Montenegrin Orthodox Church: Wikis

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Montenegrin Orthodox Church
Црногорска православна црква
Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva
CPC Grb.png
Coat of arms of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church
Founder Antonije Abramović
Independence self-proclaimed in 1993
Recognition None
Primate Miraš Dedeić
Headquarters Cetinje
Territory (claimed) Montenegro
Lovćenac (Serbia)
Chaco (Argentina)
Possessions None
Language Montenegrin
Adherents Approximately 50,000
Website www.moc-cpc.org

The Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC) (Montenegrin/Serbian: Црногорска православна црква, ЦПЦ / Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva, CPC) is a religious group acting in Montenegro and Montenegrin emigration circles - the town of Lovćenac in Serbia's northern province of Vojvodina) and the Montenegrin emigration colony in Argentina. In an opt between the Serbian and Montenegrin Orthodox Churches, 29.36% Montenegro's Eastern Orthodox Christians have opted for the MOC. 70.64% have opted for the Serbian Orthodox Church[1].

Contents

History

Sultan Ottoman Empire Mustafa III Is 11 September 1766 the permit revoked Serbian Patriarchate Pećku (which as the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church has never been restored; Pećka patriarchy is now a female Serbian monastery). Patriarch of Constantinople Samuel I. Hanceris 1764-1780th has paid huge financial debts Pećke Patriarchy the Sultan and the territory under its jurisdiction subordinate to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, including the territory of present-day Serbia Republic.

Montenegrin church leaders were also political and leaders of the then independent state of Montenegro Petrovic Dynasty. Metropolitan Petar I Petrovic-Njegos (St. Peter Cetinjski) and his successor, Petar II Petrović-Njegoš as well as the dignity of Montenegro Bishop wore whitekamilavke (at Greek Kαμιλαυκα) that the canons can take only an autocephalous Orthodox leaders. [2] [3]

Montenegrin autocephaly

Montenegrin church was both before and after 1766 outside the canon and the actual organizational structure and scope and Serbian Pećke and Constantinople Patriarchy (quotes that follow the.

  • "Carigradska patriarchy is pretendovala of the Montenegrin church, adhering to the rules of the church kanoničkog an independent state borders do not enter the limits of the other independent states ". (Quote by Serbian authors Ž. Marinković M. J. Igumanović, "General History of the Christian Serbian Orthodox Church", p.131, Belgrade, 1934, with a note that the book is published with the approval of the Holy Synod of the Serbian Orthodox Church).

At the time of Bishop Petra II Petrovic Njegos, Russian court advisor Dr. Alexander von Rojc, Professor Faculty of Law in Dorpatu paid in Montenegro,and it printed an extensive study in kojij writes:

  • 'Church is an independent Montenegro. Is not under any patriarch or other church leaders, but arhipastir head of the monastery and mirskih svještenika. What he pays out of his country, it depends on the circumstances and ideas of the old church rules, This does not mean that he is someone subject ".' (Dr. Dragoje Zivkovic, "The history of the Montenegrin people, str.541, Book II, Cetinje, 1992).

This condition is verified by the canonical Patriarchate of Constantinople:

  • 'Church with his self-administered or self-governing Church (autocephalous) are: 1 Constantinople, 2 Alexandria, 3 Antioch, 4 Jeruzalimska, 5 Cyprus, 6 Russian, 7 Karlovac, 8 Sinai, 9 Montenegrin and 10 Church of the Kingdom of Greece ". (allegation by GA and M. Potli acres, phras, pp. 529, book V with catalog autokefalnih churches, Athens, 1855, note that the book is printed the patriarch of Constantinople blessing).

Dr. Nikodim Milaš (1845-1915), Bishop Dalmatian, the most famous Serbian canonist says :

  • 'When the state independence of Montenegro, and the church in it, which is the head at the same time was the master of the country, was seen as independent in its organization and internal administration, such as independent today. Metropolitan independence recognized and ".' Patriarchate of Constantinople (the allegation "Orthodox ecclesiastical law, str.297-298, Zadar, 1890.g.reptint:Bar, 1998., Conteco, pp. well) .
  • 'During Peter I Petrovic Njegos, the Holy Synod of Russian Orthodox Church is recognized Montenegro as an independent brand and to this day remained ".' (Jevrosije allegation by Popovic and Dr. Moses Stojkov, "Universal Church history with religious and statistical supplement, pp. 642, Book II, Sremski Karlovci, 1912.g.).

Older sources on the Montenegrin autocephaly, among many others, information can be found in the following documents:

  • 'The Constitution of Montenegro Knjaževina (Kingdom of Montenegro)"' from the 1905th TheEdition II, Cetinje, vol. Montenegrin Government printing office, 1907 (40th Article, which regulates the status of the Montenegrin autocephalous church at pp. 12)
  • "State religion in Montenegro Orthodox east. Montenegrin autocephalous church. It does not depend on either side of the Church, but maintains the unity of the dogma however the Orthodox Eastern Orthodox Church. All other recognized religions are free to Montenegro.

Since the early 1990s has written numerous books, studies and discussion of this topic. After decades of ignoring these issues, including the period of one hundredth published archival documents testify to the centuries autocephalyMontenegrin Orthodox Church.

Books on this subject is "Montenegrin Church 1852-1918.: Study with a collection of documents about the Orthodox church in Knjaževina/Kingdom of Montenegro Montenegrin", by historians etc. Živko Andrijaševic, printed in 2008 Published in the Faculty of Philosophy, in Niksic (ISBN 978-86-7798-025-2).

The book consists of chapters (orig.): Preface, History of the institution (1220.-1851.), The State Government over the Church (1851.-1878.), Internal organization and arrangement of the Orthodox Church after the 1878th The State and the Church, Life under occupation and the disappearance after liberation, autocephaly Montenegrin church,Conclusion, and from 119 integrally published archival documents clearly seen evidence of autocephaly lifeandMontenegrin Church.

MOC considers itself to be the sole legitimate representative of Orthodox Christianity in Montenegro. MOC also lays claim to all Orthodox Christian property in Montenegro that's in possession of the Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC). From time to time, MOC's members and supporters have attempted to claim some of these structures (mostly in the Cetinje municipal area).

The MOC was created in Cetinje on October 31, 1993 by Antonije Abramović and Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG), a political party that existed at the time.[5] At the time, Montenegro was part of the federal state with Serbia called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was formed a year earlier following a 1992 referendum. LSCG, a party with a separatist agenda that had independent Montenegro as its aim, essentially used MOC in their overall political fight for Montenegrin sovereignty. Since none of this was supported at the time by the Montenegrin ruling regime embodied in Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (DPS), which during that period maintained close ties to Milošević's regime in Serbia, initial MOC's activities were very sporadic. For about 4 years it functioned without any official record of its existence.

By 1997, DPS regime in Montenegro led by Milo Đukanović began to distance itself from Milošević and Serbia, and MOC was registered in the Montenegrin police as a civic group. By this time LSCG mostly distanced itself from MOC completely. On January 17, 2001, MOC was officially registered as a non-governmental organization at the local department of the Montenegrin Ministry of the Interior.[6] In the absence of any other relevant and more current piece of legislation, this registration was done by calling on the Law on the Legal Position of Religious Communities from 1977 when Montenegro was a socialist republic within SFR Yugoslavia.

In 2007, MOC attempted to expand its activities beyond the borders of Montenegro. Serbia originally refused to allow MOC to be registered as an organization,[7] as all official Orthodox Churches have also refused to recognize the MOC. However, on appeal, the Serbian Supreme Court ruled this position unconstitutional, overturning the refusal and paving the way for a potential permission to register.[8]

Leader

MOC is led by the Archbishop of Cetinje and Montenegro Metropolitan Mihailo. At a General Montenegrin People's Assembly formed by the MOC in Cetinje on January 6, 1997, he was chosen by traditional public acclamation the Head of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church. In the Church of St. Paraskeva in Sofia, on March 15, 1998, he was ordained as bishop by Bulgarian Alternative Synod's head Patriarch Pimen and seven Metropolitans and Episcops of his synod.[9] He was enthroned to Metropolitan of Montenegrin Orthodox Church in Cetinje on October 31, 1998, in the presence of several hundred believers and supporters of Montenegrin Orthodox Church.

Metropolitan Mihailo had worked as a professor for the Serbian Orthodox Church and then as a priest of the Greek Orthodox Church in Italy, where he uncanonically created a Serbian Orthodox Municipality out of the Greek Church, leading after a number of scandals, including adultery and accusations of embezzlement, to his permanent suspension from the Church in 1995. After becoming Metropolitan of the MOC in 1997, he was fully excommunicated by the Holy Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople from the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Services

The Montenegrin Orthodox Church currently holds its regular services in several Chapels in the area of Montenegro's royal capital Cetinje as well as in its newly built Temple in Kotor. Open-air services are held across Montenegro for Christmas and Easter[10][11] The MOC officially opened a new shrine in the old town of Kotor in 2006, following the referendum on independence. Services are also held in the Australian state of New South Wales as well as in the Argentine province of Chaco, which is the base of Archimandrit Gorazd Glomazic and the Montenegrin Church of Saint Nikola in the colony of Machagay.[12] [13]

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Support

The Church has support from the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kievan Patriarchate, the Bulgarian Alternative Synod (founded by patriarch Pimen),[14] and the Orthodox Church in Italy.[15] However, Italian church broke communion with the Metropolitan Mihailo and his church after the uncanonical reception into the Montenegrin Orthodox Church of two priests who were suspended by the Orthodox Church in Italy, including current head Miraš Dedeić who uncanonically created and independently managed a Serbian Orthodox Municipality in Rome. The MOC also has support of the pro-Ustashi neo-nazi Croatian Orthodox Community NGO[16], which aims at creating an autocephalous Croatian Orthodox Church for the Republic of Croatia, or rather reviving the one from the Axis Independent State of Croatia, an act which the MOC came up to as the first supporter. The MOC had original support of the unrecognized Macedonian Orthodox Church, which was latter withdrawn as the Macedonian Church entered negotiations for restoration into communion. It had also support of the Russian Orthodox Church outside Russia during its uncanonical period, which was lost some time before it finished the successful negotiations for restoration into communion by 2007.

In all official Orthodox theological circles (such as the Russian Orthodox Church or the Ecumenical Patriarchate), MOC is seen as a schismatic group and a political fabrication, similar to the churches that supported it.

MOC also has support from abroad, and it has managed to build several shrines in North America, South America, Australia, Western Europe all home to important Montenegrin émigré communities, most of whom also support the Montenegrin Orthodox Church. Eleven ex-Yugoslav émigrés from the US and Canada have together donated US$670 and Can$270 for the Montenegrin Orthodox Church.[17]

MOC supporters present an excerpt from the 1911 edition of Encyclopedia Britannica as one of the proofs of legitimacy: "The Montenegrin Church is an autocephalous branch of the Eastern Orthodox communion. In 1894 it formally vindicated its independence against the claims of the Russian synod".[18] The remainder of the article refers to Montenegro as a Slavic nation-state, which agrees to the Church's basic beliefs of a distinct Montenegrin nation. The Catalogue of Tzarigrad Patriarchy (April 1855),[19] Athens Sintagma, letter of Tzarigrad Patriarch Grigorius to St. Petar I Petrovic Njegos (dated 29 January 1798),[20] and against the claims of other documents, see here[21] and here[22] (a list of historical documents; external links are in Serbian) are interpreted by the MOC that the Church of Montenegro was independent and autocephalous until Yugoslav regent Alexander I of Yugoslavia abolished it and incorporated, by the decree of 17th (30th) June 1920, with Serb-Orthodox Churches into a Serbian Orthodox Church,[23][24] an act which received subsequently canonical recognition from the Ecumenical Patriarchate. However, although initially voicing his opposition, the dethroned King Nicholas I Petrovic-Njegos in late 1920 recognized the unification of the Serbian Orthodox Church for the "benefit" of "all the Serbian people".

MOC followers also present foreign early 20th century travelogues as supposed proofs of the church's legitimacy. In that vein they claim that in pre-Yugoslavia times, the independence of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church has been confirmed as late as 1905, by one of the best known and well traveled Balkan experts from the early 20th century, Mary Edith Durham. In her book The Burden of the Balkans, published in London in 1905, Durham explained: "Montenegro alone kept a free and independent Slav Church, which survives to this day"[25]

Political parties in Montenegro that so far officially stated support of the MOC are the Liberal Alliance of Montenegro and minor Croatian Civic Initiative, officially proposing it to be mentioned in Montenegro's new Constitution, which eventually did not mention it with its adoption in late 2007. The Initiative invited representatives of both the Montenegrin and Serbian churches to a special municipal meeting in Tivat, sparking a boycott among local Serbian politicians.[26]

In Serbia, the church has the support of the Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians which believes it should be a recognized religion in the country.[27]

Relations to the Croatian Orthodox Church

One of the prominent members of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church was Jelisej Lalatović, a former Serb monk from Nikšić defrocked for violation of church property. In early 2010 he joined with the neo-ustashi group for the formation of the Croatian Orthodox Church and became its chief in Zadar. Lalatovic was immediately expelled from the MOC on the grounds of spreading unrest and immorality in the church, the MOC officially dismissing its connections with the formation of the COC.

Status

Opponents accuse it of being a group without theological purpose, and of having only political goals. Metropolitan Antonije Abramović (initially vehemently supported by the biggest pro-independence party in Montenegro at the time - Liberal Alliance of Montenegro (LSCG)[28]) was the first leader of the church in 1993. He was later replaced by Metropolitan Dedeić. Most Liberals didn't approve of this change and their support for the church soon started to fade. After 1997 the Government of the Republic of Montenegro started supporting and financing the Church receiving support from both the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro and the Social Democratic Party of Montenegro, however after 2001 this support waned and completely vanished.

Opposition of Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral

The Montenegrin Orthodox Church maintains that Serbian Orthodox Church usurped its churches and other property in Montenegro in the early 20th century, following the annexion of Montenegro by Serbia.

According to the MOC, the Metropolia of Montenegro and the Littoral of the Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC), headed by Metropolitan Amfilohije Radović, has existed for only around eight decades, "or to be more precise, it has been there since 1920 when it was established as a structural and integral part of the Serbian Patriarchy in doctrinal, legal and organizational sense". The MOC maintains claims that the SOC Metropotanate was installed in Montenegro only after the autocephalous Montenegrin Orthodox Church was dissolved in 1920 against the constitution and canon law.

In September 2008, Serbian Orthodox locals attempted to launch a blockade in the Nikšić area to prevent the MOC from building a church there.[29] Sixty five people were arrested for violating public order.[29]

Holy Synod

On January 11, 2007, MOC restored its own Holy Synod and proclaimed its first decree in which it confirms its autocephalous status. The Holy Synod is constituted by archpriests of MOC, led by Metropolitan Mihailo. The Holy Synod divided Montenegro in five eparchies - Cetinjska, Dukljanska, Primorska, Ostroška and Beranska.

Construction of First Shrine Abroad

Construction of the first MOC shrine abroad, the Holy Church of Righteous Ivan Crnojević, is planned to take place in Lovćenac, Vojvodina, Serbia, with the help of the Association of Ethnic Montenegrins in Serbia Krstaš.[30] A contract for the land on which the new MOC shrine will be built was signed on 5 August 2005.[31] A list with the names of several dozen donations—from Montenegro, USA, Slovenia, Australia and Switzerland—for the construction of a MOC shrine in Serbia has also been published.[32]

Claim to Serbian Orthodox Churches

The Montenegrin Orthodox Church, which was created in 1993, lays a claim to all Orthodox churches, monasteries and chapels in Montenegro built before 1918, and all Serbian Orthodox Churches built after that date with financial assistance from the state. However, the Church of Montenegro wasn't included into the SOC before 1920. They base their claims on their belief that they are the rightful successors of the autocephalous Montenegrin Metropolitanate, which participated in the formation of a imposed Serbian Orthodox Church in 1920. In April 2007 the "President of the Council for the promotion" of the MOC, Stevo Vučinić, was quoted as saying the "we [the MOC] will retake of all the churches and chapels in the towns, and of course the village churches, and the monasteries...we expect resistance, but in no case will we give up".[33] This decision was mass-approved by the Montenegrin public[citation needed]. President of the Republic of Montenegro Filip Vujanović said that he will protect the property of the Serbian Orthodox Church, along with other administrative officials, saying that the MOC should not give up and that they should go to legal suits on specific cases. Despite this, the MOC has claimed that it does not care about anyone's opinion outside its Council calling it irrelevant and is determined to forcibly reclaim their property in Montenegro, currently occupied by SOC.

According to data of Centre of Democracy in Montenegro from February 2007, Serbian Orthodox Church is no longer the most trusted institution in Montenegro by public opinion, although, Montenegrin Orthodox Church is still sixth.[34]

On Wednesday April 18, 2007 the representatives of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church - which has announced that it did not wish to cause an "excessive situation", but that it would enter the Serbian Orthodox Cetinje monastery without regard to the reaction of the Serbian Orthodox Church to their caims and requests - attempted to do so. Special police units prevented their forceful entry and that of several hundred supporters of the MOC. There was some pushing and shoving between the police, and the crowd which had intended to force its way into the monastery. Following this, members of the crowd shouted slogans such as "this isn't Serbia", "whose police are you?" and "Risto, Satan" (a reference to Metropolitan Amfilohije of the SOC).[35]

Churches

  • Chapel, Cetinje
  • Crkva Svetog Petra Cetinjskog, Kotor
  • Crkva Svetog Đorđa, Gavrilovac
  • Crkva Svetog Pravednog Ivana Crnojevića, Lovćenac
  • Crkva Svetog Nikole, Chaco
  • Crkva Svetog Arhanđela, Venado Tuerto

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.cedem.me/fajlovi/editor_fajlovi/istrazivanja/CEDEM_oktobar09.pdf
  2. ^ [201% 20sveti.jpg Metropolitan Petar I Njegoš
  3. ^ .com / MontenegroHistory / images / Photo NjegosBijelaKamilavka.jpg Metropolitan Petar II. Njegoš white kamilavkom
  4. ^ Ustav Sv. Synod Montenegrin autocephalous church from 1904. g.
  5. ^ Slavko Perovic interview, Feral Tribune, July11, 2007
  6. ^ MOC Official Website
  7. ^ Serbia rejects request for registering of Montenegrin Church
  8. ^ Serbia Lifts Ban on Montenegro Church
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ MOC Official Website—communiques
  11. ^ Map of MOC Temples in Montenegro
  12. ^ Montenegrin Orthodox faithful to have church in Australia
  13. ^ Price o crnogorskim iseljenicima u Argentini
  14. ^ CNEWA.com, The Orthodox Church of Bulgaria
  15. ^ Italian Orthodox Church,
  16. ^ http://www.alo.rs/vesti/22668/Ustasa_osniva_pravoslavnu_crkvu
  17. ^ Montenet.org News
  18. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica 1911—Montenegro
  19. ^ The Catalogue of Tzarigrad Patriarchy (April 1855)
  20. ^ Letter of Tzarigrad Patriarch Grigorius to St. Petar I Petrovic Njegos, dated 29 January 1798
  21. ^ Brief History of Montenegrin Orhodox Church - written by MOC itself
  22. ^ Montenegrin Association of Australia - NEKOLIKO SVJEDOČANSTAVA O AUTOKEFALNOSTI - Several Proofs of Autocephalousy
  23. ^ Novak Adžić: Crnogorska pravoslavna crkva u doba dinastije Petrović-Njegoš (1667-1921)
  24. ^ RELIGIJA NA BALKANU - Religion at the Balcans
  25. ^ The Burden of the Balkans (London, 1905)
  26. ^ Boycott by opposition because of CPC
  27. ^ Vojvodina's Montenegrins back Hungarian candidate
  28. ^ Liberal Alliance of Montenegro official site
  29. ^ a b Montenegro: Police arrest 65 in church dispute
  30. ^ Krstaš, Association of Montenegrins in Serbia
  31. ^ Krstaš website
  32. ^ Krstaš website
  33. ^ http://www.vijesti.cg.yu/naslovna.php?akcija=vijest&id=232898
  34. ^ http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:nclnr3WAOikJ:www.cedem.cg.yu/opolls/images/CEDEM_februar07.pdf+povjerenje+u+institucije+crnogorska+pravoslavna+crkva+2007&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1
  35. ^ http://www.b92.net/info/vesti/index.php?yyyy=2007&mm=04&dd=18&nav_category=167&nav_id=242392

External links

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