Monocyte: Wikis

  

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Monocyte under a light microscope (40x) from a peripheral blood smear surrounded by red blood cells.

Monocyte is a type of white blood cell, part of the human body's immune system. Monocytes have two main functions in the immune system: (1) replenish resident macrophages and dendritic cells under normal states, and (2) in response to inflammation signals, monocytes can move quickly (approx. 8-12 hours) to sites of infection in the tissues and divide/differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells to elicit an immune response. Half of them are stored in the spleen.[1] Monocytes are usually identified in stained smears by their large bilobate nucleus.

Contents

Physiology

Monocyte

Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from haematopoietic stem cell precursors called monoblasts. Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for about one to three days and then typically move into tissues throughout the body. They constitute between three to eight percent of the leukocytes in the blood. Half of them are stored as a reserve in the spleen in clusters in the red pulp's Cords of Billroth.[1] In the tissues monocytes mature into different types of macrophages at different anatomical locations.

Monocytes are responsible for phagocytosis (ingestion) of foreign substances in the body. Monocytes can perform phagocytosis using intermediary (opsonising) proteins such as antibodies or complement that coat the pathogen, as well as by binding to the microbe directly via pattern-recognition receptors that recognize pathogens. Monocytes are also capable of killing infected host cells via antibody, termed antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. Vacuolization may be present in a cell that has recently phagocytized foreign matter.

Monocytes which migrate from the bloodstream to other tissues will then differentiate into tissue resident macrophages or dendritic cells. Macrophages are responsible for protecting tissues from foreign substances but are also suspected to be the predominant cells involved in triggering atherosclerosis. They are cells that possess a large smooth nucleus, a large area of cytoplasm and many internal vesicles for processing foreign material.

Monocyte Subpopulations

There are two types of monocytes in human blood:

a) the classical monocyte, which is characterized by high level expression of the CD14 cell surface receptor (CD14++ monocyte) and

b) the non-classical, pro-inflammatory monocyte with low level expression of CD14 and with additional co-expression of the CD16 receptor (CD14+CD16+ monocyte).[2]

The CD14+CD16+ monocytes develop from the CD14++ monocytes, i.e. they are a more mature version. After stimulation with microbial products the CD14+CD16+ monocytes produce high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-12.

Diagnostic use

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small disc-shaped platelets.

A monocyte count is part of a complete blood count and is expressed either as a ratio of monocytes to the total number of white blood cells counted, or by absolute numbers. Both may be useful in determining or refuting a possible diagnosis.

Monocytosis

Monocytosis is the state of excess monocytes in the peripheral blood. It may be indicative of various disease states. Examples of processes that can increase a monocyte count include:

A high count of CD14+CD16+ monocytes is found in severe infection (sepsis)[3] and a very low count of these cells is found after therapy with immuno-suppressive glucocorticoids[4]

Monocytopenia

Monocytopenia is a form of leukopenia associated with a deficiency of monocytes.

Dendritic cells

Monocytes can be used to generate dendritic cells in vitro by adding cytokines like Granulocyte Monocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GMCSF) and IL-4. [5]

Blood content

Reference ranges for blood tests of white blood cells, comparing monocyte amount (shown in green) with other cells.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Swirski FK, Nahrendorf M, Etzrodt M, Wildgruber M, Cortez-Retamozo V, Panizzi P, Figueiredo J-L, Kohler RH, Chudnovskiy A, Waterman P, Aikawa E, Mempel TR, Libby P, Weissleder R, Pittet MJ. (2009). Identification of Splenic Reservoir Monocytes and Their Deployment to Inflammatory Sites. Science, 325: 612-616. doi:10.1126/science.1175202
  2. ^ Ziegler-Heitbrock, L: The CD14+ CD16+ Blood Monocytes: their Role in Infection and Inflammation, Review. J Leukocyte Biology, 81:584, 2007
  3. ^ Fingerle, G., Pforte, A., Passlick, B., Blumenstein, M., Ströbel, M., Ziegler-Heitbrock, H.W.L.: The novel subset of CD14+ CD16+ blood monocytes is expanded in sepsis patients. Blood, 82: 3170-3176, 1993
  4. ^ Fingerle-Rowson, G., Angstwurm, M., Andreesen, R., Ziegler-Heitbrock, H.W.L.:Selective depletion of CD14+ CD16+ monocytes by glucocorticoid therapy.Clin. Exp. Immunol., 112: 501-506, 1998
  5. ^ Sallusto F, Cella M, Danieli C, Lanzavecchia A (1995). "Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the major histocompatibility complex class II compartment: downregulation by cytokines and bacterial products". J. Exp. Med. 182 (2): 389–400. doi:10.1084/jem.182.2.389. PMID 7629501. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=3&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jem.org%2Fcgi%2Freprint%2F182%2F2%2F389.pdf&ei=S7U4R8GRJoLu0QSUlanlDA&usg=AFQjCNFd1RVk8I3yqwFtJkihrUN1kywgdA&sig2=2K55BlZ2Y0otpcfDT1n9wA.  

External links


Simple English

File:Monocyte
Monocyte under a light microscope (40x) from a peripheral blood smear surrounded by red blood cells.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell, part of the human body's immune system. They are usually identified in stained smears by their large two-lobed nucleus. They are a kind of reserve cell which turn into macrophages and immune helper cells called dendritic cells.

Monocytes work at two speeds in the immune system:

  1. To gradually replenish resident macrophages and dendritic cells under normal conditions, and
  2. To move quickly (~ 8-12 hours) to infected tissue in response to inflammation signals. There they divide and differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells to cause an immune response.

Half of all monocytes are stored as a reserve in the spleen;[1] the rest are circulating or in tissues.

Physiology

Monocytes are produced by the bone marrow from stem cell precursors called monoblasts. Monocytes circulate in the bloodstream for about one to three days and then typically move into tissues throughout the body. They make up three to eight percent of the leukocytes in the blood.

Monocytes which migrate from the bloodstream to the tissues will then differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells, which then stay in the tissue. Macrophages are responsible for protecting tissues from foreign substances. They are cells that possess a large smooth nucleus, a large area of cytoplasm and many internal vesicles for processing foreign material.

Monocytes and their macrophage and dendritic cell progeny serve three main functions in the immune system. These are phagocytosis, antigen presentation and cytokine production.[2]

  1. Phagocytosis is the process of uptake of microbes and particles followed by digestion and destruction of this material. Monocytes are also capable of killing infected host cells using antibodies.
  2. Microbial fragments that remain after such digestion can serve as antigens. This process is called antigen presentation and it leads to activation of T lymphocytes. These mount a specific immune response against the antigen.
  3. Other microbial products can directly activate monocytes and this leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

References

  1. Swirski F.K. et al 2009. Identification of splenic reservoir monocytes and their deployment to inflammatory sites. Science, 325: 612-616.
  2. Cytokines are small molecules which carry local messages between cells.







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