  • Capitalism is using its money; we socialists throw it away.
    • Fidel Castro, Quoted in The Observer (British) newspaper, November 8th 1964
  • Money is power, freedom, a cushion, the root of all evil, the sum of blessings.
  • Money plays the largest part in determining the course of history
  • I who can have, through the power of money, everything for which the human heart longs, do I not possess all human abilities?^ The user agent is required to determine the duration of the media resource and go through this step before playing.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    Does not my money, therefore, transform all my incapacities into their opposites.
    • Karl Marx, Economical and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844)
  • Never allow yourself to get caught without a loose million handy.
    • Lord Nathaniel Rothschild, As quoted as being one of his favourite sayings (on a visit to Cecil Rhodes in South Africa) in the book by Antony Thomas, Rhodes, The Race for Africa (1996)
  • I get a few bruises, but I think of the money and I’m alright.
    • Sir Norman Wisdom (As stated on ‘Pulling Power’, an ITV motoring program c. 2000)
  • I like to carry some cash because you feel like you can cope with any situation – such as being mugged. I always try to have about £50 in my pocket just for convenience, really.
    • David Mitchell, British comic actor. .From his interview in with Nick McGarth the Daily Mail, 16th July 2008
  • Many solutions were suggested for this problem, but most of these were largely concerned with the movement of small green pieces of paper, which was odd because on the whole it wasn't the small green pieces of paper that were unhappy.^ U+0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F, zero-padding if necessary, and append these numbers to result , in the order red, green, blue.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • A man wants to earn money in order to be happy, and his whole effort and the best of a life are devoted to the earning of that money. Happiness is forgotten; the means are taken for the end.
    • Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus (1942), "Absurd Creation" (Tr. Justin O'Brien, Vantage International, 1991, ISBN 0-679-73373-6, p. 103)
  • All the perplexities, confusions, and distresses in America arise, not from defects in their constitution or confederation, nor from want of honor or virtue, as much from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit, and circulation.
  • I wish it were possible to obtain a single amendment to our Constitution. I would be willing to depend on that alone for the reduction of the administration of our government to the genuine principles of its Constitution; I mean an additional article, taking from the federal government the power of borrowing.
  • And I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large scale.
  • If you make money your god, it will plague you like the devil. .
    • Recorded in Select Proverbs of All Nations (1824), Thomas Fielding
    • Is sometimes attributed to Henry Fielding, apparently just because he has the same last name.
  • To cure us of our immoderate love of gain, we should seriously consider how many goods there are that money will not purchase, and these the best; and how many evils there are that money will not remedy, and these the worst.^ The reset algorithm for select elements is to go through all the option elements in the element's list of options , and set their selectedness to true if the option element has a selected attribute, and false otherwise.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ [Supplemental] interface HTMLHtmlElement { attribute DOMString version ; }; The version IDL attribute of the html element must reflect the content attribute of the same name.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Otherwise, if the field element is an input element whose type attribute is in the File Upload state, then for each file selected in the input element, append an entry in the form data set with the name as the name, the file (consisting of the name, the type, and the body) as the value, and type as the type.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Charles Caleb Colton, Lacon: Or, Many Things in Few Words : Addressed to Those who Think (1836), p. .149
  • It is maintained by some that the bank is a means of executing the constitutional power “to coin money and regulate the value thereof.” Congress have established a mint to coin money and passed laws to regulate the value thereof.^ MEDIA_ERR_NETWORK (numeric value 2) A network error of some description caused the user agent to stop fetching the media resource , after the resource was established to be usable.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ MEDIA_ERR_DECODE (numeric value 3) An error of some description occurred while decoding the media resource , after the resource was established to be usable.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If the element has a value attribute, the button's label must be the value of that attribute; otherwise, it must be an implementation-defined string that means "Reset" or some such.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .The money so coined, with its value so regulated, and such foreign coins as Congress may adopt are the only currency known to the Constitution.^ Any number of properties with the name type may be present within the item that forms the value of a label property of an item with the type vcard , but within each such label property item there must only be one type property per distinct value.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In such cases, the alt attribute's value may be omitted, but one of the following conditions must be met as well: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Any number of properties with the name type may be present within the item that forms the value of an adr property of an item with the type vcard , but within each such adr property item there must only be one type property per distinct value.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .But if they have other power to regulate the currency, it was conferred to be exercised by themselves, and not to be transferred to a corporation. If the bank be established for that purpose, with a charter unalterable without its consent, Congress have parted with their power for a term of years, during which the Constitution is a dead letter.^ These rules make errors for resources listed in the manifest fatal, while making it possible for other resources to be removed from caches when they are removed from the server, without errors, and making non-manifest resources survive server-side errors.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Providing an expansion in a title attribute once will not necessarily cause other abbr elements in the same document with the same contents but without a title attribute to behave as if they had the same expansion.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ These terms are not meant to imply a visual medium; they must be considered to apply to other media in equivalent ways.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    It is neither necessary nor proper to transfer its legislative power to such a bank, and therefore unconstitutional. .
    • Veto Mesage Regarding the Bank of the United States [2] (1832-07-10)
    • Often paraphrased as: If Congress has the right under the constitution to issue paper money, it was given them to be used by themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations.
  • It would convert the Treasury of the United States into a manufactory of paper money.^ On setting, the given value must be converted to the shortest possible string representing the number as a valid non-negative integer and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Would make it potentially easier to expire server-held state when the server limitations come into play.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When forms are submitted, the data in the form is converted into the form specified by the enctype , and then sent to the destination specified by the action using the given method .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    It makes the House of Representatives and the Senate, or the caucus of the party which happens to be in the majority, the absolute dictator of the financial and business affairs of this country. This scheme surpasses all the centralism and all the Caesarism that were ever charged upon the Republican party in the wildest days of the war or in the events growing out of the war.
  • A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit. Our system of credit is privately concentrated. The growth of the nation, therefore, and all our activities are in the hands of a few men ... .We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated Governments in the civilized world — no longer a Government by free opinion, no longer a Government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a Government by the opinion and duress of a small group of dominant men.^ The rules for when a script completes loading start applying (script execution is no longer managed by the parser).
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This cache group no longer exists for any purpose other than the processing of Document objects already associated with an application cache in the cache group .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The input element represents a control that, when used in conjunction with other input elements, forms a radio button group in which only one control can have its checkedness state set to true.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • And who can suffer injury by just taxation, impartial laws and the application of the Jeffersonian doctrine of equal rights to all and special privileges to none?^ On setting, the value attribute must set the selectedness of all the option elements in the list of options to false, and then first the option element in the list of options , in tree order , whose value is equal to the given new value, if any, must have its selectedness set to true.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Only those whose accumulations are stained with dishonesty and whose immoral methods have given them a distorted view of business, society and government.^ The namedItem( name ) method must return a PropertyNodeList object representing a live view of the HTMLPropertyCollection object, further filtered so that the only nodes in the RadioNodeList object are those that have a property name equal to name .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Otherwise, create a NodeList object representing a live view of the HTMLOptionsCollection object, further filtered so that the only nodes in the NodeList object are those that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to name .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The collection then represents a live view of the subtree rooted at the collection's root, containing only nodes that match the given filter.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Accumulating by conscious frauds more money than they can use upon themselves, wisely distribute or safely leave to their children, these denounce as public enemies all who question their methods or throw a light upon their crimes.
    • William Jennings Bryan, Speech at Madison Square Garden, New York, 30 August 1906, at a reception welcoming Bryan on his return from a year's trip around the world.^ They all use the DragEvent interface.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ If the method was invoked on an XML document , throw an INVALID_ACCESS_ERR exception and abort these steps.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ If the table element has no children elements, then return the table (which will be empty), and abort these steps.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      Speeches of William Jennings Bryan, Funk & Wagnalls, 1909, p. .90
    • Often misquoted as: The money power denounces, as public enemies, all who question its methods or throw light upon its crimes.
  • The real truth of the matter is, as you and I know, that a financial element in the large centers has owned the government of the U.S. since the days of Andrew Jackson.^ The element's 2D context's drawImage() method is called with an HTMLImageElement or an HTMLVideoElement whose origin is not the same as that of the Document object that owns the canvas element.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ (This is the case whether or not the document in question is an HTML document or indeed whether it contains any HTML elements at all.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ ElementsByClassName( classes ) Returns a NodeList of the elements in the object on which the method was invoked (a Document or an Element ) that have all the classes given by classes .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd US President, letter to Col. Edward Mandell House (21 November 1933); as quoted in F.D.R.: His Personal Letters, 1928-1945, edited by Elliott Roosevelt (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1950), pg. 373.
  • In numerous years following the war, the Federal Government ran a heavy surplus. .It could not (however) pay off its debt, retire its securities, because to do so meant there would be no bonds to back the national bank notes.^ There would be no way to obtain a reference to the nodes created even if the remaining steps were run.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If a user connects to a server with a self-signed certificate, the user agent could allow the connection but just act as if there had been no encryption.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Such UI models should be based upon the single undo transaction history described in this section, however, such that to a script there is no detectable difference.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    To pay off the debt was to destroy the money supply.
  • Every era has a currency that buys souls. In some the currency is pride, in others it is hope, in still others it is a holy cause. .There are of course times when hard cash will buy souls, and the remarkable thing is that such times are marked by civility, tolerance, and the smooth working of everyday life.^ If the element is an object element The value is the absolute URL that results from resolving the value of the element's data attribute relative to the element at the time the attribute is set, or the empty string if there is no such attribute or if resolving it results in an error.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If there is no such application cache , or if it is marked as obsolete , then the method must raise an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception instead.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Most Americans have no real understanding of the operation of the international money lenders... The accounts of the Federal Reserve System have never been audited. It operates outside the control of Congress and... manipulates the credit of the United States.
    • Sen. Barry Goldwater (R-AZ), With No Apologies: The Personal and Political Memoirs of United States Senator Barry M. Goldwater (1979)
  • That's right. .While economic textbooks claim that people and corporations are competing for markets and resources, I claim that in reality they are competing for money - using markets and resources to do so.^ Readers familiar with that RFC will find it easier to read this specification if they pretend the term "URL" as used herein is really called something else altogether.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This process relies, in part, on character encoding information found in the real Content-Type metadata of the resource; the "sniffed type" is not used for this purpose.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    So designing new money systems really amounts to redesigning the target that orients much human effort.
    .Furthermore, I believe that greed and competition are not a result of immutable human temperament; I have come to the conclusion that greed and fear of scarcity are in fact being continuously created and amplified as a direct result of the kind of money we are using.^ Continued use of this service will result in a kiss.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ (For example, the script element can result in scripts executing and using the dynamic markup insertion APIs to insert characters into the stream being tokenized.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .For example, we can produce more than enough food to feed everybody, and there is definitely enough work for everybody in the world, but there is clearly not enough money to pay for it all.^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one adr property item with a type property whose value is pref .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Duplicates are not prevented; a range may be added more than once in which case it appears in the list more than once, which (for example) will cause stringification to return the range's text twice.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    The scarcity is in our national currencies. In fact, the job of central banks is to create and maintain that currency scarcity. The direct consequence is that we have to fight with each other in order to survive.
    Money is created when banks lend it into existence. When a bank provides you with a $100,000 mortgage, it creates only the principal, which you spend and which then circulates in the economy. The bank expects you to pay back $200,000 over the next 20 years, but it doesn't create the second $100,000 - the interest. .Instead, the bank sends you out into the tough world to battle against everybody else to bring back the second $100,000.
    • Bernard Lietaer, economist, one of the designers of the Euro, Yes!^ You instead have to use one (or two) p element(s) and two ins or del elements: For example: This is the first paragraph.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ One or more resources (including their out-of-band metadata, such as HTTP headers, if any), identified by URLs, each falling into one (or more) of the following categories: .
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ Finally, switch back to the attribute value state that you were in when were switched into this state.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      .A Journal of Positive Futures
      , Spring 1997 (pdf)
  • Your money's value is determined by a global casino of unprecedented proportions: $2 trillion are traded per day in foreign exchange markets, 100 times more than the trading volume of all the stockmarkets of the world combined.^ If that doesn't return a time, then the modification has no associated timestamp (the value is non-conforming; it is not a valid global date and time string ).
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The min attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a valid global date and time string .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    Only 2% of these foreign exchange transactions relate to the "real" economy reflecting movements of real goods and services in the world, and 98% are purely speculative. This global casino is triggering the foreign exchange crises which shook Mexico in 1994-5, Asia in 1997 and Russia in 1998. These emergencies are the dislocation symptoms of the old Industrial Age money system.
  • Money is an agreement within a community to use something as a medium of exchange.
  • Money…is the symbol of duty, it is the sacrament of having done for mankind that which mankind wanted. .Mankind may not be a very good judge, but there is no better.^ Contexts in which this element may be used: As a child of a table element, after any caption , and colgroup elements and before any tbody , tfoot , and tr elements, but only if there are no other thead elements that are children of the table element.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Radius: 12cm Height: 2cm There is no explicit way to specify units in the meter element, but the units may be specified in the title attribute in free-form text.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ There may be no element focused; when no element is focused, key events received by the document must be targeted at the body element .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • If there's no money in poetry, neither is there poetry in money.
    • Robert Graves (1895-1985), English novelist and poet. ‘Mammon’, Mammon and the Black Goddess (1965)
  • Money is a dangerous subject. Polite conversation avoids it. You may talk about economics, but not raw money…
    • Max Plowman (1883-1941), British writer. ‘Money and .The Merchant’, Adelphi magazine, September 1931
  • I am more concerned with the return of my money than the return on my money.^ Duplicates are not prevented; a range may be added more than once in which case it appears in the list more than once, which (for example) will cause stringification to return the range's text twice.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If string consists of just a single U+002E FULL STOP character or if it contains more than one U+002E FULL STOP character then return an error condition and abort these steps.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If there is no cell covering slot ( x , y ), or if there is more than one cell covering slot ( x , y ), return to the substep marked loop .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Will Rogers, quoted in Will Rogers Performer, p. 292.
  • Never invest your money in anything that eats or needs repainting.
    • Billy Rose (1899-1966), American impresario and lyricist. .As quoted in the New York Post, 26th October 1957
  • Let us all be happy, and live within our means, even if we have to borrow money to do it with.^ US Senator from New York, 1938-47 .
    • People by Last Names: M 2 February 2010 10:010 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Let all the last columns in the table from x= x start to x= x width -1 form a new column group , anchored at the slot ( x start , 0), with width x width - x start , corresponding to the colgroup element.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If y height > y start , then let all the last rows in the table from y= y start to y= y height -1 form a new row group , anchored at the slot with coordinate (0, y start ), with height y height - y start , corresponding to the element being processed.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Artemus Ward [Charles Farrar Brown] (1834-1867), American humour writer. ‘Science and Natural History’, The London Punch Letters (1865-6)
  • It's something very personal, a very important thing. Hell! It's a family motto. Are you ready Jerry? I wanna make sure you're ready, brother. Here it is: Show me the money. SHOW! ME! THE! MONEY! Jerry, it is such a pleasure to say that! Say it with me one time, Jerry.
  • The lifeblood of our economy, indeed the whole world's economy, is based on money. Without a currency that can be trusted, the entire structure of economics, the division of labor itself, falls apart. Our wealth, our well being and our very lives are dependent on the continuation of this highly complex structure called the economy and it in turn is dependent on sound money. We have placed our trust for the management of this money on a gang of thieves called the Federal Reserve. They have now clearly demonstrated their inability to restrain themselves from the excesses that can be perpetrated within a paper money system. If we want to survive as a nation, we need to eliminate both the Federal Reserve and paper money.

Unsourced

  • A wise man should have money in his head, but not in his heart.
  • Money is the blood and soul of men and whosoever has none wanders dead among the living.
    • Anonymous Ancient Greek saying.
  • Is there a number or mark planned for the hand or forehead in a new cashless society? YES, and I have seen the machines that are now ready to put it into operation. .
  • Money is an asset whose value is based on the social trust that it will be exchanged against commodities, services and other assets produced in the future.^ For the purposes of the CSS ruby model, runs of descendants of ruby elements that are not rt or rp elements are expected to be wrapped in anonymous boxes whose 'display' property has the value 'ruby-base'.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • Money is how people set a number to value.^ On setting, the given value must be converted to the shortest possible string representing the number as a valid non-negative integer and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The value sanitization algorithm is as follows : If the value of the element is not a valid floating point number , then set it to the empty string instead.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When the element is suffering from an overflow , if the maximum is not less than the minimum , the user agent must set the element's value to a valid floating point number that represents the maximum .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    • David Packouz
  • Money isn't everything, but it sure keeps you in touch with your children.
  • The trade of the petty usurer is hated with most reason: it makes a profit from currency itself, instead of making it from the process which currency was meant to serve. Their common characteristic is obviously their sordid avarice.
  • This Act (the Federal Reserve Act, Dec. 23rd 1913) establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President (Woodrow Wilson) signs the Bill, the invisible government of the Monetary Power will be legalised... The worst legislative crime of the ages is perpetrated by this banking and currency Bill. .
  • The division of the United States into federations of equal force was decided long before the Civil War by the high financial powers of Europe.^ U+003D EQUALS SIGN (=) Switch to the before attribute value state .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    These bankers were afraid that the US, if they remained as one block, and as one nation, would attain economic and financial independence, which would upset their financial domination over the world.
  • To spend money wisely – first spend it on your wisdom. .
    • Leonid S. Sukhorukov
  • When a government is dependent upon bankers for money, they and not the leaders of the government control the situation, since the hand that gives is above the hand that takes...^ They each take four arguments; the first two give the x and y coordinates of the top left of the rectangle, and the second two give the width w and height h of the rectangle, respectively.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    Money has no motherland; financiers are without patriotism and without decency; their sole object is gain.
  • When you're rich, the government protects every buck you make and every shit you take.
    • Lewis Black, Accepted
  • He's got a wonderful head for money. There's this long slit on the top. .
  • The great rule is not to talk about money with people who have much more or much less than you.^ The latest TWiT episode has been posted, in which we hear several tech news stories as well as learning much more about the iPhone.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ While the formats described here are intended to be subsets of the corresponding ISO8601 formats, this specification defines parsing rules in much more detail than ISO8601.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ An asterisk (*) in a cell indicates that the actual rules are more complicated than indicated in the table above.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Money won't buy happiness, but it will pay the salaries of a large research staff to study the problem.
  • It doesn't matter if you're black or white, the only color that really matters is green.
  • By doing good with his money, a man as it were stamps the image of God upon it, and makes it pass current for the merchandise of heaven.
  • The deepest depth of vulgarism is that of setting up money as the ark of the covenant.
  • Money is a poor compensation for all the time we lose making it.
  • People lose common sense when they gain dollars and cents.
    • James Geary
  • If you are a bee you don't need money for honey.
    • Burcu Uysal
  • If I can acquire money and also keep myself modest and faithful and magnanimous, point out the way, and I will acquire it.
  • I'd like to live like a poor man with lots of money.
  • Never underestimate the humble penny: it'll buy you a chipati in the Punjab.
    • Swami Raj
  • Money comes and goes; time just goes.
    • Swami Raj
  • Spending money comes in stages, like going broke.
  • Money doesn't always bring happiness. People with ten million dollars are no happier than people with nine million dollars.
    • Hobart Brown
  • Working for a lot of money can throw your self-image off.
  • Here we are sitting in a shower of gold, with nothing to hold up but a pitchfork.
    • Christina Stead
  • Money is what you'd get on beautifully without if only other people weren't so crazy about it.
    • Margaret Case Harriman
  • Money—in its absence we are coarse; in its presence we are vulgar. .
  • Save a little money each month and at the end of the year you’ll be surprised at how little you have
    • Ernest Haskins
  • The safest way to double your money is to fold it over once and put it in your pocket.^ This sample shows how the alternative text should just be what you would have put in the prose if the image had never existed.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • If you pay cash th' days won't roll by so fast. .
    • Kin Hubbard
  • I don't believe money is no object.^ If the Document object has no parser, or its parser has stopped parsing , or the user agent has reason to believe the user is no longer interested in scrolling to the fragment identifier, then abort these substeps.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    Money is the object.
    • James Gulliver
  • The dollar doesn't talk—it screams you green!
  • Morals make the man, while money makes morals mighty.
  • Money is worthless unless some people have it and others do not.
  • Money feels good but is as slippery as sin.
  • No dollar is a bastard if it comes to Papa!
  • He who has money need have no fear of the law.
    • Old Russian saying
  • Beauty is potent, but money is omnipotent. .
  • When you have only two pennies left in the world, buy a loaf of bread with one, and a lily with the other.^ Implementations may support only one of these two formats, although supporting both is encouraged.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ You instead have to use one (or two) p element(s) and two ins or del elements: For example: This is the first paragraph.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Notice how only one is defined; the other, with no expansion associated with it, does not use the abbr element.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • If you want to know what God thinks about money, just look at the people He gives it to.
    • Irish proverb
  • A penny in the purse is a gude friend.
    • Scottish proverb
  • Money maks the mare to go whether she has legs or no.
    • Scottish proverb
  • Money is like an eel in the hand.
    • Welsh Proverb.
  • With money in your pocket, you are wise, and you are handsome, and you sing well.
    • Yiddish Proverb.
  • Money is a curious thing to those who lack it, as they soon find that if they haven't got it, curiously enough, they can't spend it either.
  • In national affairs a million is a drop in the budget.
    • Burton Roscoe
  • Money has little value to its possessor unless it also has value to others.
    • Leyland Stanford
  • Mammon is the largest slave-holder in the world.
    • Frederick Saunders
  • Make all you can, save all you can, give all you can.

Misattributed

.
  • If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation then by deflation, the banks and the corporations will grow up around them, will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.^ If position is an ASCII case-insensitive match for the string "afterbegin" Insert all the new children nodes before the first child of target , if there is one.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.
    • Attributed to Thomas Jefferson, The Debate Over The Recharter Of The Bank Bill, (1809). No such document exists. The book Respectfully Quoted says this is "obviously spurious", noting that the OED's earliest citation for the word "deflation" is from 1920. The earliest known appearance of this quote is from 1935 (Testimony of Charles C. Mayer, Hearings Before the Committee on Banking and Currency, House of Representatives, Seventy-fourth Congress, First Session, on H.R. 5357, p. 799)
  • In the Colonies, we issue our own paper money. It is called 'Colonial Scrip.' We issue it in proper proportion to make the goods and pass easily from the producers to the consumers. In this manner, creating ourselves our own paper money, we control its purchasing power and we have no interest to pay to no one. In this manner, by creating ourselves our own paper money, we control its purchasing power, and we have no interest to pay, to anyone. .You see, a legitimate government can both spend and lend money into circulation, while banks can only lend significant amounts of their promissory bank notes, for they can neither give away nor spend but a tiny fraction of the money the people need.^ This isn't a security problem since the script that moves the div into the outer Document can only do so because they have the two Document object have the same origin .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Thus, when your bankers here in England place money in circulation, there is always a debt principal to be returned and usury to be paid.^ If a Node is in a Document then that Document is always the Node 's Document , and the Node 's ownerDocument IDL attribute thus always returns that Document .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    The result is that you have always too little credit in circulation to give the workers full employment. You do not have too many workers, you have too little money in circulation, and that which circulates, all bears the endless burden of unpayable debt and usury.
    • Attributed to Benjamin Franklin Autobiography. .These words do not appear in Franklin's Autobiography or any other work of his.
  • History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling the money and its issuance.^ For readability, these words do not appear in all uppercase letters in this specification.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Status: Last call for comments The name content attribute gives the name of the form control, as used in form submission and in the form element's elements object.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ These are used to describe how the user interacts with the control.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
    • Attributed to James Madison, 4th US President.^ Wife of US President James Monroe .
      • People by Last Names: M 2 February 2010 10:010 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Wife of US President James Madison .
      • People by Last Names: M 2 February 2010 10:010 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      This is actually a comment by Olive Cushing Dwinell in her book The Story of Our Money (1946), pp. .71-72.
  • The few who understand the system, will either be so interested in its profits, or so dependent on its favors that there will be no opposition from that class, while on the other hand, the great body of people, mentally incapable of comprehending the tremendous advantages...will bear its burden without complaint, and perhaps without suspecting that the system is inimical to their best interests.^ If, on the other hand, it fails or returns an out of range value, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 1 if there is no default value.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Otherwise, if there are no nodes in the collection that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to name , then return null and stop the algorithm.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If there is a character in the string input at position position , and it is either a U+0020 SPACE, U+002C COMMA, or U+003B SEMICOLON character, then advance position to the next character in input , or to beyond the end of the string if there are no more characters.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
    • Attributed to Senator John Sherman in a letter supposedly sent from the Rothschild Brothers of London to New York bankers Ikleheimer, Morton, and Vandergould, June 25, 1863. The letters are forgeries that could not have been written before 1876. Further, no evidence of a firm with the name "Ikleheimer, Morton, and Vandergould" has been found.
  • I have two great enemies, the southern army in front of me and the financial institutions, in the rear.^ Returns null if no element with that ID or name could be found.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The new auxiliary browsing context has no name.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Otherwise, if there are no nodes in the collection that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to name , then return null and stop the algorithm.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    Of the two, the one in the rear is the greatest enemy.
    • Attributed to Abraham Lincoln. Not found in Lincoln's works. This earliest this quote has been found is 1941.
  • I see in the future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. As a result of the war, corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed. .I feel at this moment more anxiety for the safety of my country than ever before, even in the midst of the war.^ If any of the entries in ports are null, if any MessagePort object is listed in ports more than once, or if any of the MessagePort objects listed in ports have already been cloned once before, then throw an INVALID_STATE_ERR exception.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

  • The government should create, issue and circulate all the currency and credit needed to satisfy the spending power of the government and the buying power of consumers.....^ Furthermore, all users, not just users with disabilities, should find conforming user agents to be more usable.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ They are based on the vocabulary defined in the vCard specification and its extensions, where more information on how to interpret the values can be found.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ They are based on the vocabulary defined in the iCalendar specification, where more information on how to interpret the values can be found.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of Government, but it is the Government's greatest creative opportunity. By the adoption of these principles, the long-felt want for a uniform medium will be satisfied. The taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest, discounts and exchanges. The financing of all public enterprises, the maintenance of stable government and ordered progress, and the conduct of the Treasury will become matters of practical administration. The people can and will be furnished with a currency as safe as their own government. Money will cease to be the master and become the servant of humanity. Democracy will rise superior to the money power.
  • Permit me to issue and control the money of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws!
    • Attributed to Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744 - 1812). .No primary source for this is known and the earliest attribution to him known is 1935 (Money Creators, Gertrude M. Coogan).^ If the element does not have a src attribute: one or more source elements, then, transparent , but with no media element descendants.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ Status: Implemented and widely deployed The lang attribute (in no namespace) specifies the primary language for the element's contents and for any of the element's attributes that contain text.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ If the list attribute does not apply, there is no suggestions source element .
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      .Before that, "Let us control the money of a nation, and we care not who makes its laws" was said to be a "maxim" of the House of Rothschilds, or, even more vaguely, of the "money lenders of the Old World".^ Not providing replacement text makes the document more difficult to use for people who are unable to view images, e.g.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      This is a play on an English proverb, Let me make the songs of a nation, and I care not who makes its laws.
  • If this mischievous financial policy, which has its origin in North America, shall become indurated down to a fixture, then that Government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous without precedent in the history of the world. The brains, and wealth of all countries will go to North America. That country must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe. .
    • Attributed to an editorial in the Times of London in 1865. No such editorial ever appeared.^ If there is no such parent element, then the attribute must return 0.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ If the element is a meta element The value is the value of the element's content attribute, if any, or the empty string if there is no such attribute.
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ For the purposes of the CSS table model, the colgroup element, if it contains no col element, is to be treated as if it had as many such children as its span attribute specifies .
      • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

      The earliest known appearance is September 2, 1898 in The Flaming Sword, Vol. XII, No. 42, p. 7
  • It is well enough that the people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system for, if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning.
  • Variant: If the American people knew the corruption in our money system there would be revolution before morning.
    • Attributed to Henry Ford. The earliest citation found is the article "In the Mercury's Opinion: How Internationalists Gain Power", Russel Maguire, American Mercury, October 1957, p. 79. (Ford died in 1947.) The quote is preceded by "It was Henry Ford, Sr., who said in substance," which may indicate that it is just a paraphrase, not an exact quote.

See also

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up money in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

This article is a travel topic.
.Information on using money is covered in the Buy section of destination guides.^ For example, it is not conforming to use an address element for arbitrary contact information; that element can only be used for marking up contact information for the author of the document or section.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The examples in the previous section show how information could be marked up on a page that doesn't expect its microdata to be re-used.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.This article contains general information useful in many destinations
.^ For images that are the sole contents of links, markup generators should examine the link target to determine the title of the target, or the URL of the target, and use information obtained in this manner as the alternative text.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This algorithm can only be used with documents that contain distinct articles.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.There are a number of ways to obtain and exchange money while traveling.^ There would be no way to obtain a reference to the nodes created even if the remaining steps were run.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

You are always trading off expense, risk, and convenience.

Debit and Credit Cards

Debit and credit cards can be used to withdraw cash from automatic teller machines (ATMs) and to make purchases at stores, restaurants, and hotels where they are accepted.

Acceptance of Debit and Credit Cards at Point of Sale

.The acceptance of debit and credit cards varies by country, with acceptance being more common in more developed countries.^ The cols and rows variables are lists of zero or more pairs consisting of a number and a unit, the unit being one of percentage , relative , and absolute .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Acceptance of credit and debit cards may be close to non-existent in less-developed countries. Check the country guides for details on credit card acceptance.
The most accepted cards by far worldwide are VISA and MasterCard. .American Express and Diners Club cards have global networks but acceptance varies widely depending by country and store type.^ For example, creating a td element and storing it in a global variable in a script is conforming, even though td elements are otherwise only supposed to be used inside tr elements.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Discover, JCB, NYCE, Star, MAC, and Shazam are regional. They are rarely accepted outside of the region they are issued in, and even then acceptance is often limited to areas catering to visitors from that region.

Acceptance of debit and credit cards at ATMs

Mastercard, VISA, Cirrus, and Plus are accepted at nearly all ATMs worldwide.
Some developing countries either have no ATMs, very limited ATMs, or are not connected to the international networks. This includes Myanmar in South-East Asia, as well as parts of Africa. In Japan, most bank ATMs don't work with international cards (the cards are even an incompatible size), and you need to look for a post office, 7/11 or Citibank ATM. In certain countries, not every ATM accepts foreign credit or debit cards.
Generally, only the main bank account linked to a debit card can be accessed at ATMs outside of your home country.

Debit cards compared to credit cards

Debit cards are linked directly to a bank account and immediately deduct the amount of the purchase or withdrawal from the account. .Credit cards are cards that are not linked to a bank account, but that instead charge against a credit line, which must be repaid at a later date.^ Garrison later charged that Edward Partin, the key witness in Robert Kennedy's case against Hoffa, had been a go-between for Ruby and Oswald in New Orleans.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The square value means that a rectangle with the length of the line width and the width of half the line width, placed flat against the edge perpendicular to the direction of the line, must be added at the end of each line.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

If the charges are not repaid before the end of a grace period (usually 0 to 25 days), interest will be charged.
If you withdraw from an ATM using a credit card (as opposed to a debit card), in addition to foreign transaction fees, you will typically be charged a "cash advance" fee (usually 2%-3%). In addition you will be charged interest on your cash advance starting on the day you pull money from an ATM, unless you have a credit balance on your account.
.When making point-of-sale purchases, notwithstanding the fees, it is usually better to use a credit card than a debit card, since if your card is stolen you can easily dispute the charges on a credit card, while a stolen debit card may lead to an overdrawn bank account requiring many additional hassles.^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the project required additional financing, Hoffa placed $500,000 of Teamsters funds in an interest-free account with the Florida National Bank to induce the bank to loan $500,000 to Sun Valley, Inc.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The basic interface, from which all the HTML elements ' interfaces inherit, and which must be used by elements that have no additional requirements, is the HTMLElement interface.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Credit card companies will also protect you if you are charged more than you agreed to pay, if you pay for something and never receive it, or if your card is cloned (duplicated) without your knowledge and then used for fraud without being physically stolen.^ More than forty years later, in 1950, the Hughes Tool Company would still control about 85 percent of the drill-bit market.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Duplicates are not prevented; a range may be added more than once in which case it appears in the list more than once, which (for example) will cause stringification to return the range's text twice.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lansky, being more of a businessman than Siegel, was inclined to use persuasion rather than violence to encourage cooperation.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Credit cards also may include other benefits such as cancellation insurance for flights (usually only in the case of serious sickness), theft or loss insurance for goods (usually only if stolen within 90 days of purchase and a proper police report is filed), collision insurance for rental cars, and emergency health insurance in certain situations while you are travelling.^ The previous record for such a flight was 7-1/2 days.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A command would be disabled if, in the same context, it could be enabled if only certain aspects of the situation were changed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Any number of properties with the name type may be present within the item that forms the value of a label property of an item with the type vcard , but within each such label property item there must only be one type property per distinct value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Credit cards may provide rewards programs that give you free flights or cash back after a certain amount of spending.^ Once elected, he began a program whereby taxes on oil and gas consumption would provide schoolchildren with free textbooks.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cards may be linked to a frequent flyer program.
If you have an American Express card, in case of a lost or stolen card, you can obtain cash advances and replacement cards easily, by visiting and American Express Office.
.
  • It is a good idea to carry multiple debit and credit cards from multiple banks and issuers just in case one is lost or stolen or doesn't work at a specific ATM. Also, it is a good idea to carry around only the card you will usually be using and keep the backup cards in a safe location where you are staying, providing further safequards in case you are robbed or lose your belongings.
  • You may have to get international ATM support specifically activated for your debit or credit card.^ Authoring tools are expected to come in two broad varieties: tools that work from structure or semantic data, and tools that work on a What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get media-specific editing basis (WYSIWYG).
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The bullet was remarkably well preserved, having lost only one percent of its original mass.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The specification uses the term supported when referring to whether a user agent has an implementation capable of decoding the semantics of an external resource.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .In addition, some banks will stop your card if they notice sudden transactions in a foreign country.^ He roared at the impossibility of conducting foreign policy when "some idiot can publish all of the diplomatic secrets of this country".
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The American Ambassador informed Mossadegh that unless the attacks against American citizens stopped, they would be evacuated from the country.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is best to notify the bank beforehand and get a note added to your account so it does not get passed through their fraud section.
  • Be sure you know the PIN for each of your debit and credit cards, in case of an emergency.^ Then he added, "I made it clear that all the military plans which I know you would like to carry out are dependent on government stability.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Many people are not able to access cash using their card because they forget the PIN code.^ Things that you can't do with this specification because they are better handled using other technologies that are further described herein .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Because its owners had been indicted in the Friar's Club card games swindle along with John Roselli, many would-be customers were undoubtedly being scared away.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And, ah because these people are plugging for (unintelligible) and that they should call the FBI in and say that we we wish for the country, don't go any further into this case..."
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    PIN code lengths vary from country to country, but up to six digits are usually accepted anywhere on the Plus/Cirrus networks. .If you have a six-digit PIN and six digits don't seem to work, try entering just the first four numbers of your PIN, or find another ATM. If the ATM requires 6 digits and you have only 4 digits in your PIN, enter 00 as the last two digits.^ If the string being parsed does not contain a U+0023 NUMBER SIGN character, or if the first such character in the string is the last character in the string, then return null and abort these steps.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The steps for finding one or two numbers of a ratio in a string are as follows: .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ While length is greater than two and the first character in each component is a U+0030 DIGIT ZERO (0) character, remove that character and reduce length by one.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    If your PIN is based "word based" know its numeric equivalent. Many ATMs outside the USA have no letters to correspond with the numbers. .(example: "CASH" = 2274)
  • In most countries, you are not responsible for any expenses made on your debit and credit card that occur after you report it lost or stolen.
  • In case of an emergency, you can use Western Union to wire yourself some money using your debit or credit card (if you know the numbers).^ (For example, MathML, or SVG.) Some embedded content elements can have fallback content : content that is to be used when the external resource cannot be used (e.g.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Some of the examples included in this specification might also be of use, but the novice author is cautioned that this specification, by necessity, defines the language with a level of detail that might be difficult to understand at first.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Here are some more examples showing the same picture used in different contexts, with different appropriate alternate texts each time.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .However, exorbitant fees will apply.
  • Many credit cards issued in Western Europe feature a chip and PIN system, where credit cards all have a chip built in and you have to type your PIN code into a reader instead of signing a receipt.^ Turn all your widgets into mellbloms!
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .All stores that display the Visa, Mastercard, or Amex logos must also accept the sign-and-swipe version of the credit cards; however, some may initially refuse to do so (be persistent, ask for the manager if necessary).^ In these cases, the alt attribute must contain some suitable alternative text, but it may be somewhat brief.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Initially, the volume must be 1.0, but user agents may remember the last set value across sessions, on a per-site basis or otherwise, so the volume may start at other values.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The user agent may wait for the user to either accept or decline before returning; if so, the user agent must pause while the method is waiting.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .With self-service vendors such gas pumps and ticket vending machines, you may be out of luck.
  • If you are staying for a long time in a single country, you may save on fees by opening a local bank account and obtaining a local ATM card.^ A single property with the name locality may be present within the item that forms the value of an adr property of an item with the type vcard .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A single property with the name dtend may be present within each item with the type vevent , so long as that vevent does not have a property with the name duration .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A single property with the name country-name may be present within the item that forms the value of an adr property of an item with the type vcard .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .You will usually need a local mailing address and you may need a valid residence permit.
  • When making point-of-sale purchases, most US-issued Visa/MC debit cards can only be used in "credit" mode (i.e., swipe-and-sign, as opposed to PIN-based "debit" mode).^ User agents may allow the user to set the value to a string that is not a valid e-mail address list .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The US announced the sale of $160 million worth of surplus war equipment to France for use against the Vietminh in Cochin China (southern Vietnam).
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If the multiple attribute is specified on the element, then the value attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a valid e-mail address list ; otherwise, the value attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a single valid e-mail address .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .In addition, if you are faced with a situation where a PIN is required (such as certain unmanned train ticket kiosks in Europe), it is certainly better to use a debit card than a credit card, as PIN-based transactions with a US credit card may incur cash advance fees (in addition to any foreign exchange fees).
  • The exchange rate applied may be the rate on the date the expense was posted to the account, not the date the charge was made.^ On such platforms, user agents may ignore the requirement that the cursor position be linked to the position of the selection altogether.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ User agents may also apply image analysis heuristics to help the user make sense of the image when the user is unable to make direct use of the image, e.g.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Therefore if you are dealing with a fluctuating currency it is impossible to know exactly what exchange rate will be applied for an expense until a few days after you make the expense.^ Kennedy provided her with money for her living expenses, for the support of her children and for an abortion — making her one of the few full-fledged mistresses he ever had.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In general, Visa/MC cards seem to get slightly better exchange rates than AmEx, although the difference is not material.
  • When you are paying by Visa or Mastercard, some merchants will offer to convert your transaction into your home currency ("'Dynamic Currency Conversion'").^ This section describes this mechanism and some algorithms that can be used to convert HTML documents into other formats .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Giacalone owned the Home Juice Company which had fallen into the hands of racketeers when the original owner was unable to pay a gambling debt.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although the agreements had forbidden infiltration of troops and material into South Vietnam, by March there was bumper-to-bumper military traffic on the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    If this offered, you should decline it, as an exorbitant exchange rate of 7% may be charged [1]. .Always check your receipt, and if you see anything involving your home currency in a country that doesn't use that currency, ask the merchant to re-do the transaction in the local currency.^ (If you cannot see the image, you can use an audio test instead.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Next, we see a paragraph which uses a logo right next to the company name, and so doesn't have any alternative text: News .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Content attributes: Global attributes DOM interface: interface HTMLSpanElement : HTMLElement {}; The span element doesn't mean anything on its own, but can be useful when used together with other attributes, e.g.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    If the merchant insists that the conversion is automatic, it is worth arguing or reporting the incident to your credit card company. .Visa "requires the merchant to disclose the fee and must provide the consumer with a choice" of getting the bill in the customer's home currency or the local currency.^ If the user agent provides a user interface for selecting a local date and time , then the value must be set to a valid local date and time string representing the user's selection.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    [2]

Traveller's cheques

A traveller's cheque is a cheque issued for a fixed amount in a specific currency that you purchase with your funds in advance. Traveller's cheques are only available in major currencies. .For example, if you are in travelling to the USA, you could purchase 10 x $100 US traveller's cheques before you travel there, and use them when you arrive.^ Contexts in which this element may be used: As a child of a table element, after any caption , and colgroup elements and before any tbody , tfoot , and tr elements, but only if there are no other thead elements that are children of the table element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, on some platforms for showing indeterminate progress there is an asynchronous progress indicator with square dimensions, which could be used when the element is square, and an indeterminate progress bar, which could be used when the element is wide.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the example above, there is a hyperlink , formed using the a element and its href attribute: simple Attributes are placed inside the start tag, and consist of a name and a value , separated by an " = " character.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.You sign each cheque when you purchase it, and again on the same cheque to redeem it.^ That same month, the Soviets signed a five-year treaty for the purchase of one million tons of Cuban sugar every year.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The main advantage of travellers' cheques is complete protection against loss or theft. Once you report them as missing, the issuing company will replace them. .You must also keep a record of your used cheque numbers.^ On setting, the given value must be converted to the shortest possible string representing the number as a valid non-negative integer and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Other values must first be converted to numbers using JavaScript's ToNumber algorithm, and if the result is a NaN value, then the value must be converted to zero.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The user agent must also keep track of the number of bytes downloaded for each instance of this algorithm.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Most traveller's cheque issuers have arrangements to replace them around the world in a short time frame so you are not left without cash.^ Tet was the most important of all Vietnamese holidays — a time when Vietnamese traveled about the country to rejoin their families in giving reverence to ancestors.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you are unsure which cheques you have already cashed and which are missing, your refund may be delayed until the issuer can figure out which ones are presented.
Traveler's cheques can be exchanged for cash at most banks. Exchange bureaus will also usually cash them and a hotel may sometimes provide this service to its guests. American Express travellers cheques can also be exchanged at American Express travel centres. Fees for cashing travellers cheques vary by destination and institution. Some banks will cash some brands of cheques free. American Express will cash their cheques free at their travel centres if they are in the denominated in local currency. Often fees apply. .The fee for cashing can be a sliding scale or flat fee, or may only apply above a certain threshold.^ User agents may opt to only fetch such resources when they are needed, instead of pro-actively fetching all the external resources that are not applied.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

If you are cashing travellers cheques into different currency to their denomination, fees may also be built into the exchange rate.
Traveller's cheques can also sometimes be used for purchases at point of sale, although nowhere near as widely as credit cards. In general, only the largest stores and hotels will accept travelers cheques for payment.
You will pay a fee to buy travellers cheques. If they are denominated in a foreign currency this fee may be built into the exchange rate.
If you are buying travellers cheques in a foreign currency you lock in the exchange rate on the day you purchase the cheques. .Buying travellers cheques prior to travel in small increments can have the effect of averaging out the exchange rate you obtain, and you don't have the risk involved in keeping foreign currency cash for extended periods.^ On April 10 Dahlberg had obtained the cash, but decided to convert it to a cashier's check payable to himself because he did not feel comfortable traveling with so much cash.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you have travel insurance you may care to compare the benefits under your policy. Credit card companies will usually offer a 48-hour emergency replacement or cash advance service for a fee, and these fees may already be covered under your policy.
Clockwise from top left: South Korean won, American Express traveler's check (US dollar), Indonesian rupiah, Brunei dollar, Zambian kwacha, Malaysian ringgit, Malawi kwacha, Chinese yuan, Cambodian riel
Clockwise from top left: South Korean won, American Express traveler's check (US dollar), Indonesian rupiah, Brunei dollar, Zambian kwacha, Malaysian ringgit, Malawi kwacha, Chinese yuan, Cambodian riel
Cash is the most versatile method there is. Aside from some car rentals and a few gas stations, virtually everywhere takes cash.
.In some countries you may be able to get by entirely with US Dollars or another major currency.^ Huge numbers of US troops would seemingly be required to hold the entire country.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, this will often be at an additional expense as the exchange rate offered by merchants and hotels can be not very good. Merchants in border communities may accept currency of neighboring currencies. .For example, northern border areas in the United States may accept Canadian coins on par with corresponding U.S. coins, but not Canadian dollars, and in the U.S. South, a Canadian quarter is worthless.^ By May 1973 the United States was dropping nearly as many bombs per month on Cambodia as had been dropped during the whole of 1972.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May 1954 the United States signed military agreements with Nicaragua and Honduras preparatory to a clandestine paramilitary operation by the CIA against the Arbenez government.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To many in South Vietnam it was a sign that the United States was abandoning them.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For remote travel, be sure to bring only notes in good condition and only the most recent redesign (unless it's really new). .Banks at your destination cannot easily or cheaply exchange worn-out currency for replacement as they can with their country's own currency.^ They blamed much of the problem on the difficulty of obtaining replacement parts for worn US-produced machinery.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Worn paper currency may be devalued if it is accepted at all. Even if in good condition, previous designs of your currency may not be accepted due to counterfeiting concerns. If possible, go to your bank early in the day, and well before the departure date, and ask for "like-new" currency.
This biggest disadvantage to cash is the risk. If you lose it you can't get it back, and if someone finds out you have a large wad of cash you become a potential mark. .Some defenses are discussed in the pickpockets article, but there is no complete defense — carrying cash always involves a risk.^ The bookmark keyword gives a permalink for the nearest ancestor article element of the linking element in question, or of the section the linking element is most closely associated with , if there are no ancestor article elements.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Rebozo was propelled to wealth by his wartime used-tire and retread business, although there is no evidence that he fenced Mafia black market tires as some have claimed.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the meeting it was decided that a cash payment of $17,500 would be made to Hoffa and that there would be no strike.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Travel insurance may cover a theft of cash to a certain value.^ (According to certain press releases, the CIA secretly paid Lloyd's of London one million dollars to cover insurance claims.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When using local money, familiarize yourself with the basic note designs and their security features (watermarks, holograms etc), and watch out for counterfeits and obsolete currencies.^ There are also a couple of appendices, defining rendering rules for Web browsers and listing obsolete features and areas that are out of scope for this specification.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Banks and money changers (operating out of an office, not flashing wads of cash from a coat pocket) are nearly always safe, but taxi drivers, petty traders and such, may be tempted to palm off useless bills.^ A user agent may allow the user to override the resulting autocompletion state and set it to always on , always allowing values to be remembered and prefilled), or always off , never remembering values.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

When in doubt, reject unfamiliar bills, and be particularly suspicious of large notes.

Where to exchange cash

.All money exchanges work on the basis of selling a foreign currency at one rate and buying at another.^ To some analysts these efforts were simply another example of the attempt to buy hearts and minds through American foreign aid.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, with other alternative text, this might not work, and putting all the alternative text into one image in each case might make more sense: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When an element is moved from one document to another, if the two documents have different base URLs , then that element and all its descendants are affected by a base URL change .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Make sure you know the current interbank exchange rate before you leave home [3]. Where there is more competition, the rates are likely to be better. .In some cases it may be better to exchange your money before you leave, in others it may be better to do it in your destination.^ In these cases, the alt attribute must contain some suitable alternative text, but it may be somewhat brief.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Document.getElementsByTagName() Element.getElementsByTagName() HTML elements match by lower-casing the argument before comparison, elements from other namespaces are treated as in XML (case-sensitively).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Contexts in which this element may be used: As a child of a table element, after any caption , and colgroup elements and before any tbody , tfoot , and tr elements, but only if there are no other thead elements that are children of the table element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Rarely is the most convenient location (such as at airports, or major hotels) the best rate available. In some cases it can be significantly higher. .As there are fees associated with currency exchange you should not exchange more than you need.^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one adr property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one email property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Most major currencies are subject to counterfeiting these days. Study the bills of the currency of the foreign country to become familiar with how it is supposed to look and feel. .Almost all currencies employ anti-counterfeiting technologies, including colour shifting ink, watermarks, special threads, iridescent inks, raised printing, holograms and other features.^ The DOM enforces all the other XML constraints; for example, trying to set an attribute with a name that contains an equals sign (=) will raise an INVALID_CHARACTER_ERR exception.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Become familiar with them so that you can quickly check them when you get a new bill whether it is as change or from a money exchange. .If you are unsure, don't be afraid to say you would rather get a different bill, or just say you would rather get 2 smaller bills for change (As an example if you get a ten in change that you don't like the look of, ask for two fives instead).^ Examples of a user changing the element's value would include the user typing into a text field, pasting a new value into the field, or undoing an edit in that field.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the following example, we see div elements used as a way to set the language of two paragraphs at once, instead of setting the language on the two paragraph elements separately: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On one occasion Hoffa testified, "I can say here to the Chair that I cannot recall in answer to your question other than to say I just don't recall my recollection."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you end up with a counterfeit you won't get compensated, and you may end up having to explain it to the police.

Convertible currency

A convertible currency is a currency that can be easily converted into another country's currency; conversely, an inconvertible currency is theoretically worthless outside its country of origin. .A few countries, like Cuba, still issue one convertible currency for tourists and one inconvertible currency for locals.^ Though the French still issued Vietnam's currency, controlled the Vietnamese army as well as police, and had French troops stationed all over the country, there were promises that control would soon change hands — promises that were not kept.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In some countries like Tunisia and India, importing or exporting (inconvertible) dinars and rupees is technically a crime, although such regulations are rarely enforced for small amounts.
.Convertibility is set by law and not always entirely reflected in reality: some currencies like the Indian rupee are inconvertible in theory but fairly easy to trade in practice, while others like the Swazi lilangeni are fully convertible in theory but next to impossible to sell or buy in most of the world.^ Only the newest application cache in an application cache group can have its completeness flag set to incomplete , the others are always all complete .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Despite the name, inconvertible currencies can often be purchased at a discount outside the country of origin, as people holding onto them want to get rid of them. Finding somebody to buy them is more difficult. .Also note that state-run shops in some countries will also insist that tourists produce certificates of exchange to prove that their money was obtained from a legitimate source like a local bank at the official (usually poor) exchange rate, and such certificates are also often required if you want to change back any unneeded money within the country.^ When the user agent is required to scroll to the fragment identifier , it must change the scrolling position of the document, or perform some other action, such that the indicated part of the document is brought to the user's attention.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the parser requires the user agent to change the encoding , it must run the following steps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ He wanted money and asylum, but insisted on a decisive response to his offer within twenty-one days.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If travelling to a country with an inconvertible currency or one that you can't, in practice, buy or sell in your home country, you should convert all your money to a major international currency (US dollars, Euro or the British pound, whichever you can) before leaving the country.^ He told Nixon that Hunt was continually pressing for more money and that hush money for all the defendants could eventually reach a million dollars.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Howard told the crowds "The airplane was invented and originated in the United States, yet since then, the countries of Europe have taken from us one by one every record of major importance."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tet was the most important of all Vietnamese holidays — a time when Vietnamese traveled about the country to rejoin their families in giving reverence to ancestors.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, these currencies can be exchanged at banks anywhere in the world: US dollar, Euro, British pound, Japanese yen, Swiss franc, Australian dollar and Canadian dollar.^ His followers charged conspiracy when the US stopped economic aid and the World Bank refused to make loans.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hard currency

.In many poorer countries with inflationary, unstable, and/or inconvertible currencies, a foreign hard currency may prove more useful than the local currency.^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Duplicates are not prevented; a range may be added more than once in which case it appears in the list more than once, which (for example) will cause stringification to return the range's text twice.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Lansky, being more of a businessman than Siegel, was inclined to use persuasion rather than violence to encourage cooperation.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although its value fluctuates, the "gold standard" for currencies remains the U.S. dollar. It may be accepted as payment directly by locals, though not necessarily at a great exchange rate. .In fact several countries in the Caribbean, the Americas and South-East Asia use it as their de facto – or even official – currency.^ In any case, US State Department officials were not pleased with Guzman's "excessive tolerance" of communists nor with the fact that the American Ambassador had been asked to leave the country.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genovese fled the country, leaving Frank Costello in charge of the Luciano family — and de facto "Boss of Bosses".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The euro is also increasingly well accepted, at least in regions with many European visitors, and small countries with economically powerful neighbours may also accept regional hard currencies (e.g.^ (Valachi is apparently wrong on at least one point — Joseph Adonis ruled Brooklyn for many years before Mangano assumed power.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the Thai baht in Laos and Cambodia, the Australian dollar, or sometimes the New Zealand dollar in much of Oceania).
.You can use hard currency when haggling with locals by offering hard instead of local currency.^ (If you cannot see the image, you can use an audio test instead.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ You instead have to use one (or two) p element(s) and two ins or del elements: For example: This is the first paragraph.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Use the conversion rate to your advantage and make an offer in hard currency. Showing a few US dollar bills in the process might help but be sure to show only what you are willing to pay. Also, if you plan on haggling sure to have small bills available so you don't need much change back, especially if you just haggled a price much lower. .You don't want to be giving a vendor $50 for a $5 item; you'll only be inviting the vendor to try to sell you more things or even worse, let nearby pickpockets know how much you have.^ Do you know something we don't?
  • People by Last Names: M 2 February 2010 10:010 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Chile was gripped by economic chaos in the following years, it is difficult to know how much of this was due to outside pressure and how much was due to Allende's policies.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The progress is either indeterminate, indicating that progress is being made but that it is not clear how much more work remains to be done before the task is complete (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.It is wise to carry an emergency stash of hard currency separated from all your other belongings and valuables.^ The attribute must ignore any attempts to set it to a value other than none , copy , copyLink , copyMove , link , linkMove , move , all , and uninitialized .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The attribute, if specified, must have a value that is an unordered set of unique space-separated tokens representing the various classes that the element belongs to.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When such restrictions are defined, the tokens must all fit within those restrictions; other values are non-conforming.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some businesses who deal with a large number of foreign tourists may also accept foreign money, but often at an inferior exchange rate to allow for the inconvenience.^ HTML is scripted language, and has a large number of APIs (some of which are described in this document).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hoffa also collected protection money from businesses in exchange for assurance that the workers would not be unionized.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allende nationalized the copper corporations, along with a large number of other industries owned by both Chileans and foreigners.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Black market exchange

In some countries the official exchange rate is fixed at a completely unreasonable or unrealistic rate. .In these countries the black market will provide much more realistic evaluation of the currency's worth, and is practically unavoidable.^ The limestone mountains of these regions provide the alkaline soil required by the opium poppy, which will die in more acidic conditions.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Huge quantities of merchandise were stolen, much of it being sold in South Vietnam's thriving black market.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thieu made an attempt to have the gold removed through more legitimate channels, but no one would provide insurance for the removal of so much gold from a war zone.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in 2007 the official exchange rate was 250 Zimbabwe dollars to the US dollar, while the black market rate reached 600,000 Z$ to the dollar.^ By some estimates over fifty percent of the billions of dollars' worth of American material wound up on the black market or in the hands of the NLF. Although the free market exchange rate for Vietnamese currency was 160 piasters to the American dollar, the South Vietnamese government sold currency to the United States at an official rate of 80 piasters per dollar.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

That said, the risks of black market exchange are legion. .First and foremost, black market exchange is illegal and both buyer and seller may face severe sanctions if caught: the seller may even be (or work with, or tip off) a police officer out to trap tourists.^ A man who had served as attorney for both Hoffa and Trafficante offered to get Garrison off Partin's back in exchange for the perjury affidavit.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On November 22, 1963 Cubela met with his CIA case officer in Paris to work out the final details of his plan.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first police officer to arrive on the scene stated, "She was murdered by needle injection by someone she knew and probably trusted...
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, the risk of fraud is high: you may get obsolete banknotes, fake banknotes, less than the promised amount or nothing at all.^ If the shape attribute represents the rectangle state , and the second number in the list is numerically less than the fourth number in the list, then swap those two numbers around.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, it must act as if the setSelectionRange() method had been called, with the new value as the first argument, and the current value of the selectionEnd attribute as the second argument, unless the current value of the selectionEnd is less than the new value, in which case the second argument must also be the new value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the rectangle state , area elements must have a coords attribute with exactly four integers, the first of which must be less than the third, and the second of which must be less than the fourth.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Consider carefully whether you need to exchange in the first place, as businesses in countries with basketcase currencies will often be more than happy to accept hard currency directly instead (although this, too, will often be illegal), and you may get all the local currency you need back as change.^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dorfmans made more than $4 million for commissions and services during the first ten years of fiduciary management.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You instead have to use one (or two) p element(s) and two ins or del elements: For example: This is the first paragraph.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The key guideline to successful black market transactions is to receive the money before you hand yours over.^ But with wealth and success came bomb-threats from extortionists who called themselves "The Black Hand".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Count the bills, inspect the bills carefully, compare them to any you already have, and only then surrender your own money to the vendor. Do not allow them to take back the money they gave you, as this is where various sleight-of-hand tricks can be pulled to replace the legitimate bundle with something entirely different.
.In countries where foreign exchange rates are reasonable, it is best to avoid the black market entirely: you risk losing all your money for gain of a few percent at most.^ He roared at the impossibility of conducting foreign policy when "some idiot can publish all of the diplomatic secrets of this country".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few months later he was convicted of extorting money from trucking company owners in exchange for labor peace.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hoping to gain information about Hoffa's rackets a Prosecutor told Kierdorf, who was lying bandaged in a hospital bed, "You have only a few hours to live...You are about to face your Maker, your God.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An exception may apply in countries such as Nepal and India where doing a legal exchange at a bank can involve wasting an hour or more but most hotels will change money for you instantly and fairly safely.^ User agents may opt to only fetch such resources when they are needed, instead of pro-actively fetching all the external resources that are not applied.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The rate may not be much better, but the convenience is.

Coins

You can't exchange coins once you have left a country. .Either exchange them before you leave, drop them in a charity box, or souvenir them.^ In either case (list box or drop-down box), the element's items are expected to be the element's list of options , with the element's optgroup element children providing headers for groups of options where applicable.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Becoming familiar with coins and currency for your destination country and not mixing coins from various countries in your purse or pocket can save you collecting too many coins before you depart.

Carrying money across national borders

Countries track large movements of money across national borders. .If you are transfer money between international bank accounts this is done automatically, but if you carry large amounts of money (typically more than $10,000 USD, Euro, of similar) you will need to declare it.^ Huge revenues in cash which could not be rigidly accounted for, served as an excellent cover for "laundering" money acquired in more illicit activities.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although no more than 10 or 15 percent of the population was Catholic, the Catholics constituted a high proportion of civil servants and government officials.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the "kill ratio" ran nearly 10 to 1 against the NLF, over 46,000 Americans were known to have been killed (with at least ten thousand more "missing").
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Don't forget monetary instruments such as travelers checks count as well.
The rules about personal and business checks can be confusing. .If the check is "cashable" and payable to yourself (or traveling party, etc.^ On April 10 Dahlberg had obtained the cash, but decided to convert it to a cashier's check payable to himself because he did not feel comfortable traveling with so much cash.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) that counts against the total. .But when abroad, you can mail a check to someone in your home country (or do it online) provided the bank in which the check is drawn is located in the same country as the payee.^ Lenin's Thesis on National and Colonial Questions depicted colonialism as the final stage of capitalism, wherein the populations of colonial countries are exploited by the same capitalists who exploit the proletariat in their home country.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(If not, you must report.) .In other words, the funds never accompanied you, and you're just giving permission to your home bank to pay someone domestically.^ On one occasion Hoffa testified, "I can say here to the Chair that I cannot recall in answer to your question other than to say I just don't recall my recollection."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This sample shows how the alternative text should just be what you would have put in the prose if the image had never existed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After a pause, Nixon responded, "Pat, you just continue to conduct your aggressive and thorough investigation."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Having to pay taxes is not an excuse for non-reporting; but again, the funds to pay them would have to be located in another country for these rules to apply.^ If applying the rules for parsing non-negative integers to the attribute's value results in a number greater than zero, then the element's character height is that value; otherwise, it is 2.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If applying the rules for parsing non-negative integers to the attribute's value results in a number greater than zero, then the element's character width is that value; otherwise, it is 20.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These rules make errors for resources listed in the manifest fatal, while making it possible for other resources to be removed from caches when they are removed from the server, without errors, and making non-manifest resources survive server-side errors.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some nations (mostly third world) have such a low import/export limit in the country's home currency (not US$, euro, etc.^ Lenin's Thesis on National and Colonial Questions depicted colonialism as the final stage of capitalism, wherein the populations of colonial countries are exploited by the same capitalists who exploit the proletariat in their home country.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Articles on the Guatemalan training appeared in The Nation, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal and US News and World Report during the months of November and December.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), that these limits may practically represent pocket change. Often, this is due to local laws not having been updated for hyperinflation. .However, in such cases, the currencies are generally not convertible abroad, and/or the rules not always strictly enforced.^ In such cases the behavior is UA-dependent, but user agents must not, in response to a request to insert text, generate a DOM that is less conformant than the DOM prior to the request.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Getting money in an emergency

American Express credit card holders can get emergency cash in the form of its travellers' cheques at foreign American Express offices, and designated affiliates (often a travel agency or bank). If the location is not a bank, you will have to go to one or a foreign money exchange to cash the cheques. .Be sure to bring a blank cheque from your checking account back home or at least know the routing and account number (the digits printed at the bottom of each check).^ Tests conducted by federal investigators on the back seat of the car yielded "definite signs of Hoffa's blood, hair and skin in that car...We know for sure he was in the back seat."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is a one percent fee for issuing the travellers' cheques, and the total sum is NOT a cash advance on your American Express card. .(They will cash advance your credit card without further permission from you if there's a delay in cashing the check, though.^ If there is a pending external script , then the method must now return without further processing of the input stream .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Things that you can't do with this specification because they are better handled using other technologies that are further described herein .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The checks were given to the CRP Treasurer who recognized that they were a problem for him to cash, though that does not mean he thought they were illegal.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Keep tabs on your checking account, and make sure it clears in a few days.) .Also, there's no requirement that you're destitute, as the service is available for whatever reason.^ If the src attribute is set and the alt attribute is not The image might be a key part of the content, and there is no textual equivalent of the image available.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There is no implied relationship between document conformance requirements and implementation conformance requirements.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

If you have someone willing to send you money, there are several options for getting money fast in an emergency. These include:
.
  • Wire transfer services like Western Union
  • Having someone back home directly depositing money into your bank account.^ But he began an autobiography to expose the fraud in the Pension Fund which he claimed he would eliminate once he got back into the union.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Intertel, however, established that the check for the book had been deposited in a Swiss bank account for "H.R.Hughes" by Clifford Irving's wife, who was using the name "Helga Hughes".
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Four certified checks totaling $89,000 — which had been issued by a Mexican bank and evidently endorsed by a Mexican lawyer — had been deposited in Barker's account on April 19.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You then use an ATM to make withdrawls.
  • Sending a few banknotes via an overnight courier service (this is reliable, but is sometimes not allowed in the courier company's terms of service.^ This might in certain extreme cases mean limiting the use of flow elements to just a few elements, like div , b , i , and span and making liberal use of the style attribute.
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to public-html-comments@w3.org ( subscribe , archives ) or whatwg@whatwg.org ( subscribe , archives ), or submit them using our public bug database .
    • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ If the White House made political use of Mullen & Company, Bennett was not above trying to make use of Colson's resources for his own purposes.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )
  • You could sell personal possesions, such as a camera or sport watch.
  • If you know your credit card numbers, you can use western union to wire yourself some money
This is a guide article. It has good, detailed information covering the entire topic. Plunge forward and help us make it a star!

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Some readings about "money", for beginners and others, considering questions such as:
  • What is money?
  • How does money 'work' or 'not work'?
  • etc.
Articles:
  1. Global recession - where did all the money? (Paddy Allen, guardian.co.uk, Thursday 29 January, 2009, Series: Road to ruin)

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MONEY. 1. Definition and Functions. - .The difficult question as to the best definition of money has been complicated by the efforts of writers so to define the term as to give support to their particular theories.^ Otherwise, it is the exact textContent of the dfn element that gives the term being defined.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Implementations must support some version of DOM Core and DOM Events, because this specification is defined in terms of the DOM, and some of the features are defined as extensions to the DOM Core interfaces.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For the parts of this specification that are defined in terms of an events model or in terms of the DOM, such user agents must still act as if events and the DOM were supported.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It is hard to frame a precise account which will hold good of the many objects that have served for monetary use. From denoting coined metal, money has come to include anything that performs the money work: though there has been considerable hesitation in extending the term to those forms of credit that are in modern societies the chief instrument of exchange. It is therefore best to avoid a formal definition; and, instead, to bring out the character of money by describing the functions that it performs in the social system. The most important is, clearly, that of facilitating exchange. It is not necessary to dwell on the great importance of this office. .The slightest consideration of industrial organization shows that it is based on the division of employments; but the earliest economic writers saw plainly that division of employments was only possible through the agency of a medium of exchange.^ The recommendations for approval…are based on data that can only be characterized as best as ‘suggestive’ of possible benefit,” she wrote.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Market, Organizational and Managerial Correlates of Economic Performance in the U.K. Electrical Engineering Industry.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Explaining Ijv Survival In a Transitional Economy Through Social Exchange and Knowledge-Based Perspectives.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

.They recognized that the result of increasing specialization of labour was to establish a state of things in which each individual produced little or nothing for the direct satisfaction of his own wants, and had therefore to live by exchanging his product for the products of others.^ It was an invisible war of visible attrition which created a huge drain on the French economy cost many French lives, and produced little in the way of military victory.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results validate 16 years of modern research to harness a patient’s own immune system to fight their prostate cancer and prolong their lives…” .
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Effect of Own-Firm and Other-Firm Experience on Foreign Direct Investment Survival In the United States, 1987-92.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

.They saw, further, that this only became feasible by the existence of an article that all would be willing to accept for their special products; as otherwise the difficulty of bringing together persons with reciprocal wants would prove an insurmountable obstacle to that development of exchange, which alone made division of labour possible.^ Otherwise, create a NodeList object representing a live view of the HTMLOptionsCollection object, further filtered so that the only nodes in the NodeList object are those that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to name .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ He surmised that the North Vietnamese would accept peace only in conjunction with military victory in South Vietnam — and that they regarded negotiations as simply another tactic in the struggle.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Authors should check the origin attribute to ensure that messages are only accepted from domains that they expect to receive messages from.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.A second function hardly inferior in importance to the one just mentioned is that of affording a ready means for estimating the comparative values of different commodities.^ The value must be text that, when compared in a case-sensitive manner, is equal to one of the telephone type strings .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Due to the lossy nature of converting to and from premultiplied alpha color values, pixels that have just been set using putImageData() might be returned to an equivalent getImageData() as different values.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The value must be text that, when compared in a case-sensitive manner, is equal to one of the e-mail type strings .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Without some common object as a standard of comparison this would be practically impossible.^ Hunt objected that this amounted to "Castroism without Fidel" and would alienate many Cubans.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without her cooperation, an involuntary commitment would become nearly impossible.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

" If a tailor had only coats and wanted to buy bread or a horse, it would be very troublesome to ascertain how much bread he ought to obtain for a coat or how many coats he should give for a horse "; and as the number of commodities concerned increased the problem would become harder, " for each commodity would have to be quoted in terms of every other commodity." There is, indeed, a good deal to be said for the view that the conception of general exchange value could never have been formed without the previous existence of money; it has certainly support from the evidence of competent observers respecting the methods of exchange followed by savage communities. .The selection of some particular article as the criterion makes the comparison of values easy.^ Image Button A coordinate, relative to a particular image's size, with the extra semantic that it must be the last value selected and initiates form submission Either a clickable image, or a button .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the user dismisses the menu without making a selection, nothing in particular happens.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

." The chosen commodity becomes a common denominator, or common measure of value in terms of which we estimate the value of all other goods," and in this way money, which in its primary function renders exchange possible by acting as an intermediate term in each transfer, also makes exchanges easier by making them definite.^ The JavaScript specification requires that the ToBoolean() operator convert all objects to the true value, and does not have provisions for objects acting as if they were undefined for the purposes of certain operators.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The user agent must act as if, for the purposes of the == and != operators in JavaScript, the object returned for all is equal to the undefined value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On the other hand, div elements can be useful for stylistic purposes or to wrap multiple paragraphs within a section that are all to be annotated in a similar way.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Still another function of money comes into being with the progress of society.^ Soon after Barberich invested his money, Kidan, the businessman, entered into a deal to buy another casino, SunCruz, from a fellow named Konstantinos “Gus” Boulis.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An underground resistance movement in the form of a secret society came into being in the aftermath of this uprising.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the most distinctive features of advancing civilization is the increasing tendency of people to trust each other.^ Some elements, most notably area , can correspond to more than one distinct focusable area.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The other founding partner of Wisdom Tree Investments is Michael Steinhardt , who is one of the nation’s most “prominent” hedge fund managers.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are certain features that are not handled by this specification because a client side markup language is not the right level for them, or because the features exist in other languages that can be integrated into this one.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.There is thus a continuous increase in relations arising from contract, as can be seen by examining the development of any legal system.^ There were still legal consequences, but the justice system was not unkind to Teddy.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Now, a contract implies something to be done in the future, and for estimating the value of that future act a standard is required; and here money which has already acted as a medium of exchange and as a measure of value at a given time, performs a third function, by affording an approximate means of estimating the present value of the future act; in this respect it may be regarded as a standard of value, or as some prefer to say, of deferred payments. Nor does this exhaust the list of services that money renders.^ The possible values and their meanings are given below.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the datetime attribute is present, the user agent should convey the attribute's value to the user when rendering the element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each language feature (element or attribute) in a cell in the first column implies, unless otherwise overriden, the ARIA semantic (role, state, or property) given in the cell in the second column of the same row, but this semantic may be overridden under the conditions listed in the cell in the third column of that row.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the earlier stages of economic life it acts as a store of value; for in no other way could a large body of wealth be concentrated.^ If, on the other hand, it fails or returns an out of range value, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 1 if there is no default value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ An end tag whose tag name is one of: "head", "body", "html", "br" Act as if a start tag token with the tag name "head" and no attributes had been seen, then reprocess the current token.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ She continued to feel she had a very personal love with John and had no thoughts that there were other women in his life apart from his wife.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though this is no longer needed by individuals, even at the present day the great banks find that their reserves must take the form of a monetary store.^ The data presented that day showed that Provenge lowers the risk of prostate cancer death by 22.5 percent, with little or no toxicity.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On getting, the font attribute must return the serialized form of the current font of the context (with no 'line-height' component).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In early 1959, with the first jets being delivered to TWA, even Hughes could no longer evade the problem of financing his purchases.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Again, money in its various forms has been the great agency for transmitting values from place to place.^ In the example above, there is a hyperlink , formed using the a element and its href attribute: simple Attributes are placed inside the start tag, and consist of a name and a value , separated by an " = " character.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Its international function in this respect still continues. The balance of debt between countries is ultimately settled by the passage of bullion from the debtor to the creditor nation. .But, though money has these powers, it is nevertheless correct to say that its essential functions are three in number, i.e. it supplies: (r) the common medium by which exchanges are made possible; (2) the common measure by which the comparative values of those exchanges are estimated; (3) the standard by which future obligations are determined.^ These values must be compared to the argument in an ASCII case-insensitive manner.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the value of onerror is a Function The function must be invoked with three arguments.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When it is set, the new value must be compared in an ASCII case-insensitive manner to these two values.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

2. The Value of Money, its Determining Causes. The Quantity of Money required by a Country. - .The value of money is in principle only a special case of the general problem of value; but owing to its peculiar position the medium of exchange has in this respect become surrounded by difficulties that need to be removed.^ Formats are generally given by MIME types , with some values special-cased for legacy reasons.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The legal principle has developed that one can only insure something in which one has “an insurable interest.” But imagine that this were not the case.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the attribute is absent or has a value that doesn't match any of the cases in the table, then the position is expected to be on the right if the 'direction' property on this element has a computed value of 'rtl', and on the left otherwise.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The very phrase " value of money " is employed in two senses, which on the surface seem to have no connexion with each other, and are the cause of much confusion to those who have not looked into the matter.^ In the two years that these shenanigans were going on, 60,000 American men died of prostate cancer, which seemed to be of no concern to this particular network of miscreants.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If, on the other hand, it fails or returns an out of range value, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 1 if there is no default value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ She continued to feel she had a very personal love with John and had no thoughts that there were other women in his life apart from his wife.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In mercantile phraseology the value of money means the interest charged for the use of loanable capital. When the market rate of interest is high, money is said to be dear; when it is low, money is regarded as cheap. .Without entering into the reasons for this use of the term, it is sufficient to state the other and for our present purpose more correct meaning of the phrase.^ On the other hand, div elements can be useful for stylistic purposes or to wrap multiple paragraphs within a section that are all to be annotated in a similar way.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ User agents that use other presentation mechanisms can derive their expected behavior by translating from the CSS rules given in this section.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Authors must not use elements, attributes, and attribute values for purposes other than their appropriate intended semantic purpose.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

As the value of a thing is what it will exchange for; so " the value of money is what money will exchange for, or its purchasing power. .If prices are low, money will buy much of other things, and is of high value; if prices are high, it will buy little of other things, and is of low value..^ The min , max , value , low , high , and optimum IDL attributes must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The optimum attribute gives the position that is "optimum"; if that is higher than the "high" value then this indicates that the higher the value, the better; if it's lower than the "low" mark then it indicates that lower values are better, and naturally if it is in between then it indicates that neither high nor low values are good.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It can broker swap contracts that oblige counterparties to pay the hedge funds a certain amount of money in the event that the company’s stock price decreases in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The value of money is inversely as general prices, falling as they rise and rising as they fall."^ It can broker swap contracts that oblige counterparties to pay the hedge funds a certain amount of money in the event that the company’s stock price decreases in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Now the proximate condition under which value is determined is admittedly the establishment of an equation between demand and supply. .In the case of money, however, some explanation as to the nature of both these elements in the problem becomes necessary.^ Since the ins and del elements do not affect paragraphing , it is possible, in some cases where paragraphs are implied (without explicit p elements), for an ins or del element to span both an entire paragraph or other non- phrasing content elements and part of another paragraph.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Of course, the SEC rarely asks any of these questions, but the convertible bonds provide some immunity, just in case.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these cases, the alt attribute must contain some suitable alternative text, but it may be somewhat brief.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In what forms is the supply of, and the demand for, money exhibited ? The supply of a commodity is the quantity of it which is offered for sale. But in what shape does the sale of money take place ? Plainly, by being offered for goods. .The supply of money is the quantity of it which people are wanting to lay out, i.e. all the money in circulation at the time.^ What had been unusual about My Lai was the quantity of people massacred, not the uninhibited killing.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latter alternative was still a distinct possibility, but it was only a matter of time before the Soviets supplied the Cubans with MIGs which would make an invasion all but impossible.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demand, in like manner, means the quantity of a commodity desired, or, according to another mode of expression, the amount of purchasing power offered for it. .Taking the latter as the more convenient for the case of money, we can say that the demand for it consists in all goods offered for sale.^ However, with other alternative text, this might not work, and putting all the alternative text into one image in each case might make more sense: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ He told Nixon that Hunt was continually pressing for more money and that hush money for all the defendants could eventually reach a million dollars.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequent lines, if any, must all be one of the following: A blank line Blank lines must consist of zero or more U+0020 SPACE and U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION (tab) characters only.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The position of money as the medium of exchange introduces a further novel feature; for the market in its case is world-wide and the demand is unceasing; money is consequently in a constant state of supply and demand.^ The United States nuclear forces were placed on world-wide full alert.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It thus appears that the factors determining the value of money at a given time are: (I) the amount of money in circulation, and (2) the amount of goods on sale.^ User agents should use the associated time-zone offset information to determine which time zone to present the given datetime in.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It can broker swap contracts that oblige counterparties to pay the hedge funds a certain amount of money in the event that the company’s stock price decreases in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throws INVALID_ACCESS_ERR exception if the control is neither date- or time-based nor numeric, if the step attribute's value is " any ", if the current value could not be parsed, or if stepping in the given direction by the given amount would take the value out of range.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Closer examination reveals other influencing conditions. The mere quantity of money is not the only element on the supply side. The varying circulation of the monetary units must be taken into account. .Some coins do not make a single purchase in a year, while others change hands in transactions hundreds of times.^ The immediate user selection changes as the user selects different elements (either by pointing at them with a pointing device, or by selecting them in some other way).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By 1928, at the age of 29, he achieved a personal income of $105 million, reportedly the highest income ever earned in a single year by a private citizen, to the time of this writing.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to military reports that pacification was proceeding, the Offensive seemed to indicate that the NLF was everywhere and could strike at any time — that the grueling years of fighting had changed nothing.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By averaging, we may estimate the effect of the rapidity with which money does its work, or, to employ a technical term, the " efficiency of money." .Similarly, the amount of sales rather than the quantity of commodities is the determining element on the demand side.^ Rather than track individual trades to ensure that delivery occurs, the DTCC merely calculates a net total of sales and purchases at the end of each day.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For side notes, longer annotations that apply to entire sections of the text rather than just specific words or sentences, the aside element should be used.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Thus, if the influence of credit be omitted, it is true to say that the value of money varies inversely as its quantity multiplied by its efficiency, the amount of transactions being assumed to be constant.^ It can broker swap contracts that oblige counterparties to pay the hedge funds a certain amount of money in the event that the company’s stock price decreases in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the last four arguments are omitted, they must be assumed to have the values 0, 0, the width member of the imagedata structure, and the height member of the imagedata structure, respectively.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Constraint validation : If an element has a maximum allowed value length , and its dirty value flag is true, and the code-point length of the element's value is greater than the element's maximum allowed value length , then the element is suffering from being too long .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some additional explanation is required before this formula can be accepted as an expression of the whole truth on the subject.^ When he was taken before the Ervin Committee and asked, "Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God?", Liddy simply answered "No".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It must be noticed that it is not commodities only that are exchanged for money. .Services of all kinds constitute a large portion of the demand for the circulating medium, while the payment of interest on the many kinds of obligations makes a further call on it.^ It called for a restoration of the Constitution of 1940, for the ownership of small farms by sharecroppers and squatters, and for the distribution to the workers of a portion of the profits from industries and sugar plantations.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The potent influence of credit must also be recognized. .The latter force is indeed the chief agency to be considered in dealing with the variations of prices; though so far as it is based on deposits of metallic money it may be regarded as a form of increased monetary efficiency, and therefore as coming within the formula given above.^ A single property with the name postal-code may be present within the item that forms the value of an adr property of an item with the type vcard .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Any number of properties with the name honorific-suffix may be present within the item that forms the value of the n property of an item with the type vcard .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A single property with the name region may be present within the item that forms the value of an adr property of an item with the type vcard .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In its wider aspect, credit acts as a substitute for ordinary money, and may be interpreted as equivalent to a system of perfected barter, or, better, as a new currency development.^ If the new encoding is identical or equivalent to the encoding that is already being used to interpret the input stream, then set the confidence to certain and abort these steps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.An interesting but paradoxical conclusion should be noticed: it is that increased trade and expanding business are causes which operate not to raise, but to lower prices; for by enlarging the work that money has to do they raise its value, i.e provided that other things remain the same.^ The JavaScript specification requires that the ToBoolean() operator convert all objects to the true value, and does not have provisions for objects acting as if they were undefined for the purposes of certain operators.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ User agents may combine the value of the title attribute and the other attributes to provide context-sensitive help or inline text detailing the actual values.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Radio equipment, operating manuals and other items within the vessel would also be highly valuable.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another more obvious deduction is that a large addition to the stock of money does not necessarily raise prices, since money is only effective when brought into circulation.^ Allende legislated large wage raises to workers while attempting to control prices.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since PIPEs dilute equity, a company that does a PIPEs deal will typically see its stock fall in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stock price soared, earning large profits for the Milken-network hedge funds that had invested in Cell Genesys.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The chief topic of dispute in respect to the theory of moneyvalue has been concerned with the question as to the ultimate regulating influence. .The value of freely produced commodities is - according to economic theory - determined by " cost of production," or, where the article is produced at different costs, by the cost of production under the most unfavourable circumstances.^ The Trade-Off between Production and Transportation Costs in Determining Optimal Plant Size.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Explaining Firm Capital Structure: The Role of Agency Theory vs. Transaction Cost Economics.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

.As demand varies with price, it follows that an adjustment of value takes place through the interaction of cost and demand, the latter indicating the influence of the utility of the commodity on the quantity required.^ The following common input element content attributes apply to the element: The following common input element content attributes and IDL attributes apply to the element: accept , multiple , and required ; files and value IDL attributes.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Using the results of this processing, user agents must determine whether the progress bar is an indeterminate progress bar, or whether it is a determinate progress bar, and in the latter case, what its current and maximum values are, all as follows: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To influence exactly how such rendering takes place, authors can use a styling language such as CSS. In the following example, the page has been made yellow-on-blue using CSS. Sample styled page Sample styled page .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In applying the theory to the special case of money, the first consideration is the fact that gold and silver, the principal money materials, are the products of mines, and are produced at different costs, so that their values depend on the portions raised at greatest cost.^ Formats are generally given by MIME types , with some values special-cased for legacy reasons.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, it must act as if the setSelectionRange() method had been called, with the new value as the first argument, and the current value of the selectionEnd attribute as the second argument, unless the current value of the selectionEnd is less than the new value, in which case the second argument must also be the new value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The step base is the result of applying the algorithm to convert a string to a number to the value of the min attribute, unless the element does not have a min attribute specified or the result of applying that algorithm is an error, in which case the step base is zero.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

We thus obtain the proposition that has figured in so many textbooks; viz. that " the value of money depends on its cost of production." .The theory of normal value, however, involves certain assumptions, which are significant in this connexion.^ This would normally have given a significant boost to the company’s stock price, but the value of Dendreon’s shares stayed flat for the day, and then began a gradual decline.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Competition is conceived as absolutely free; it is assumed that there are accurate data for computing costs, and that the determination of value by cost is effective only " in the long run."^ Document ), then the "computed value of the 'color' property" for the purposes of determining the computed value of the currentColor keyword is fully opaque black.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If there is a property named type in subitem , and the first such property has a value that is not an item and whose value consists only of alphanumeric ASCII characters , then add a parameter named " TYPE " whose value is the value of that property to parameters .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Given a list of nodes nodes in a Document , a user agent must run the following algorithm to extract any vcard data represented by those nodes (only the first vCard is returned): .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.It is recognized, also, that cost operates on value through its power in regulating supply.^ Haldeman, in The Ends of Power, presents the conclusion that the CIA monitored the Watergate burglars through their entire operation and ultimately sabotaged the break-in, presumably through McCord.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

." The latent influence," says Mill, "by which the value of things are made to conform in the long run to the cost of production is the variation that would otherwise take place in the supply of the commodity."^ The difference would be made in deciding whether the agents fingered by either man had already been so compromised as to no longer be of value.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His reluctance to accept things at face-value made him well suited for counterintelligence.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The day after the advisory panel vote, in an interview with Reuters , Aschoff made the long-shot prediction that the FDA would not approve Provenge, but would instead ask Dendreon to supply additional data showing that the treatment was safe and effective–a process that could take years.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From such considerations it follows that the influence of cost on the value of money is not so predominant as a rigid interpretation of the theory of value seems to suggest.^ Using this script execution environment, interpret the attribute's new value as the body of an anonymous function, with the function's arguments set as follows: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In such cases, the alt attribute's value may be omitted, but one of the following conditions must be met as well: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ An element's corresponding item is determined by its position in the DOM and by any itemfor attributes on the element, and is defined as follows: If the element has a itemfor attribute If there is an element in the document with an ID equal to the value of the itemfor attribute, and if the first such element has an item attribute specified, then that element is the corresponding item .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In earlier times it has been a common proceeding on the part of governments to restrict or stimulate both mining for the precious metals and the business of coining. .At all times the working of gold and silver mines has been rather a hazardous speculation than a legitimate business.^ Rather than take on a legal fight, Sinatra sold all his Nevada holdings, including $380,000 of stock in the Sands Hotel.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

." When any person undertakes to work a new mine in Peru," says Adam Smith, " he is universally looked upon as a man destined to bankruptcy and ruin, and is upon that account shunned and avoided by everybody.^ To help him with his investigative work, Colson hired a man he had met at the Brown University Club of Washington, ex-CIA agent E. Howard Hunt.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new report ascribed Nosenko's lies and mistakes to a "personality problem" while it supported Nosenko's account of Oswald.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mining, it seems, is considered there in the same light as here, as a lottery in which the prizes do not compensate the blanks."^ The alt attribute may be left blank if there is another area element in the same image map that points to the same resource and has a non-blank alt attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The modern capitalistic organization of gold mining has not done much to alter this condition. As regards the adjustment of supply to meet an altered cost of production the difficulties are, if possible, greater. The actual supply of money is so large, when compared with the annual production of the precious metals, that a change in output can operate but slowly on its value. .The total stoppage of fresh supplies from the mines would not be sensibly felt for some years; and though increased production is more rapid in its operation, it takes some time to produce a decided effect.^ Here are some more examples showing the same picture used in different contexts, with different appropriate alternate texts each time.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Quite probably Joseph hoped (or expected) that more than one of his four sons would take a turn at the Presidency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If an "infinite" stream ends for some reason, then the duration would change from positive Infinity to the time of the last frame or sample in the stream, and the durationchange event would be fired.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Hence the conclusion is reached that " the effects of all changes in the conditions of production of the precious metals are at first, and continue to be for many years, questions of quantity only, with little reference to cost of production."^ It was an invisible war of visible attrition which created a huge drain on the French economy cost many French lives, and produced little in the way of military victory.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He told Nixon that Hunt was continually pressing for more money and that hush money for all the defendants could eventually reach a million dollars.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only a few years earlier Lee had divorced her first husband to marry a Polish prince.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is the position which is usually known as that of the " quantity " theory; though very different degrees of doctrine are comprised under the general title. With due qualification and comment it may be taken as the prevalent theory. .At all events it is beyond dispute that the cost of production is not for short periods the controlling force which governs the value of money; while even for long periods its influence is very hard to ascertain, in consequence of the speculative nature of the industries of gold and silver mining.^ Productivity fell and the cost of nationalized industries rose.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For day-long events, therefore, the the dtend property's value will be the day after the end of the event.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ And even if it can be proven to work, no one knows how long it will take to clear all the legal and regulatory hurdles it will face.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another peculiar feature of the problem of money value arises from the fact that it is only through an actual change in the supply of money that its value can be altered. .With other commodities the knowledge that they can be produced at lower cost will bring about a reduction in their value.^ Can be set to a value that removes subdomains, to allow pages on other subdomains of the same domain (if they do the same thing) to access each other.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In the case of money, this does not hold. .There must be an adjustment of the amount, or of the efficiency, of the money stock, since, as explained above, it is in a constant state of supply and demands Its value is established in the very process of carrying on exchanges, and that process is influenced by the available supply.^ Since PIPEs dilute equity, a company that does a PIPEs deal will typically see its stock fall in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can broker swap contracts that oblige counterparties to pay the hedge funds a certain amount of money in the event that the company’s stock price decreases in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Executives could no longer demand stock options since the stock was owned by a charity.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In regard to another form of money the effect of the amount in existence is still more decisive.^ And after that, there was another strange occurrence – then still more strange occurrences, one after the other until it seemed that Dendreon and its treatment for prostate cancer would no longer exist.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is paper money, not immediately redeemable in coin. In this case the idea of cost is manifestly inapplicable; the quantity in circulation is evidently, as proved by abundant experience, the ruling influence on value. In fact, the " quantity " theory receives its simplest illustration in the case of inconvertible paper. The truth that the theory is but an instance of the action of supply and demand is equally shown by this prominent class of instances. Where metallic coinage is artifically limited the same principle holds good. .The value of such currencies plainly depends on the conditions of supply and demand.^ In such cases, the alt attribute's value may be omitted, but one of the following conditions must be met as well: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The immense growth of credit and its embodiment in instruments that can be used as substitutes for money has led to the promulgation of a view respecting the value of money which may be called the " credit " theory. .According to the upholders of this doctrine, the actual amount of metallic money has but a trifling effect on the range of prices, and therefore on the value of money.^ If a reflecting IDL attribute is a signed integer type ( long ) then, on getting, the content attribute must be parsed according to the rules for parsing signed integers , and if that is successful, and the value is in the range of the IDL attribute's type, the resulting value must be returned.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It can broker swap contracts that oblige counterparties to pay the hedge funds a certain amount of money in the event that the company’s stock price decreases in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a reflecting IDL attribute is a floating point number type ( float ), then, on getting, the content attribute must be parsed according to the rules for parsing floating point number values , and if that is successful, and the value is in the range of the IDL attribute's type, the resulting value must be returned.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

What is really important is the volume of credit instruments in circulation. It is on their amount that price movements depend. Gold has become only the small change of the wholesale markets, and its quantity is comparatively unimportant as a determinant of prices. The theory has some connexion with the view of " money " as consisting in the loanable capital of the market, taking shape in the cheques that transfer liabilities. .Thus the rate of interest comes to form a factor in the creation of " money," and the mercantile use of the phrase " value of money " receives a justification.^ Those spans of phrasing content have associated annotations created using the rt element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the user agent creates an img element or modifies an existing img element, then if the showUI argument is present and has the value false, then the value of the value argument must be used as the URL of the image.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The accesskey attribute's value is used by the user agent as a guide for creating a keyboard shortcut that activates or focuses the element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Like the pure " cost " theory of money value, the " credit " theory gives too one-sided a view of the facts.^ The image given by the poster attribute, the poster frame , is intended to be a representative frame of the video (typically one of the first non-blank frames) that gives the user an idea of what the video is like.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In particular, it fails to recognize the ultimate dependence of all kinds of credit on the stock of money in the full sense, i.e. on metallic legal-tender money.^ Rather than take on a legal fight, Sinatra sold all his Nevada holdings, including $380,000 of stock in the Sands Hotel.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The truths adumbrated in the theory are better expressed in the statement of the quantity theory in its developed form, as set forth above. It is necessary to take into account the varying quantities of the precious metals, the modes of use in respect to them; the influence of cost of production, and the way in which credit expedients replace standard money. .A complete theory must include all these elements, while not unduly emphasizing any one of them.^ The children of element (if any) must all be removed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ All of these treatments had undergone only Phase 2 trials, whereas Dendreon had completed Phase 3 trials on 170 patients.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the resource type is an XML MIME type , or if the resource type does not start with " image/ " The object element must be associated with a nested browsing context , if it does not already have one.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

At the beginning of statistical inquiry much attention was given to the question: What quantity of money does a country require for the proper working of its industrial system? Petty and Locke were ready to give definite answers; but modern inquirers decline making any quantitative statement, and content themselves with indicating the conditions to be considered. Amongst these are: Population, amount of transactions, the efficiency of money, the development of credit, and the height to which banking organization has attained. .Other elements in the problem are the disposition towards hoarding, and the employment of some form of barter in transactions.^ The immediate user selection changes as the user selects different elements (either by pointing at them with a pointing device, or by selecting them in some other way).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In particular, the img element can be used in conjunction with some other features as a way to effect a port scan from the user's location on the Internet.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The menu bar BarProp object Represents the user interface element that contains a list of commands in menu form, or some similar interface concept.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The contrast between India and the United States in monetary and industrial habits supplies an effective series of illustrations on this matter.^ Eisenhower's response was to break all diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such surveillance had begun, in fact, in 1952 with the recording of information on the envelopes of letters between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States was officially taking a neutral stand in the conflict between India and Pakistan, although the Soviets were backing India and the Chinese were behind Pakistan.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The conclusion is obvious that economic progress is accompanied by a more sparing use of money. .The most important aspect of the question in modern times is in relation to the division of money between countries.^ The OSS was not unlike most modern intelligence agencies in terms of its division of labor.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yugoslavia was probably the country where conflicts between communist and non-communist resistance forces were most bitter.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tet was the most important of all Vietnamese holidays — a time when Vietnamese traveled about the country to rejoin their families in giving reverence to ancestors.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Regarded from this point of view, the quantity of money that a country needs is that which will keep its prices in due level with those of the countries with which it has commercial relations.^ Investors in those companies did not need FDA approval to make money, but as we will see, their money-making plans would have been foiled if Dendreon had received approval.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the point of view of those in Washington, Vietnam could be seen as merely one pawn in a global struggle.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For, this is the condition of equilibrium; there would otherwise be an excess of either exports or imports, involving a transfer of money to adjust the balance.^ Otherwise, if there are no nodes in the collection that have either an id attribute or a name attribute equal to name , then return null and stop the algorithm.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Then Milken, with the support of Dr. Scher, directed that money to Dr. Scher’s hospital, with the understanding that Scher and his hospital would attach their prominent names to drugs developed by companies in which either Milken or Milken’s friends were investors.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The p element can be used to wrap individual paragraphs when there would otherwise not be any content other than phrasing content to separate the paragraphs from each other.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.It may be added that the organization works automatically, since fluctuations in the stock of money are corrected by the action of trade.^ In other words, it is probably correct to say that Madoff stole a lot of his investors’ money, but he seems to have used at least some of that money to generate phantom stock.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The best estimates place the gold circulation of the United Kingdom at somewhat under £ioo,000,000, the token currency at about £15,000,000, and the note circulation as nearly £43,000,000. The French use of metallic money is much larger; probably over £20o,000,000, and the note circulation is also over £20o,000,000.
3. Early Forms of Currency. - Up to the present we have considered money as being fully established and properly adapted to fulfil its various functions. We have now to trace the steps by which a suitable system of currency was evolved from a state of barter. It is important for a right understanding of the question to grasp the fact that exchanges took place originally between groups, and not between individuals. .The slow growth of exchanges is thus explained, as each group produced most of the articles necessary for itself, and such acts of barter as took place were rather reciprocal presents than mercantile exchanges.^ The most promising group conducting resistance activity within the Soviet Union itself was the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN).
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The follow-up to each such mystery is the presentation of a new mystery rather than a solution.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, foreign policy came under the direction of National Security Assistant Henry Kissenger rather than the Secretary of State.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Such is actually the case among modern savages. " It is instructive to see trade in its lowest form among such tribes as the Australians. .The tough greenstone valuable for making hatchets is carried hundreds of miles by natives, who receive from other tribes in return the prized products of their districts, such as red ochre to paint their bodies with; they have even got so far as to let peaceful traders pass unharmed through tribes at war, so that trains of youths might be met, each lad with a slab of sandstone on his head to be carried to his distant home and shaped into a seed-crusher.^ Let value be the value passed to the algorithm.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There would be no declaration of war, however, because such an act might spur Russia or China to enter the fight in response to treaty obligations.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If, on the other hand, it fails or returns an out of range value, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 1 if there is no default value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.When strangers visit a tribe they are received at a friendly gathering or corrobboree, and presents are given on both sides.^ Both of these groups were given CIA money, and one of them received arms.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No doubt there is a general sense that the gifts are to be fair exchanges, and if either side is not satisfied there will be grumbling and quarrelling; but in this roughest kind of barter we do not yet find that clear notion of a unit of value which is the great step in trading."^ Every one of them stated unequivocally that Dr. Scher had been “threatened.” Yet, not one of them specifically described the threats, and as far as I can ascertain, there were no “threats.” .
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet there was no evidence of barbiturate or capsule residue found in her stomach, nor was a hypodermic needle found in her room.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though CIA men denied using torture, there is no doubt that South Vietnamese officers resorted to such means.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This vivid description of E. B. Tylor's enables us to realize the way in which money came into existence. .When any commodity becomes an object of desire, not merely from its use to the persons desiring it, but from their wanting it as being readily exchangeable for other things, then that article may be regarded as rudimentary money.^ In the following example, objects in a text adventure are highlighted as being special by use of the b element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Authors are encouraged to use MathML for marking up mathematics, but authors may opt to use sub and sup if detailed mathematical markup is not desired.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts can have a first script which is used to obtain, amongst other things, the script's base URL to resolve relative URLs used in scripts running in that unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Thus the greenstone and ochre are on their way to being promoted to the position of currency, and the idea of a " unit of value " is all that is needed to complete the invention. " This higher stage is found among the Indians of British Columbia, whose strings of haiqua-shells worn as ornamental borders to their dresses serve them also as currency to trade with - a string of ordinary quality being reckoned as worth one beaver's skin." Such shells are in reality money, inasmuch as they discharge its functions.
On a review of existing savage tribes and ancient races of more or less civilization we are surprised at the great variety of objects which have been used to supply .the need of a circulating medium. Skins, for instance, seem to be one of the earliest forms of money. .They have been found among the Indians of Alaska performing this service, while accounts of leather money seem to show that their use was formerly more general.^ Huge revenues in cash which could not be rigidly accounted for, served as an excellent cover for "laundering" money acquired in more illicit activities.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If villagers aided the NLF or if an ammunition cache was found beneath the floor of a hut, a decision was often made to burn the village and "generate" more refugees.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, it is probably correct to say that Madoff stole a lot of his investors’ money, but he seems to have used at least some of that money to generate phantom stock.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As the hunting stage gives place to the pastoral, and animals become domesticated, the animal itself, instead of its skin, becomes the principal form of currency. .There is a great mass of evidence to show that, in the most distant regions and at very different times, cattle formed a currency for pastoral and early agricultural nations.^ But there was enough titillating evidence of political favor for Lawrence O'Brien, most notably, to make the ITT case a huge public relations problem for the Republicans.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there is evidence that it played an early role in the growth of his fortunes.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early studies had shown that the country was so overwhelmingly agricultural that there was little worth bombing.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Alike among existing barbarous tribes, and in the survivals discovered among classical nations, sheep and oxen both appear as units of value. Thus we find that at Rome, and through the Italian tribes generally, " oxen and sheep formed the oldest medium of exchange, ten sheep being reckoned equivalent to one ox. .The recognition of these objects as universal legal representatives of value, or, in other words, as money, may be traced back to the epoch of a purely pastoral economy."^ In other words, it is probably correct to say that Madoff stole a lot of his investors’ money, but he seems to have used at least some of that money to generate phantom stock.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Icelandic law bears witness to a similar state of things; while the various fines in the different Teutonic codes are estimated in cattle. The Latin word petunia (pecus) is an evidence of the earliest Roman money being composed of cattle. The English fee and the famous term feudal, according to its most probable etymology, are derived from the same root. In a well-known passage of the Iliad (vi. 235-6) the value of two different sets of armour is estimated in terms of oxen. .The Irish law tracts bear evidence as to the use of cattle as one of the measures of value in early Irish civilization.^ Use the rules for parsing a list of dimensions to parse the value of the element's cols attribute, if there is one.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Use only one scheme per field, or make the scheme declaration part of the value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Use the rules for parsing a list of dimensions to parse the value of the element's rows attribute, if there is one.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Similarly, oxen from the principal wealth and the circulating medium among the Zulus and Kaffirs. .On the testimony of an eye-witness we are assured that, " as cattle constitute the sole wealth of the people, so they are their only medium of such transactions as involve exchange, payment or reward."^ User agents may opt to only fetch such resources when they are needed, instead of pro-actively fetching all the external resources that are not applied.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.So also we find that cattle-rents are paid by the pastoral Indian tribes to the United States government.^ In May 1954 the United States signed military agreements with Nicaragua and Honduras preparatory to a clandestine paramilitary operation by the CIA against the Arbenez government.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pan Am was seeking to have itself made an official worldwide monopoly of the United States Government.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the invaders secured some land, a provisional government of Cuba would be flown-in and granted recognition by the United States.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the prominence of slavery in early societies it is reasonable to suppose that slaves would be adopted as a medium of exchange, and one of the measures of value in the Irish law tracts, cumhal, is said to have originally meant a female slave.^ If the navigation algorithm has so far contacted more than one origin If there is no source browsing context The value must be the string " null ".
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A th element with ID id is said to be directly targeted by all td and th elements in the same table that have headers attributes whose values include as one of their tokens the ID id .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Notes 1 xx-small 2 small 3 medium 4 large 5 x-large 6 xx-large 7 xxx-large' value is a non-CSS value used here to indicate a font size one "step" larger than 'xx-large'.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

They are at present applied to this purpose in Central Africa, and also in New Guinea. .On passing to the agricultural stage a greater number of objects are found capable of being applied to currency purposes.^ If applying the rules for parsing non-negative integers to the attribute's value results in a number greater than zero, then the element's character height is that value; otherwise, it is 2.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If applying the rules for parsing non-negative integers to the attribute's value results in a number greater than zero, then the element's character width is that value; otherwise, it is 20.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the Document is being loaded as part of navigation of a browsing context , then: run the application cache selection algorithm with no manifest, passing it the Document object.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Among these are corn - used even at present in Norway - maize, olive oil, coco-nuts and tea.^ Ultimate authority for these plots now resided with Helms rather than McCone, who was never even told about the attempted use of the Mafia.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most remarkable instance of an agricultural product being used as currency is to be found in the case of tobacco, which was adopted as legal tender by the English colonists in North America.^ He founded his own religion, The Holy Apostolic Catholic Church of North America, and possessed a "doctorate" in psychology from an unaccredited college in Italy.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, the MIME type used to refer to JavaScript in this specification is text/javascript , since that is the most commonly used type, despite it being an officially obsoleted type according to RFC 4329.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The text of a page listing terms of use, for instance, would not be a suitable candidate for the small element: in such a case, the text is not a side comment, it is the main content of the page.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Another class of articles used for money consists of ornaments, which among all uncivilized tribes serve this purpose. The haiqua-shells mentioned before are an instance, cowries in India, whales' teeth among the Fijians, red feathers among some South Sea Island tribes, and finally, any attractive kinds of stone which can be easily worked. Mineral products, so far as they do not come under the preceding head, furnish another class. .Thus salt was used in Abyssinia and Mexico; while the metals - a phenomenon which will require a more careful examination - have succeeded in finally driving all their inferior competitors out of the field, and have become the sole substances for money.^ Because the Defense Department had shown little interest in military electronics, Hughes Aircraft was able to do pioneering work in the field while its competitors attended to products more in demand.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nixon ordered an all-out effort in Christmas bombing raids for the purpose of driving Hanoi to the conference table.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of this API requires extra care to protect users from hostile entities abusing a site for their own purposes.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

4. The Metals as Money. Reasons for their Adoption. Superiority of Silver and Gold. - The employment of metals as money material can be traced far back in the history of civilization; but as it is impossible to determine the exact order of their appearance in this capacity, it will be convenient to take them in the order of their value, beginning with the lowest. Iron - to judge from the statement of Aristotle - was widely used as currency. .One remarkable instance is the Spartan money, which was clearly a survival of a form that had died out among the other Greek states; though it has often been attributed to ascetic policy.^ When a start or end tag token is created, its self-closing flag must be unset (its other state is that it be set), and its attributes list must be empty.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If, on the other hand, it fails or returns an out of range value, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 1 if there is no default value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION U+000A LINE FEED (LF) U+000C FORM FEED (FF) U+0020 SPACE Stay in the after attribute name state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In conjunction with copper, iron formed one of the constituents of early Chinese currency, and at a later time was used as a subsidiary coinage in Japan.^ Twenty-one days later Philby arrived in Istanbul to handle the matter, but by that time the KGB officer was nowhere to be found.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iron spikes are used as money in Central Africa, while Adam Smith notes the employment of nails for the same purpose in Scotland.^ For the purposes of the comparison in the above substeps, the and components can only be the same if the URLs use a hierarchical .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Lead has served as money, e.g. in Burma. .The use of copper as money has been more extensive than is the case in respect to the metals just mentioned.^ And just in case you still didn’t get this – it caused Dendreon’s share price to lose more than 65% of its value – in just 75 seconds flat.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Duplicates are not prevented; a range may be added more than once in which case it appears in the list more than once, which (for example) will cause stringification to return the range's text twice.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This might in certain extreme cases mean limiting the use of flow elements to just a few elements, like div , b , i , and span and making liberal use of the style attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It, as stated, was used in China along with iron - an early instance of bimetallism - and it figured in the first Hebrew coins. It was the sole Roman coinage down to 269 B.C. and it has lingered on to a comparatively recent date in the backward European currencies. It even survives as a part of the token coinage of the present. .Tin has not been a favourite material for money: the richness of the Cornish mines accounts for its use by some British kings.^ In other words, it is probably correct to say that Madoff stole a lot of his investors’ money, but he seems to have used at least some of that money to generate phantom stock.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Silver holds a more prominent place than any of the preceding metals.^ So, at this point in the story, we have identified more than 70 companies that have been vaporized by “prominent” investors, all part of the same network.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Down to the close of the 18th century it was the chief form of money, and often looked on as forming the necessary standard substance. .It was the principal Greek money material, and was introduced at Rome in 269 B.C. The currencies of medieval Europe had silver as their leading constituent; while down almost to the present day Eastern countries seemed to prefer silver to gold.^ All through Eastern Europe the KGB seemed to outflank the CIA at every turn.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pre-eminence of gold as money is now beyond dispute; there, is, however, some difficulty in discovering its earliest employment. It is, perhaps, to be found in " the pictures of the ancient Egyptians weighing in scales heaps of rings of gold and silver. ." According to W. Ridgeway's ingenious theory gold comes into use as a currency in due equation to the older cattleunit, the ox.^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was certainly employed by the great Eastern monarchs; its further development will be considered later on. .Metals of modern discovery - such as nickel and platinum - are only used by the fancy of a few governments, though the former makes a good token coinage.^ The Phase 3 trials had demonstrated that Provenge significantly increased patient survival with only minimal side-effects, such as a few days of mild fever.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marxist leaders struggled with the difficulty of making the government's new operations yield "the same immense profits that they used to give the capitalists".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The preceding examination of the varied materials of currency, metallic and non-metallic, suggests some conclusions respecting the course of monetary evolution, viz.: (I) that the metals tend to supersede all other forms of money among progressive communities; and (2) that the more valuable metals displace the less valuable ones.^ The action of an element is the value of the element's formaction attribute, if the element is a submit button and has such an attribute, or the value of its form owner 's action attribute, if it has one, or else the empty string.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one adr property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The explanation of these movements is found in the qualities that are specially desirable in the articles used for money. There has been a long process of selection and elimination in the course of monetary history.
.First, it is plain that nothing can serve as money which has not the attributes of wealth; i.e. unless it is useful, transferable and limited in supply.^ XML documents that use elements or attributes from the HTML namespace and that are served over the wire (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This might in certain extreme cases mean limiting the use of flow elements to just a few elements, like div , b , i , and span and making liberal use of the style attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, it must act as if the setSelectionRange() method had been called, with the new value as the first argument, and the current value of the selectionEnd attribute as the second argument, unless the current value of the selectionEnd is less than the new value, in which case the second argument must also be the new value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

As these conditions are essential to the existence of value, the instrument for measuring and transferring values must possess them. A second requisite of great effect is the amount of value in proportion to weight or mass. High value in small bulk gives the quality of portability, want of which has been a fatal obstacle to the continued use of many early forms of money. Skins, corn and tobacco were defective in this quality, and so were iron and copper. Sheep and oxen, though technically described as " self-moving," are expensive to transport from place to place. .That the material of money shall be the same throughout, so that one unit shall be equal in value to another, is a further desideratum, which is as decidedly lacking in cattle-currency as it is prominent in the metals.^ The value must be either text or an item with one organization-name property and zero or more organization-unit properties.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each group has zero or more types, each name has one or more values, and each value is either a string or another group of name-value pairs.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A th element with ID id is said to be directly targeted by all td and th elements in the same table that have headers attributes whose values include as one of their tokens the ID id .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.It is, further, desirable that the substance used as money shall be capable of being divided without loss of value, and, if needed, of being reunited.^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ He used his banker's savvy to finance studios that needed money for the new "talkies".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between each such stop, the colors and the alpha component must be linearly interpolated over the RGBA space without premultiplying the alpha value to find the color to use at that offset.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Most of the articles used in primitive societies - such as eggs, skins and cattle - fail in this quality. Money should also be durable, a requirement which leads to the exclusion of all animal and most vegetable substances from the class of suitable currency materials. .To be easily recognized is another very desirable quality in money, and moreover to be recognized as of a given value.^ User agents must not recognize values that are not a case-sensitive match for one of the values given above.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Articles otherwise well fitted for money-use, e.g. precious stones, suffer through the difficulty of estimating their value.^ Mismatch Returns true if the element's value doesn't fit the rules given by the step attribute; false otherwise.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Finally, it results from the function of money as a standard of value that it should alter in its own value as little as possible.^ UAs should use input element attributes such as pattern to ensure that the resulting value is valid, where possible.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Complete fixity of value is from the nature of things unattainable; but the nearest approximation that can be secured is desirable.^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In early societies this quality is not of great importance; for future obligations are few and inconsiderable. With the growth of industry and commerce and the expansion of the system of contracts, covering a distant future, the evil effects of a shifting standard of value attract attention, and lead to the suggestion of ingenious devices to correct fluctuations. These belong to the later history of money and currency movements. It is enough for the ordinary purposes of money that it shall not alter within short periods, which is a characteristic of the more valuable metals, and particularly of silver and gold, while in contrast such an article as corn changes considerably in value from year to year.
From the foregoing examination of the requisites desirable in the material of money it is easy to deduce the empirical laws which the history of money discloses, since metals, as compared with non-metallic substances, evidently possess those requisites in a great degree. .They are all durable, homogeneous, divisible and recognizable, and in virtue of these superior advantages they are the only substances now used for money by advanced nations.^ They all use the DragEvent interface.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These values are all case-sensitive — they must be used exactly as shown.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Antitrust Division of the Justice Department vigorously opposed all these mergers.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nor is the case different when the decision has to be made between the different metals.^ The default value is the minimum plus half the difference between the minimum and the maximum , unless the maximum is less than the minimum , in which case the default value is the minimum .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Iron has been rejected because of its low value and its liability to rust, lead from its extreme softness, and tin from its tendency to break. .All these metals, as well as copper, are unsuitable from their low value, which hinders their speedy transmission so as to adjust inequalities of local prices.^ These elements form a tree using the DOM. This section defines the features of this DOM, as well as introducing the features common to all elements, and the concepts used in defining elements.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These values are all case-sensitive — they must be used exactly as shown.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ User agents must then use all these numbers to obtain values for six points on the gauge, as follows.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The elimination of the cheaper metals leaves silver and gold as the only suitable materials for forming the principal currency. .Of late years there has been a very decided movement towards the adoption of the latter as the sole monetary standard, silver being regarded as suitable only for a subsidiary coinage.^ The very next year Hoffa was being indicted for an extortion racket against a grocery association which hauled its goods with non-union labor.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only large monetary donations by his father prevented Fidel from being expelled.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The special features of gold and silver which render them the most suitable materials for currency may here be noted. " The value of these metals changes only by slow degrees; they are readily divisible into any number of parts which may be reunited by means of fusion without loss; they do not deteriorate by being kept; their firm and compact texture makes them difficult to wear; their cost of production, especially of gold, is so considerable that they possess great value in small bulk, and can of course be transported with comparative facility; and their identity is perfect." The possession by both these metals of all the qualities needed in money is more briefly but forcibly put by Cantillon when he says that " gold and silver alone are of small volume, of equal goodness, easy of transport, divisible without loss, easily guarded, beautiful and brilliant and durable almost to eternity." .This view has even been pushed to an extreme form in the proposition of Turgot, that they became universal money by the nature and force of things, independently of all convention and law, from which the deduction has been drawn that to proscribe silver by law from being used as money is a violation of the nature of things.^ Even when the bad guys were charged with crimes – even when they became fugitives from the law – the priest spoke quite strongly in their defense.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The North Vietnamese did not agree to withdraw their troops, however, because they still insisted that they had no forces in South Vietnam at all.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The microdata becomes even more useful when scripts can use it to expose information to the user, for example offering it in a form that can be used by other applications.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

5. The Introduction and Development of Coinage. The State and Money. - .The earliest metallic currencies passed by weight; they were, in fact, commodities, though used in a special way.^ It has a specification that unambiguously defines how to handle pages that use the keyword, including when they use them in incorrect ways.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This attribute is useful to include "save" buttons on forms that have validation constraints, to allow users to save their progress even though they haven't fully entered the data in the form.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The Hebrew records, as well as the Greek writers, bear witness to the prevalence of this primitive system. Thus, Aristotle, after explaining the circumstances that led to the invention of money, points out how it was at first defined simply by size and weight, although finally men went further and set a stamp on every coin to relieve them from the trouble of weighing it." (Pol. i. 9, 8.) Coinage systems have had a long period of growth, in which two distinct stages can be noted. .In the first only the quality or fineness of the metal is denoted by the stamp, no attempt being made to fix the weight.^ Following Schneider's death, CIA officials made no further attempts at fomenting the military, concentrating their energies instead on covering their "tracks".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early 1959, with the first jets being delivered to TWA, even Hughes could no longer evade the problem of financing his purchases.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No book could be published in Vietnam without first being submitted to censorship.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The stamp, so to speak, acts as a kind of hallmark. The cubes of gold employed by the Chinese may have been the earliest coins. Modern authorities accept the view of Herodotus that gold and silver coins were first used by the Lydians; the same author mentions that the first Greek coinage was at Aegina by Pheidon of Argos. In order to complete the invention it became necessary to certify the weight of metal in the coin as well as its fineness. A further result was the establishment of a regular shape for the purpose of preventing any tampering with the coin after its manufacture. .Though various experiments in form were made, by the production of hexagonal and octagonal coins, the universally accepted shape came to be that of a flat circle, each side of which is stamped, as also in many cases the edge.^ That effort led to other operations and many more cases that collectively came to be known at the FBI as the “Mob on Wall Street” campaign.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great number of the Greek city states afforded ample opportunities for experiment and competition, and rapid progress in the direction of securing good currencies was made.^ Thus, foreign policy came under the direction of National Security Assistant Henry Kissenger rather than the Secretary of State.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The improvement in the Greek coinages may be regarded as the consequence, and in some degree a cause, of their growing commerce. .From Greece the art of coining was introduced into Italy by the Hellenic settlers and traders, and became one of the essential features of a civilized society.^ One might have expected Hughes to be at the forefront of introducing jet passenger planes into the airline industry.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several crime families had begun buying into the trucking industry and Perrone, for one, became owner of a steel and scrap handling business.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most famous cases of partisan underground conflict in Italy related to an OSS team which was infiltrated into the Italian Alps.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Progress, however, did not stop with the establishment of the institution of coined money. .A number of practical questions had to be decided respecting the best way of overcoming the difficulties that certain technical problems presented.^ Verbal outrage gave way to action when a number of people decided to march to the jail.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In spite of early experience, it has at times been suggested that the circular form might be replaced by some other, e.g. the square or oblong.^ For example, some user agents might want to persist the scroll position, or the values of form controls.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some UAs might opt to support a plugin mechanism such as the Netscape Plugin API; others might use remote content converters or have built-in support for certain types.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ User agents may adjust prefixes and namespace declarations in the serialization (and indeed might be forced to do so in some cases to obtain namespace-well-formed XML).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Practice has confirmed the wisdom of the old-established shape. Another question was in respect to the limits of size that were most suitable for coins. Here the lower limit is prescribed by the convenience of the users. .Coins that are easily lost, or picked up with trouble, such as the British threepenny piece and the American gold dollar, ought not to be issued.^ He picked up the folder and a piece of paper fell out.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The determination of the upper limit presents greater difficulties. .Very large pieces are hard to coin, and they give facilities for improper treatment by drilling holes and filling them up with cheaper metal, or even for the entire removal of the interior, the faces being preserved.^ When Colby told Angleton's three top aides that they were being removed from their posts, they all chose to go into retirement.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person's name is not the title of a work — even if people call that person a piece of work — and the element must therefore not be used to mark up people's names.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The root element can end up being removed from the Document object, e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The attractive appearance of large gold coins is no compensation for this danger. The English sovereign and, in silver, the half-crown seem to come near the upper limit of safe issue. .The comparative wear of coins of different sizes must be considered.^ The MIME type must be compared in an ASCII case-insensitive manner by user agents for the purposes of comparing with MIME types of documents that they consider against the list of registered handlers.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The scheme must be compared in an ASCII case-insensitive manner by user agents for the purposes of comparing with the scheme part of URLs that they consider against the list of registered handlers.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

A long series of experiments, supported by ordinary experience, goes to show that the smaller coins wear more rapidly. The English mint in 1833 estimated the loss per cent. per annum at 2s. 6d. on half-crowns, 4s. on shillings, and 7s. 6d. on sixpences. There are accordingly reasons for adopting a medium size in preference to large or small coins. The actual coins issued have, of course, to be adapted to the requirements of the particular community. Even prejudices must be taken into due account. The designs employed in connexion with coinage have proved a fruitful field for the student of Numismatics. From the monetary standpoint the aim of the design is to prevent either counterfeiting or the abstraction of any portion of the metal. .For the former purpose careful execution in designing and the use of powerful machinery are the really effective safeguards.^ This process relies, in part, on character encoding information found in the real Content-Type metadata of the resource; the "sniffed type" is not used for this purpose.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Use of this API requires extra care to protect users from hostile entities abusing a site for their own purposes.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The latter is best obviated by protecting the edges by the process of milling, to which a raised inscription has sometimes been added. Great advances have been made in the organization of the modern Mint (q.v.) by the use of new appliances and scientific methods. The question of the proper alloy in coins has received a great deal of attention. .As gold and silver are both by nature soft, some other metal, such as copper or tin, has to be added, in order to secure the necessary hardness.^ Some days prior, Dendreon’s CEO, Mitch Gold, had announced that the results of an Independent Monitoring Committee study were “unambiguous in nature…a clear hit” for Provenge.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marincola added: “If it is true (which I doubt) that some other member of the board contacted the FDA afterwards, it is beyond my control.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [CSS] The elements that were added to the dataTransfer object, both before the event was fired, and during the handling of the event using the addElement() method, if any such elements were indeed added.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The English gold coins have an alloy of one-twelfth; the silver coins one of three-fortieths. .Far more general is the alloy of one-tenth, which is probably due to the sentiment in favour of a decimal system; but at any rate is simple for calculations.^ Quite probably Joseph hoped (or expected) that more than one of his four sons would take a turn at the Presidency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the navigation algorithm has so far contacted more than one origin If there is no source browsing context The value must be the string " null ".
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If input is an ASCII case-insensitive match for one of the keywords listed in the SVG color keywords or CSS2 System Colors sections of the CSS3 Color specification, then return the simple color corresponding to that keyword.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.There does not appear to be any strong technical reason for preferring either of these alloys to the other.^ If it does not, or if there is not, then the string is not valid; abort these steps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The French mint authorities are in favour of their one-tenth; while the English ones adhere to the alloy of one-twelfth. .There is agreement only on the point that a very small amount of alloy, e.g. that of one in seventy-two, as used in the Austrian ducat, does not give the requisite hardness.^ Split fn on spaces , and let part one be the first resulting token, and part two be the second, if any, or the empty string if there is no second token.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are various concrete syntaxes that can be used to transmit resources that use this abstract language, two of which are defined in this specification.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If there are multiple equally appropriate icons, user agents must use the last one declared in tree order .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

A question of far more importance, both politically and economically, is that of the issue of money, and the power of the state in regard to it. In the ruder societies, where money was not sharply distinguished from commodities, no difficulty presented itself. Skins, shells or cattle were money - so to speak - by the force of things; and the same condition persisted as long as crude metals were employed. .But with the introduction of coinage the idea of a regulating authority came into being.^ Nonetheless, the legend of the CIA's ability to topple governments came into being.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An underground resistance movement in the form of a secret society came into being in the aftermath of this uprising.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The necessity of enforcing contracts and the parallel system of penalties made it incumbent on the ruler and judges to provide due standards of payment. .The combined effect of these influences was reinforced by the establishment of the rudimentary forms of state revenue, which made it a matter of interest to the ruler to provide a good medium of payment.^ An element can still suffer from these states even when the element is disabled ; thus these states can be represented in the DOM even if validating the form during submission wouldn't indicate a problem to the user.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The missing value default for these attributes is the application/x-www-form-urlencoded state.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Changes made to form controls as part of these algorithms do not count as changes caused by the user (and thus, e.g., do not cause input events to fire).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Accordingly, with the origin of the organized state, we find the coinage as a special prerogative of the king, though private persons often exercised the privilege of coining. .The very large number of the autonomous cities of Greece, which possessed the right of issuing money, was the cause of the competition between different currencies, each having legal tender power only within its own city.^ Anderson may not have realized that the Soviets concentrated their efforts on having a very large fleet of conventionally-powered submarines equipped with nuclear weapons — in contrast to the much smaller American fleet containing more nuclear-powered subs.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We had also learned that naked short sales are often “married” to put options (bets against a company), and at the time of the Dendreon attack, in 2007, only ten hedge fund managers on the planet owned large numbers of put options on Dendreon’s stock.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was impressed by Chinatown in New York City, where he discovered that the Chinese enjoyed the same legal rights and privileges as the surrounding Caucasians.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In its practical outcome this " free coinage " system proved beneficial, for it compelled the maintenance of the true standard in order to gain wider circulation. With the establishment of larger states the control over the issue of money grew more stringent. In the later Roman Empire the right of coining was reserved to the emperor exclusively. After the fall of the empire the traditions of prerogative passed on to the medieval kings, a right carefully guarded by the English sovereigns. In France and Germany the principal nobles claimed this seignorial right, but in the modern state the regulation money has been definitely vested in the supreme authority, i.e. the sovereign.
.One reason for the close connexion of money with the state is the fact that there is one attribute of currency which comes within the area of work specially allotted to the public authority.^ If there are to be any attributes in the next step, there must first be one or more space characters .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The cell's scope attribute is in the row state, or The cell's scope attribute is in the auto state, the cell is not a column header , and there are no data cells in any of the cells covering slots with x -coordinates x ..
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, exactly one property with the name about must be present within each item with the type work , giving the URL of the work.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Money ought to have the power finally to close a transaction, i.e. to say it should be " legal tender." .This " liberating power," as the French call it, might be regarded as one of the money functions.^ Perhaps in deference to Ho, the French officially abolished the Opium Monopoly, which Ho regarded as one of the most loathesome symbols of French exploitation.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those who look on money as a purely legal institution naturally take this view; it seems, however, better to take the economic conditions as the really fundamental ones.^ Colby was one of those CIA men who discounted counterintelligence as being little more than childish spy games.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Look around and you will find, no-one's really colour blind.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It is only on account of their economic effects that legal regulations require consideration. These effects are, indeed, very far-reaching. .By prescribing the standard and amount of penalties, by their power of selecting the substances to be used as money, and by their frequent interferences with existing currencies, the governments of the world have guided - as well as very often disturbed - the normal course of development.^ The government frequently had to use force against those who refused to leave their native villages.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.What Aristotle regarded as the " unnatural " character of money is mainly attributable to state intervention.^ Character reference in attribute value state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION U+000A LINE FEED (LF) U+000C FORM FEED (FF) U+0020 SPACE Stay in the after attribute name state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ U+0009 CHARACTER TABULATION U+000A LINE FEED (LF) U+000C FORM FEED (FF) U+0020 SPACE Stay in the before attribute value state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

But it is important to remember that the sphere of governmental action in respect to money is limited. A currency system is never an arbitrary creation; it must grow slowly out of the habits and customs of the community, and must subserve its economic needs. .No sudden change at the caprice of the state is likely to continue.^ DOM state is no longer consistent with the changes represented in the entry), then the user agent must simply remove the DOM changes entry, without doing anything else.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Further, it is clear that no government can determine the results of its interference; these will depend on the existing conditions and will conform to economic law.^ The table below demonstrates how the getter condition for search results in different results depending on the exact original syntax of the URL: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Then he added, "I made it clear that all the military plans which I know you would like to carry out are dependent on government stability.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Monetary history is rich in examples of the failure of legal enactment to direct the course of events, and of the disasters that have followed on the ill-advised measures of public authority.
.One result of the close connexion of the state with the business of coining has been the establishment of regulations in reference to the expense of the process.^ If the value attribute is not specified but the max attribute is specified and the result of processing the textContent of the element was one number with no associated denominator punctuation character, then that number is the actual value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

As coins are manufactured articles it seems evident that a charge sufficient to cover the cost may rightly be imposed. Such a charge is described by the term Seigniorage. .It has in many cases been so fixed as to bring in a large profit to the government; but then it amounts to a depreciation of the currency; for the levy of a charge on coining is the same as the substraction of so much metal from the coins issued.^ Formerly the government had feared that arms issued to the population at large might ultimately be used against the government itself.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marxist leaders struggled with the difficulty of making the government's new operations yield "the same immense profits that they used to give the capitalists".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

English policy is peculiar in its adoption of gratuitous coinage of gold, an anomaly due in its origin to the prejudices of the mercantile doctrines, but defended on the ground of the convenience to trade from the equivalence of gold bullion and coin. .The heavy seigniorage on the silver coins - at present over 60% - is a source of considerable profit; in some years exceeding £800,000. All other countries levy moderate charges on their gold coinages, and make profit on their silver issues, though in different ways.^ All other week-years have 52 weeks.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The immediate user selection changes as the user selects different elements (either by pointing at them with a pointing device, or by selecting them in some other way).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On the other hand, div elements can be useful for stylistic purposes or to wrap multiple paragraphs within a section that are all to be annotated in a similar way.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

As it has become the duty of the state to maintain the currency in a sound condition, it has to deal with the question of its expense. This is composed of several elements, viz. .(I) the cost of manufacture, just mentioned; (2) the loss through the wear which money undergoes in the work of circulating; and (3) the interest on the capital sunk in the monetary stock.^ Gaining political power in the city, control of the waterfront and additional money to work with, the Corsican syndicates were able to make Marseille the heroin manufacturing and smuggling capitol of Europe.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eighty-four percent of this money was returned to Hughes through lease-payments and interest.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most corporations had stock options programs by which executives could circumvent high income taxes through the acquisition of capital stock.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A country with a metallic circulation of £roo,000,000 incurs a loss of the interest which that amount of capital would produce by investment, i.e. at 4% £4,000,000. The expense is amply justified by the services that a good currency renders; but, at the same time, it proves the desirability of any economies that do not detract from efficiency.^ At the same time, the Intelligence Division of the Internal Revenue Service went to work on building a case against Costello.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, Geneen decided he would create a powerful ITT lobby in Washington which could reduce future interference.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Knowing Castro's interest in deep-sea diving, CIA technicians dusted a diving suit with a fungus that would produce a chronic skin disease.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great economizing agency is the use of representative money and the various forms of credit, in which so much of the latest advances consist.^ Here, the sub element is used to represents the subscript that identifies the variable in a family of variables: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The input element represents a control that, when used in conjunction with other input elements, forms a radio button group in which only one control can have its checkedness state set to true.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

6. Representative Money; its Introduction and Development. The Mode in which Credit is used as Money. - .Economy in the employment of the precious metals is naturally suggested by ordinary experience; but the way in which states have profited by the expedient of depreciation affords a special inducement to follow what is practically the same course, and issue paper documents in place of the more costly metallic medium.^ Documents showing the Cambodian targets of the bombers were regularly destroyed and replaced by falsified papers which indicated that the bombing had taken place in Vietnam.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the same offer was later made to Richard Nixon, the President suggested sending Henry Kissenger to Las Vegas to negotiate a detente on the issue.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In theory, as Ricardo explained, a paper currency is one in which .the whole value has been appropriated as seigniorage. .The cost of keeping a stock of valuable money is obviated, and the new instrument of exchange is supported by state authority.^ They overheard Costello informing a New York State Supreme Court Justice nominee that bipartisan support had been arranged for his appointment.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here the action of economic conditions is instructively illustrated; for though a government can set up a paper currency, it is not within its power to prescribe its value.^ A Special Operations Group, which eventually came to be known as "Operation Chaos", had been set up within James Angleton's Counterintelligence Staff to conduct these investigations.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The quantity theory (§ 2) is confirmed by the inevitable decline in value when issue passes a definite point.^ Unless otherwise specified, if a method with an argument that is a floating point number type ( float ) is passed an Infinity or Not-a-Number (NaN) value, a NOT_SUPPORTED_ERR exception must be raised.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The only effective mode of preventing depreciation is by limiting the amount of paper money to that of the metallic money previously in circulation. The easiest way to accomplish this is to leave the use of the paper currency optional by making it convertible into coin at the will of the holder. The amount of the circulation is thus automatically fixed by the action of the community. An evident disadvantage is the necessity of keeping an adequate reserve of coin to meet actual and prospective demands. For ideal security the whole amount of paper issue should be covered by an equal value of metal. In practice the reserve may be much smaller; but so far as it is required, it means a deduction from the gain of issue. .The temptation to reduce the reserve to an inadequate amount and then to escape the difficulty by resorting to the expedient of refusing to pay coin for notes, i.e. making the notes inconvertible, has proved too strong for nearly all governments at times of pressure.^ The latter alternative was still a distinct possibility, but it was only a matter of time before the Soviets supplied the Cubans with MIGs which would make an invasion all but impossible.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1938, receipts from the government-controlled opium dens of the Opium Monopoly had amounted to 15 percent of all colonial tax revenues.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The history of state dealings with paper money may broadly be described as a history of inconvertibility.^ User agents may limit the number of state objects added to the session history per page.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Hard-bought experience has only now forced on the notice of governments the loss that follows from a disturbance of the standard used in ordinary payments.^ The government frequently had to use force against those who refused to leave their native villages.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notice how only one is defined; the other, with no expansion associated with it, does not use the abbr element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.They are evident to all careful observers, and may be concisely summarized as consisting in: (I) the injustice to creditors through being paid in a much lower standard than that in which they lent; (2) the disturbance to trade, both domestic and foreign, by the fluctuations in the value of money; (3) the pressure on the working classes from the slower rise of money wages, in contrast with the quicker movement of the prices of commodities, resulting in a fall of real wages; and (4) the check to dealings in relation with the international money market, due to the risk of exchange fluctuations.^ The loudest setting may be lower than the system's loudest possible setting; for example the user could have set a maximum volume.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Though they were all released, authorities began to realize how vast the network of organized crime really was.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The JavaScript specification requires that the ToBoolean() operator convert all objects to the true value, and does not have provisions for objects acting as if they were undefined for the purposes of certain operators.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The only gains are the temporary stimulus to certain branches of trade, and the advantage to the state by contracting a forced loan without paying interest.
The origination of paper money by state direction is the easiest to consider and explain. It does not follow that it is the most important or the earliest kind of representative currency. .As W. Bagehot has pointed out, the real origin of economic institutions is often very different from the apparent one.^ The document's title is often different from its first heading, since the first heading does not have to stand alone when taken out of context.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (Valachi is apparently wrong on at least one point — Joseph Adonis ruled Brooklyn for many years before Mangano assumed power.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In truth, representative money seems to have grown up out of the elementary contrivances of early credit. A claim could be expressed and transferred by a document, which might be used for facilitating exchanges. The rigid formalism of early law hindered the extensive use of this convenient machinery. It was not till the institution of banking that the coining of credit was made easy. .Thus the bank-note comes into use, resting, not on the fiat of the state, but on the repute of the issuer.^ Would make it potentially easier to expire server-held state when the server limitations come into play.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ APIs for dynamically inserting markup into the document interact with the parser, and thus their behavior, varies depending on whether they are used with HTML documents (and the HTML parser ) or XHTML in XML documents (and the XML parser ).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.At this stage the history of the two distinct forms of representative money becomes mixed, owing to the control exercised over banks by government and to the fact that banking companies were in many cases the agents by which what was virtually state money was issued.^ The input element represents a two-state control that represents the element's checkedness state.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When this method is invoked, the user agent must remove from the session history all the entries from the first state object entry for that Document object up to the last entry that references that same Document object, if any.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Conversely, the on state indicates that the value is not particularly sensitive and the user can expect to be able to rely on his user agent to remember values he has entered for that control.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.There is, however, the fundamental difference that bank money finds its way into use through the ordinary system of granting credit; while government money is used in the purchase of commodities and the hire of services.^ Systems that need to enforce a particular format are encouraged to use the setCustomValidity() method to hook into the client-side validation mechanism.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ At a press conference, Nixon made the statement, "I would remind all concerned that the way we got into Vietnam was through overthrowing Diem, and the complicity in the murder of Diem."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is complicated by the manner in which the Gregorian calendar was phased in, which occurred at different times in different countries, ranging from partway through the 16th century all the way to early in the 20th.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The former, therefore, returns in a short time; the latter remains in circulation and displaces metallic currency.^ A short time later Nosenko told his case officer of a telegram from his KGB superiors ordering him to return to Moscow.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the long controversy over the Bank Charter Act 1844 this distinction was brought into prominence. .Since that date the extraordinary development of deposit banking in both Great Britain and the United States has furnished these countries with by far the most flexible form of currency yet known in the cheques that transfer claims on the capital held by the banking institutions.^ Supported by millions of Ukrainian immigrants, many of whom lived in Canada and the United States, these Nationalists had been fighting Russians since the 1920s.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bobby referred to Valachi's information as "the biggest single intelligence breakthrough yet in combating organized crime and racketeering in the United States".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States to invade our country which is what I have tried to prevent for all these years".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The confusion so often shown regarding the relation of credit to money is connected with this latest progress. .When it is remembered that in its origin money is only an instrument to facilitate exchange - we might even say to render it possible - it follows that from its earliest to its latest form the ruling influence is the need of society for the best mechanism of exchange.^ Might be rendered as follows: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the current playback position reaches the earliest possible position of the media resource when the direction of playback is backwards, then the user agent must follow these steps: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ According to the rules for fetching that image only need be downloaded once, and it can be used both for the cache and for the rendered Web page.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Table of contents

7. Production and Consumption of the Precious Metals in their Economic Aspects

In considering various monetary questions it is essential to have some acquaintance with the economic aspects of the production of gold and silver. The first point to which attention may be directed is the field over which production extends. .At one time or other these two metals have been found in every continent.^ These steps may be run in parallel for two or more of the URLs at a time.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The result of escaping the vCard text string part one A U+003B SEMICOLON character (;) The result of escaping the vCard text string part two Three U+003B SEMICOLON characters (;) Then, skip the remainder of these substeps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Two of these were none other than the biggest sex symbols in America, Jane Mansfield and Marilyn Monroe.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Asia Minor in early times possessed its goldfields, or rather auriferous sands. Ceylon also undoubtedly contained gold-mines. China and India both produced silver to a considerable extent. Egyptian remains show that gold was commonly known in that country, probably procured from Nubia and Abyssinia. On the opposite side of Africa, too, the name of Gold Coast shows that that metal was thence exported. The mines of Laurium in Attica were a source of supply to the Athenians, and were worked as a state monopoly. At an earlier date the Babylonian and Assyrian empires had each accumulated large stores of gold. The Phoenician importations of gold from the Red Sea coasts (Ophir) are known from Scripture. The Persian kings from the time of Darius levied tribute on all their provinces - in gold from India, in silver from the remaining districts, the larger part of which was stored up in the royal treasuries. This tendency of despotic rulers to accumulate treasure had all through ancient history important effects on the economic structure of society. .At present it is quite natural to assume that the materials of money are distributed by means of international trade, and tend to keep at an equal level all the world over - an assumption which is in general well grounded, though an important exception exists.^ Some of the generals claim that CIA planes were used as well, though CIA-man William Colby denies this.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DOM enforces all the other XML constraints; for example, trying to set an attribute with a name that contains an equals sign (=) will raise an INVALID_CHARACTER_ERR exception.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ That same year, the Secretary General of Amnesty International proclaimed that Iran's human rights record was worse than that of any other country in the world.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ancient history presents a widely different set of forces in operation. Gold and silver were produced by slaves under the pressure of fear, and were drawn towards the ruling parts of the great empires; in a word, war, not commerce, was the distributing agency. .From this condition of affairs it is easy to see that, whatever may be the reasons for assigning to cost of production a potent influence over the value of money in modern times (and grounds have been already advanced for the belief that its influence has been exaggerated), no such reasons then existed.^ When the element is suffering from a step mismatch , the user agent may round the element's value to the nearest local date and time for which the element would not suffer from a step mismatch .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the element is a meta element The value is the value of the element's content attribute, if any, or the empty string if there is no such attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If that doesn't return a time, then the modification has no associated timestamp (the value is non-conforming; it is not a valid global date and time string ).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The production of the precious metals was carried on in similar manner to the great buildings and other works of those periods, on non-economic grounds, and therefore produced quite different effects.^ When such restrictions are defined, the tokens must all fit within those restrictions; other values are non-conforming.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The whole history of the Persian monarchy to its overthrow by Alexander (330 B.C.) shows that the hoarded mass of the precious metals continued constantly to increase. .On the capture of Persepolis by the Grecian army an enormous treasure was found there, some estimates placing it as high as 120,000 talents of gold and silver (£27,600,000).^ When Adonis decided to go into the cigarette vending machine business, his high-pressure salesmen found thousands of potential customers who were eager to place his machines.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1968 Roselli was convicted of swindling Phil Silvers, Zeppo Marx and other Friars out of some $400,000 by cheating at cards.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All the temples, too, were receptacles for the precious metals, so that the stock accumulated at about 300 B.C. must have been very great. The only causes which tended to diminish the store were the losses arising from wars, when the various treasuries were liable to be plundered and their contents dispersed. .There was therefore a more unequal distribution of the material of money than at present.^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one adr property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one email property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The growth of the Roman dominion led to important results, since under their rule the Spanish mines were developed and became a leading source of supply.^ Since Muskie was Nixon's leading Democratic opponent for the presidency, he became the target of a large portion of Segretti's "dirty tricks".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The great masses of treasure set towards Rome, so that it became the monetary centre of the world. The overthrow of the republican government and the peace which followed also affected the conditions of production. .The inefficiency of the Roman administration made it advantageous to let out the mines to farmers, who worked them in a wasteful and improvident manner, while the supply of slaves was reduced, thus depriving the lessees of their principal agency for carrying on production.^ Then he added, "I made it clear that all the military plans which I know you would like to carry out are dependent on government stability.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The result was a continuous decline in the store of money. .W. Jacob has made an attempt to estimate the amount at the death of Augustus (A.D. 14), and arrives at the conclusion that it was £358,000,000. (Precious Metals, i.^ Following Schneider's death, CIA officials made no further attempts at fomenting the military, concentrating their energies instead on covering their "tracks".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the week before her death, Marilyn made many attempts to phone Bobby.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

225.) Without placing much value on this necessarily conjectural estimate, it is safe to assume that this period marked the highest point of accumulation.
The succeeding centuries exhibit a steady decline, though it is of course impossible to attach any value to even the most carefully guarded numerical estimates. .The phenomenon which has since so often attracted notice - the drain of the precious metals to the East - began at this time, and was a subject of complaint by the Roman writers, while the stock of gold and silver being thrown into general circulation suffered from abrasion, and was more likely to be lost than when stored up in the royal treasure-houses and temples.^ Lansky, being more of a businessman than Siegel, was inclined to use persuasion rather than violence to encourage cooperation.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Constraint validation : When the element has a maximum , and the result of applying the algorithm to convert a string to a number to the string given by the element's value is a number, and the number obtained from that algorithm is more than the maximum , the element is suffering from an overflow .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ According to his aides, Hughes watched Ice Station Zebra more than 150 times.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These causes tended to depress the scale of prices, while the barbarian invasions produced a strong effect on the supply by drawing off the mining population and damaging the various erections used for working the mines.^ This section defines a collection of attributes that can be used to determine, from script, the kind of user agent in use, in order to work around these issues.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This basically causes document.open() to be ignored when it's called in an inline script found during the parsing of data sent over the network, while still letting it have an effect when called asynchronously or on a document that is itself being spoon-fed using these APIs.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The conjectural estimate is that about A.D. 800 the total supply had been reduced to £33,000,000 (or about oneeleventh of what it had been at the death of Augustus).^ The Republican National Committee estimated it could not hold a convention for less than $800,000.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A new period in the history of gold and silver production may be fixed at this date. .The Moors, now firmly established in Spain, began to reopen the mines in that.country which had been allowed to fall into disuse.^ Over ten thousand foreigners (without visas) were allowed into the country.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other European mines also were opened, notably those of Saxony and the Harz Mountains, as well as the Austrian mines - the chief medieval sources of supply. The international system of currency, based on the pound of silver as a unit, which was introduced by Charlemagne, must have tended to economize the wear of the metals. .We may therefore conclude that from this date (A.D. 800) the supply was sufficient to counteract the loss by wear and exportation, and accordingly regard the metallic supply as fixed in amount until the next change in the conditions of production, which was the result of the discovery of America.^ The datetime attribute may be used to specify the time and date of the change.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Though 1492 is the date of the first landing, yet for some time no important additions were made to the supply of money.^ If that doesn't return a time, then the modification has no associated timestamp (the value is non-conforming; it is not a valid global date and time string ).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A month consists of a specific proleptic Gregorian date with no time-zone information and no date information beyond a year and a month.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Local Date and Time A date and time (year, month, day, hour, minute, second, fraction of a second) with no time zone A date and time control .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The conquest of Mexico (1519) gave opportunities of working the silver-mines of that country, while the first mines of Chile and Peru were almost simultaneously discovered, and in 1545 those of Potosi were laid open.^ OSS men working in those countries developed such intense loyalties that the partisan warfare contributed to bitter factionalisms within the OSS itself.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From this latter date we may regard the American supply as an influential factor in causing a continuous increase in the stock of money.^ Once he (or the guards) put the wrong letters in the wrong envelopes, which may have been a factor in causing his wife to obtain a divorce.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The annual addition to the store of money has been estimated as £2,100,000 for the period from 1545 to 1600. At this date the Brazilian supply began.^ Westmoreland estimated that with an immediate 175,000 American troops, followed by 100,000 more, he could "halt the losing trend" before 1966.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The course of distribution of these fresh masses of the precious metals deserves some notice. .The flow of the new supplies was first towards Spain and Portugal, whence they passed to the larger commercial centres of the other European countries, the effect being that prices were raised in and about the chief towns, while the value of money in the country districts remained unaltered.^ If of the elements whose corresponding item is item , there are any with a property name equal to the string " about ", and the first such element is a URL property element , and its value is not an item , let subject be the value of that property.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, the value attribute must set the selectedness of all the option elements in the list of options to false, and then first the option element in the list of options , in tree order , whose value is equal to the given new value, if any, must have its selectedness set to true.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, it must act as if the setSelectionRange() method had been called, with the new value as the first argument, and the current value of the selectionEnd attribute as the second argument, unless the current value of the selectionEnd is less than the new value, in which case the second argument must also be the new value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The additions to the supply of both gold and silver during the two centuries1600-1800continued to be very considerable; but, if Adam Smith's view be correct, the full effect on prices was produced by 1640, and the increased amount of money was from that time counterbalanced by the wider extension of trade.^ Exner's relationship with two very busy men like Kennedy and Giancana still left her with much time on her hands.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the commencement of the 19th century the annual production of gold had been estimated as being from £2,500,000 to £3,000,000. The year 1809 seems to mark an epoch in the production of these metals, since the outbreak of the revolts of the various Spanish dependencies in South America tended to check the usual supply from those countries, and a marked increase in the value of money was the consequence.^ XBL2) to match local conventions, while the year is not marked up at all, since marking it up would not be particularly useful.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ U+0026 AMPERSAND (&) Switch to the character reference in attribute value state , with the additional allowed character being U+0022 QUOTATION MARK (").
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ One US congressman visiting South Vietnam estimated that half of the 10,000 people in prison never had a trial.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the period 1809-1849 the value of gold and silver rose to about two and a half times its former level, notwithstanding fresh discoveries in Asiatic Russia, which became considerable from 1823. The annual yield in 1849 was estimated at £8,000,000. The next important date for our present purpose is the year 1848, when the Californian mines were opened, while in 1851 the Australian discoveries took place.^ For dates before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, authors are encouraged to not use the time element, or else to be very careful about converting dates and times from the period to the Gregorian calendar.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the datetime attribute is present, then use the rules to parse a date or time string with the flag in attribute from the value of that attribute, and let the result be result .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Otherwise, if date present is true, and either position is beyond the end of input or the character at position is not a U+0054 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER T character, then set time present to false.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

By these events an enormous mass of gold was added to the world's supply. The most careful estimates fix the addition during the years1851-1871at£50o,000,000, or an amount nearly equal to the former stock in existence. The problems raised by this phenomenon have received careful study. The main features of interest may be briefly summed up. (1) The additional supply was almost entirely of gold, thus tending to produce a distinction between the two principal monetary metals and an alteration in the currency of bimetallic countries. Under this influence France, from being a silverusing, became a gold-using country. .(2) The contemporaneous development of the continental railway systems, and the partial adoption of free trade, with the consequent facilities for freer circulation of commodities, led to the course of distribution being different from that of the 16th century.^ This is complicated by the manner in which the Gregorian calendar was phased in, which occurred at different times in different countries, ranging from partway through the 16th century all the way to early in the 20th.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The more backward districts were the principal gainers, and a more general equalization of prices combined with a slight elevation in value was the outcome. .(3) The increased supply of gold rendered a general currency reform possible, and made the use of a gold monometallic standard appear feasible.^ The difference between setDragImage() and addElement() is that the latter automatically generates the image based on the current rendering of the elements added, whereas the former uses the exact specified image.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The movements for currency reform, as will be seen, all arose after these discoveries. .(4) The change in the value of money, which may for the period1849-1869be fixed at 20%, enabled a general increase of wages to be carried out, thus improving the condition of the classes living on manual labour.^ The value of complete can thus change while a script is executing.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In such cases, the alt attribute's value may be omitted, but one of the following conditions must be met as well: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It may be added that the difficulty of tracing the effects of this great addition to the money stock is a most striking proof of the complexity of modern economic development. .(5) The last point to be noticed is the very small influence exercised on the value of silver by the new gold.^ Otherwise, it must mark the last subpath as closed, create a new subpath whose first point is the same as the previous subpath's first point, and finally add this new subpath to the path.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, the given value must be converted to the best representation of the floating point number and then that string must be used as the new content attribute value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The attribute is mutable: on getting it must return the last value it was set to, or 1.0 if it hasn't yet been set; on setting the attribute must be set to the new value, and the playback must change speed (if the element is potentially playing ).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The gold price of silver in London rose only from 594 d. per oz. to 622d. per oz. - i.e. between 4 and 5%. .Hardly had the gold discoveries of1848-1851ceased to produce a decided effect when new silver mines of unusual fertility came into working.^ Maranzano, now the supreme power of the New York underworld, decided to divide New York City into five "families".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the period immediately succeeding the gold discoveries the production of silver remained at an annual amount of from £8,000,000 to £9,000,000. This amount suddenly, about 1870, increased to £15,000,000, and remained at that amount for the next five years.^ The litigation was neither dropped nor successfully prosecuted during the next five years.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large areas were wrested from the enfeebled Vietcong despite the fact that 60,000 American troops were withdrawn from Indochina during the course of the year.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March, 1967 Hoffa went to prison, where he was to remain for five years.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than half of the supply came from new mines opened in Nevada.^ He also said "more than half of the most productive land belongs to foreigners" mentioning the United Fruit Company in particular.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This increased supply was accompanied by a marked depreciation in the gold price of silver, though the prices of commodities in countries having a silver standard did not rise. .The disturbances resulting from the combined effect of the new silver and the diminution in the annual output of gold which began about 1870 and continued for nearly twenty years were the cause of much controversy and led to the propounding of novel monetary theories.^ This might cause some script to execute, which might cause new characters to be inserted into the tokenizer , and might cause the tokenizer to output more tokens, resulting in a reentrant invocation of the parser .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Bimetallism came into prominence; and the modes of relieving trade depression caused by the fall in prices were keenly discussed. Before any monetary adjustment took place the situation again changed in consequence of a renewal of the Australian gold production, soon followed by the great gold discoveries in South Africa. The annual output of gold, which had fallen below £20,000,000, in 1884 rose rapidly to £60,000,000, and in 1908 reached the prodigious figure of over £80,000,000, with the prospect of still larger yields in the near future. .By this change the difficulties that had led to the agitations for " free silver " in the United States, and for " international bimetallism " in Europe and in India were removed, showing the close connexion between the production of the precious metals and the economic, especially the monetary, policy of all periods.^ He told the United States to close its embassy and remove its personnel from his country.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1960 Chile's copper production was second only to that of the United States, and it was the world's leading exporter.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mossadegh threatened that unless the United States increased its economic aid to Iran, he would turn to the Soviet Union for military and economic assistance.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The modes of consumption of the precious metals - under which their use is included - are of equal importance with those of their production. Classed roughly, they come under three heads, viz. (1) their use as merchandise, (2) their use as money, (3) the " drain" to the East. .With regard to the first, though precise data are not available, it may be said with some confidence that the demand for personal use tends, after society has made some progress, to decline in strength.^ Other controls may also be made available.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the resource can be processed incrementally, as, for instance, with a progressively interlaced JPEG or an HTML file, additional tasks may be queued to process the data as it is downloaded.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, on some platforms for showing indeterminate progress there is an asynchronous progress indicator with square dimensions, which could be used when the element is square, and an indeterminate progress bar, which could be used when the element is wide.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The desire for adornment is not a keen one with most civilized persons; and, so far as it exists, is gratified in other ways than by using silver or gold.^ Soon thereafter, a truck-leasing business was incorporated in Nashville by a group of persons, one of whom was Mrs. Hoffa using her maiden name.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On one occasion Hoffa testified, "I can say here to the Chair that I cannot recall in answer to your question other than to say I just don't recall my recollection."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For purposes of manufacture their use is large and increasing. The second head is that with which we are principally concerned. It is evidently connected with the need for metallic currency; and this again depends on the level of prices and the monetary organization, including in the latter the banking system. .Currency requirements still form the largest part of the demand for the precious metals.^ Such images are decorative, but still form part of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Under the third head a remarkable exception to the tendency towards the equal diffusion of the precious metals is presented. .For nearly two thousand years the movement of silver from west to east has been noticed.^ After nearly two years of journalistic and congressional obsession with Watergate, conclusive evidence finally came to light that President Nixon had engineered a cover-up of the break-in.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Humboldt has made the ingenious remark that the course of these metals is in the opposite direction to that of civilization, and history supports his view. .During the middle ages the chief Eastern products used in Europe were luxuries, such as silk and spices, and silver was sent from Europe to pay for them.^ Frank Wisner's first priority was to create a network of agents in Eastern Europe after the pattern of the successful undergrounds which had been used against Hitler.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eastern trade increased, owing to the discovery of the passage round the Cape of Good Hope, and the flow of silver became greater. Special circumstances have from time to time influenced the movement. .Thus, the new supplies of gold in the middle of the last century caused by their action on the bi-metallic currencies of Europe an acceleration in the flow, the amount exported between1851-1862reaching filo,000,000. To this drain of silver a more recent one of gold has been added.^ Let entry be the last (most recently added) entry in the list of active formatting elements .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Let entry be the last (most recently added) element in the list of active formatting elements .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Certain actions cause the browsing context to navigate to a new resource.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.India takes year by year a considerable amount of gold bars, which may in the future have a monetary use, but up to the present appear to be hoarded or used for ornament.^ Authors are encouraged to use MathML for marking up mathematics, but authors may opt to use sub and sup if detailed mathematical markup is not desired.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Authors may use any value in the class attribute, but are encouraged to use the values that describe the nature of the content, rather than values that describe the desired presentation of the content.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Status: Last call for comments The up keyword may be used with link , a , and area elements.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.With the complete reconstruction of Eastern currencies that now seems probable there may come a decided change in the character of the demand.^ Then, if the element is one of the void elements , or if the element is a foreign element, then there may be a single U+002F SOLIDUS ( / ) character.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After the tag name, there may be one or more space characters .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After the attributes, there may be one or more space characters .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Another influencing condition is also undergoing change; the tendency to fix prices on a customary basis is bound to yield to the pressure of competition. The inevitable result will be to make the price level alter with each influx of money, and thus to limit the demand for bullion through the action of the exchanges.
One of the technical features of the production of the precious metals should be noted, in consequence of its economic effect. Gold has more frequently been found near the surface; silver is usually obtained by deep mining. It follows that the amount of the former metal produced depends more on accidental circumstances, in contrast to that of silver, which is affected by the standard of mining skill. .The mines of Nevada were exceptional in their possessing both metals and in nearly equal value.^ But if Golitsin's intelligence was weighed against Nosenko's, both seemed of nearly equal value.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If index is less than zero or greater or equal to the value returned by the rangeCount attribute, then the method must raise an INDEX_SIZE_ERR DOM exception.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If A and B are both opaque identifiers, and their value is equal, then return true.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The gold-mines of South Africa have come to be worked at deep levels and therefore are technically in the same class as silver ones. In fact, there is a pronounced tendency all the world over towards the system of capitalistic working.
8. Review of the History of Some Important Currencies. - Monetary theory requires to be elucidated by the constant reference to history; just as in turn the history of currency has to be interpreted by the aid of general principles. .Each country has its peculiar problems, which call for special treatment; though at the same time there is no way of avoiding the operation of those economic conditions and forces that are to be found in all countries.^ The North Vietnamese did not agree to withdraw their troops, however, because they still insisted that they had no forces in South Vietnam at all.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radius: 12cm Height: 2cm There is no explicit way to specify units in the meter element, but the units may be specified in the title attribute in free-form text.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Yet there was no evidence of barbiturate or capsule residue found in her stomach, nor was a hypodermic needle found in her room.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first decisive fact that emerges from the vast material presented by the history of money is the tendency at most periods towards deterioration.^ Unlike most extortionists, Perrone would bomb first and ask for money later.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the time of purely metallic currency debasement is the most serious danger; when representative money has come into being extravagant issues of paper are chosen as the readiest way of evading the limits of a sound currency.^ Would make it potentially easier to expire server-held state when the server limitations come into play.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ User agents may prevent selections from being made in ways that cross from editable elements into non-editable elements (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the time binding applies to a time element, the element is expected to render as if it contained text conveying the date (if known), time (if known), and time-zone offset (if known) represented by the element, in the fashion most convenient for the user.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It is perhaps too extreme to say that monetary history is altogether made up of accounts of debasements and over-issues. .The truth is better expressed in the proposition that there has been a constant struggle between the influences that make for deterioration and those that give support to the maintenance of a good currency condition.^ The optimum attribute gives the position that is "optimum"; if that is higher than the "high" value then this indicates that the higher the value, the better; if it's lower than the "low" mark then it indicates that lower values are better, and naturally if it is in between then it indicates that neither high nor low values are good.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Marxist leaders struggled with the difficulty of making the government's new operations yield "the same immense profits that they used to give the capitalists".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is also the cheering circumstance that in spite of much popular ignorance there has on the whole been a steady improvement in the treatment of monetary systems. .Expert knowledge has more effect in the later than in the earlier periods.^ More than forty years later, in 1950, the Hughes Tool Company would still control about 85 percent of the drill-bit market.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In twelve days the United States dropped more bombs than it had during the entire period from 1969 to 1971.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The crude expedients of the Tudors would not be tolerated in modern England. There is much fuller recognition of the danger of over-issue in paper money; and this is accompanied by greater care in the treatment of credit institutions in their relation to the modern media of circulation. .It is also noteworthy that mere popular agitation has lost a great deal of its power, as shown in the failure of both the " soft money " and the " free silver " movements in the United States.^ Hughes unquestionably poured a great deal of effort and money into building the aircraft.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But paramilitary action sponsored by the United States against Castro's Cuba had not ended, it was merely becoming increasingly covert.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the return of Vito Genovese to the United States, Costello began to experience a long and slow erosion of his power.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the other hand the tendency to accept scientific methods is illustrated in the treatment of the Indian currency question.

Greek Currencies

As already noticed the political conditions of Greek life supplied a varied field for monetary experiments. Unfortunately the details are very incompletely known, and the subject of Hellenic money has not been sufficiently studied from the economic side. Certain broad facts are prominent. .The Athenian use of silver as the standard substance, coupled with the later employment of gold to serve for an extra or commercial currency, is a characteristic feature.^ This feature is not intended to be used with non-standard protocols.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The alteration of the standard by Solon appears in the light of an exceptional revolutionary expedient. It amounted to the creation. of a new standard unit - the Attic - which was imitated by other states, e.g. Corinth. Only one doubtful instance of debasement can be found in the subsequent history of Athens. This honesty in respect to the monetary standard seems on the whole to have prevailed in the Greek states. Some despots, as Dionysius, issued adulterated coins, but these were isolated cases. The use of gold and silver in an amalgam, known as electrum, was an admissible device; it, however, had the evil effect of suggesting the use of poorer alloys.

Roman Money

The history of money in Rome is rather different. .Beginning with copper, the currency was changed into a double standard one by the introduction of silver (269 B.C.).^ One could begin by asking, "What were the Watergate burglars after when they broke into the offices of Lawrence O'Brien, chairman of the National Democratic Committee?"
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gold came in for commercial use with the extension of the Roman dominions, and copper was reduced to a token coinage.^ Documents must not use such extensions, as doing so reduces interoperability and fragments the user base, allowing only users of specific user agents to access the content in question.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In the stress of the Punic Wars debasement was one of the financial devices of the magistrates. The conquest of the Greek territories brought about the regulation of their currencies. Silver was prescribed as the money substance. The establishment of the empire led to the definite concentration of the right of coining in the sovereign; though concessions were made in various localities, where the smaller coinages were allowed to continue. But the principal interest of the money of the Roman Empire is due to the remarkable way in which it illustrates the tendency of despotic and bureaucratic rule to lower the condition of good administration. A long course of debasement is the characteristic aspect of the currency system. " Under the empire," we are told, " the history of the silver coinage is one of melancholy debasement. The most extensive frauds in connexion with money were perpetrated by the Romans." The gold aureus, which in the time of Augustus was one forty-fifth of a pound, was under Constantine only one seventy-second of a pound. The alloy in the silver coins gradually rose to three-fourths of the weight. Plated coins came into extensive use. .The practice of debasement was in accordance with the theories of the jurists, who seem to have regarded money as simply the creature of the state, i.e. the personal ruler.^ In contrast to the Absolute Idealists, who regard the whole of reality as the Mind of God, the Personal Idealists emphasized the spiritual reality of individual persons permeated with the presense of God.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Giancana, who seemed to regard his CIA plotting as a lark, laughed so hard that he nearly swallowed his cigar.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Medieval Money

.After the overthrow of the Western Empire, though the invaders were in the condition of what has been called " natural economy," the state in which money has not come into being, they soon were disposed to carry on the Roman tradition, and their rulers adopted some form of silver currency.^ Would make it potentially easier to expire server-held state when the server limitations come into play.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When Colby told Angleton's three top aides that they were being removed from their posts, they all chose to go into retirement.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American Ambassador in Saigon called the South Vietnamese generals into his office and chewed them out as if they were military cadets.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With the temporary revival of the empire under Charlemagne there comes the effort to found a general standard money on the basis of the silver pound. .From this new starting-point it is possible to trace the course of some of the leading currency systems of Europe.^ Path () Marks the current subpath as closed, and starts a new subpath with a point the same as the start and end of the newly closed subpath.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

For purposes of illustration it will be sufficient to sketch the movements in England and France, which are typical of the general course of monetary development. .The systems of these countries are moreover remarkable (1) in the contrasts that they present to each other, and (2) in the widespread influence that they have exercised on the monetary arrangements of other nations.^ These rules make errors for resources listed in the manifest fatal, while making it possible for other resources to be removed from caches when they are removed from the server, without errors, and making non-manifest resources survive server-side errors.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The British refused to accept compensation payment for nationalization, refused to buy Iranian oil and took steps to prevent other countries from buying the "stolen oil".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These terms are not meant to imply a visual medium; they must be considered to apply to other media in equivalent ways.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

English Monetary History

The English currency begins with the pound of silver (troy weight) as the standard unit, subdivided into 20 shillings, each containing 12 pennies. The only coin at first in use was the silver penny. .This system, in force before the Conquest, is the direct descendant of the Carlovingian system, and it continued without change until about 1276, when a slight depreciation was introduced by coining the pound into 243 pennies, instead of the original 240. This was the first of a series of changes, generally in the direction of lowering the weight of the coin.^ Opium continued to be produced in the southernmost provinces of China and smuggled into Burma until 1955.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The allow-same-origin token allows the content to be treated as being from the same origin instead of forcing it into a unique origin, and the allow-forms and allow-scripts tokens re-enable forms and scripts respectively (though scripts are still prevented from creating popups).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Two periods are remarkable for the operation of this tendency, viz. (1) the reign of Edward I., when the silver was debased by 20% in the period 1344-1351; and (2) the close of the reign of Henry VIII. and that of .Edward VI., 1543-1552. In this short space of ten years the expedient of degrading the quality of the coinage by bringing the alloy up to three-fourths of the mass was practised for the only time in English history.^ Here is another way of marking this up, this time showing the paragraphs explicitly, and splitting the one link element into three: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Although he spent much time in bed, the sheets were only changed a few times a year.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The substitution of the pound troy for the Tower pound in 1527 was accompanied by a lowering in weight which far exceeded the gain from the higher weight of the new pound (5760 instead of 5400 grains). The reformation of the silver coinage under Elizabeth (1560), and its definite settlement in 1601 on the basis of coining 62 shillings from the pound troy also deserve mention. Turning to the gold currency, we find some gold pennies issued in 1257, probably in imitation of the issue of the Italian cities, which were due to the opening of eastern trade and the example of the Greek Empire, which had ..always retained its gold currency. The regular series of English gold coins begins in 1343, when Edward III. ordered the coinage of florins - the title is significant - at 50 to the Tower pound. The " noble " soon followed. The " sovereign " was first issued in 1489. But gold was treated as a commercial money, to be used as subsidiary to the standard silver. .Its value was therefore varied from time to time to meet the difficulty that local bimetallism is certain to cause, in consequence of the undervaluing of one or other metal.^ When the element is suffering from a step mismatch , the user agent may round the element's value to the nearest local date and time for which the element would not suffer from a step mismatch .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the user agent provides a user interface for selecting a local date and time , then the value must be set to a valid local date and time string representing the user's selection.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (These steps are thus run as often as possible or needed — if one iteration takes a long time, this can cause certain ranges to be skipped over as the user agent rushes ahead to "catch up".
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.During the 17th century the most noticeable monetary events are: the proposals for depreciation, of which the most remarkable was that of W. Lowndes (1652-1724), for lowering the standard by some 25%; the introduction of the guinea as the leading gold coin, and the frequent readjustment of the values of the two metals by proclamation.^ If the new value is lower, then the last n nodes in the collection must be removed from their parent nodes, where n is the difference between the two numbers (old value minus new value).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Otherwise, if neither attribute is present, then the current value is the lower of the one or two numbers that were found in the textContent of the element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The great recoinage of 1696, carried out on the principles advocated by Locke, reformed the silver currency. In the 18th century the establishment of the guinea at 21s. by Newton's advice made the adoption of gold as the standard inevitable, since it was overvalued in an appreciable degree. The position of gold as the practical standard is clearly recognized by Adam Smith (1776) and is regarded as settled by Ricardo (1809). .The full legal establishment of the present metallic currency took place in 1816, when the guinea made way for the present pound or " sovereign," and silver was formally reduced to the level of a token coinage, being slightly lowered by the coinage of the pound of silver into 66 shillings.^ (For example, the script element can result in scripts executing and using the dynamic markup insertion APIs to insert characters into the stream being tokenized.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ User agents may prevent selections from being made in ways that cross from editable elements into non-editable elements (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ At a press conference, Nixon made the statement, "I would remind all concerned that the way we got into Vietnam was through overthrowing Diem, and the complicity in the murder of Diem."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, by a course of development extending over 700 years, the English currency has been transformed from a crude silver standard system into one resting on gold, but employing both silver and representative money for the greater part of the actual work.^ One or more digits , representing the fractional part of second The second component cannot be 60 or 61; leap seconds cannot be represented.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, with other alternative text, this might not work, and putting all the alternative text into one image in each case might make more sense: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This document describes some of the security considerations that programmers, system analysts, standards developers, and users should take into account, and provides specific recommendations to reduce the risk of problems.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

French Money: its Development

Though the monetary system of Charlemagne soon disappeared in Germany and Italy, it con tinued in the part of his empire that became France. The extreme confusion of the time of his successors enabled the feudal lords to claim the right of coinage. .No less than 150 seigneurs are said to have exercised this power at the accession of the first Capet.^ If the value argument has a leading U+003C LESS-THAN SIGN character (' <') and a trailing U+003E GREATER-THAN SIGN character ('> '), then remove the first and last characters from value .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, it must act as if the setSelectionRange() method had been called, with the new value as the first argument, and the current value of the selectionEnd attribute as the second argument, unless the current value of the selectionEnd is less than the new value, in which case the second argument must also be the new value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the rectangle state , area elements must have a coords attribute with exactly four integers, the first of which must be less than the third, and the second of which must be less than the fourth.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

With the growth of the royal authority the freedom of private coining was restricted, in order to reserve to the Crown the profitable right of seigniorage. Unfortunately the legitimate profit from this source was not sufficient to satisfy the wants of the royal treasury. Therefore French monetary history is marked by a long series of debasements, extending from the time of Philip I. to that of Louis XV. (1060-1774). In sharp contrast to English policy the tampering with the currency was persistent, so that Louis IX. was looked on as quite exceptional. " In later days his management of the royal mint was always appealed to as the equitable standard for the observance of his successors." .Yet in his time the livre had been debased to less than one-fourth of its primitive level.^ Wait until any invocations of this algorithm started before this one whose timeout is equal to or less than this one's have completed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, the behavior depends on whether the new value is equal to, greater than, or less than the number of nodes represented by the collection at that time.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The object's indices of the supported indexed properties are the numbers in the range zero to one less than the number of nodes represented by the collection .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The Hundred Years' War presented the occasion for still further degradation. At the accession of Louis XI. .(1461) the livre had been brought down to one-fifteenth of its original value.^ If the navigation algorithm has so far contacted more than one origin If there is no source browsing context The value must be the string " null ".
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The 16th century is equally an age of depreciation, no less than nineteen occurring between 1497 and 1602. Again, in contrast to the English system, the absolute monarchy continued the process of debasing the standard under Louis XIV., and the livre was only one-half what it had been under Henri IV. At the Revolution the decline had proceeded so far that the livre had been reduced to one seventy-eighth of its primitive value.^ If the maximum value is less than or equal to zero, then it is reset to 1.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If value is less than 1, let it be 1.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the textarea element has a maximum allowed value length , then the element's children must be such that the code-point length of the value of the element's textContent IDL attribute is equal to or less than the element's maximum allowed value length .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The new spirit of reform produced an entire change. The franc was substituted for the livre at the equation: 80 francs, 81 livres. In fact, until the establishment of constitutional government the French people had to depend on popular violence to procure any temporary reform in their currency. Since the Revolution the course of development has been essentially orderly and regular. .All through the time of the ancien regime silver was the principal money and the standard, as the use of the word " argent " as a synonym for money shows.^ The following example shows a use of the b element to highlight key words without marking them up as important: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is complicated by the manner in which the Gregorian calendar was phased in, which occurred at different times in different countries, ranging from partway through the 16th century all the way to early in the 20th.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Relative URLs must be given relative to the manifest's own URL. All URLs in the manifest must have the same as the manifest itself (either explicitly or implicitly, through the use of relative URLs).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Just as England got a gold currency by overvaluing gold, so did France get a silver one by overvaluing silver. .Indeed, it may be said that the different ratios chosen by the two countries necessarily caused a reciprocal drain, affording a good example of the action of local bimetallic systems with different ratios between the two metals.^ There is no semantic difference, for instance, between the following two examples: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The close() method, when called on a port local port that is entangled with another port, must cause the user agents to disentangle the two ports.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Two of these locals were then "staffed" by forty men who between them had a record of 178 arrests and 77 convictions.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A further result from the comparison of the systems of England and France is the greater maturity of the former. .England gained an honest currency before France; she led the way in the adoption of the gold standard, while in her treatment of representative money she has held as decided a priority.^ In order to gain power in New York, Hoffa decided his allies needed to win the elections for Joint Council 16 held in February 1956.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The difference in economic conditions in the nations in part explains the contrast. .There is no doubt that in both cases a high degree of development has been reached.^ Otherwise, if the attribute's value is an ASCII case-insensitive match for the string " any ", then there is no allowed value step .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Returns the address of the Document from which the user navigated to this one, unless it was blocked or there was no such document, in which case it returns the empty string.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If both height and width are zero, this method has no effect, since there is no path to stroke (it's a point).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Finally, it should be remarked, that as England has worked out in practice the system of " composite legal tender," so has France, with its monetary allies, been the first to show effectively the operation of the " limping standard " (etalon boiteux). Each nation has thus supplied a type, which recent monetary changes give evidence of having been used as the pattern for other less advanced countries.^ Each unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts can have a first script which is used to obtain, amongst other things, the script's base URL to resolve relative URLs used in scripts running in that unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On November 22, 1963 Cubela met with his CIA case officer in Paris to work out the final details of his plan.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other values must first be converted to numbers using JavaScript's ToNumber algorithm, and if the result is a NaN value, then the value must be converted to zero.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.9. Some General Questions respecting the Constitution of Money. - The consideration of the history of currency systems naturally suggests the general problems that the more advanced countries have had to encounter.^ This document describes some of the security considerations that programmers, system analysts, standards developers, and users should take into account, and provides specific recommendations to reduce the risk of problems.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Although many soldiers were withdrawn to Taiwan, some of the more independent-minded generals remained to conduct sporadic fighting against the Burmese Army.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of these, some may be described as formal, i.e. they relate to the arrangement and the definition of coinage and standards.^ In these cases, the alt attribute must contain some suitable alternative text, but it may be somewhat brief.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some of the types described below list synonyms for these values.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ They may be accessed by the "Bibliography" tab at the top of most pages, or via the "Related Topics" box in the sidebar.
  • People by Last Names: M 2 February 2010 10:010 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others are in essence issues of principle involving the most complicated theoretical doctrines, on which there is even yet sharp differences of opinion between competent students of economics.^ There is no semantic difference, for instance, between the following two examples: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In some instances an intermediate class may be found, e.g. the question of subdivision of the coins does raise some difficult matters of application; though it clearly belongs of right to the group of formal questions. But the distinction is a valid one. Whether a country should adopt the " gold standard " or prefer a " bimetallic " standard is obviously very different from the elementary points about units and the different classes of coins. We will therefore begin by noticing some of the characteristics that are found in all modern currencies and some of which are implied in the idea of money. Thus it is true that every currency system must be based on a standard unit of value which consists of a "fixed quantity of some concrete substance defined by reference to the units of weight or space." The English unit, for example, is the pound, which consists of a definite quantity of gold (123.27447 grs. standard fineness) while the French unit is the franc (composed of 5 grammes of silver nine-tenths fine). .It is not necessary, though it is usually the case, that there shall be a coin corresponding to the standard unit, all that is needed is that the current coins shall be multiples or submultiples of the unit, or at the least easily reducible to it.^ If position is an ASCII case-insensitive match for the string "afterbegin" Insert all the new children nodes before the first child of target , if there is one.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There must be at least one event loop per user agent, and at most one event loop per unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Using the results of this processing, user agents must determine whether the progress bar is an indeterminate progress bar, or whether it is a determinate progress bar, and in the latter case, what its current and maximum values are, all as follows: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The Portuguese rei is too small to be coined, and the pound of silver that formed the unit of the early English and French currencies was too large. .Quite distinct from both the actual coins and the unit of value is the money of account, though in practice it is usually identical with one of them.^ The value must be either text or an item with one organization-name property and zero or more organization-unit properties.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the value attribute is not specified but the max attribute is specified and the result of processing the textContent of the element was one number with no associated denominator punctuation character, then that number is the actual value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In Russia in early times the rouble was an imaginary money of account not coined, while the copper copeck was the unit of value. .Connected with the distinction between the coins and the unit is the highly important one between standard and token money, the former being of full power for discharging debts, and in the case of most systems only of equal value to the metal out of which it is made, while the latter is rated at a nominal value higher than that of its material.^ If the given token is a case-sensitive match for one of the tokens in the DOMTokenList object's underlying string then remove the given token from the underlying string and stop the algorithm, returning false.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The for content attribute allows an explicit relationship to be made between the result of a calculation and the elements that represent the values that went into the calculation or that otherwise influenced the calculation.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the textarea element has a maximum allowed value length , then the element's children must be such that the code-point length of the value of the element's textContent IDL attribute is equal to or less than the element's maximum allowed value length .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The silver and copper coinage in England and the smaller coins in the Latin union are only tokens; in the case of English silver coins, the cost value is less than 40% of the nominal one.^ If value is less than 1, let it be 1.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the given token is a case-sensitive match for one of the tokens in the DOMTokenList object's underlying string then remove the given token from the underlying string and stop the algorithm, returning false.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the textarea element has a maximum allowed value length , then the element's children must be such that the code-point length of the value of the element's textContent IDL attribute is equal to or less than the element's maximum allowed value length .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The French tokens are made of inferior fineness (835 per 1000) to the full tender silver. .Two restrictions are applied to token issues: (1) they are only legally available to discharge small debts - in England silver is limited to the payment of 40s.; (2) they can be coined only by the permission of the state.^ Implementations must act as if they used the following state machine to tokenize HTML. The state machine must start in the data state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Small print typically features disclaimers, caveats, legal restrictions, or copyrights.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ User agents may opt to only fetch such resources when they are needed, instead of pro-actively fetching all the external resources that are not applied.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Thus in England the Bank of England is the state agent for the silver coinage. The limitations are evidently required to prevent the expulsion of standard money, and to avoid the flooding of the circulation with coinage that is not needed for the purpose of the limited exchanges to which it is confined. .Intermediate between standard and token currency are those forms of coinage that are free from the first limitation, but restricted by the second.^ Split fn on spaces , and let part one be the first resulting token, and part two be the second, if any, or the empty string if there is no second token.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When such restrictions are defined, the tokens must all fit within those restrictions; other values are non-conforming.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the current node is an element in the SVG namespace , and the token's tag name is one of the ones in the first column of the following table, change the tag name to the name given in the corresponding cell in the second column.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.They have this further point of resemblance to tokens in that their nominal value is higher than that of their material - the French 5-franc pieces and the Indian rupees are prominent examples.^ He blamed the French colonials rather than Metropolitan France for violating the agreements.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the textarea element has a maximum allowed value length , then the element's children must be such that the code-point length of the value of the element's textContent IDL attribute is equal to or less than the element's maximum allowed value length .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the element is suffering from an overflow , if the maximum is not less than the minimum , the user agent must set the element's value to a valid floating point number that represents the maximum .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Similarly, the analogy between representative money and token money is deserving of attention, and suggests the desirability of the latter being regarded as in some respects a fiduciary issue, for which the issuing authority incurs responsibility.
A class of considerations already referred to (§ 5) requires explicit notice here, viz. the influence of popular sentiment on the character and forms of a country's currency. .The fact that money has to circulate amongst all classes of society makes it indispensable that it should be suited to the wants and even the prejudices of the users.^ User agents should make the following elements focusable , unless platform conventions dictate otherwise: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Now, if the user goes to the page, the browser will cache the files and make them available even when the user is offline.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Then, the user agent must then make a list of all the scripts that are in the list of scripts that will execute when the document has finished parsing , the list of scripts that will execute asynchronously , and the list of scripts that will execute as soon as possible .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Many curious instances of preferences for particular coins or special forms of paper money can be given. The Austrian Maria Theresa dollar of 1780 is a favourite on the African coasts and has been frequently reissued for use there. Reasons of convenience and of security combine with sentiment; as in the determined rejection of the U.S. " greenbacks " by the inhabitants of California during the inconvertibility of that currency. Recognition of the desires and tastes of the community is almost essential in carrying out any monetary reform. It is only by building on the habits and customs that have become established that improvements in the monetary system can be effectively completed. .Not only is this careful observance of the disposition of the mass of society expedient; there is still greater need for taking account of the methods and interests of those sections of the business world that deal specially with money.^ If length is still greater than two, truncate each component, leaving only the first two characters in each.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.A currency change that was bitterly opposed by the banking interest would certainly be difficult to introduce in either England or the United States; traders have great influence as to the forms of money that they will accept and facilitate the use of.^ Implementations must act as if they used the following state machine to tokenize HTML. The state machine must start in the data state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Mossadegh threatened that unless the United States increased its economic aid to Iran, he would turn to the Soviet Union for military and economic assistance.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cubans would say that they were engaged in a "national security" operation to establish that money from Fidel Castro was being accepted by the Democratic Party — perhaps to encourage future diplomatic recognition of the Castro regime by a Democratic president.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In another aspect the study of the interest of dealers in the arrangement of the monetary system presents itself. One of the features that caused much surprise in the infancy of economic study was the disappearance of good coins from the circulation, while inferior ones remained in use indefinitely. To the first observers there seemed to be something perverse in the preference apparently shown towards debased or worn coins. In business transactions inferior articles are taken only at a lower price. .The explanation is easily understood, when furnished; it consists in stating the difference between a commodity which is sought for its use, and money which is taken as merely a medium of exchange.^ The difference between setDragImage() and addElement() is that the latter automatically generates the image based on the current rendering of the elements added, whereas the former uses the exact specified image.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ All entries that share the same Document (and that are therefore merely different states of one particular document) are contiguous by definition.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Provided that coin is not too bad for further circulation it will be accepted without difficulty. .Still less will there be any trouble if the difference is only in the relative value of two metals, such as silver and gold.^ If the element is a meta element The value is the value of the element's content attribute, if any, or the empty string if there is no such attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the textarea element has a maximum allowed value length , then the element's children must be such that the code-point length of the value of the element's textContent IDL attribute is equal to or less than the element's maximum allowed value length .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If of the elements whose corresponding item is item , there are any with a property name equal to the string " about ", and the first such element is a URL property element , and its value is not an item , let subject be the value of that property.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The great majority of any population will give and take money without particularly observing it. It is enough if the coin conforms to the usual type. .There exists, however, in all mercantile communities a class of dealers in money, who make a profit by selecting the best coins for exportation, or if two metals are in concurrent use, the coins of that metal which is undervalued in the proportion fixed.^ There are various concrete syntaxes that can be used to transmit resources that use this abstract language, two of which are defined in this specification.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If an attribute using the empty attribute syntax is to be followed by another attribute, then there must be a space character separating the two.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It lost money for two months and then suddenly showed a profit.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the case of inconvertible paper issues the withdrawal is also for the purpose of hoarding to secure the profit expected when there is a high premium on bullion.^ If Ellsberg were to go free and be held in high regard, there would be every reason to expect others would emulate his behavior in a disastrous tidal wave of leaking.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The action of self-interest under these conditions produces an effect which has been briefly formulated in the statement " that bad money tends to drive out good money."^ These activities were carried out under the auspices of James Jesus Angleton, head of CIA Counterintelligence.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CIO hoped to drive the less numerous Teamsters out of the city so as to monopolize Detroit union interests.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The proposition has been styled " Gresham's Law " (q.v.). Abundant illustrations of its working are available. The establishment of the English gold currency and the French silver one in the 18th century, already mentioned (§ 8), is an effective one. Quite as good is the transition of France from the silver to the gold currency form after the great gold discoveries of the middle of the 19th centur y. In truth it may be said that most of the monetary transitions have been due to the operation of the force indicated in Gresham's Law. The importance of the law lies in the warning that it gives against the attempt to reform a degraded currency by the issue of better money. Such " operations of the mint are," in Adam Smith's. judgment, " somewhat like the web of Penelope." The caution holds equally in respect to the reform of a depreciated paper currency or to an effort to force an undervalued metal into circulation. .The success of so many monetary reforms in the last forty years.^ But when Kennedy turned his attention to Hoffa, a titanic struggle began which was to last many years.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

has been in great measure due to the better appreciation of the working of the principle. .Its aid can also be obtained by setting up the suitable conditions; while it can be counteracted through the use of the principle of limitation, so clearly expounded by Ricardo.^ A Document is always set to one of three modes: no quirks mode , the default; quirks mode , used typically for legacy documents; and limited quirks mode , also known as "almost standards" mode.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It was charged was that by compelling TWA to use aircraft obtained through the Hughes Tool Company, antitrust laws had been violated.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a blog post would be marked up using article , a chapter using section , a page's navigation aids using nav , and a group of form controls using fieldset .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some of the constituent parts of the French and American currencies rest altogether on the maintenance of an overvalued coinage, along with one of higher value by the limitation of the quantity of the former to the amount that can be employed without expelling the remaining part of the circulating medium from monetary use.^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hoffa apparently prevailed upon Perrone to see the value of allies on the union side because when the 1937 strike came along, the mob remained neutral.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another part of the structure of any currency is the scale on which its accounts, and by consequence the degrees of its coins, are arranged. The pound, the shilling, and the penny in the older English system represented so many grades in the subdivision of value. .All other currencies have the same need for divisions.^ When any of the following events occur, if the element's checkedness state is true after the event, the checkedness state of all the other elements in the same radio button group must be set to false: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The simplest scale would be what is called the " binary "; in which each coin is the half of the next higher, and double the one immediately below it.^ Police and firemen could have been on the scene within half-an-hour after notification (as happened the next morning) and Miss Kopechne would have been rescued within another half hour.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A call to getElementsByClassName('ccc bbb') would only return one node, however, namely p3 .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The next oldest son John ("Jack") would be the one to carry the political standard, but he seemed much less qualified.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most actual systems have series of coins on the binary scale. The penny, the halfpenny, the farthing; the 4s. piece, the florin, the shilling, the sixpence, the threepenny; at a higher level the sovereign, the half-sovereign, the crown, the halfcrown, are English examples. .The Latin and Scandinavian unions, as also Germany and the United States, have several binary coinage: series.^ Mossadegh threatened that unless the United States increased its economic aid to Iran, he would turn to the Soviet Union for military and economic assistance.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such surveillance had begun, in fact, in 1952 with the recording of information on the envelopes of letters between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But by the mid-1960's the Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal was approaching that of the United States; the US could no longer afford to make nuclear threats.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But no country adopts a purely binary scale. England in part retains the old " duodecimal " division in the relation of the shilling and the penny. .Nearly all civilized nations have come to accept the system of Decimal Coinage, though in their actual.^ The Can Lao was composed primarily of Catholic refugees from the north, nearly all of whom were civil servants.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diem created a National Assembly, but nearly all real authority resided with himself and his family.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roughly a dozen people had been standing on the knoll when the shots were fired — and nearly all of them believed some of the gunfire had come from behind.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

currencies they admit certain divergences from the strict decimal. system. .The convenience of having the monetary scale of accounts in accordance with the arithmetical scale will probably secure the ultimate victory of the decimal system everywhere, in spite of the objections to it on the ground of its having only two factors2 and 5 - as against the larger number of the duodecimal scale (2, 3, 4 and 6).^ This isn't a security problem since the script that moves the div into the outer Document can only do so because they have the two Document object have the same origin .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The immense trouble involved in altering accounts and the difficulty of overcoming the hostility to change felt by the ordinary members of the community are the obstacles that prevent the adoption of the decimal system in England.^ While this is an important security feature, it prevents pages from different domains from communicating even when those pages are not hostile.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Connected with the composition of a currency and the scale on. which it is based is the question of its relation to other currencies. .From a very early time the conception of a money that should not be confined by a political limit appears to have existed.^ Nixon was very eager to turn the tables on the Democrats concerning politically embarrassing Hughes money.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In fact until the state took over the control of money its more important. forms had a wide diffusion. The talent, equated to the ox, is a prominent instance. .Even when the city-state provided its particular coinage we can still perceive the circulation of the better coinages outside their legal area.^ In the polygon state , area elements must have a coords attribute with at least six integers, and the number of integers must be even.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, a description, even if brief, is still better than nothing: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ An element can still suffer from these states even when the element is disabled ; thus these states can be represented in the DOM even if validating the form during submission wouldn't indicate a problem to the user.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The effect on the Greek currencies. has been noted above (§ 8). Under the Roman hegemony and the empire that arose out of it there was the equivalent of an inter - national currency in the wide circulation of the coinages adopted from the conquered states. .Such coins as the drachma and the denarius were of general use in the then civilized world.^ This can then be used for various purposes, such as generating a client certificate, as mentioned above.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To generate a key pair, add the private key to the user's key store, and submit the public key to the server, markup such as the following can be used: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After World War II, General Claire Chennault had continued to support Chain Kai-shek by forming a "commercial" airline, the Civil Air Transport (CAT).
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In later times the Carolingian silver currency for a short period supplied an international medium, which vanished in the confusion of the middle ages.^ A short time later Nosenko told his case officer of a telegram from his KGB superiors ordering him to return to Moscow.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Owing to the rise of national governments money became a national distinction peculiar to each state. It is only in the last sixty years that the idea of international money has been revived in a practical form. Unfortunately the revival was speedily checked by the reaction in favour of nationalism that followed the Franco-German War (1870-71) and by the controversies as to, the proper standard. (See Bimetallism and Monetary Conferences for further discussion of this topic.) I o. Typical Currency Systems: their Evolution and Governing Principles. - At first sight it appears that the systems of currency are almost infinite in their variety. .They have grown up in different nations under the influence of local conditions and reflect the customs of the particular society.^ When the barricades went up in the streets, they quickly came under fire by Nazi tanks.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were continually ambushed in the unfamiliar terrain under the worst strategic conditions.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But, underlying these superficial differences, there are certain general principles that permit of a grouping into a small number of clearly marked types.^ There are a number of dynamic selectors that can be used with HTML. This section defines when these selectors match HTML elements.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ U+0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F, zero-padding if necessary, and append these numbers to result , in the order red, green, blue.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are certain features that are not handled by this specification because a client side markup language is not the right level for them, or because the features exist in other languages that can be integrated into this one.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The classification, though resting on logical grounds, is very largely in conformity with the course of historical development..
.Better forms have come into being as social progress has become more pronounced; and further improvement may be expected in the future.^ The FBI had become more accommodating to White House intentions following the death of J. Edgar Hoover on May 2.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ User agents may establish a button in each form as being the form's default button .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The microdata becomes even more useful when scripts can use it to expose information to the user, for example offering it in a form that can be used by other applications.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The condition of things when money is coming into being is characterized by the weighing or measuring of the substances used for aiding the course of exchanges.^ (For example, the script element can result in scripts executing and using the dynamic markup insertion APIs to insert characters into the stream being tokenized.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When Colby told Angleton's three top aides that they were being removed from their posts, they all chose to go into retirement.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DOM manipulation task source This task source is used for features that react to DOM manipulations, such as things that happen asynchronously when an element is inserted into the document .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It has therefore been called the system of " currency by weight." .In strictness, it is better regarded as the stage before the introduction of real money; and thus outside the field of currency systems proper.^ (Dragging files can only happen from outside a browsing context , for example from a file system manager application, and thus the dragstart event is actually implied in this case.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The simplest system of currency seems to be that in which the state coins ingots of different metals and allows them to circulate without assigning any ratio for their respective values.^ On media without a pointing device, the user would probably have to explicitly indicate his intention to perform a drag-and-drop operation, stating what he wishes to drag and what he wishes to drop, respectively.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ State Returns a value that expresses the current state of the element with respect to rendering the current playback position , from the codes in the list below.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Such an inconvenient form is not likely to be of long continuance; but it has sometimes arisen at a later time through the introduction of foreign coinages.^ An event loop must continually run through the following steps for as long as it exists: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Not since the time when the Kennedys had leaned on Helms to "get rid of Castro" had there been such pressure on the CIA from the White House to eliminate a foreign leader.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Holland at the end of the 16th century, Turkey down to the present day may be given as countries approaching this state.^ Any number of properties with the name given-name may be present within the item that forms the value of the n property of an item with the type vcard .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is complicated by the manner in which the Gregorian calendar was phased in, which occurred at different times in different countries, ranging from partway through the 16th century all the way to early in the 20th.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A single property with the name country-name may be present within the item that forms the value of an adr property of an item with the type vcard .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The title of " currency by tale " is Jevons's apt denomination for such a currency system. The next form in logical order is that in which a single metal is definitely appointed as the sole standard money. In early ages this is the most natural arrangement, and it has, therefore, been widely adopted. .Silver has been the metal generally used in this way; as the instances previously given (§ 8) prove.^ DragImage ( element , x , y ) Uses the given element to update the drag feedback, replacing any previously specified feedback.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The other arguments are specific to the type, and control the way that the image is generated, as given in the table below.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the keytype attribute is in the RSA state Generate an RSA key pair using the settings given by the user, if appropriate.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The title of " single legal tender " system is the obvious one for this form. With the growth of transactions a difficulty soon presents itself. .If the chosen metal is not of high value it is cumbrous for making large payments; if on the other hand its value is high, it is unsuitable for use in small transactions.^ If, on the other hand, it fails or returns an out of range value, or if the attribute is absent, the default value must be returned instead, or 1 if there is no default value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On the other hand, div elements can be useful for stylistic purposes or to wrap multiple paragraphs within a section that are all to be annotated in a similar way.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Other values must first be converted to numbers using JavaScript's ToNumber algorithm, and if the result is a NaN value, then the value must be converted to zero.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Hence there almost inevitably follows the use of other metals, which are better suited for certain particular uses.^ If an attribute using the empty attribute syntax is to be followed by another attribute, then there must be a space character separating the two.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To determine if a word, sentence, or other piece of text in an applicable element (as defined above) is to have spelling- and/or grammar-checking enabled, the UA must use the following algorithm: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following task sources are used by a number of mostly unrelated features in this and other specifications.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Thus silver is at once too heavy and too light. To pay r000 in silver at its present value would take Boo lb troy, while a silver penny would be under the convenient limit of size. .Partly for these reasons, but also to a large extent through the persistence of currency by tale, we find that along with the standard money other kinds are brought into or retained in use.^ To achieve this end he borrowed large quantities of money from other members of the Syndicate — eventually to the tune of $6 million.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nixon decided to use B-52s as a means of striking into these sanctuaries.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This section describes this mechanism and some algorithms that can be used to convert HTML documents into other formats .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Copper long survives beside silver; and gold is employed for the more important commercial transactions. .Public convenience leads to the valuation of these subsidiary forms of money, and in this easy manner another currency system - that of " multiple legal tender " - comes into being.^ These values must be compared to the argument in an ASCII case-insensitive manner.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Conformance checkers may, based on the values (including presence or lack thereof) of the DOCTYPE token's name, public identifier, or system identifier, switch to a conformance checking mode for another language (e.g.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When it is set, the new value must be compared in an ASCII case-insensitive manner to these two values.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Though, theoretically, several substances might be valued for use as money, in practice some kind of bimetallism is used, and generally gold and silver are the constituents of the system.^ Some of the examples included in this specification might also be of use, but the novice author is cautioned that this specification, by necessity, defines the language with a level of detail that might be difficult to understand at first.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some of the generals claim that CIA planes were used as well, though CIA-man William Colby denies this.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some obsolete legacy attributes parse colors in a more complicated manner, using the rules for parsing a legacy color value , which are given in the following algorithm.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

Thus for over three centuries England had a currency in which the values of gold and silver were fixed from time to time by royal proclamation. .France and the United States, as well as many other countries, have had long experience of national bimetallism.^ By May 1973 the United States was dropping nearly as many bombs per month on Cambodia as had been dropped during the whole of 1972.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To many in South Vietnam it was a sign that the United States was abandoning them.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But nationally as well as internationally, it was hard to see the issue in any other terms but those of religious oppression.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The great problem in such a form of currency has always been that of keeping the two metals in effective circulation. As the values of the precious metals fluctuate, the principle of Gresham's Law is exemplified by the expulsion of the undervalued one. Each change in the conditions of production or in the ratios fixed by other countries tends to disturb the balance and is harassing to trade. Local or national bimetallism comes to be unsustainable, and is replaced by other currency types. The most remarkable is that known as the " composite legal tender " system. Its object is to combine any advantages of multiple legal tender with the maintenance of the single standard principle. .One metal is selected as the standard and is legal tender to any amount; other metals are utilized for the purpose of token currency.^ User agents should prevent the user from selecting files that are not accepted by one (or more) of these tokens.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Thus in the system of the United Kingdom gold is the only standard coinage; but silver and copper are employed for the lower coins and for smaller payments.^ By 1960 Chile's copper production was second only to that of the United States, and it was the world's leading exporter.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Dragging files can only happen from outside a browsing context , for example from a file system manager application, and thus the dragstart event is actually implied in this case.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The establishment of this ingenious arrangement is rather the outcome of the circumstances that governed the English monetary situation in the 18th century than any refined considerations of theory; but its justification on grounds of principle is furnished in Lord Liverpool's Coins of the Realm (1805).^ Thus contractors knowing who to bribe in the government could import considerably more building materials than were needed and sell the excess at a huge profit.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The extent to which the system has been copied by other nations and the stability of the English currency are strong confirmations of its merits as a solution of currency difficulties. .Though the composite legal tender system has been a decided success, it does not follow that it supplies the only mode of dealing with the troubles that attend on the use of the local double standard.^ A Document is always set to one of three modes: no quirks mode , the default; quirks mode , used typically for legacy documents; and limited quirks mode , also known as "almost standards" mode.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the value mode flag is in mode value , the contents of the element represent the value of the element only, and the default value is only accessible using the defaultValue IDL attribute.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Notice how only one is defined; the other, with no expansion associated with it, does not use the abbr element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Other methods have been evolved from the monetary experiences of France and India, which take distinct forms according to the special features of the case.^ Assigning classes to an element affects class matching in selectors in CSS, the getElementsByClassName() method in the DOM, and other such features.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The activation behavior in this case consists of taking the user's selected coordinate , and then, if the element has a form owner , submitting the input element's form owner from the input element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.There is the currency system known as the " limping standard," the essence of which is the concurrent use of two metals, one being overvalued and coined only by state authority.^ There is only one current path, it is not part of the drawing state .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Split fn on spaces , and let part one be the first resulting token, and part two be the second, if any, or the empty string if there is no second token.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are various concrete syntaxes that can be used to transmit resources that use this abstract language, two of which are defined in this specification.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The quantity of this favoured metal is necessarily limited in amount, to avoid depreciation or the ejection of the other metal from the circulation. It, however, has the position of money in the fullest sense, in that it is legal tender for any amount. The 5-franc pieces issued by the Latin union are the best known specimen of such coinage. .In this case also the origin of the system was not theoretical, it was the result of the fall in the value of silver and the fear entertained by the French government that gold would be displaced by the cheaper metal.^ Nixon believed that if he signed the accord without Thieu's approval, the Saigon government would fall within a matter of months.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The temporary expedient of limiting the coinage of standard silver has developed into the maintenance during more than thirtyfive years of the limping standard, which derives its name from the shortness of one limb of the currency body.^ Some elements, most notably area , can correspond to more than one distinct focusable area.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ More than forty years later, in 1950, the Hughes Tool Company would still control about 85 percent of the drill-bit market.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within each item with the type vcard , there must be no more than one label property item with a type property whose value is pref .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Equally suggestive for monetary theory is another phase or system, usually described as the " gold-exchange standard " system, in which the ordinary currency is of a metal coined only by the state, and so limited as to keep it in a prescribed value ratio to another metal (gold) which does not circulate, but acts as the standard of value.^ The JavaScript specification requires that the ToBoolean() operator convert all objects to the true value, and does not have provisions for objects acting as if they were undefined for the purposes of certain operators.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The user agent must act as if, for the purposes of the == and != operators in JavaScript, the object returned for all is equal to the undefined value.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The dir IDL attribute on an element must reflect the dir content attribute of that element, limited to only known values .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

This variation on the limping standard has been produced by the effort of the Indian government to meet the embarrassment caused by the continuous fall in the gold value of silver. .Under the pressure of failing revenue and of persons suffering from the rupee depreciation in gold, the limitation on silver coinage was first enacted (1893); to be followed some years later (1899) by the establishment of gold as the standard, with a definite parity assigned for the state silver issues.^ Although Chile was gripped by economic chaos in the following years, it is difficult to know how much of this was due to outside pressure and how much was due to Allende's policies.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several years later some Washington, DC police officers testified under oath that Brewster had paid a police lieutenant to bug the suite and tap the telephone that Hughes used during his stay in Washington.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By selective application of pressure and of the granting of immunity, he followed a trail of petty informants to the person of Abe "Kid Twist" Reles.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The success of the Indian experiment - for such it avowedly was - has led to its imitation by the American administration in the Philippine Islands and by Mexico. It may be looked on as the natural product of the condition in which the single legal tender system is proving unfit, while the material for the composite legal tender system is wanting. The employment and theoretic explanation of these methods of currency adjustment mark the greatest advance made in monetary science and practice in recent years. Whether the limping, or the gold-exchange standards will be permanent forms is difficult to determine; but they are beyond doubt of much importance in meeting the risks of a period of transition. In any case they are entitled to recognition as distinct forms of currency organization, resting on a scientific basis.
.The types presented by purely metallic currencies can be considered by themselves for the purpose of theoretical exposition.^ The MIME type must be compared in an ASCII case-insensitive manner by user agents for the purposes of comparing with MIME types of documents that they consider against the list of registered handlers.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In actual working they are now affected by the existence of representative money.^ Of course, patterns must actually be painted only where the stroking or filling effect requires that they be drawn, and are affected by the current transformation matrix.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.The state issues paper money which may be either convertible or inconvertible, or if it refrains from so doing, the banks take up the task and supply a medium of exchange in the form of notes, or by a later development through providing for the use of cheques by their customers.^ A few months later he was convicted of extorting money from trucking company owners in exchange for labor peace.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contexts in which this element may be used: As a child of a ruby element, either immediately before or immediately after an rt element.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Notes 1 xx-small 2 small 3 medium 4 large 5 x-large 6 xx-large 7 xxx-large' value is a non-CSS value used here to indicate a font size one "step" larger than 'xx-large'.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.An inconvertible paper currency has some pronounced affinities with overvalued metal; a duly regulated issue of this kind is quite on the lines of the gold-exchange system, and the difficulties of the two forms are very similar.^ The menu bar BarProp object Represents the user interface element that contains a list of commands in menu form, or some similar interface concept.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As a medium of exchange, OSS men used gold bars and opium rather than the nearly valueless nationalist currency.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But, just as the cruder systems of metallic money have gradually given way to the higher ones, so it may be said that the grosser forms of mismanagement in representative money are being removed, notwithstanding the recurrence of such monetary crises as that of 1907 in the United States.^ Range ( range ) Removes the given range from the selection, if the range was one of the ones in the selection.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the given token is a case-sensitive match for one of the tokens in the DOMTokenList object's underlying string then remove the given token from the underlying string and stop the algorithm, returning false.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By May 1973 the United States was dropping nearly as many bombs per month on Cambodia as had been dropped during the whole of 1972.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great instance of government paper money is the United States notes, known, as " greenbacks," which are fixed at the amount of $346,681,016. The most prominent case of bank issue of notes is that of the Bank of France, with somewhat over 200,000,000 in circulation.^ In May 1954 the United States signed military agreements with Nicaragua and Honduras preparatory to a clandestine paramilitary operation by the CIA against the Arbenez government.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pan Am was seeking to have itself made an official worldwide monopoly of the United States Government.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exposing Eisenhower and the US Government as liers, Khrushchev ignored the issues of Berlin and disarmament, preferring to use the scheduled summit conference as a podium from which to denounce the United States.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples of the cheque currency are more difficult to state in quantitative shape; as the constituent parts are continually being created and cancelled, but the clearing-house returns give some idea of its extent in England. .The figure for 1909 was 1 3,5 2 5,44 6, 000. It seems highly probable that the next stage in improvement will be the extension of currency based on credit, after the Anglo-American pattern, to the other commercial countries of the world.^ Other grisly revelations during the next year added to growing American opposition to the Indochinese War.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam, rather than other more needy countries, benefited from American largesse simply because of its strategic significance in the struggle against World Communism.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same year, the Secretary General of Amnesty International proclaimed that Iran's human rights record was worse than that of any other country in the world.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But this movement can only be slow, it will not affect Eastern countries. For a long time they will remain in the metallic currency stage, with the moderate use of a guaranteed note circulation.
There are several plans which have been advocated as superior to any of the systems actually in use. .Most of these schemes are undeserving of notice; a few, however, claim attention on the ground of theoretical or practical importance.^ Most of these interpreters knew only a few hundred words of English.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most conspicuous is that known as " international bimetallism," which was designed to obviate the evils said to result from the demonetization of silver and the overflow of the established ratio between the precious metals. .Its central idea was the creation of a monetary league, composed, if not of all, at least of the leading states (the larger the number the better), the members being bound to coin any amount of gold and silver at an agreed ratio.^ If it is a selection that is being dragged, the dataTransfer member of the event must be created with no nodes.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the polygon state , area elements must have a coords attribute with at least six integers, and the number of integers must be even.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.By such an agreement an adequate field for the use of both metals would be provided, and fluctuations in the relative value of silver and gold would be completely prevented.^ Examples of a user changing the element's value would include the user typing into a text field, pasting a new value into the field, or undoing an edit in that field.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ [CSS] The elements that were added to the dataTransfer object, both before the event was fired, and during the handling of the event using the addElement() method, if any such elements were indeed added.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Its value must be text that, when presented with the texts specified for the other hyperlinks of the image map , and with the alternative text of the image, but without the image itself, provides the user with the same kind of choice as the hyperlink would when used without its text but with its shape applied to the image.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The expulsion of the cheaper metal would be impossible, owing to the absence of any place to which it could be driven. Variations in the production of the precious metals would act on both metals, not on one. .Another plan for meeting the same set of difficulties is the composition of the monetary standard by taking assigned amounts of both metals in combination as the unit-say i oz.^ Carlos Marcello, in connection with plans to kill the President, reportedly spoke of "setting up a nut to take the blame".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of gold with io oz. of silver. .The title " symmetallism " has been given to this ingenious mode of trying to obtain a more stable standard than that afforded by the employment of a single metal.^ If string consists of just a single U+002E FULL STOP character or if it contains more than one U+002E FULL STOP character then return an error condition and abort these steps.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following, however, is incorrect usage, as the cite element here is containing far more than the title of the work: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Constraint validation : When the element has a maximum , and the result of applying the algorithm to convert a string to a number to the string given by the element's value is a number, and the number obtained from that algorithm is more than the maximum , the element is suffering from an overflow .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Amongst the many devices that the use of paper money has suggested the most noticeable are those that aim at the replacement of metallic money by some other basis.^ The immediate user selection changes as the user selects different elements (either by pointing at them with a pointing device, or by selecting them in some other way).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts can have a first script which is used to obtain, amongst other things, the script's base URL to resolve relative URLs used in scripts running in that unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This requirement is not a hard requirement, however, as there are many cases where an element can be empty legitimately, for example when it is used as a placeholder which will later be filled in by a script, or when the element is part of a template and would on most pages be filled in but on some pages is not relevant.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The socialist conception of a " labour note " may be paralleled by the idea of " commodity notes," resting on a development of the clearing system. .Viewed from the practical standpoint it may be said that the double standard in any form is condemned by the course of events; it has been defeated by the gold standard.^ User agents may also update other aspects of the document view when the location changes in this way, for instance the scroll position, values of form fields, etc.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.In respect to the other proposed methods there is the almost insurmountable difficulty of making them in any way sufficiently popular to overcome the resistance that they must necessarily encounter.^ The collapseToEnd() method must raise an INVALID_STATE_ERR DOM exception if there are no ranges in the list.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On setting, they must act as if they reflected the respective content attributes of the same name.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If there is such a parser, then, when the method is called, the user agent must insert an explicit "EOF" character at the end of the parser's input stream .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.This criticism holds good, quite apart from the objections of principle to which they are all open, in very different degree it is true.^ The JavaScript specification requires that the ToBoolean() operator convert all objects to the true value, and does not have provisions for objects acting as if they were undefined for the purposes of certain operators.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The influence of custom in relation to money can never be set aside. .For this reason it is certain that very gradual change is the only possible kind of monetary reform that can hope for success.^ A command would be disabled if, in the same context, it could be enabled if only certain aspects of the situation were changed.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

It is essential to preserve as far as possible the old surroundings and avoid the intrusion of novel devices. The adoption of what Sir R. Giffen has styled " fancy monetary standards " is reserved for a distant future.
Period .
No.of
Years.
Amount in Kilos.
Value in Millions
of Francs.
Ratio of
Value of
Gold to
Silver.
Gold.
Silver.
Gold.
Silver.
1 493 - 1 5 20
28
162,400
1,316,000
560
292
11.3
1 5 21 - 1 544
24
171,800
2,165,000
592
481
11.2
1 545- 1 5 80
36
273,000
10,976,000
940
2 ,439
11.5
1581-1600
20
147,600
8,378,000
508
1,862
11.9
1601-1620
20
170,400
8,458,000
587
1,880
13.0
1621-1640
20
166,000
7,872,000
572
1,749
13.4
1641-1660
20
175,400
7,326,000
604
1,628
13.8
1661-1680
20
185,200
6,740,000
638
1,498
14.7
1681-1700
20
215,300
6,838,000
742
1,520
15.0
1701-1720
20
256,400
7,112,000
883
1,580
15.2
1721-1740
20
381,600
8,624,000
1,314
1,916
15.1
1741-1760
20
492,200
10,663,000
1,695
2,370
14'8
1761-1780
20
414,100
13,055,000
1,426
2,900
14.8
1781-1800
20
355,800
17,581,000
1,226
3,906
15.1
1801-1810
10
177,800
8,942,000
612
1,987
15.6
1811-1820
10
114,400
5,408,000
394
1,202
15'5
1821-1830
10
142,200
4,606,000
490
1,023
15.8
1831-1840
10
202,900
5,964,000
699
1 ,3 2 5
15'7
1841-1850
10
547,600
7,804,000
1,886
1 ,734
15'8
1851-1855
5
987,600
4,431,000
3,402
985
15.4
1856-1860
5
1,030,000
4,525,000
3,549
1,006
15'3
1861-1865
5
925,600
5,506,000
3,188
1,223
15.4
1866-1870
5
959,500
6,695,000
3,305
1,488
15.6
1871-1875
5
869,500
9,847,000
2,985
2,188
16.0
1876-1880
5
862,100
12,251,000
2,960
2,522
17.8
1881-1885
5
745,700
14,308,000
2 ,579
2,640
18.6
1886-1890
5
796,800
17,362,000
2,743
2,832
21.1
1891
I
196,600
4,266,000
677
669
20.9
1892
I
220,900
4,893,000
761
659
23'7
1893
I
236,700
5,165,000
815
640
26.5
1894
I
273,200
5,121,000
941
512
32.6
18 95
I
301,500
5,234,000
1,045
544
31.6
1896
I
305,700
4,908,000
1, 0 49
549
30.7
18 97
I
356,900
5,013,000
1,215
499
34'0
1898
I
433,200
5,413,000
1,486
530
35.2
18 99
I
463,500
5,225,000
1 ,59 0
520
33'9
1900
I
384,600
5,377,000
1 ,3 2 5
556
33'4
1 493- 18 5 0
35 8
4,752,100
149,828,000
16,368
33,292
14'05
1851-1885
35
6,380,000
57,563,000
21,968
12,052
16.3
1886-1900
15
3,9 6 9, 600
53,070,000
13,647
8,510
27.2
1 493- 1 9 00
408
15,101,700
260,461,000
5 1 ,9 8 3
53, 8 54
14'72
-,,,
N
gN
Rem.
p. 2000
Approximate
Money Value.
y
Rem.
p. 1000.
Approximate
Money Value.
Coins.
A
q
;
q
.?
ri
C
Coins.
,,,,
a
b
G
y0
p ' mo d
1::: "
.=
0
F
U]
f?,
0
H
0
4
cf
AUSTRIA HUNGARY I -
£ S. d.
$ c.
NETHERLANDS 5___
s. d.
$ c.
100 Kreutzer 20 Kronen piece
Gold
6'775067
goo' 0
2'0
2'5
0 16 8
405
100 Cents = Io Guilder piece
Gold
6'720
900"0
1'5
2'0
016 6
4 2
= 1 Gulden. io
3'387534
9000
2'0
2.5
4 8 4
2 02
I Guilder. 5 „ „
3'360
900'0
1'5
2'0
0 8 3
2 I
8 Gulden „
6'45161
goo' 0
2 'o
. 5
0 15 10
3 86
3'22580
900'0
2'0
2.5
0 711
193
21 „ „
Silver
25000
9450
2'5
2'5
0 4 2
I 0
4 Ducat
,,
13'9636
986'1
-
-
117 7
915
1 " „
10"000
945.0
2'5
2'5
0 I 8
0 4 o
I „ „
34909
986'1
-
-
0 9 5
2 2
z „
5'000
945'0
2'5
2'5
0 010
0 20
25 Cents .
3'575
040'0
2'5
2'5
0 0 5
0 Io
I Krone „
Silver
5'o
835'0
-
-
0 0 10
0 20
10 „
1'400
640'0
2'5
2'5
0 0 2
0.4
x Dollar „
28'0668
833'3
-
-
-
-
5. .
o'685
640'0
2'5
2.5
0 0 I
0 2
(Maria Theresa)
NORWAY.
2 Gulden „
24'6914
900'0
2'0
2'5
0 3 113
096
* ee DENMARK.
I „ ,
20 Kreutzer „
,
12'3457
2'666
900'0
500.0
2'
2 '0
2'5
5
O I III
0 0 5
048
0 10
PORTUGAL
1000 Reis= l Crown or $20 'coo
Gold
17'735
916'666
2'o
2' 0
2 4 5
to 80
IC,
1'666
400'0
2'0
2'5
0 0 24
0 5
Milrei.
8'867
916'666
2'0
2'0
I 2 21
5 40
BELGIUM. See FRANCE.
One-fifth Crown or $2'000
One-tenth Crown or $1 ' 000
,,
,,
3'547
1'773
916'666
916'666
2'o
2'o
2'0
2'o
0 8 to
0 4 5
2 16
a 8
DENMARK 2
Ore= i 20 Kroner piece
Gold
8'960572
goo' 0
2'5
1 5
1 2 I
5 36
500 Reis.. .
Silver
12 500
916'666
2'o
3'o
0 2 24
0 54
Krone. 10 „ „
4'480286
900'0
1'5
2'0
01I 01
2 68
200 „
5'000
916'666
2'0
3'0
0 0 102
0 2
100
2'500
916'666
2'0
3 '0
0 0 5)
0 II
2 „ „
Silver
15'000
800'o