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Montenegro
Crna Gora
Црна Гора
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemOj, svijetla majska zoro
Montenegrin Cyrillic: Ој, свијетла мајска зоро
"Oh, Bright Dawn of May"

Location of  Montenegro  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Grb Podgorice2.png Podgorica1
42°47′N 19°28′E / 42.783°N 19.467°E / 42.783; 19.467
Official language(s) Montenegrin
Demonym Montenegrin
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Filip Vujanović
 -  Prime Minister Milo Đukanović
 -  Speaker Ranko Krivokapić
Establishment
 -  Independence of Duklja from Byzantine Empire 1042 
 -  Independence from Ottoman Empire 1878 
 -  Independence from Serbia and Montenegro 2006 
Area
 -  Total 13,812 km2 (160th)
5,019 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.5
Population
 -  July 2009 estimate 672,180[1] (164th)
 -  2003 census 620,145 
 -  Density 50/km2 (121st)
115.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $6.955 billion[2] (145th)
 -  Per capita $11,110[2] (72nd)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $4.848 billion[2] (141st)
 -  Per capita $7,817 (56th)
HDI (2006) 0.822 (high) (64th)
Currency Euro ()2 (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .me
Calling code 382
1 The traditional old capital of Montenegro is Cetinje.
2 Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a formal member of the Eurozone.
Montenegro (en-us-Montenegro.ogg /ˌmɒntɨˈneɪɡroʊ/ or /ˌmɒntɨˈniːɡroʊ/), (Montenegrin: Црна Гора/Crna Gora, About this sound listen ) (meaning "Black Mountain" in Montenegrin) is a country located in Southeastern Europe. .It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo[a] to the east and Albania to the southeast.^ It borders Romania in the northeast, Bulgaria in the east, in the south Macedonia and Albania, in the southwest the Adriatic sea, in the west Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, and finally Hungary in the north (Figure 1).
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest rivers in Serbia are the Danube (588 km), Sava, Tisa, Great Morava, West Morava, South Morava, Ibar and Drina on the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina; in Montenegro the Moraca, Zeta, Lim, Piva and Tara.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Slavic tribes settling on the south coast of the Adriatic Sea and inland formed states with different names (Primorje, Duklja, Zeta) and in the fourteenth century the name Montenegro appeared; its first king was crowned in 1077.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] Its capital and largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Prijestonica (Пријестоница), meaning the former Royal Capital City.[4]
.The history of Montenegro dates back from 9th century with the emergence of Duklja, a vassal state of Byzantium.^ Slavic tribes settling on the south coast of the Adriatic Sea and inland formed states with different names (Primorje, Duklja, Zeta) and in the fourteenth century the name Montenegro appeared; its first king was crowned in 1077.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They fought against the Turks and before the end of the eighteenth century Montenegro was an autonomous vassal state; its first laws were passed (1796) and central authority established in 1831.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

In those formative years, Duklja was ruled by the House of Vojislavljević. .In 1042, at the end of his 25-year rule, King Vojislav won a decisive battle near Bar against Byzantium, and Duklja became independent.^ The war crimes case against former KLA (and former Kosovo Protection Corps) Commander Selimi Krasniqi was in pretrial process at year's end.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The war crimes court confirmed the original 20-year sentence; however, the decision was pending on appeal in the Supreme Court at year's end.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The court's decision was pending on appeal in the Supreme Court at year's end.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Duklja's power and prosperity reached their zenith under King Vojislav's son, King Mihailo (1046–81), and his son King Bodin (1081–1101).[5] From the 11th century, it started to be referred to as Zeta. It ended with its incorporation into Raška, and beginning with the Crnojevic dynasty, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora or by the Venetian term monte negro. .A sovereign principality[6] since the Late Middle Ages, Montenegro saw its independence from the Ottoman Empire formally recognized in 1878. From 1918, it was a part of various incarnations of Yugoslavia.^ After the Second World War Yugoslavia became a communist country of six republics, until 1990 when the republics became independent states, with the exception of Serbia and Montenegro which are still united.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.^ INTRODUCTION The union of Serbia and Montenegro* [*As Montenegro voted for and declared its independence from Serbia in June 2006, in future a new profile will be prepared to reflect this] occupies the central part of the Balkan Peninsula between 41 0 50′ and 46 0 12′ North and 18 0 27′ and 23 0 01′ East.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Distribution of precipitation throughout the year is between the continental and Mediterranean type, closer to the continental, with the main maximum in May and June and secondary in October.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.Montenegro is classified as a highly developed country by the Human Development Index and one of two former Yugoslav republics which are marked as "Moderate" on the Failed States Index.^ Police reports stated that Muja's bodyguard and two friends attacked three television reporters, injuring one and breaking a television camera.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro .
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Montenegro is a member of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.^ Filip Vujanovic was elected president in 2003 elections that an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) election observer mission found were conducted generally in accordance with international standards, as were parliamentary elections held in 2002.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state union government's responsibilities are limited to foreign affairs, national security, human and minority rights, and internal and external economic and commercial relations.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the year the government and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) trained police, including on community relations.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Montenegro is also a potential candidate for membership in the European Union; the country presented its official application in 2008, hoping to gain EU candidate status in 2010.[7] Additionally, Montenegro is an official candidate for membership in NATO, having been offered a Membership Action Plan by the alliance in 2009.[8]

Contents

Name

.Crna Gora, sometimes transliterated as Tsrna Gora ("Black Mountain"), is mentioned for the first time in 1296 by Serbian King Stefan Uroš II Milutin in his edict to the Serbian Orthodox Zeta Episcopate seat at the Vranjina island in Lake Skadar from 1296[9].^ Serbs were mentioned for the first time as a people or nation in a written document in 822 .
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.The origin of the term lies in the Slavic reference to excessively mountainous regions, often emerging in the medieval Serbian realm.^ Police often referred suspected trafficking victims to the IOM through OSCE regional officers.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mentioned afterwards in most House of Nemanjić's edicts and in subsequent Venetian sources in the 13th and 14th centuries, signifying the area of the Upper Zeta, the name stabilized itself for a Principality in the second half of the 15th century under Lord Ivan Crnojević, mostly confounding erroneously the term with the dynasty's name, which both have similar roots.^ Research on buildings to provide the most favourable conditions for high production has been undertaken; housed cattle were tied, free or a combination of both.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The government published the daily Borba and owned one of the country's most important printing houses, also named Borba.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The region itself became remembered as Old Montenegro (Стара Црна Гора/Stara Crna Gora) as by the 19th century the The Highlands  were added to the state, and Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century during wars against the Ottomans, expanding its name to and annexing Old Herzegovina and parts of Old Serbia, most notably Metohija and southern Rashka.^ Slavic tribes settling on the south coast of the Adriatic Sea and inland formed states with different names (Primorje, Duklja, Zeta) and in the fourteenth century the name Montenegro appeared; its first king was crowned in 1077.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They fought against the Turks and before the end of the eighteenth century Montenegro was an autonomous vassal state; its first laws were passed (1796) and central authority established in 1831.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The state changed little to modern day reference, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor. The name of the region gave the name to its people, the Montenegrins (Црногорци/Crnogorci).
.The country's name in most Western European languages, including English, reflects an adoption of the Italian-Venetian term monte negro, meaning "black mount", which probably dates back to the era of Venetian hegemony over the area in the Middle Ages.^ The government published the daily Borba and owned one of the country's most important printing houses, also named Borba.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other languages, particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term "black mountain" (e.g. .Albanian: Mali i Zi, Bulgarian: Черна гора, Cherna gora, Czech: Černá Hora, Greek: Μαυροβούνιο / Mavrovoúnio, Polish: Czarnogóra, Romanian: Muntenegru, Slovene: Črna Gora, Slovak: Čierna hora, Turkish: Karadağ)).^ Minorities constituted 25 to 30 percent of Serbia's population and included Hungarians, Bosniaks, Roma, Slovaks, Romanians, Vlachs, Bulgarians, Croats, Albanians, and others.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Names from further afield include Russian: Черногория, Chernogoriya, Icelandic: Svartfjallaland and Chinese: 黑山 (pinyin: "hēishān".[10]).
The ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE.[11]

History

1080 AD. The zenith of Dukljan power

Ancient times

The first recorded settlers of present-day Montenegro were Illyrians, the Docleata. In 9 AD the Romans conquered the region of present-day Montenegro. Slavs massively colonized the area in the 5th and 6th centuries, forming a semi-independent principality, Duklja, that was involved in Balkan medieval politics with ties to Rascia and Byzantium and to a lesser extent Bulgaria.

Middle Ages

Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Empire in 1042. In the next few decades Duklja expanded its territory to the neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia and also became recognised as a kingdom. Its power started declining at the ending of the 11th century and by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into Serbian realm. .The newly acquired land, then called Zeta, was governed by the Serbian Nemanjić dynasty.^ The Belgrade Islamic community reported continued difficulties in acquiring land and government approval for an Islamic cemetery in the city.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, another family came to prominence by expanding their power in the region, the Balšićs. In 1421 it was annexed to the Serbian Despotate, but after 1455 another noble family from Zeta, the Crnojevićs, ruled Montenegro. They were to rule Montenegro until 1499, making it the last free monarchy of the Balkans before it fell to the Ottomans, who annexed it to the sanjak of Shkodër. For a short time Montenegro existed as a separate autonomous sanjak in 1514–1528, another version of which existed again some time between 1597 and 1614.

Ottoman rule and Metropolitanate

In the 16th century Montenegro developed a form of special and unique autonomy within the Ottoman Empire: the local Montenegrin clans were also free of many bonds due to Montenegro's autonomy. Nevertheless the Montenegrins refused to accept Ottoman reign and in the 17th century raised numerous rebellions, culminating with the Ottoman defeat in the Great Turkish War at the end of that century. Montenegro became a theocracy led by the Montenegrin Orthodox Metropolitans, flourishing since the Petrović-Njegoš became the traditional Prince-Bishops (whose title was "Vladika of Montenegro"). The Venetian Republic introduced governors that meddled in Montenegrin politics; when the republic was succeeded by the Austrian Empire in 1797, the governors were abolished by Prince-Bishop Petar II in 1832. His predecessor Petar I contributed to the unification of Montenegro with the Highlands.
Nicholas I of Montenegro, the only king of Montenegro.

20th century

.Under Nicholas I, the Principality of Montenegro vastly advanced and enlarged several times in the Montenegro-Turkish Wars and achieved recognition of independence in 1878. Modernization of the state followed, culminating with the draft of a Constitution in 1905. Political rifts for the first time emerged between the reigning People's Party that supported democratization of the ruler's autocratic regime and unconditional union with Serbia and the minor pro-monarch True People's Party.^ The state union ministries of foreign affairs and human and minority rights also participated.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state union government's responsibilities are limited to foreign affairs, national security, human and minority rights, and internal and external economic and commercial relations.
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^ There were 7 members of minorities in the 126-seat state union parliament and 11 members of minorities in the 250-seat Serbian parliament.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1910 Montenegro became a Kingdom. .It initiated the Balkan wars in 1912 and 1913 in which the Ottomans lost all lands in the Balkans, achieving a common border with Serbia, but Shkodër was awarded to a newly created Albania.^ With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire to the Balkan Peninsula, confrontations and wars started again.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agricultural land as a percentage of all land in Serbia is shown in Figure 2, while arable land as a percentage of agricultural land in Serbia is given in Figure 3.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agricultural land as percentage of all land in Serbia (after Markovic, 1993) .
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.In World War I in 1914 Montenegro sided with Serbia against the Central Powers, suffering a full scale defeat to Austria-Hungary in early 1916. In 1918 the Allies liberated Montenegro, which was subsequently merged with Serbia.^ Representatives of the Union of Jewish Communities of Serbia and Montenegro reported continued incidents of anti-Semitism but no physical violence against Jewish persons.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1904 Montenegro declared war on Japan in support of Russia. .However, Montenegro inexplicably failed to adhere to the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905 and so remained at war with Japan until 1918, although no hostilities occurred.^ Some such children worked in the "gray zone" between voluntary and forced labor; however, there were no reports that such practices occurred systematically.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Second World War Yugoslavia became a communist country of six republics, until 1990 when the republics became independent states, with the exception of Serbia and Montenegro which are still united.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

History of Montenegro
Coat of Arms of Montenegro
This article is part of a series
Praevalitana
Duklja
Principality of Zeta
Montenegro Province, Ottoman Empire
Principality of Montenegro
Kingdom of Montenegro
Zeta Banovina
Kingdom of Montenegro
Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Republic of Montenegro (federal)
Montenegro

Montenegro Portal
 v • d • e 
In 1922 Montenegro formally became the Zeta Area of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and in 1929 it became a part of a larger Zeta Banate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In World War II Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis forces in 1941, who established a puppet Independent State of Montenegro, liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans in 1944. Montenegro became a constituent republic of the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), its capital renamed to Titograd in honor of Partisan leader and SFRY president Josip "Tito" Broz. .More and more autonomy was established, until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution 1974 (however, this RFM remained a constituent republic of the SFRY).^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state union government does not have an autonomous human rights ombudsman; however, during the year the Serbian government established a new ombudsman's office in Belgrade.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the dissolution of the SFRY in 1992, Montenegro remained part of a smaller Federal Republic of Yugoslavia along with Serbia.^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The verdict named former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic, on trial before the ICTY, as the main instigator of the political assassination.
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^ According to the 2005 refugee re-registration process, there were approximately 140 thousand refugees in Serbia from other successor states of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, primarily Croatia (100 thousand) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (40 thousand).
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the referendum on remaining in Yugoslavia in 1992, 95.96% of the votes were cast for remaining in the federation with Serbia, although the turnout was at 66% because of a boycott by the Muslim, Albanian and Catholic minorities as well as the pro-independence Montenegrins.^ While most officers were Serbs, the force included Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), ethnic Hungarians, a small number of ethnic Albanians, and other ethnic minorities.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minorities constituted 25 to 30 percent of Serbia's population and included Hungarians, Bosniaks, Roma, Slovaks, Romanians, Vlachs, Bulgarians, Croats, Albanians, and others.
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.The opposition claimed that the poll was organized under anti-democratic conditions, during wartime in the former Yugoslavia, with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favor of a pro-federation vote.^ The verdict named former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic, on trial before the ICTY, as the main instigator of the political assassination.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The center also offered assistance to refugee women (mostly Serb), many of whom experienced extreme abuse or rape during the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia.
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^ The armed forces are under the control of the state union government and are responsible for national security.
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.There is no impartial report on the fairness of the referendum, as the 1992 referendum was totally unmonitored, unlike the 2006 vote, which was closely monitored by the European Union.^ There were no reports of political detainees.
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^ There were no reports of political prisoners.
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^ There were no reports that international prison monitoring groups visited Kosovo's prisons or detention centers during the year.
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.During the 1991–1995 Bosnian War and Croatian War, Montenegrin members of police and military forces participated in the attacks on Dubrovnik, Croatia[12] and Bosnian towns along with Serbian troops, aggressive acts aimed at acquiring more territories by force, characterized by a consistent pattern of gross and systematic violations of human rights[13].^ On December 12, the court passed its first verdict in the Ovcara case (also known as the Vukovar massacre), convicting 14 Serbs of murder, torture, and inhumane treatment of more than 200 Croatian prisoners of war in 1991.
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^ The state union ministries of foreign affairs and human and minority rights also participated.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 31, a lawyer for the Leskovac Committee for Human Rights reported that a police officer in Leskovac, Goran Velickovic, had beaten him.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Montenegrin General Pavle Strugar has since been convicted for his part in the bombing of Dubrovnik.[14] Bosnian refugees were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča, where they were subjected to systematic torture and executed.[15][16]
In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government severed ties between Montenegro and the Serbian regime, which was then under Milošević. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the German Deutsche Mark as its currency. It has since adopted the Euro, though it is not formally part of the Eurozone currency union. .Subsequent governments of Montenegro carried out pro-independence policies, originally restored by the Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade.^ Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government .
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Targets in Montenegro were bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in 1999, although the extent of these attacks was very limited in both time and the area affected.^ Defendants enjoy the presumption of innocence and the right of appeal; although the government at times influenced the judiciary, these rights were generally respected in practice.
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^ Although these services generally were effective in maintaining basic law and order, their effectiveness in fighting organized crime was limited.
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^ In addition, the law provides for special courts for war crimes and organized crime; these were operational during the year within the Belgrade district court.
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[17]
.In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement regarding continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.^ The report on Serbia and Montenegro is divided into three sections addressing the human rights situations in Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro.
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^ Non-Orthodox religious organizations continued to report difficulty obtaining permission from local authorities in Serbia to build new worship facilities.
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^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2003, the Yugoslav federation was replaced in favor of a more decentralized state union named Serbia and Montenegro.^ Discussion of state union-level activities and institutions affecting human rights is included in the Serbia section.
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^ A state-affiliated trade union federation dominated organized labor, due to preference for unions belonging to it by the managements of the state-owned industries that dominated the economy.
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^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
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Independence

Front page of Pobjeda following the successful independence referendum
.The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by the referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate.^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
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^ Representatives of the Union of Jewish Communities of Serbia and Montenegro reported continued incidents of anti-Semitism but no physical violence against Jewish persons.
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^ Serbia and Montenegro is a state union consisting of the relatively large Republic of Serbia and the much smaller Republic of Montenegro.
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230,661 votes or 55.5% were for independence and 185,002 votes or 44.5% were against.[18] The 45,659 difference narrowly surpassed the 55% threshold needed to validate the referendum under the rules set by the European Union. According to the electoral commission, the 55% threshold was passed by only 2,300 votes. .Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council have all recognised Montenegro's independence.^ The state union government's responsibilities are limited to foreign affairs, national security, human and minority rights, and internal and external economic and commercial relations.
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^ In order to negotiate with the government, a union must have 10 percent of all workforce employees as members.
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^ There were no women in the 5-member state union cabinet and 1 woman in the 16-member Serbian cabinet.
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.The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions, headed by an OSCE/ODIHR monitoring team, and around 3,000 observers in total (including domestic observers from CEMI, CEDEM and other organizations).^ Human rights observers, including those of the OSCE and some local NGOs, were active in documenting ethnically or politically motivated killings, attacks, and incidents of intimidation.
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^ Filip Vujanovic was elected president in 2003 elections that an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) election observer mission found were conducted generally in accordance with international standards, as were parliamentary elections held in 2002.
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^ An OSCE election observation mission reported that December 2003 Serbian republic parliamentary elections were conducted generally in line with international standards.
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.The OSCE/ODIHR joined efforts with the observers of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (OSCE PA), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe (CLRAE) and the European Parliament (EP) to form an International Referendum Observation Mission (IROM).^ Human rights observers, including those of the OSCE and some local NGOs, were active in documenting ethnically or politically motivated killings, attacks, and incidents of intimidation.
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^ Filip Vujanovic was elected president in 2003 elections that an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) election observer mission found were conducted generally in accordance with international standards, as were parliamentary elections held in 2002.
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^ A Council of Europe mission assessed that approximately $13.1 million (9.7 million euros) would be required to repair and restore the damaged sites.
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.The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation."^ An OSCE and Council of Europe election observation mission reported that the June 2004 Serbian republic presidential elections were peaceful and conducted essentially in line with international standards.
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^ Filip Vujanovic was elected president in 2003 elections that an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) election observer mission found were conducted generally in accordance with international standards, as were parliamentary elections held in 2002.
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^ A Council of Europe mission assessed that approximately $13.1 million (9.7 million euros) would be required to repair and restore the damaged sites.
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.Furthermore, the report assessed that the competitive pre-referendum environment was marked by an active and generally peaceful campaign and that "there were no reports of restrictions on fundamental civil and political rights."^ There were no reports of political detainees.
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^ There were no reports of political prisoners.
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^ There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.
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On 3 June 2006, the Parliament of Montenegro declared the independence of Montenegro,[19] formally confirming the result of the referendum on independence. .Serbia did not obstruct the ruling, confirming its own independence and declaring the union of Serbia and Montenegro ended shortly thereafter.^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
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^ Representatives of the Union of Jewish Communities of Serbia and Montenegro reported continued incidents of anti-Semitism but no physical violence against Jewish persons.
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^ Serbia and Montenegro is a state union consisting of the relatively large Republic of Serbia and the much smaller Republic of Montenegro.
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.Relations between Serbia and Montenegro were strained on 6 September 2007 after Montenegro banned Serbian Orthodox Church leader Bishop Filaret from entering the country.^ While significant parts of the ethnic Albanian community continued to view the Serbian Orthodox Church as a symbol of Serbian nationalism, relations between leaders of the ethnic Albanian community and the Serbian Orthodox Church improved slightly during the year as PISG officials and political figures met on several occasions with church clergy.
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^ Tensions continued between the canonically unrecognized Montenegrin Orthodox Church and the Serbian Orthodox Church.
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^ Authorities reportedly acted because the local Serbian Orthodox clergy had not approved the church.
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.The tension escalated when an adviser to the Serbian prime minister called Montenegro a quasi-state, prompting Podgorica to seek an apology and lodge a protest with Serbia's government[20].^ Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica has led Serbia's multiparty government since March 2004.
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^ On March 30, police prevented approximately 300 members of the Association of Free and Independent Unions from protesting in front of a Serbian government building.
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^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
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.The Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia, Božidar Đelić, sent a note of apology to Montenegro following the statement made by Serbian Premier's Aide Aleksandar Simic.^ Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica has led Serbia's multiparty government since March 2004.
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[21][22]

Geography

Map of Montenegro
Lake in Durmitor National Park
.Internationally, Montenegro borders Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania.^ According to the IOM, of the victims from outside Kosovo it has assisted since 2000, over 45 percent were from Moldova, 19 percent from Romania, 12 percent from Ukraine, and the rest from Bulgaria, Albania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Nigeria.
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^ The report on Serbia and Montenegro is divided into three sections addressing the human rights situations in Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro.
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^ Domestic courts and the ICTY continued to try cases arising from crimes committed during the 1991-99 conflicts in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo (see sections 1.e.
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Historically, its territory was divided into "nahije".
Some of the biggest cities and towns in Montenegro are:
City City
Population
Coat
of arms
Podgorica (Capital) 136,473 PodgoricaCOA.png
Nikšić 58,212 Niksic-Grb.gif
Pljevlja 21,377 Pljevlja-grb.png
Bijelo Polje 15,883 BijeloPoljeGrb.gif
Cetinje 15,137 Grb-Cetinja.gif
Bar 13,719 CoatBR.jpg
Herceg Novi 12,739 Herceg Novi CoA.png
Berane 11,776 Berane grb grada.jpg
.Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only one to four miles (6 km) wide.^ Serbia was primarily a transit point for internationally trafficked women going to Kosovo as well as to Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, and Western Europe.
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The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovćen and Mount Orjen plunge into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor.
.Montenegro's large Karst region lies generally at elevations of 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) above sea level; some parts, however, rise to 2,000 metres (6,560 ft), such as Mount Orjen (1,894 m/6,214 ft), the highest massif among the coastal limestone ranges.^ Some local judges also wrongly issued deportation orders against women convicted of prostitution or lack of documents; however, UNMIK did not enforce such orders.
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^ Prison conditions generally met international standards; however, conditions varied greatly between facilities, and some guards abused prisoners.
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^ Prison conditions generally met international standards; however, some problems remained.
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The Zeta River valley, at an elevation of 500 meters (1,640 ft), is the lowest segment.
The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe. They average more than 2,000 metres (6,560 ft) in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains, which reaches a height of 2,522 metres (8,274 ft). The Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.

Government and politics

Presidential Palace, Cetinje
See also: Foreign relations of Montenegro, Military of Montenegro
.The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a "civic, democratic, ecological state of social justice, based on the reign of Law".[23] It is an independent and sovereign Republic.^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
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^ The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status; however, the government did not effectively enforce it in practice.
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^ Serbia and Montenegro is a state union consisting of the relatively large Republic of Serbia and the much smaller Republic of Montenegro.
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It proclaimed its new Constitution on 22 October 2007.
President Filip Vujanović
.The President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore) is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections.^ The country has a population of 10.8 million ** and is headed by President Svetozar Marovic, who was elected by parliament in 2003.
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^ The law provides citizens with the right to change their government peacefully, and citizens exercised this right in practice through periodic elections held on the basis of universal suffrage.
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^ The law provides citizens the right to change their government peacefully, and citizens exercised this right in practice through periodic, free, and fair elections held on the basis of universal suffrage.
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.The President represents the republic in the country and abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament, proposes candidates for the Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament, proposes to the Parliament calling of a referendum, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards, and performs all other duties in accordance with the Constitution.^ In 2001 UNMIK promulgated the constitutional framework for the PISG. Under the constitutional framework, a 120-member Kosovo Assembly selects a president, a prime minister, and other ministers and PISG officials.
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^ Ethnic Albanians and Bosniaks participated in the political process, and their parties, candidates, and voters participated in all elections; Roma were significantly underrepresented in the government.
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^ As envisioned in the constitutional framework, on April 21, the Kosovo Assembly passed and, on July 11, the special representative of the UN secretary-general (SRSG) promulgated, a law on the formation of a permanent independent media commission to regulate the broadcast media.
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The President is also a member of the Supreme Defence Council. The official residence of the President is in Cetinje.
.The Government of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vlada Crne Gore) is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro.^ There was a widespread perception of government corruption, particularly in the executive and judicial branches.
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.The Government is headed by the Prime Minister, and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers.^ Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica has led Serbia's multiparty government since March 2004.
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^ The prime minister's office of good governance, the Ministry of Education, and the IOM distributed antitrafficking educational materials for use in primary and secondary schools.
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The Parliament of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Skupština Crne Gore) is the unicameral legislative body. .It passes all laws in Montenegro, ratifies international treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution.^ At year's end the Belgrade special court for organized crime continued the trial of three dozen suspects in the 2003 assassination of prime minister Djindjic.
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^ In 2001 UNMIK promulgated the constitutional framework for the PISG. Under the constitutional framework, a 120-member Kosovo Assembly selects a president, a prime minister, and other ministers and PISG officials.
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^ UNMIK promulgated regulations that addressed the civil and legal responsibilities of governmental entities and private individuals and ratified laws passed by the Kosovo Assembly.
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The Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence on the Government by a majority of the members. One representative is elected per 6,000 voters, which in turn results in a reduction of total number of representatives in the Parliament of Montenegro. The present parliament contains 81 seats, with a 47-seat majority currently held by the Coalition for a European Montenegro as a result of the 2009 parliamentary election.

Symbols

A new official flag of Montenegro was adopted on 13 July 2004 by the Montenegrin legislature. The new flag is based on the royal standard of King Nikola I of Montenegro. This flag was all red with a silver border, a silver coat of arms, and the initials НІ in Cyrillic script (corresponding to NI in Latin script) representing King Nikola I. On the current flag, the border and arms were changed from silver to gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms was omitted and replaced with a golden lion.
The national day of 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world [24] and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.
In 2004, the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, Oh, Bright Dawn of May, as the national anthem. Montenegro's official anthem during the reign of King Nikola was Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori (To our beautiful Montenegro).

Administrative subdivisions

Montenegro is divided into twenty-one municipalities (opština), and two urban municipalities, subdivisions of Podgorica municipality:
Municipalities of Montenegro

Military

The Military of Montenegro is composed of an army, navy, air force, and a special forces component. As of 2009 it is organized as a fully professional standing army. It works under the Ministry of Defense with the aim of protecting and defending Montenegro and its sovereignty. Montenegro's goal is to eventually join NATO after modernization and reorganization of its military.[25]. Future plans for the army are to participate more in peacekeeping missions through various United Nations and NATO peacekeeping missions like ISAF.[26]

Economy

Budva is one of the main tourist destinations
The economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. According to the IMF, the nominal GDP of Montenegro was $4.822 billion in 2008. The GDP PPP for 2008 was $6.944 billion, or $11,111 per capita.[27]
GDP grew at an impressive 10.7% in 2007 and 7.5% in 2008[27]. The country entered a recession in 2008 as a part of the global recession, with GDP contracting by 4%. However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign investment, the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment during the recession.[28] The country is expected to exit the recession in mid-2010, with GDP growth predicted at around 0.5%.[29] However, the significant dependence of the Montenegrin economy on foreign direct investment leaves it susceptible to external shocks and a high export/import trade deficit.
In 2007, the service sector made up for 72.4% of GDP, with industry and agriculture making up the rest at 17.6% and 10%, respectively.[30].
According to Eurostat data, the Montenegrin GDP per capita stood at 46% of the EU average in 2008.[31]
Aluminum and steel production and agricultural processing make up for most of the industrial output in Montenegro.
Tourism is an important contributor to Montenegrin economy. Approximately one million tourists visited Montenegro in 2007, resulting in €480 million of tourism revenue. Tourism is considered the backbone of future economic growth, and government expenditures on infrastructure improvements are largely target towards that goal.

Infrastructure

The Montenegrin road infrastructure is not on par with European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards, though two current roadway projects projects, the Bar - Boljare motorway and the Montenegrin section of Adriatic Ionian motorway, should change this. Construction of these motorways is considered a national priority, as both are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination.
Current European routes that pass through Montenegro are E65 and E80.
The backbone of the Montenegrin rail network is the Belgrade - Bar railway. This railway intersects with Nikšić - Tirana(Albania) at Podgorica, however, this railway is not used for passenger service.
Montenegro has two international airports, Podgorica Airport and Tivat Airport. The two airports served 1.1 million passengers in 2008. Montenegro Airlines is the flag carrier of Montenegro.
The Port of Bar is Montenegro's main seaport. .Initially built in 1906, the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II, with reconstruction beginning in 1950. Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years.^ Both the ICRC and the Helsinki Committee of Montenegro made several visits during the year.
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^ The special war crimes court commenced several trials during the year.
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^ There were prisons in Lipljan and Dubrava as well as five detention centers in operation during the year.
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The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity.

Tourism

Montenegro is well suited for development of all kinds of tourism, as it has both a picturesque coast and a mountainous northern region. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s, yet, the Yugoslav wars that were fought in neighboring countries during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and destroyed the image of Montenegro as a tourist destination.
It was not until 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of tourist visits and overnight stays. The Government of Montenegro has set the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination a top priority. It is a national strategy to make tourism a major, if not the single largest, contributor to the Montenegrin economy. A number of steps were taken to attract foreign investors into Montenegro's tourism industry. .Some large projects are already under way, such as Porto Montenegro, while other locations, like Jaz Beach, Buljarica, Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana, have perhaps the greatest potential to attract future investments and become premium tourist spots on the Adriatic.^ Some settlements were located on valuable industrial or commercial sites where private owners wanted to resume control; others were on the premises of state-owned enterprises due to be privatized.
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Some of the problems that currently hamper the development of Montenegrin tourism are inadequate infrastructure, notably the road infrastructure in the north, and electricity and water supply in the south of the country. The informal construction is also a problem.

Demographics

Ethnic map of the Republic of Montenegro according to the 2003 census.      Montenegrins      Serbs      Bosniaks      Albanians      Muslims      Croats      Romas      No ethnic majority      No inhabitants or unknown

Ethnicity

According to 2003 census, Montenegro has 620,145 citizens. If the methodology used up to 1991 had been adopted in the 2003 census, Montenegro would officially have recorded 673,094 citizens. Most recent estimates stake somewhere below 700,000 inhabitants.
When the census was taken Montenegro was a non-national civic state. .In the meantime, the Constitution was changed, hence it now recognizes the major ethnic groups living in it: Montenegrins, Serbs, Bosniaks, Muslims, Albanians and Croats.^ During the year the office for gender equality assumed responsibility over 26 ethnic Albanian and 4 ethnic Serb municipal gender officers previously under the office of good governance.
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^ In Mitrovica, ethnic Serbs in the northern part of the city continued to occupy ethnic Albanian properties, while ethnic Albanians in the southern part occupied and denied ethnic Serbs access to their property.
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^ While most officers were Serbs, the force included Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), ethnic Hungarians, a small number of ethnic Albanians, and other ethnic minorities.
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Thus, the number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates wildly from census to census, not due to real changes in the populace, but due to changes in how people experience their identity.[32]
Ethnic composition according to the 2004 official data:[33]
Number %
TOTAL 620,145 100
Montenegrins 267,669 43.16
Serbs 198,414 31.99
Bosniaks 48,184 7.77
Ethnic Muslims 36,479 5.07
Albanians 24,163 3.01
Croats 6,811 1.1
Roma 2,601 0.42
Yugoslavs 1,860 0.3
Italians 500 0.08
others 38,818 6.18
According the newest report, there are 24,610 total refugees from the Yugoslav wars in Montenegro, forming 4.2% of the total population. .16,136 are refugees from Kosovo after 1999 and 8,474 expelled[citation needed] from Croatia and Bosnia.^ The government provided temporary protection to individuals from Bosnia and Herzegovina and from Croatia who may not qualify as refugees under the 1951 convention and its 1967 protocol.
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^ Serbia was primarily a transit point for internationally trafficked women going to Kosovo as well as to Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, and Western Europe.
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[citation needed]

Language

Linguistic map of the Republic of Montenegro according to the 2003 census.
Most citizens speak the Serbian language of the Iyekavian dialect. .However, as of 2004 the moves for an independent Montenegrin language were promoted and with the new 2007 Constitution it became Montenegro's prime official language.^ In 2001 UNMIK promulgated the constitutional framework for the PISG. Under the constitutional framework, a 120-member Kosovo Assembly selects a president, a prime minister, and other ministers and PISG officials.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On October 20, the Serbian post office confiscated promotional materials (such as leaflets, lighters, pens) of the Movement for an Independent Montenegro while the group was in Belgrade for a news conference.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Next to it, Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are recognized in usage. All of these languages except for Albanian are virtually identical in common usage.
Number %
TOTAL 620,145 100
Serbian 393,740 63.49
Montenegrin 136,208 21.96
Bosnian/Bosniac 34,078 5.49
Albanian 32,603 5.26
Croatian 2,791 0.45
Italian 500 0.08
other 20,725 3.26

Religion

Religion map of the Republic of Montenegro according to the 2003 census.
.Most Montenegrin inhabitants are Orthodox Christians, followers of the Serbian Orthodox Church's Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral and the Montenegrin Orthodox Church.^ Authorities reportedly acted because the local Serbian Orthodox clergy had not approved the church.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Serbian Orthodox Church claimed the government applied the restitution law in a discriminatory manner.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bishop Teodosije of the Serbian Orthodox Church asserted that, on December 31, the municipality of Gjakova erected a monument to ethnic Albanian members of the KLA on land owned by the church.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The religious institutions all have guaranteed rights and are separate from the state.^ Discussion of state union-level activities and institutions affecting human rights is included in the Serbia section.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The court of the state union is responsible for coordinating jurisprudence in the state union, resolving jurisdictional disputes between Serbian and Montenegrin institutions, ruling on alleged violations of rights guaranteed by the state union constitutional charter, and settling disputes that the state union's joint customs office is unable to resolve.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a sizeable number of Sunni Muslims in Montenegro that maintain their own Islamic Community of Montenegro.^ There were a number of NGOs investigating human rights cases, including Helsinki Committee of Montenegro and the Center for Democracy and Human Rights.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a small Roman Catholic population, divided between the Archdiocese of Antivari headed by Primate of Serbia and the Diocese of Kotor that is a part of the Church of Croatia.^ For this report, Kosovo's population of 2.1 million is included as part of Serbia's population.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no state religion, although the republic constitution mentions the Orthodox Church, the Islamic community, and the Roman Catholic Church as equal and separate from the state; however, the Serbian Orthodox Church received some preferential treatment in practice.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Religious determination according to the census:
Number %
TOTAL 620,145 100
Orthodox 460,383 74.24
Muslim 110,034 17.74
Roman Catholic 21,972 3.54
other 27,756 4.48

Culture

The Church of Our Lady of the Rocks, an example of Roman Catholic architecture in Montenegro.
National Museum of Montenegro in Cetinje (Former Palace of King Nikola I)
The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. .The influence of Orthodox, Slavonic, Central European, Islamic, and seafaring Adriatic cultures (notably parts of Italy, like the Republic of Venice) have been the most important in recent centuries.^ Ethnic Serbs identified with the Serbian Orthodox Church, which influenced their cultural, historical, political, and religious views (see section 5).
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in Kotor[34] (Cattaro under the Venetians), the basilica of St. Luke (over 800 years), Our Lady of the Rocks (Škrpjela), the Savina Monastery and others. Montenegro's medieval monasteries contain thousands of square metres of frescos on their walls.
The traditional folk dance of the Montenegrins is the Oro, a circle dance that involves dancers standing on each other's shoulders in a circle while one or two dancers are dancing in the middle.
The first literary works written in the region are ten centuries old, and the first Montenegrin book was printed five hundred years ago. .The first state-owned printing press was located in Cetinje in 1494, where the first South Slavic book, Oktoih, was printed the same year.^ Some settlements were located on valuable industrial or commercial sites where private owners wanted to resume control; others were on the premises of state-owned enterprises due to be privatized.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The print media consisted of private news outlets and one national state-owned newspaper, which published a wide variety of domestic and foreign articles.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ancient manuscripts, dating from the thirteenth century, are kept in the Montenegrin monasteries.[35]
.Montenegro's capital Podgorica and the former royal capital of Cetinje are the two most important centers of culture and the arts in the country.^ The government published the daily Borba and owned one of the country's most important printing houses, also named Borba.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ethical beliefs

A very important dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethical ideal of Čojstvo i Junaštvo, "Humanity and Gallantry" [36][37] Another result of its centuries-long warrior history, it is the unwritten code of chivalry that stipulates that to deserve a true respect by those around him, a person has to show virtues of integrity, dignity, humility, self-sacrifice for the just cause, respect for others, and rectitude along with bravery. In the old days of battle, it resulted in Montenegrins fighting to the death, as being captured was considered the greatest shame.
This code of conduct is still very much ingrained, to a greater or lesser extent, in every Montenegrin's ethical beliefs system and it is essential that it be kept in mind in order to truly understand them. .Coming from non-warrior backgrounds, most of other South-Slavic nations never fully grasp it, resulting in reactions from totally ignoring it, in the best case, to mocking it or ignorantly equating it with backwardness.^ A total of 52 of the 53 cases completed by October resulted in convictions, with sentences ranging from judicial reprimands to imprisonment.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most extraordinary examples of Montenegrin conduct during its long history can be traced to the code.

Education

Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Montenegrin Ministry of Education and Science.
Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. .Children enroll in elementary schools (Montenegrin: Osnovna škola) at the age of 6; it lasts 9 years.^ During the year 48 elementary and secondary schools offered weekly Romani language and culture classes in which 1,336 students participated.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The official minimum age for employment is 15 years, although in farming communities it was common to find younger children assisting their families.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNMIK regulations require children between the ages of 6 and 15 to enroll in public school; however, a few children from minority (excluding ethnic Serb) communities did not attend PISG-run public school due to security concerns.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The students may continue their secondary education (Montenegrin: Srednja škola), which lasts 4 years (3 years for trade schools) and ends with graduation (Matura).^ During the year 48 elementary and secondary schools offered weekly Romani language and culture classes in which 1,336 students participated.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main opposition party, the Democratic Party of Kosovo, continued to criticize the government for corruption and presented its allegations to UNMIK for investigation; at year's end UNMIK stated that its investigation was continuing.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At year's end the Belgrade special court for organized crime continued the trial of three dozen suspects in the 2003 assassination of prime minister Djindjic.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Higher education lasts with a certain first degree after 3 to 6 years.

Sport

The Sport in Montenegro revolves mostly around team sports: football, basketball, water polo, volleyball and handball. Also involved are boxing, judo, karate, athletics, table tennis, and chess. The main football club in Montenegro is FK Budućnost Podgorica from capital Podgorica. Montenegro hosted together with Serbia EuroBasket 2005. Previously, all National Teams were known as Yugoslavian national teams, as Montenegro was part of Yugoslavia. On 24 March 2007, the Montenegrin national team came from behind to win its first ever fixture, 2-1, in a friendly game against Hungary at the Podgorica Stadium.[38] On their 119th Session in Guatemala City in July 2007, the International Olympic Committee granted recognition and membership to the newly formed Montenegrin National Olympic Committee. Montenegro made its debut at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
.Water Polo is one of the most popular sports in the country.^ The government published the daily Borba and owned one of the country's most important printing houses, also named Borba.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Montenegro won the European Championships in Malaga, Spain on 13 July 2008 over Serbia 6-5 in a game that was tied 5-5 after four quarters.[39] This was Montenegro's first major international competition for which they had to qualify through two LEN tournaments. Montenegro won the gold medal at the 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League which was held in Podgorica, capital city.[40] Montenegrin team PVK Primorac from Kotor became a champion of Europe at the LEN Euroleague 2009 in Rijeka, Croatia. .Montenegro’s first division in water polo consists of six clubs, four of them with an annual budget of one million Euros and more - VK Primorac Kotor (2007 and 2008 Montenegro champions), VK Jadran Herceg Novi (2006 champions of Serbia-Montenegro), VK Budvanska Rivijera Budva, VK Cattaro.^ Serbia and Montenegro is a state union consisting of the relatively large Republic of Serbia and the much smaller Republic of Montenegro.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Montenegro's water polo Olympic team finished fourth overall at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing.

Cuisine

Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegro's long history. It's variation of Mediterranean and Oriental. The most influence is from Italy, Turkey, Byzantine Empire/Greece, and as well from Hungary. Montenegrin cuisine also varies geographically; the cuisine in the coastal area differs from the one in the northern highland region. The coastal area is traditionally a representative of Mediterranean cuisine, with seafood being a common dish, while the northern represents more the Oriental.

In popular culture

The first official international representation of Montenegro as an independent state was in Miss World 2006, held on 30 September 2006 in Warsaw, Poland. Ivana Knežević from the city of Bar was the first Miss Montenegro at any international beauty pageant.[41] .Both Montenegro and Serbia competed separately in this pageant for the first time after the state union came to an end.^ MONTENEGRO Montenegro, with a population of approximately 673 thousand, is a constituent republic of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discussion of state union-level activities and institutions affecting human rights is included in the Serbia section.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Representatives of the Union of Jewish Communities of Serbia and Montenegro reported continued incidents of anti-Semitism but no physical violence against Jewish persons.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Part of the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale is set in Montenegro[42], although most of the filming was done in the Czech Republic.
Nero Wolfe, the eccentric fictional detective created by American writer Rex Stout, is Montenegrin by birth. One Nero Wolfe novel, The Black Mountain, takes place in Tito-era Montenegro.
Jay Gatsby, the main character of the F. Scott Fitzgerald novel The Great Gatsby, was given a medal of honour by the Montenegrin King Nicholas I.
The setting for Franz Lehár's 1905 operetta The Merry Widow is the Paris embassy of the Grand Duchy of Pontevedro. Pontevedro is a fictionalized version of Montenegro and several of the characters were loosely based on actual Montenegrin nobility.
A Corto Maltese novel, "The Celts", features the chapter "Under The Flag Of Money" revolving around a group of people led by Maltese trying to seize the treasure of King Nicholas I from a small village in Italy during the Battle of Caporetto. At the end of the chapter it is revealed that Corto plans to disembark in Ulcinj with half of the treasure.

Montenegrin holidays

Holidays
Date Name Notes
1 January New Year's Day (non-working holiday)
7 January Orthodox Christmas (non-working)
2 April Orthodox Good Friday Date for 2010 only
4 April Orthodox Easter Date for 2010 only
5 April Orthodox Easter Monday Date for 2010 only
1 May Labour Day (non-working)
9 May Victory Day
21 May Independence Day (non-working)
13 July Statehood Day (non-working)

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Human Development Index Human Development Report 2009 65 out of 182
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009 77 out of 175
The Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 2010 68 out of 179
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2009 69 out of 180
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 2009 65 out of 182
Networked Readiness Index Networked Readiness Index 2008–2009 71 out of 134

See also

References

  1. ^ CIA World Factbook: Montenegro
  2. ^ a b c "Montenegro". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=943&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=&pr.x=75&pr.y=10. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?hl=en&tab=wl&q=goo
  4. ^ Basic data of Montenegro
  5. ^ http://www.montenegro.org/duklja.html
  6. ^ http://www.montenegro.org/balsic.html
  7. ^ Montenegro files EU membership application
  8. ^ Crna Gora u predvorju NATO-a
  9. ^ Geography
  10. ^ this literal translation is used in Mainland China and Hong Kong; Taiwanese Mandarin uses 蒙特內哥羅 "méngtènèigēluó", a phonetic transcription of "Montenegro"
  11. ^ ISO 3166-1 Newsletter No. V-12, Date: 2006-09-26
  12. ^ http://www.croatiatraveller.com/southern_dalmatia/Dubrovnik/bombing.html
  13. ^ http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/47/a47r121.htm
  14. ^ http://www.yihr.org/uploads/newsletters/eng/28.pdf
  15. ^ http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/comexpert/ANX/VIII-03.htm#III.A.25
  16. ^ "Porodica Nedžiba Loje o Njegovom Hapšenju i Deportaciji 1992". Godine [1]
  17. ^ "Russia pushes peace plan". BBC. 1999-04-29. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/331036.stm. 
  18. ^ BBC News: Montenegro vote result confirmed
  19. ^ BBC News: Montenegro declares independence
  20. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6257839.html
  21. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.yu/Policy/Minister/100907_e.html
  22. ^ Vijesti: Crna Gora tražila javno izvinjenje zbog afere "kvazidržava"
  23. ^ Ustav Crne Gore
  24. ^ President Vujanovic’s Closing Speech at the Crans Montana Forum
  25. ^ Cilj Crne Gore članstvo u NATO
  26. ^ Spremaju se za Avganistan
  27. ^ a b "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". April 2009. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=58&pr.y=7&sy=2007&ey=2014&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=943&s=NGDP_R,NGDP_RPCH,NGDP,NGDPD,NGDP_D,PPPGDP,PPPPC,PPPEX,PCPI,PCPIPCH,PCPIE,PCPIEPCH,BCA,BCA_NGDPD&grp=0&a=. 
  28. ^ FDI falls across West Balkans, except Montenegro. Reuters India 10 December 2009. Accessed 14 December 2009
  29. ^ Montenegro's leader sees slow economic recovery. Balkans.com Business News 9 December 2009. Accessed 14 December 2009
  30. ^ "Montenegro at a glance". http://devdata.worldbank.org/AAG/mne_aag.pdf. 
  31. ^ "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/2-25062009-BP/EN/2-25062009-BP-EN.PDF. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  32. ^ Montenegrin Census' from 1909 to 2003
  33. ^ Official results of the 2003 Montenegrin census
  34. ^ Kotor
  35. ^ Montenet - History of Montenegro: Crnojevic Rule
  36. ^ Чојство и јунаштво старих Црногораца, Цетиње 1968. 3-11.
  37. ^ OBLIKOVANJE CRNOGORSKE NACIJE U DOBA PETROVICA NJEGOSA, "Cojstvo je osobeno svojstvo Crnogoraca, koje su uzdigli u najvecu vrlinu i uzor."
  38. ^ Montenegro take a bow at victory
  39. ^ Crna Gora šampion Evrope
  40. ^ Montenegro Wins World League
  41. ^ http://www.sfmission.com/cgi-bin/gallery/imageFolio.cgi?action=view&link=Poland/Warsaw&image=MissWorld-2006-Warsaw.jpg&img=&tt= Warsaw (MissWorld-2006-Warsaw
  42. ^ http://www.sonypictures.com/homevideo/casinoroyale/ James Bond Casino Royal official web site, "About"
^ Montenegrin Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2006 census - [2]
a.   ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The Assembly of Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence on 17 February 2008, a move that is recognised by 65 of the 192 UN member states and the Republic of China (Taiwan), but not by other UN member states. Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory.

Further reading

  • Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro by Elizabeth Roberts (Hurst & Co, 2007) ISBN 978-1-85065-868-9
  • Montenegro: The Divided Land by Thomas Fleming (2002) ISBN 0-9619364-9-5
  • The Rough Guide to Montenegro by Norm Longley (2009) ISBN 978-1-85828-771-3
  • The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics Cornell University Press, by Ivo Banac (1984) ISBN 0-8014949-3-1
  • A History of Montenegro by Francis Seymour Stevenson (2002) ISBN 978-1-42125-089-2
  • Montenegro: A Modern History by Kenneth Morrison (2009) ISBN 978-1-84511-710-8

External links

Government
General information
Other

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Balkans : Montenegro
Beautiful place in Montenegro
Location
noframe
Flag
Quick Facts
Capital Podgorica
Government Republic
Currency Euro (EUR)
Area 13,812 sq km
Population 684,736 (July 2007 est.)
Language Montenegrin
Religion Orthodox Christian 74%, Muslim 17%
Internet TLD .me (.cg.yu being phased out)
Time Zone UTC +1
Montenegro [1] (Montenegrin: Crna Gora, Црна Гора) is a country in the Balkans, on the Adriatic Sea. .It borders Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east, and Albania to the south.^ It borders Romania in the northeast, Bulgaria in the east, in the south Macedonia and Albania, in the southwest the Adriatic sea, in the west Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, and finally Hungary in the north (Figure 1).
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest rivers in Serbia are the Danube (588 km), Sava, Tisa, Great Morava, West Morava, South Morava, Ibar and Drina on the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina; in Montenegro the Moraca, Zeta, Lim, Piva and Tara.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Southwest mountain climatic zone – between the river Ibar in the east and rivers West Morava and Ćetinja in the north and the border of Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the south and west.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

To the west of Montenegro is the Adriatic Sea.
.Montenegro's tourism suffered greatly from Yugoslavia's tragic civil war in the 1990s.^ After the Second World War Yugoslavia became a communist country of six republics, until 1990 when the republics became independent states, with the exception of Serbia and Montenegro which are still united.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.In recent years, along with the stabilized situation in the region, tourism in Montenegro has begun to recover, and Montenegro is being re-discovered by tourists from around the globe.^ For what are being advised at the moment are not policies which will stabilise the country in the sense of helping rebuild and recover from the months of bombing by NATO, and the decade of exploitation and oppression by Milosevic.

In 2007 the country received peak level of tourism which almost reached pre-war volumes. As a result, in 2008 many roads are being renovated (which affects driving time) and many hotels are being constructed or renovated (which results in in extra noise and inconvenience).
Map of Montenegro
Map of Montenegro
Montenegro is divided into 21 municipalities, which can be grouped into 3 main geographical regions:
  • The coastal region - the center of Montenegrin tourism. .The coastal strip in southern Montenegro includes Bay of Kotor, with historic cities of Perast and Kotor listed as UNESCO World Heritage site.^ Montenegro is mountainous, except around Podgorica city, Skadarsko lake and the southern Adriatic coast.
    • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

    Budva riviera, the region around the town of Budva, which accounts for majority of visits to Montenegro, and includes a large portion of Montenegro's 72km of beaches.
  • The central region - region in which state capital Podgorica, historical capital Cetinje and industrial center Nikšić are situated.
  • The northern region - region entirely situated within Dinaric Alps, famous for its untouched wild nature.
  • Bar - the biggest Montenegrin sea port
  • Bečići - with a 2km long fine sandy beach, it is home to numerous resorts and hotels
  • Budva - most popular resort with great beaches and vibrant nightlife
  • Herceg Novi - founded in 1382 and located in the entrance of the bay of Boka Kotorska
  • Kotor - an ancient fortified town located deep down the Boka Kotorska bay, UNESCO world heritage site
  • Perast - beautiful small village, a UNESCO “World Natural and Historical Heritage Site".
  • Petrovac - small family-friendly town with great beaches
  • Prčanj - small family-friendly place with great view of the Kotor Bay
  • Tivat - located in the vicinity of the Tivat International Airport, in the near future it will become the home of a luxury yacht marina called Porto Montenegro
  • Ulcinj - part of the unspoiled subtropical coastal region to the south and home to the famed Velika Plaža - the Great Beach
Budva coast in Montenegro.
.
Budva coast in Montenegro.
  • Podgorica - the capital and biggest city in Montenegro, experiencing a huge architectural boom in the last couple of years
    • Tuzi - a small town in the Podgorica municipality which is a major trading center, due to its location, between the Montenegrin capital and Albania
  • Virpazar - main entry point to the Skadar lake, belongs to the municipality of Bar
  • Cetinje - the old royal capital of Montenegro, with a large number of museums, monasteries and former embassies
  • Nikšić - the second largest city in Montenegro
  • Danilovgrad - located near the famous Ostrog monastery
  • Boka Kotorska, some say, is the most beautiful bay in Europe, with historic old towns of Kotor and Perast, both (Unesco world heritage sites), Herceg Novi...
  • Tara canyon, the deepest canyon in Europe and second deepest in the world after Grand Canyon.^ This has been compared to 'crony capitalism' in Suharto's Indonesia--a very close relationship between the state and capital, but with enterprises and the state machine controlled by a small, undemocratic and unaccountable clique.

    ^ There were a number of NGOs investigating human rights cases, including Helsinki Committee of Montenegro and the Center for Democracy and Human Rights.
    • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some settlements were located on valuable industrial or commercial sites where private owners wanted to resume control; others were on the premises of state-owned enterprises due to be privatized.
    • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rafting down the Tara river is among the most popular tourist activities in the Montenegro.
    Northern Montenegro
    .
    Northern Montenegro
  • Biogradska gora, the last rainforest in Europe.
  • Skadar lake, the largest lake on the Balkans, and the natural habitat of the very diverse flora and fauna.
  • Ostrog monastery, situated on the almost vertical cliff of Mount Ostrog.
  • Sveti Stefan, picturesque town-hotel, a former fishermen town on the small peninsula near Budva (closed for renovation until ???^ Location: DURMITOR, Montenegro, Europe Last Edited: Sep 12, 2009 .
    • SummitPost - Mountains & Rocks in Montenegro - Hiking & Climbing 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Location: DURMITOR, Montenegro, Europe Last Edited: Feb 10, 2007 .
    • SummitPost - Mountains & Rocks in Montenegro - Hiking & Climbing 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Location: DURMITOR, Montenegro, Europe Last Edited: Apr 15, 2008 .
    • SummitPost - Mountains & Rocks in Montenegro - Hiking & Climbing 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ).

Understand

Climate

Montenegro's lower areas enjoy a Mediterranean climate, having dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Temperature varies greatly with elevation. .Podgorica, lying near sea level, is noted for having the warmest July temperatures in Montenegro, averaging 27°C (81 F).^ Average (30 years) monthly and annual temperatures and sum of precipitation on the territory of Serbia and Montenegro [Click to view table] .
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

Cetinje, in the Karst at an elevation of 670m (2,200 ft), has a temperature 5°C (10 F) lower. .January temperatures range from 8°C (46 F) at Bar on the southern coast to -3°C (27 F) in the northern mountains.^ Montenegro is mountainous, except around Podgorica city, Skadarsko lake and the southern Adriatic coast.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

Montenegro's mountainous regions receive some of the highest amounts of rainfall in Europe. In the northern mountains, snow is present throughout the winter.

Terrain

.The terrain of Montenegro ranges from high mountains along its borders with Kosovo and Albania, through a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only one to four miles wide.^ As in previous years, the vast majority of victims were women and children trafficked almost exclusively from Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and the former Soviet Union into Kosovo, primarily for sexual exploitation but also for domestic servitude or forced labor in bars and restaurants and through Kosovo to Macedonia, Albania, and Western Europe.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serbia was primarily a transit point for internationally trafficked women going to Kosovo as well as to Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, and Western Europe.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The coastal plain disappears completely in the north, where Mount Lovcen and other ranges plunge abruptly into the inlet of the Gulf of Kotor.
.Montenegro's section of the Karst lies generally at elevations of just below 1000m (3,000 ft) above sea level-although some areas rise to 1800m (6,000 ft).^ The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens and demonstrated a heightened concern for the protection of human rights; however, there were problems in some areas.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNMIK and the PISG generally respected the human rights of residents; however, there were serious problems in some areas, particularly relating to minority populations.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the total area of Serbia and Montenegro, 6 191 000 ha of agricultural land covers approximately 60%, and 2 944 000 ha of forests about 29%.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

The lowest segment is in the valley of the Zeta River, which flows at an elevation of 460m (1,500 ft).
.The high mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe.^ The Mountain-valley part has more varied relief with high mountains surrounded by hilly terrain and slopes with peaks above 2 000 metres, and lowland (for instance Kosovo and Metohija).
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The agro-ecological zones of Montenegro are: coastal zone, karst – rocky terrain, flat – lowland, valley and mountain zones.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.They average more than 2100m (7000 ft) in elevation.^ If they want to develop their strength and ensure that the revolution represents more than just a change at the top they have to develop demands which challenge their exploitation.

Montenegro was founded as a state under its present name in 15th century, continuing the tradition of the Slavic state of Duklja. .It was able to mantain its independence during the reign of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, its independence formally acknowledged at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After the World War I, it was absorbed into Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. Montenegro was later part of various incarnations of Yugoslavia, until it regained its independence on June 2006 referendum.^ After the Second Uprising Serbia became a vassal, and ultimately independent at the Congress of Berlin in 1878.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Full independence was acknowledged in 1878 during the Congress of Berlin.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire to the Balkan Peninsula, confrontations and wars started again.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

Get in

By plane

Podgorica airport is Montenegro's main international airport. It is situated 12km (7.5 miles) south of Podgorica. It is a hub for Montenegro's national airline carrier, Montenegro Airlines.
.One can get from the airport to Podgorica center by taking the minibus, which usually waits in front of the terminal.^ Podgorica Airport has eight departure and two arrival gates and it can handle up to one million passengers per year.

Taxi to the center will be more expensive, usually €15.
Tivat airport is situated near the city of Tivat, on the Montenegin coast. .It has regular flights to Belgrade throughout the year, and has charter flights to major European destinations during the summer.^ YUCOM also received reports during the year of police using excessive force during football games and other sports events in Belgrade.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the year Belgrade authorities established a Romani coordination center and purchased land for the construction of an apartment complex for Roma; construction had not begun at year's end.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the law provides for special courts for war crimes and organized crime; these were operational during the year within the Belgrade district court.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tivat airport is 20km from Budva and Herceg-Novi and 60 km from Bar.^ Although this airport is not located within Montenegro borders it is often used for Montenegro flights being only 24 km from Herceg Novi, 44 km from Tivat and 68 km from Budva.

^ The airport in neighbouring Croatia, Dubrovnik Airport (Cilipi) can also be used for flights to Montenegro because it is only 24 km from Herceg Novi and 45 km from Tivat Airport .

Destinations covered from these airports are listed in detail on the website of 'Airports of Montenegro'. Destinations covered by Montenegro Airlines, as well as booking information, can be found on the website of the carrier.
Dubrovnik airport in Croatia is half hour drive from the Montenegro border, and coastal city of Herceg-Novi, and is served by many major airlines, so it might be a good option for tourist coming by plane.

By train

.There is regular passenger train service from Subotica through Novi Sad and Belgrade.^ There is a regular Tivat - Belgrade line throught the year, with the number of international flights greatly increasing during summer touristic season.

^ The Lawyers' Committee for Human Rights (YUCOM) reported that, on September 28, Novi Sad police officers beat a man during a train ride from Belgrade to Novi Sad, mistaking him for a rowdy football fan.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Train goes through Bijelo Polje, Kolasin, Podgorica and ends in Bar, Montenegro's main seaport. Travel by train is cheapest way to get to Montenegro, but the quality of service is not very good. There are overnight trains with sleeping cars for around €25, which must be booked in advance, but are a more comfortable option.
A cheap way of traveling to or from Montenegro might be the Balkan Flexipass.

By bus

.Montenegro is well connected with neighbouring countries and ticket prices are all under €25. During the summer, more seasonal lines are being introduced.^ There is a regular Tivat - Belgrade line throught the year, with the number of international flights greatly increasing during summer touristic season.

^ This is less continental than Krajina, winters and summers are milder, growing season longer, more precipitation and shorter snow cover.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

By car

.European routes E65, E80, E762, E763 and E851 pass through the country.^ The government coordinated its antitrafficking efforts with other countries in the region, particularly through the Southern European Cooperative Initiative Center in Bucharest.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are no roads in Montenegro built to full motorway standard, as all roads are of single carriageway type.^ The law did not meet international standards, and there was no expertise on the issue of the rights of persons with disabilities.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the livestock feed industry there are standards, however these are often disregarded, whereas in the marketing of fodder and livestock feeds there are no standards.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

Almost all roads in Montenegro are curvy, mountanious roads, and speeds over 80km/h are not permitted. General speed limit within built-up area is 50km/h. Roads in northern mountanious region require additional caution during the winter.
Driving with headlights is obligatory even during the daytime, so is the use of seat belts. A €10 'ecological fee' for passanger cars is collected at the border posts when entering Montenegro. The fee is valid for one year.

By ship

There are regular ferry lines from Bar to Bari and Ancona in Italy. .Lines operate almost daily throughout the year, and get more frequent during the summer.^ During the year the regulatory body allocated frequencies for 16 television and 39 radio stations in its first public tender.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vojvodina Province has an ombudsman, who operated independently during the year.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were prisons in Lipljan and Dubrava as well as five detention centers in operation during the year.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Trip to Bari takes around 8 hours. 2 hour trip by ship to Durres Albania From Ulqin Lines connecting Montenegro with Italy are Bar-Bari and Kotor Bari. To check the timetable go to website with all Adriatic ferry routes.
Beach of Becici
Beach of Becici

By train

.There is local train service, operating from Bar, through Podgorica and Kolasin and Mojkovac to Bijelo Polje.^ Local NGOs, with funding from international donors, operated a shelter in Podgorica and hotlines throughout the republic; the government assumed responsibility for funding a second shelter that opened in 2004.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is the cheapest way to travel from north to south and vice versa, quality of service is not on the high level. It might also be dangerous, an accident with 44 casualties occurred in 2006. Tickets can be purchased on board.

By bus

This may be the easiest way to get around Montenegro. .Buses are frequent (especially during the summer), safe and are more or less on schedule.^ This type is more frequent on forest terraces and less often on forest plateaux.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compared to Carpathian-Balkan zone there is somewhat less precipitation, winters are more severe and last longer and summers are cooler.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is less continental than Krajina, winters and summers are milder, growing season longer, more precipitation and shorter snow cover.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

Ticket prices within Montenegro are all under €15. Local buses usually have no airconditioning.
.Besides the buses, there are minibuses at bus stations that are usually slightly cheaper, but are actually faster and more comfortable option.^ Their more rational use would lead to faster development of cattle and sheep production, providing cheaper fodder, primarily pasture.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

By car

.As there is no real highway in Montenegro, most roads are two-lane only, with frequent addition of a third overtaking lane, and generally are not up to European standards.^ There are two international airports in Montenegro: Tivat Airport and Podgorica Airport (Golubovci).

^ There were no women on the eight-member Assembly directive body and only one female minister.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The law did not meet international standards, and there was no expertise on the issue of the rights of persons with disabilities.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most roads are curvy and mountainous, so speeds over 80 km/h (50 mph) are rarely legal, and rarely safe.
Speed limit is 80km/h on the open road, unless signs specify otherwise. Speed limit inside the cities is 50km/h.
The use of safety belts and headlights during the day is compulsory, and the use of cellphones while driving is prohibited. Signposts used in Montenegro are almost identical to those used in EU countries.
Local drivers tend to drive fast, and to get involved into dangerous overtakings. Traffic jams are common during the peak of the summer season. Pedestrians are noutorious for jaywalking in every Montenegrin city.
Drivers tend to be extremely vocal, so don't take it personally if a driver yells at you. In major

By thumb

Specific roads

Roads from Podgorica to Bar and to Niksic are fairly good, easy to drive on.
The roads from Podgorica through Cetinje to Budva and to Petrovac are both in good condition, but are curvy mountainous roads which rarely permit speeds over 70km/h.
The road from Podgorica north to Kolasin, and then on to Zabljak or Serbia, is considered dangerous during the winter, especially the part through the Moraca canyon. It is recommended one takes the bus to the north during the cold or rainy days, as bus drivers are experienced and know the road.
The old road from Cetinje to Kotor is mostly a narrow one-lane road offering stunning views of Kotor from above but exercise extreme caution when passing on-coming traffic, over-taking and around corners.

Talk

Montenegrin is the official language, which is identical to Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian in everyday use. .In some municipalities with an Albanian majority (Ulcinj, Plav, Gusinje) and the Malesia district in Podgorica municipality, the Albanian language is commonly spoken.^ Some Bosniak children in predominantly Bosniak areas were occasionally able to obtain primary education in their language, but those few outside such areas received instruction in the majority Albanian language.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Romani, Ashkali, and Egyptian children attended mixed schools with ethnic Albanian children but reportedly faced intimidation in some majority Albanian areas.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although ethnic Albanian children had access to instruction in their native language, some Albanians criticized the government for not developing a curriculum in which Albanians could learn about their ethnic culture and history.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Slovene and Macedonian are also universally understood.
.In Podgorica and the coastal area many people can sparingly speak English, but that is not always the case in the north.^ A sizable percentage of the police force consisted of Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), many of whom were deployed in the Sandzak, a predominantly Muslim area in the north.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Older people often have a working knowledge of German.
Russian is spoken and understood more and more widely, especially along the coast, as huge amounts of real estate had been purchased by Russians in 2000s as a summer residence.

Eat

Apart from the hotels located in towns and summer resorts offering half-board and full-board accommodation, and those along the roads and communication lines such as restaurants, pizza places, taverns, fast food restaurants and cafes, there is a choice of national restaurants offering traditional Montenegrin cuisine.
In addition to the standard European and Mediterranean cuisine, Montenegro offers a variety of healthy food products and local specialities.
Cold hors d'ouevres include the famous njeguški pršut (smoked ham) and njeguški cheese, pljevaljski cheese, mushrooms, donuts and dried bleak. .The main courses specific for the northern mountainous region are boiled lamb, lamb cooked in milk, cicvara in fresh milk cream (buttered corn porridge), boiled potatoes with cheese and fresh cream.^ Pomoravlje, due to a northern exposure, is under the influence of continental air masses from Central Europe, and regions of West and Southwest Serbia, because of mountainous relief, under the influence of very specific climatic conditions.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However the manure available in hilly-mountainous regions is primarily used on potatoes and cereals; liquid manure has not given good results.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

A selection of traditional recipes of the central and coastal parts will include the kastradina (dried mutton), smoked and fresh carp (from Skadar lake) and a variety of fresh sea fish and seafood dishes. Donuts served with honey and dried figs are traditional desserts in these parts of Montenegro.
Products of animal origin are supervised and approved by veterinary and health authorities according to EU standards.

Drink

Wine

Montenegrin vineyards and the production of quality wine is part of the tradition of southern and coastal wine makers.
The best known Montenegrin wines are the premium whites: "Krstač", "Cabernet", "Chardonnay" and reds: "Vranac", "Pro Corde". All of them are produced by the famous company "Plantaže", but there's also some home-made wines of high quality, like Crmničko wine.
1L bottle of "Vranac" red wine will cost you from €8 to €15 in the bar or restaurant and it's well worth it! Also, you can buy a bottle of "Plantaze"'s wine under €2 in supermarkets.

Brandy

The continental region and north are more oriented towards the production of aromatic fruit flavoured brandy (plum brandy - šljivovica, apple brandy - jabukovača). Grape brandy "Montenegrin loza", "Prvijenac", "Kruna" or home made grape brandy (lozova rakija, lozovača) is a must-try, and a good choice to "warm up" before going out in the evening.

Beer

"Nikšićko" beer is the best known beer in the Montenegro, and most common alcoholic beverage, which cost from €1.00 to €2.50. It is produced as a draught beer, or bottled, in both "Nik Gold" and lighter "Nik Cool" variant. Dark variant, "Nik tamno", is praised among beer lovers.

Other

Other alcoholic drinks can cost anywhere between €1 and €10.

Stay safe

Montenegro is generally a safe country. .There is, like all countries in the world, a number of criminal activities, but police forces are generally fast in their duties.^ An international commissioner of police directed both UNMIK police and the KPS. The combined force was generally effective and constituted an improvement over previous years.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security services, there were a few instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of government authority.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corruption and impunity in the police force were problems, and there were only limited institutional means of overseeing and controlling police behavior.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The number is 92, as well as the international distress call 112. When travelling in the areas bordering Kosovo it is recommended you keep to the main roads.^ We recommend that you have at least two free pages in Visas section of your passport before any international travel.
  • Serbia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Serbian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC serbia.visahq.com [Source type: General]

Unexploded landmines may remain along the Kosovo border. You should also avoid areas where there is military activity.
In the resort towns such as Kotor, Budva, Sveti Stefan and Herceg Novi, beggars and pickpockets are common. Don't be afraid of giving them a couple euro-cents, but do not ever let them see that you possess a lot of money or something valuable, as they will send someone after you to beg for more money. Always carry your bags in the safest way, slung around your shoulder with the pouch on the front of your leg where you can see it. .If you see a boy or girl running in your direction and you're holding an object, put it out of the way until he/she passes by, as they may try to knock it out of your hand.^ It may be the case that countries you pass through en route to your destination may require a separate transit visa.
  • Serbia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Serbian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC serbia.visahq.com [Source type: General]

Respect

Short pants are usually not permitted inside the public institutions (hospitals, etc). Wear modest dress when visiting monasteries and churches.
At beaches, taking off the bottom piece of a swimsuit will likely create a stir, and is generally reserved for designated nude beaches.
.Being obviously drunk is a sign of bad taste and worse character in Montenegro: You may be invited to drink gallons, but are expected to be able to hold your drink.^ Its purporse is to serve you as a quick informal guide through your arrival and first days in Montenegro and to give you service informations organized on one place.

^ It may be the case that countries you pass through en route to your destination may require a separate transit visa.
  • Serbia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Serbian Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC serbia.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ Montenegro Flights is website to help you with your arrival to Montenegro.

Be careful, "rakija" a plum spirit (usually about 53% alcohol content), is stronger than expected, and will make you drunk fast!

Contact

You can buy mobile phone sim cards already for € 1. With that amount of credit, and if you plan to stay a longer time in Montenegro, making local phone calls, it will be certainly worth the expense. No need for identification with Mtel.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.MONTENEGRO, a country of south-eastern Europe, forming an independent kingdom situated upon the western side of the Balkan Peninsula, and possessing a small coast-line on the Adriatic Sea.^ Flanders projects with Eastern Europe and West Balkan countries .

^ Montenegro is a small country (about the size of Connecticut ) in southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula .
  • Montenegro@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MONTENEGRO, a country of south-eastern Europe , forming an independent kingdom situated upon the western side of the Balkan Peninsula , and possessing a small coast-line on the Adriatic Sea .

.The name is the Venetian variant of the Italian Monte Nero, and together with the Albanian Mal Esiya, the Turkish Kara-dagh, and the Greek Mavro Vouno, reproduces the native, or Serb, Tzrnagora," the Black Mountain"; it is derived from the dark appearance of Mount Lovchen, the culminating summit of Montenegro proper, of which the northern and eastern declivities, those which are viewed from the country itself, are in shadow for the greater part of the day.'^ Tzrna Planina in eastern Montenegro, Tcherni Vrkh, the culminating summit of Mount Vitosh in Bulgaria , and Mavro Vouno in the island of Salamis .

^ The name is the Venetian variant of the Italian Monte Nero , and together with the Albanian Mal Esiya, the Turkish Kara-dagh, and the Greek Mavro Vouno, reproduces the native, or Serb, Tzrnagora," the Black Mountain "; it is derived from the dark appearance of Mount Lovchen, the culminating summit of Montenegro proper, of which the northern and eastern declivities, those which are viewed from the country itself, are in shadow for the greater part of the day.'

^ In Montenegro proper the only prominent summit is Lovchen (5653 ft.

.The dusky pine forests, which once clothed the mountain and of which remnants exist on its northern slope, contributed to its sombre aspect.^ The dusky pine forests, which once clothed the mountain and of which remnants exist on its northern slope, contributed to its sombre aspect.

^ The city is located on the border of the Bačka and Srem regions, on the banks of the Danube river and Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal, while facing the northern slopes of Fruška Gora mountain.

.Up to the end of the 15th century, when its territory became restricted to the mountainous districts immediately north and east of Mount Lovchen, the kingdom was known as the Zenta or Zeta, but the name Tzrnagora was probably used locally in this region from the time of the earliest Slavonic settlements.^ Up to the end of the 15th century, when its territory became restricted to the mountainous districts immediately north and east of Mount Lovchen, the kingdom was known as the Zenta or Zeta, but the name Tzrnagora was probably used locally in this region from the time of the earliest Slavonic settlements.

^ Official Name: Republic of Montenegro Capital: Podgorica ( Current local time ) Government Type: Republic Population: 684,736 Area: 13,938 sq.
  • Montenegro News - Breaking World Montenegro News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Local cave drawings of the Bronze Age bring us evidence that the advantages of this area were known even back at that time.
  • Realty in Montenegro - Montenegro Real Estate 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC en.dvoriki.com [Source type: General]

.Montenegro extends between 41 0 S5' and 43° 21' N., and between 18° 30 and 20° E.; its greatest length from north to south is about 100 m.; its greatest breadth from east to west about 80 m.^ Montenegro extends between 41 0 S5' and 43° 21' N., and between 18° 30 and 20° E.; its greatest length from north to south is about 100 m.; its greatest breadth from east to west about 80 m.

^ While this area on the map extends furher north, focus only on those parts south of the road connecting villages of Deliblato and Susara.
  • birding facts Birding Resources by the Fat Birder for Serbia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fatbirder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its gently rolling farmland lies nestled between mountains to the north that separate it from the rest of Serbia, even higher ranges on the east and west that demarcate its respective boundaries with Bulgaria and Kosovo, and a broad plain it shares with Macedonia to the south.
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Serbia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

.It is bounded by the Adriatic Area a S' Bound on the S., the seaboard extending for 28 m.; by the Primore, a strip of the Dalmatian littoral, on the S.W. and W.; by the Austrian (formerly Turkish) provinces 1 Cf.^ It is bounded by the Adriatic Area a S' Bound on the S., the seaboard extending for 28 m.; by the Primore, a strip of the Dalmatian littoral, on the S.W. and W.; by the Austrian (formerly Turkish) provinces 1 Cf.

the similarly-named .Tzrna Planina in eastern Montenegro, Tcherni Vrkh, the culminating summit of Mount Vitosh in Bulgaria, and Mavro Vouno in the island of Salamis.^ Tzrna Planina in eastern Montenegro, Tcherni Vrkh, the culminating summit of Mount Vitosh in Bulgaria , and Mavro Vouno in the island of Salamis .

^ The name is the Venetian variant of the Italian Monte Nero , and together with the Albanian Mal Esiya, the Turkish Kara-dagh, and the Greek Mavro Vouno, reproduces the native, or Serb, Tzrnagora," the Black Mountain "; it is derived from the dark appearance of Mount Lovchen, the culminating summit of Montenegro proper, of which the northern and eastern declivities, those which are viewed from the country itself, are in shadow for the greater part of the day.'

.Various other explanations of the name Montenegro, mostly of a fanciful character, have been put forward: see Kurt Hassert, "Der Name Montenegro" in Globus, No.^ Various other explanations of the name Montenegro, mostly of a fanciful character, have been put forward: see Kurt Hassert, "Der Name Montenegro" in Globus, No.

^ People from Montenegro are known to be very lazy, slow and untalented (see No Name ).
  • Serbia - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are no restrictions for foreigners wishing to buy Montenegro property, other than land for development, and the buying process is relatively straightforward....

67, pp. 111 -113 (Leipzig, 1895).
.of Bosnia and Herzegovina on the N.W. and N.; by the Ottoman empire both in the sanjak of Novibazar, on the N. and N.E., and also in the vilayets of Kossovo and Scutari on the N.E., E. and S.E. Its area, as officially estimated after the treaty of Berlin had been enforced in 1880, amounts to 3255 sq.^ The territory of the former Principality of Serbia was officially proclaimed the Serbian province within Austro-Dalmatia in May 1882, while Sanjak stayed within Ottoman Empire.
  • Serbia - IBWiki 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC ib.frath.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: Serbia and Montenegro , Republic of Serbia , Prime Minister , war crimes , Bosnia and Herzegovina , southern Serbia , the Ottoman Empire , Belgrade , Serbia , Serbian Government , World War I Categories: Views: 5 Language: FORECAST Exchange Program Serbia and Montenegro From: wp00p89 .
  • Serbia And Montenegro - docstoc 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jun 1459                Part of Ottoman Empire ; divided into sanjaks of                              Smederovo (from Sep 1791 Belgrade), Nis, and                              Kosovo.

m., or considerably less than half the size of Wales. .The present frontier, which was not finally delimited till 1881, ascends the Boyana river from its mouth as far as Lake Sass (Shas), then follows the river Megured to the summit of Mount Bratovitza, reaching Lake Scutari at a spot opposite the island of Goritza Topal.^ The present frontier, which was not finally delimited till 1881, ascends the Boyana river from its mouth as far as Lake Sass (Shas), then follows the river Megured to the summit of Mount Bratovitza, reaching Lake Scutari at a spot opposite the island of Goritza Topal.

^ Tzrna Planina in eastern Montenegro, Tcherni Vrkh, the culminating summit of Mount Vitosh in Bulgaria , and Mavro Vouno in the island of Salamis .

^ The drainage system of Montenegro flows in two opposite directions; the Piva, Tara, and Lim rivers follow northerly courses, the Morača and Zeta rivers southerly ones.
  • Montenegro -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crossing the lake northeast to a point a little south-east of Plavnitza, and leaving the territory of the Hoti and Klementi tribes to the south, and the districts of Kutchka Kraina to the north, it passes north of the districts of Playa and Gusinye and reaches the western end of the Mokra Planina, where it turns to the north-west.^ Crossing the lake northeast to a point a little south-east of Plavnitza, and leaving the territory of the Hoti and Klementi tribes to the south, and the districts of Kutchka Kraina to the north, it passes north of the districts of Playa and Gusinye and reaches the western end of the Mokra Planina, where it turns to the north-west.

^ It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east and Albania to the south.

^ It borders Romania in the northeast, Bulgaria in the east, in the south Macedonia and Albania, in the southwest the Adriatic sea, in the west Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, and finally Hungary in the north (Figure 1).
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.After crossing the Lim at its junction with the Skula, it coincides with the old frontier for some distance; then reaching the Tara at Maikovatz, it follows the course of that river to its junction with the Piva: turning southwards, it reaches the old frontier once more at Klobuk, and, passing between the district of Grahovo and the Krivoshian Mountains, approaches to within a few miles of the Bocche di Cattaro: then, following the maritime mountain ridges for a considerable distance, it rejoins the coast a little south of Spizza.^ The largest rivers in Serbia are the Danube (588 km), Sava, Tisa, Great Morava, West Morava, South Morava, Ibar and Drina on the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina; in Montenegro the Moraca, Zeta, Lim, Piva and Tara.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is, of course, immoral but I think no more immoral than bombing civilians who have had little control over the course of events in a police state, or even drafted soldiers who are just following orders.

^ Budva City: Budva is one of the oldest cities on the Adriatic Coast (more than 2000 years old) and the Mediterranean city is encircled by medieval city walls.
  • Montenegro Holidays - Cheap Package Holidays in Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.olympicholidays.com [Source type: General]

Physical Features. - .Montenegro, which forms the meeting-point of the Dalmatian, Bosnian and Albanian ranges, seems at first a mere chaos of mountains.^ Montenegro, which forms the meeting-point of the Dalmatian, Bosnian and Albanian ranges, seems at first a mere chaos of mountains.

^ My first impression was the beautiful and impressive nature of Montenegro, with mountains, as well as a coast line and historical treasures!
  • Montenegro and European Union. Comments on Euro-Atlantic integration and globalization. 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC montenegro.blogactiv.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Austrian insistence, however, Serbia and Montenegro were forced to yield part of the territory they had occupied to form a newly independent Albanian state.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.It is, however, naturally divided into three parts, each with its own character.^ It is, however, naturally divided into three parts, each with its own character.

^ Its territory is divided into 17 municipalities, each having its own local council.

^ Others, however, were multinational: that of the Sleepless Ones (Akoimetoi) was divided by language into four groups - Latin, Greek, Syriac and Coptic.
  • Mango. Byzantium 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.(i) Fertile and wellwatered plains, not unlike those of Lombardy, border the river Zeta, and after its junction with the Moratcha extend along the course of that river to Lake Scutari.^ Fertile and wellwatered plains, not unlike those of Lombardy , border the river Zeta, and after its junction with the Moratcha extend along the course of that river to Lake Scutari.

^ The Djerdap National Park embraces part of the area of the Djerdap Canyon known as the Iron Gates in the central part of the Danube river course,and is divided by the international border running along the middle of the river into the southern - Yugoslav and the northern - Rumanian part.
  • birding facts Birding Resources by the Fat Birder for Serbia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fatbirder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The republic can be geographically divided between the mountainous s and the fertile n plain drained by the rivers Danube , Sava, Tisza, and Morava.
  • Milan (king of Serbia) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Milan (king of Serbia) 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A fringe of similar lowland forms the maritime plain extending between the Sutorman range and the mouth of the Boyana.^ A fringe of similar lowland forms the maritime plain extending between the Sutorman range and the mouth of the Boyana.

^ Between Lake Scutari and the sea is the Sutorman range with the fine pyramidal summit of Rumiya (5148 ft.

.(2) Westward, under the shadow of Lovchen, is the Katunska, or "Shepherds' Huts," the cradle of Montenegrin liberty.^ Westward, under the shadow of Lovchen, is the Katunska, or "Shepherds' Huts," the cradle of Montenegrin liberty.

.This region presents a surface of hard crystalline rock, bare and calcined, with strata sinking to the south-west at an angle often of 70°.^ This region presents a surface of hard crystalline rock, bare and calcined, with strata sinking to the south-west at an angle often of 70°.

^ The contrast between the rich undulating landscape of the northern regions and the sterile calcined rocks of Montenegro proper is very remarkable.

^ Soils on limestone are present in western Serbia, from where they spread discontinuously towards Metohija and Kosovo in the south and the hilly-mountainous region of East Serbia.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.The rocks have been split by atmospheric agencies into huge prismatic blocks, and the cracks have been gradually worn into fissures several fathoms deep.^ The rocks have been split by atmospheric agencies into huge prismatic blocks, and the cracks have been gradually worn into fissures several fathoms deep.

.In some places the interior of the stony mass is hollowed out into galleries and caves, some of great length; during the rainy season subterranean landslips frequently produce local earthquakes, extending over an area of to or 12 m.^ In some places the interior of the stony mass is hollowed out into galleries and caves, some of great length; during the rainy season subterranean landslips frequently produce local earthquakes, extending over an area of to or 12 m.

^ Some of these minority communities are concentrated to such an extend that in some areas they constitute majority populations, for example in Sandzak region in southern Serbia.
  • Serbia country update - European Forum - for Democracy and Solidarity 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.europeanforum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreigners in Serbia are required to register their place of residence with the local Ministry of Interior office or police station within 24 hours of arrival.
  • Travel Advice for Serbia - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

.The small basins of Cettigne and Niegush are practically the only cultivable districts in this region.^ The small basins of Cettigne and Niegush are practically the only cultivable districts in this region.

^ Katunska, Rietchka and Lieshanska) is almost absolutely waterless, the only stream being the Rieka, which probably drains the Cettigne basin by an underground outlet.

^ In mountain regions, on less accessible terrain small mowers are used on motorized cultivators.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.(3) Over the entire north stretch the massive mountain chains which link the Herzegovinian Alps to those of Albania, the scenery recalling that of Switzerland or the Tirol.^ Over the entire north stretch the massive mountain chains which link the Herzegovinian Alps to those of Albania , the scenery recalling that of Switzerland or the Tirol .

.In the north-west there are finely wooded tracts extending north of Nikshitch to the Dormitor mountain group.^ In the north-west there are finely wooded tracts extending north of Nikshitch to the Dormitor mountain group.

^ On the north-east are the high but rounded Brda Mountains, covered with virgin forest or Alpine pastures, and broken here and there by jagged dolomitic peaks.

^ The Montenegrin mountain system is divided into four masses: (t) the group enclosed by the Tara and Piva rivers with Dormitor, one of the highest mountains in the peninsula (9146 ft.

.The Dormitor district contains rich grassy uplands dotted with numerous small lakes, from which it derives its name of Yezera (the lakes); the rivers Tara and Piva flow through magnificent gorges clothed with rich forests, and unite near the extreme north of the frontier.^ The Dormitor district contains rich grassy uplands dotted with numerous small lakes, from which it derives its name of Yezera (the lakes); the rivers Tara and Piva flow through magnificent gorges clothed with rich forests, and unite near the extreme north of the frontier.

^ The drainage system of Montenegro flows in two opposite directions; the Piva, Tara, and Lim rivers follow northerly courses, the Morača and Zeta rivers southerly ones.
  • Montenegro -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eastern districts, which include part of the Dinaric Alps (Mount Durmitor , 8,274 ft [2,522 m]), are more fertile and have large forests and grassy uplands.
  • Montenegro -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the north-east are the high but rounded Brda Mountains, covered with virgin forest or Alpine pastures, and broken here and there by jagged dolomitic peaks.^ On the north-east are the high but rounded Brda Mountains, covered with virgin forest or Alpine pastures, and broken here and there by jagged dolomitic peaks.

^ It consists of two regions: the barren karst of Montenegro proper, on the west, is separated by the Zeta River and its plain from the higher Brda region, on the east, which has forests and pastures.
  • Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Montenegro News - Breaking World Montenegro News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In Southeast Serbia, this soil is covered with forest or modest pastures.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the district of the Vasoyevitchi, which surrounds the little town of Andriyevitza, is the fine double peak of Kom, and, a little to the south-west, the summit of Maglitch, commanding a magnificent view over the wooded valley of Gusinye to the great Prokletia range in Albania.'^ In the district of the Vasoyevitchi, which surrounds the little town of Andriyevitza, is the fine double peak of Kom, and, a little to the south-west, the summit of Maglitch, commanding a magnificent view over the wooded valley of Gusinye to the great Prokletia range in Albania.'

^ It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east and Albania to the south.

^ It is bordered by Hungary on the north; Romania and Bulgaria on the east; Albania and the Republic of Macedonia on the south; and Montenegro, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina on the west.
  • Fwicki | Serbia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fwicki.com [Source type: News]

.The contrast between the rich undulating landscape of the northern regions and the sterile calcined rocks of Montenegro proper is very remarkable.^ The contrast between the rich undulating landscape of the northern regions and the sterile calcined rocks of Montenegro proper is very remarkable.

^ It consists of two regions: the barren karst of Montenegro proper, on the west, is separated by the Zeta River and its plain from the higher Brda region, on the east, which has forests and pastures.
  • Montenegro News - Breaking World Montenegro News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ This region presents a surface of hard crystalline rock, bare and calcined, with strata sinking to the south-west at an angle often of 70°.

.The Montenegrin mountain system is divided into four masses: (t) the group enclosed by the Tara and Piva rivers with Dormitor, one of the highest mountains in the peninsula (9146 ft.^ The republic can be geographically divided between the mountainous s and the fertile n plain drained by the rivers Danube , Sava, Tisza, and Morava.
  • Milan (king of Serbia) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Milan (king of Serbia) 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The highest point of the municipality is on the Ljubišnja mountain at an altitude of 2,238 m (7,340 ft), while the lowest point is in the canyon of Tara river with an altitude of 529 m (1,740 ft) above sea level.

^ Others, however, were multinational: that of the Sleepless Ones (Akoimetoi) was divided by language into four groups - Latin, Greek, Syriac and Coptic.
  • Mango. Byzantium 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

), .Yablo- Mountain nov Vrkh (7113 ft.^ Yablo- Mountain nov Vrkh (7113 ft.

), and the .Vrkhove Pochoratz (6601 System and ft.^ Vrkhove Pochoratz (6601 System and ft.

); .(2) the group between the Zeta and the Moratcha Geological with Ostri-Kuk (7546 ft.^ Zeta and the Moratcha Geological with Ostri-Kuk (7546 ft.

), .Vl asulya (7533 ft.^ Vl asulya (7533 ft.

), Brnik Formation. (6860 ft.) and .Maganik (6621 ft.^ Maganik (6621 ft.

); .(3) the ranges between the Moratcha and Tarp, with Sto (7323 ft.^ Moratcha and Tarp, with Sto (7323 ft.

^ Between Lake Scutari and the sea is the Sutorman range with the fine pyramidal summit of Rumiya (5148 ft.

) and .Gradishte (7156 ft.^ Gradishte (7156 ft.

); and .(4) those between the upper Tara and the upper Lim with Kom, the second highest mountain in the country (Kom Kutchki, 8032 ft., Kom Vasoyevitchki, 7946 ft.^ Tara and the upper Lim with Kom, the second highest mountain in the country (Kom Kutchki, 8032 ft., Kom Vasoyevitchki, 7946 ft.

^ The highest point of the municipality is on the Ljubišnja mountain at an altitude of 2,238 m (7,340 ft), while the lowest point is in the canyon of Tara river with an altitude of 529 m (1,740 ft) above sea level.

^ The Montenegrin mountain system is divided into four masses: (t) the group enclosed by the Tara and Piva rivers with Dormitor, one of the highest mountains in the peninsula (9146 ft.

), separating the districts of the .Vasoyevitchi on the north-east from that of the Kutchi on the south-west, and Visi tor (6936 ft.^ Vasoyevitchi on the north-east from that of the Kutchi on the south-west, and Visi tor (6936 ft.

^ It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east and Albania to the south.

^ Montenegro extends between 41 0 S5' and 43° 21' N., and between 18° 30 and 20° E.; its greatest length from north to south is about 100 m.; its greatest breadth from east to west about 80 m.

) on the frontier. .In Montenegro proper the only prominent summit is Lovchen (5653 ft.^ In Montenegro proper the only prominent summit is Lovchen (5653 ft.

), between .Cettigne and the western frontier.^ Cettigne and the western frontier.

.Between Lake Scutari and the sea is the Sutorman range with the fine pyramidal summit of Rumiya (5148 ft.^ Between Lake Scutari and the sea is the Sutorman range with the fine pyramidal summit of Rumiya (5148 ft.

^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

^ The chestnut forms little groves in the country between the sea and Lake Scutari but never ascends more than 1000 ft.

) i .This mountain must be distinguished from the higher Maglitch (7 6 99 ft.^ This mountain must be distinguished from the higher Maglitch (7 6 99 ft.

), on the northern frontier, near the junction of the rivers Tara and Piva.
overhanging Antivari. .The prevailing formations of the north and east are Palaeozoic sandstones and schists, with underlying trap Throughout Montenegro the following have been identified: (1) Palaeozoic schists, (2) Wirfen strata of Lower Trias, (3) Trap of the Palaeozoic and Wirfen strata, (4) Triassic limestone, (5) Jurassic limestone, (6) Cretaceous limestone, (7) Flysch, in part certainly Eocene, (8) Neogenic or younger Tertiary formations.^ The prevailing formations of the north and east are Palaeozoic sandstones and schists , with underlying trap Throughout Montenegro the following have been identified: (1) Palaeozoic schists, (2) Wirfen strata of Lower Trias, (3) Trap of the Palaeozoic and Wirfen strata, (4) Triassic limestone , (5) Jurassic limestone, (6) Cretaceous limestone, (7) Flysch , in part certainly Eocene , (8) Neogenic or younger Tertiary formations.

^ It is bordered by Hungary on the north; Romania and Bulgaria on the east; Albania and the Republic of Macedonia on the south; and Montenegro, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina on the west.
  • Fwicki | Serbia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fwicki.com [Source type: News]

^ Pljevlja Pljevlja is a city and municipality located in the northern part of Montenegro, in the geographical area (43.36° North, 19.36° East).

.The watershed between the Adriatic and the Black Sea crosses the country from west to east in a very irregular line, the southern districts being drained by the Zeta-Moratcha river system, which finds its way to the Adriatic by Lake Rivers and Scutari and the Boyana, while the streams from the Lakes. northern districts form the headwaters of the Drina, which reaches the Danube by way of the Save.^ The watershed between the Adriatic and the Black Sea crosses the country from west to east in a very irregular line, the southern districts being drained by the Zeta-Moratcha river system, which finds its way to the Adriatic by Lake Rivers and Scutari and the Boyana, while the streams from the Lakes.

^ Drina, which reaches the Danube by way of the Save.

^ It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east and Albania to the south.

.The Zeta, rising in Lake Slano, near Nikshitch, is remarkable for its subterranean passage beneath a mountain range Iwo ft.^ The Zeta, rising in Lake Slano, near Nikshitch, is remarkable for its subterranean passage beneath a mountain range Iwo ft.

^ Between Lake Scutari and the sea is the Sutorman range with the fine pyramidal summit of Rumiya (5148 ft.

^ On the one side rise the mountains of the Kutchi territory on the other the immense flanks of the Prokletia range - the walls of the gorge varying from 2000 to 4000 ft.

high. .At Ponor, not far from that town, the water vanishes in a deep chasm, reappearing at a distance of several miles on the other side of the mountains.^ At Ponor, not far from that town, the water vanishes in a deep chasm, reappearing at a distance of several miles on the other side of the mountains.

^ On the one side rise the mountains of the Kutchi territory on the other the immense flanks of the Prokletia range - the walls of the gorge varying from 2000 to 4000 ft.

^ Novi Sad - Sightseeing - Out of Town A lonely mountain in the gentle Pannonian Plain, not far from Novi Sad.
  • Serbia In Your Pocket city guide - essential travel guides to cities in Serbia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.inyourpocket.com [Source type: General]

.Its whole course to its junction with the Moratcha is about 30 m.^ Its whole course to its junction with the Moratcha is about 30 m.

^ The whole course is about 60 m.

^ Fertile and wellwatered plains, not unlike those of Lombardy , border the river Zeta, and after its junction with the Moratcha extend along the course of that river to Lake Scutari.

.' Rising in the Yavorye Planina, the Moratcha sweeps through mountain gorges till it reaches the plain of Podgoritza; then for a space it almost disappears among the pebbles and other alluvial deposits, nor does it again show a current of any considerable volume till it approaches Lake Scutari.^ Rising in the Yavorye Planina, the Moratcha sweeps through mountain gorges till it reaches the plain of Podgoritza; then for a space it almost disappears among the pebbles and other alluvial deposits, nor does it again show a current of any considerable volume till it approaches Lake Scutari.

^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

^ On the one side rise the mountains of the Kutchi territory on the other the immense flanks of the Prokletia range - the walls of the gorge varying from 2000 to 4000 ft.

.In the neighbourhood of Dukle 2 and Leskopolye it flows through a precipitous ravine from 5 0 to too ft.^ In the neighbourhood of Dukle 2 and Leskopolye it flows through a precipitous ravine from 5 0 to too ft.

high. .In the dry season it is navigable from the lake to Zhabliak.^ In the dry season it is navigable from the lake to Zhabliak.

.The whole course is about 60 m.^ The whole course is about 60 m.

^ Its whole course to its junction with the Moratcha is about 30 m.

.Of the left-hand tributaries of the Moratcha the Sem or Tzem deserves to be mentioned for the magnificent canon through which it flows between Most Tamarui and Dinosha.^ Of the left-hand tributaries of the Moratcha the Sem or Tzem deserves to be mentioned for the magnificent canon through which it flows between Most Tamarui and Dinosha.

^ A tributary, the Morava River, flows through the more mountainous southern regions.
  • Serbia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the one side rise the mountains of the Kutchi territory on the other the immense flanks of the Prokletia range - the walls of the gorge varying from 2000 to 4000 ft.^ On the one side rise the mountains of the Kutchi territory on the other the immense flanks of the Prokletia range - the walls of the gorge varying from 2000 to 4000 ft.

^ The Montenegrin mountain system is divided into four masses: (t) the group enclosed by the Tara and Piva rivers with Dormitor, one of the highest mountains in the peninsula (9146 ft.

^ The Zeta, rising in Lake Slano, near Nikshitch, is remarkable for its subterranean passage beneath a mountain range Iwo ft.

of vertical height. .Lower down the stream the rocky banks approach so close that it is possible to leap across without trouble.^ Lower down the stream the rocky banks approach so close that it is possible to leap across without trouble.

.The Sem rises in northern Albania, and has a length of 70 m.^ The Sem rises in northern Albania, and has a length of 70 m.

.The Rieka issues full-formed from an immense cave south-east of Cettigne and falls into Lake Scutari.^ The Rieka issues full-formed from an immense cave south-east of Cettigne and falls into Lake Scutari.

^ Lake Scutari, the nation's largest lake, is at the southern end of the karst and forms part of the Albanian border.
  • Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rieka (1768), near the northern end of Lake Scutari, derives some commercial importance from its position.

.The three tributaries of the Drina which belong in part to Montenegro are the Piva, the Tara, and the Lim, respectively 55, 95 and 140 m.^ The three tributaries of the Drina which belong in part to Montenegro are the Piva, the Tara, and the Lim, respectively 55, 95 and 140 m.

^ The largest rivers in Serbia are the Danube (588 km), Sava, Tisa, Great Morava, West Morava, South Morava, Ibar and Drina on the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina; in Montenegro the Moraca, Zeta, Lim, Piva and Tara.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The drainage system of Montenegro flows in two opposite directions; the Piva, Tara, and Lim rivers follow northerly courses, the Morača and Zeta rivers southerly ones.
  • Montenegro -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

in length. .The Tara forms the northern boundary of the kingdom for more than 50 m., but the Lim flows beyond the border after the first 30 m.^ The Tara forms the northern boundary of the kingdom for more than 50 m., but the Lim flows beyond the border after the first 30 m.

^ One eminent scholar has nevertheless ventured the view that Justinian's Empire, including the reconquered western provinces, had no more than 30 million inhabitants.
  • Mango. Byzantium 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The chestnut forms little groves in the country between the sea and Lake Scutari but never ascends more than 1000 ft.

of its course. .The western half of Lake Scutari, or Skodra, belongs to Montenegro; 2 Duklea is the name still borne by the ruins of the Roman Doclea, often, but wrongly, written Dioclea, from its association with the Emperor Diocletian.^ The western half of Lake Scutari, or Skodra, belongs to Montenegro; 2 Duklea is the name still borne by the ruins of the Roman Doclea, often, but wrongly, written Dioclea, from its association with the Emperor Diocletian .

^ The name is still borne by a small corps (20 men in 1907) which guards the residences of the king and his sons, but the feathers are no longer worn.

^ Especially interesting and important are the extensive ruins of Doclea, now known as Dukle, the birthplace of the Emperor Diocletian.

.Scale; x:2,50o.000 the eastern, with Scutari itself, to Albania.^ Scale; x:2,50o.000 the eastern, with Scutari itself, to Albania.

.It is a magnificent sheet of water, measuring about 135 sq.^ It is a magnificent sheet of water, measuring about 135 sq.

m., with an average depth of two to three fathoms. .The northern end is studded with picturesque islands.^ The northern end is studded with picturesque islands.

.The level of Lake Scutari underwent several changes in the 19th century; notably when the Drin, an Albanian river, which before 1830 entered the Adriatic near San Giovanni di Medua, changed its course so as to join the Boyana just below its exit from the lake.^ The level of Lake Scutari underwent several changes in the 19th century; notably when the Drin, an Albanian river, which before 1830 entered the Adriatic near San Giovanni di Medua, changed its course so as to join the Boyana just below its exit from the lake.

^ The watershed between the Adriatic and the Black Sea crosses the country from west to east in a very irregular line, the southern districts being drained by the Zeta-Moratcha river system, which finds its way to the Adriatic by Lake Rivers and Scutari and the Boyana, while the streams from the Lakes.

^ The Montenegrins originally came from near the Baltic Sea in approximately the 6th century A.D. A wave of migration brought them south to the Adriatic coast, at that time inhabited by Roman settlements and Illyrian s (ancestors of modern Albanian s).
  • Montenegro@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.This raised the level of the lake, flooding the lower valleys of its tributary streams and permanently enlarging its area.^ This raised the level of the lake, flooding the lower valleys of its tributary streams and permanently enlarging its area.

.A few small lakes are scattered among the mountains, and it is evident that their number was formerly much greater.^ A few small lakes are scattered among the mountains, and it is evident that their number was formerly much greater.

^ Evangelical congregations are few, small and scattered outside Vojvodina.
  • Operation World - Detailed Information 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.operationworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A small, scattered number of adherents of Judaism likely lived in the republic.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Montenegro proper (i.e. the departments of Katunska, Rietchka and Lieshanska) is almost absolutely waterless, the only stream being the Rieka, which probably drains the Cettigne basin by an underground outlet. .Its lower course is practically an inlet from Lake Scutari, and is navigable up to the town of Rieka.^ Its lower course is practically an inlet from Lake Scutari, and is navigable up to the town of Rieka.

^ The fish , which enter the Rieka inlet of Lake Scutari during the winter, are taken with nets during a few weeks in the spring, when the fishing season is inaugurated with a religious service; they are salted and exported in large quantities to Trieste and the Dalmatian coast.

^ Fertile and wellwatered plains, not unlike those of Lombardy , border the river Zeta, and after its junction with the Moratcha extend along the course of that river to Lake Scutari.

.The upland plain of Cettigne, now waterless, was doubtless the bed of a lake at no very distant (geological) period; it is still sometimes flooded after heavy rains.^ The upland plain of Cettigne, now waterless, was doubtless the bed of a lake at no very distant (geological) period; it is still sometimes flooded after heavy rains.

^ There are still no cultivars with different maturation periods in Serbia, and seed importers of pay almost no attention to this.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.The scarcity of water largely contributed to the successful defence of the country against Turkish invasion: the few springs are hidden in deep crannies among the rocks, and the inhabitants are accustomed to preserve melted snow for use during the summer.^ The scarcity of water largely contributed to the successful defence of the country against Turkish invasion: the few springs are hidden in deep crannies among the rocks, and the inhabitants are accustomed to preserve melted snow for use during the summer.

^ The fish , which enter the Rieka inlet of Lake Scutari during the winter, are taken with nets during a few weeks in the spring, when the fishing season is inaugurated with a religious service; they are salted and exported in large quantities to Trieste and the Dalmatian coast.

^ But during the summer, the opposition negotiated a common platform of 29 demands that was used in negotiations with the ruling parties on the final draft.
  • freedomhouse.org: Country Report 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

On the other hand, the Brda 1 and north-eastern districts are abundantly watered. .The maritime district possesses two small streams.^ The maritime district possesses two small streams.

Table of contents

Climate

.The climate generally resembles that of northern Albania; it is severe in the higher regions, and comparatively mild in the valleys, while in the maritime districts of Antivari and Dulcigno it may be compared with that of central Italy.^ The climate generally resembles that of northern Albania; it is severe in the higher regions, and comparatively mild in the valleys, while in the maritime districts of Antivari and Dulcigno it may be compared with that of central Italy .

^ Zeta and Moratcha valleys, the myrtle , orange, laurel and olive in the lower Moratcha region, and more abundantly in the Tzrmnitza and maritime districts.

^ Serbia's northern region is watered by several rivers, including the Danube, Tisa, Sava, Drava, and Morava Rivers.
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.The mean annual temperature is about 58° F. Snow lies for most of the year on many heights, and in some of the darker gorges it is never thawed.^ The mean annual temperature is about 58° F. Snow lies for most of the year on many heights, and in some of the darker gorges it is never thawed.

^ In relation to areas to its east and west, Đerdap gorge is characterized by: high humidity, relatively low summer and high winter temperatures and higher annual precipitation.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Average (30 years) monthly and annual temperatures and sum of precipitation on the territory of Serbia and Montenegro [Click to view table] .
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.The high basin of Cettigne (2093 ft.^ The high basin of Cettigne (2093 ft.

) is deeply covered with snow during the winter months, and the capital is sometimes almost inaccessible; in summer the days are hot, but the nights are cool and frequently chilly. The climate is generally healthy except in a few marshy districts.

Flora and Fauna

.The Alpine vegetation of the summits gives way to pine forests in the sub-Alpine zone (about 600o ft.^ The Alpine vegetation of the summits gives way to pine forests in the sub-Alpine zone (about 600o ft.

^ In the forest districts the beech is the prevailing tree up to a height of about 5000 ft.

); below these the .beech, and then the oak, the walnut, the wild pear, and wild plum make their appearance; the fig-tree, the mulberry, and the vine grow in the middle Zeta and Moratcha valleys, the myrtle, orange, laurel and olive in the lower Moratcha region, and more abundantly in the Tzrmnitza and maritime districts.^ Zeta and Moratcha valleys, the myrtle , orange, laurel and olive in the lower Moratcha region, and more abundantly in the Tzrmnitza and maritime districts.

^ The climate generally resembles that of northern Albania; it is severe in the higher regions, and comparatively mild in the valleys, while in the maritime districts of Antivari and Dulcigno it may be compared with that of central Italy .

.In the forest districts the beech is the prevailing tree up to a height of about 5000 ft.^ In the forest districts the beech is the prevailing tree up to a height of about 5000 ft.

^ The Alpine vegetation of the summits gives way to pine forests in the sub-Alpine zone (about 600o ft.

.The chestnut forms little groves in the country between the sea and Lake Scutari but never ascends more than 1000 ft.^ The chestnut forms little groves in the country between the sea and Lake Scutari but never ascends more than 1000 ft.

^ The watershed between the Adriatic and the Black Sea crosses the country from west to east in a very irregular line, the southern districts being drained by the Zeta-Moratcha river system, which finds its way to the Adriatic by Lake Rivers and Scutari and the Boyana, while the streams from the Lakes.

^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

.Pomegranate bushes grow wild, and in many parts of the south cover the foot of the hills with dense thickets, the crimson blossoms of which are one of the special charms of the spring landscapes.^ Pomegranate bushes grow wild, and in many parts of the south cover the foot of the hills with dense thickets, the crimson blossoms of which are one of the special charms of the spring landscapes.

^ For example, growing soybean in dry, infertile parts of Vojvodina, is not justified; it is better to grow peas sown early in spring which mature before mid July.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Serbia has one autonomous province, Vojvodina, in the north and a special region, Kosovo, in the south.
  • Operation World - Detailed Information 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.operationworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leaves of the sumach (Rhus cotinus), which flourishes in the warmer districts, are exported for use in dye-works; the Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium supplies material for the manufacture of insectpowder; the fruit of the wild plum (Cornus mascula), as well as the grape, is employed for the production of raki or rakiya, a mild spirit, which is a favourite beverage with the people.^ The leaves of the sumach ( Rhus cotinus ), which flourishes in the warmer districts, are exported for use in dye-works; the Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium supplies material for the manufacture of insectpowder; the fruit of the wild plum ( Cornus mascula ), as well as the grape , is employed for the production of raki or rakiya, a mild spirit, which is a favourite beverage with the people.

^ The main objective of the seminar was to inform and educate the attendees about Serbia’s Draft Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights while emphasizing its effects on artists, manufacturers, as well as economic entities who use copyrighted works daily.
  • Serbia News Archives | PETOŠEVIĆ 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.petosevic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bears are still found in the higher forests; wolves, and especially foxes, over a much wider area.^ Bears are still found in the higher forests; wolves, and especially foxes, over a much wider area.

.A few chamois still roam on the loftiest summits, the roebuck is not infrequent in the backwoods, the wild boar may be met with in the same district, and the hare is abundant wherever the ground is covered with herbage.^ A few chamois still roam on the loftiest summits, the roebuck is not infrequent in the backwoods, the wild boar may be met with in the same district, and the hare is abundant wherever the ground is covered with herbage.

^ Bear, wild boar, roebuck (European stag), wolf, and chamois are also in the area, but unless an invitation is extended for an official hunt, game fees are prohibitively high.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are one or two species of snakes in the country, including the poisonous Illyrian viper (Vipera ammodytes). Esculent frogs, tree frogs, the common tortoise, and various kinds of lizards are all common.^ Esculent frogs, tree frogs, the common tortoise , and various kinds of lizards are all common.

^ There are one or two species of snakes in the country, including the poisonous Illyrian viper ( Vipera ammodytes).

^ There are two possible, one geopolitical and strategic, the other moralistic.

.Scorpions and numerous reptiles infest the arid rocks of the Katunska.^ Scorpions and numerous reptiles infest the arid rocks of the Katunska.

.The list of birds includes golden eagles and vultures, twelve species of falcons, several species of owls, nightingales, larks, buntings, hoopoes, partridges, herons, pelicans, ducks (ten species), nightjars, &c.^ The list of birds includes golden eagles and vultures, twelve species of falcons, several species of owls, nightingales, larks, buntings, hoopoes, partridges, herons, pelicans, ducks (ten species), nightjars, &c.

.Immense flocks of water-fowl haunt the upper reaches of Lake Scutari.^ Immense flocks of water- fowl haunt the upper reaches of Lake Scutari.

^ The Rieka issues full-formed from an immense cave south-east of Cettigne and falls into Lake Scutari.

.The rivers abound with trout, tench, carp and eels; the trout of the Moratcha are especially fine.^ The rivers abound with trout , tench , carp and eels; the trout of the Moratcha are especially fine.

.More important from an economic point of view is the scoranze (Leuciscus alburnus: Servian uklieva), a kind of sardine, which supplies an article of food and merchandise to a considerable portion of the population.^ More important from an economic point of view is the scoranze (Leuciscus alburnus: Servian uklieva ), a kind of sardine, which supplies an article of food and merchandise to a considerable portion of the population.

^ During the 13th and 14th centuries the level of economic development rose, although during times of armed strife considerable damage was suffered by the population.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.The fish, which enter the Rieka inlet of Lake Scutari during the winter, are taken with nets during a few weeks in the spring, when the fishing season is inaugurated with a religious service; they are salted and exported in large quantities to Trieste and the Dalmatian coast.^ The fish , which enter the Rieka inlet of Lake Scutari during the winter, are taken with nets during a few weeks in the spring, when the fishing season is inaugurated with a religious service; they are salted and exported in large quantities to Trieste and the Dalmatian coast.

^ The scarcity of water largely contributed to the successful defence of the country against Turkish invasion: the few springs are hidden in deep crannies among the rocks, and the inhabitants are accustomed to preserve melted snow for use during the summer.

^ Important harbour works were inaugurated in 1905 at Antivari by the Italo-Montenegrin Compagnia d'Antivari, which in the same year began the construction of a railway from that port to Virbazar on Lake Scutari.

.The annual take is valued at 4000. The sea-fisheries are of less value.^ The sea-fisheries are of less value.

^ The annual take is valued at 4000.

.As regards mineral resources, traces of iron, copper and coal are said to exist; there is a natural petroleum spring in the neighbourhood of Virbazar.^ As regards mineral resources, traces of iron , copper and coal are said to exist; there is a natural petroleum spring in the neighbourhood of Virbazar.

^ Serbia's mineral wealth includes oil and natural gas, coal, iron ore, copper, and zinc.
  • Serbia News - Breaking World Serbia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ There are significant deposits of iron, bauxite, and petroleum in Montenegro and large coal reserves in Kosovo.
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Agriculture and Stock-farming

.Except in the lowlands, which serve as the granary of Montenegro, furnishing wheat, maize, barley, rye, potatoes and capsicums, there is little tillage.^ Except in the lowlands, which serve as the granary of Montenegro, furnishing wheat , maize , barley , rye , potatoes and capsicums, there is little tillage.

^ The principal food of the people is rye or maize cake, cheese, potatoes and salted scoranze; their drink is water or sour milk ; meat is seldom tasted, except on festive occasions, when raki and red wine are also enjoyed.

^ Production of field crop seeds (maize, wheat, barley, oats, sunflower, etc) is well organized, stable and satisfies domestic demand.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.Methods and implements are alike primitive.^ Methods and implements are alike primitive.

.In the Katunska the peasants are glad to enclose the smallest spaces of the fertile red soil which is 1 The name Brda (literally "mountains") signifies in ordinary speech the mountain-group east of the Zeta which was incorporated in the principality in 1796. It figures in the prince's title, but is not otherwise used in official documents.^ It figures in the prince's title, but is not otherwise used in official documents.

^ In the Katunska the peasants are glad to enclose the smallest spaces of the fertile red soil which is 1 The name Brda (literally "mountains") signifies in ordinary speech the mountain-group east of the Zeta which was incorporated in the principality in 1796.

^ On the north-east are the high but rounded Brda Mountains, covered with virgin forest or Alpine pastures, and broken here and there by jagged dolomitic peaks.

left after rain in the crevices of the rocks, and one may see harvests only a few yards square. .The vineyards produce excellent grapes, but wine production, which might become an important industry, is at present limited to home consumption.^ The vineyards produce excellent grapes, but wine production, which might become an important industry, is at present limited to home consumption .

^ At the coast and in the capital, the urban-planning function has become especially important with the skyrocketing price of land and the focus on the tourist industry.
  • freedomhouse.org: Country Report 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Tobacco is largely cultivated, especially in the neighbourhood of Podgoritza; the annual produce amounts to 550,000 lb.^ Kosovo province produces fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and a small amount of cereals.
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.Stock-raising is more largely carried on than agriculture.^ Stock-raising is more largely carried on than agriculture.

^ These grasslands are very important for livestock production because beside their large area, they are more productive and of better quality than primary grasslands.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the north droves of swine fatten on the mast of the beech woods; goats and large flocks of sheep, celebrated for their thick fleeces, thrive on the high pastures, and the lower slopes afford excellent grazing for larger stock.^ In the north droves of swine fatten on the mast of the beech woods; goats and large flocks of sheep , celebrated for their thick fleeces, thrive on the high pastures, and the lower slopes afford excellent grazing for larger stock.

^ On the north-east are the high but rounded Brda Mountains, covered with virgin forest or Alpine pastures, and broken here and there by jagged dolomitic peaks.

^ The mountainous pastures of Kosovo support goat and sheep husbandry.
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.The native breed of cattle is small, but among other efforts made to improve it a stock-farm is maintained by Prince Nicholas near Nikshitch.^ The native breed of cattle is small, but among other efforts made to improve it a stock- farm is maintained by Prince Nicholas near Nikshitch.

^ It is possible to improve the productivity of native sheep by crossing with breeds with better milk yield.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1894 the sultan presented Prince Nicholas with equipment for a small mounted body-guard (32 men), and offered the services of three instructors.

.The horses, as elsewhere in the Balkan Peninsula, are diminutive, wiry and intelligent.^ The horses, as elsewhere in the Balkan Peninsula, are diminutive, wiry and intelligent.

.Bee-keeping is practised in the Kutchi districts, and mulberries are grown for silkworms.^ Bee-keeping is practised in the Kutchi districts, and mulberries are grown for silkworms.

Commerce and Industries

The exports, valued at £80,265 in 1906, include cattle (large and small), smoked and salted meat known as castradina, cheese, undressed hides, scoranze, sumach, pyrethrum, tobacco and wool. .The imports, valued in the same year at £239,505, consist mainly of manufactured articles, such as iron utensils and weapons, soap, candles, &c., and colonial products.^ However, forage seed production cannot satisfy the demand, and each year seed is imported (Table 15).
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1904, when Montenegro renounced its commercial treaties, the old 8% ad valorem duty levied on imports was in many cases raised to 25%.^ In 1904, when Montenegro renounced its commercial treaties , the old 8% ad valorem duty levied on imports was in many cases raised to 25%.

.This caused much discontent among the people, who had been growing steadily poorer since 190o; and many families emigrated.^ This caused much discontent among the people, who had been growing steadily poorer since 190o; and many families emigrated.

^ This situation caused a general exodus of many young and educated people to the countires of Western Europe and America.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Opposition claims that those are people who were litteraly „forced“ and „dragged“ to vote, since ruling regime uses already established measures of threats and pressures.
  • Montenegro and European Union. Comments on Euro-Atlantic integration and globalization. 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC montenegro.blogactiv.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The exportation of cattle is greatly hindered by the high tariff imposed on the Austrian frontier, which is productive of much illicit trading.^ The exportation of cattle is greatly hindered by the high tariff imposed on the Austrian frontier, which is productive of much illicit trading.

^ Research on buildings to provide the most favourable conditions for high production has been undertaken; housed cattle were tied, free or a combination of both.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are practically no manufactures: the men disdain industrial employment, while the women are occupied by household duties or work in the fields.^ There are practically no manufactures: the men disdain industrial employment, while the women are occupied by household duties or work in the fields.

^ Thus, there are many de jure protections for women, but in practice, many things are very different, and inequality is noticeable.
  • Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The constitutional framework and criminal procedure code prohibit such practices, and there were no reports that UNMIK or KFOR employed them.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A brewery and a cloth factory, however, exist at Nikshitch, a soda-water factory at Cettigne, and an olive-oil refinery at Antivari. .The coarser cloth worn by the peasants is home-made; the finer kind worn by the wealthier class is imported.^ The coarser cloth worn by the peasants is home-made; the finer kind worn by the wealthier class is imported.

^ The opanka, a raw- hide sandal , is worn instead of boots; patent leather long boots are sometimes worn by military officers and a few of the wealthier class.

Communications

.The progress of trade and the development of the natural resources of the country must largely depend on improved means of communication.^ The progress of trade and the development of the natural resources of the country must largely depend on improved means of communication.

^ Stimulated by improved communications, large estates underwent rapid commercialization.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The country must also cope with rule of law issues and uneven regional economic development.
  • Montenegro (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this direction considerable progress has already been achieved.^ In this direction considerable progress has already been achieved.

.Montenegro possessed in 1907 228 m.^ Montenegro possessed in 1907 228 m.

of excellent carriage roads, admirably engineered and maintained. .The remarkable zigzag road from Cattaro to Niegush and Cettigne was completed in 1881; it was afterwards prolonged to Rieka, Podgoritza, Danilovgrad (where a fine bridge across the Zeta was erected in 1870), and Nikshitch.^ The remarkable zigzag road from Cattaro to Niegush and Cettigne was completed in 1881; it was afterwards prolonged to Rieka, Podgoritza, Danilovgrad (where a fine bridge across the Zeta was erected in 1870), and Nikshitch.

^ Niegush or Nyegosh (1893), on the road from Cettigne to Cattaro, is the ancestral abode of the ruling family, which originally came from Niegush in Herzegovina.

^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

.Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

^ Important harbour works were inaugurated in 1905 at Antivari by the Italo-Montenegrin Compagnia d'Antivari, which in the same year began the construction of a railway from that port to Virbazar on Lake Scutari.

^ The fish , which enter the Rieka inlet of Lake Scutari during the winter, are taken with nets during a few weeks in the spring, when the fishing season is inaugurated with a religious service; they are salted and exported in large quantities to Trieste and the Dalmatian coast.

.The ports of Antivari and Dulcigno are insufficiently sheltered, but are capable of considerable improvement; both are places of call for the Austrian Lloyd steamers, and a regular service between Antivari and Bari on the Italian coast is maintained by the "Puglia" Steamship Company.^ The ports of Antivari and Dulcigno are insufficiently sheltered, but are capable of considerable improvement; both are places of call for the Austrian Lloyd steamers, and a regular service between Antivari and Bari on the Italian coast is maintained by the "Puglia" Steamship Company.

^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

^ Djukanovic is being investigated for a multimillion-dollar cigarette smuggling operation to Italy and for offering free access and shelter to Italian mafia members in Montenegro ports between 1994 and 2002.
  • Articles:Listing Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

.The Boyana is navigable by sea-going vessels as far as Oboti (122 m.^ The Boyana is navigable by sea-going vessels as far as Oboti (122 m.

from its mouth), where cargoes from .Scutari must be transferred to small river craft.^ Scutari must be transferred to small river craft.

.Important harbour works were inaugurated in 1905 at Antivari by the Italo-Montenegrin Compagnia d'Antivari, which in the same year began the construction of a railway from that port to Virbazar on Lake Scutari.^ Important harbour works were inaugurated in 1905 at Antivari by the Italo-Montenegrin Compagnia d'Antivari, which in the same year began the construction of a railway from that port to Virbazar on Lake Scutari.

^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

^ While public budget hearings began in smaller Serbian communities two years ago, implementing the same mechanism among the residents of Belgrade's 12 municipalities...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Serbia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

.Four steamers belonging to the same company ply on the lake.^ Four steamers belonging to the same company ply on the lake.

.Postal and telegraphic communication is fairly complete.^ Postal and telegraphic communication is fairly complete.

.There were, in 1906, 16 post offices and 20 telegraph stations, with 412 miles of wire.^ There were, in 1906, 16 post offices and 20 telegraph stations, with 412 miles of wire.

^ There were a wide variety of public and private broadcasting media, including public radio and television broadcaster RTCG, as well as 16 private television and 39 private radio stations.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long-distance and international calls can be placed at hotels, railway stations, post offices, and airports.
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The number of letters posted in that year was 91,250. The telegraph is much used by the people: the number of telegrams sent in 1906 was 54,750.

Population

.In 1882 the population of Montenegro was estimated as low as 160,000 by Schwartz.^ In 1882 the population of Montenegro was estimated as low as 160,000 by Schwartz.

^ Podgorica had an estimated population of 118,000 in 2000.
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^ The combined population of Serbia and Montenegro was estimated at 10,677,000 in 2001.
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.A more usual estimate is 230,000. According, however, to information officially furnished at Cettigne, the total number of inhabitants in 1900 was 311,564, of whom 293,527 belonged to the Orthodox Church; 12 ,493 were Moslems and 5544 were Roman Catholics; 71,528, or 23%, were literate and 240,036, or 77%, were illiterate.^ Estimates on the number of victims range from 3,000 (from a Roman Catholic source) to 9,000,000 (from various Neopagan sources).
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^ According, however, to information officially furnished at Cettigne, the total number of inhabitants in 1900 was 311,564, of whom 293,527 belonged to the Orthodox Church ; 12 ,493 were Moslems and 5544 were Roman Catholics; 71,528, or 23%, were literate and 240,036, or 77%, were illiterate.

^ The total number in 1907 was officially given as 282,000.

.The total number in 1907 was officially given as 282,000. The population is densest in the fertile eastern districts; Montenegro proper is sparsely inhabited.^ The population is densest in the fertile eastern districts; Montenegro proper is sparsely inhabited.

^ The total number in 1907 was officially given as 282,000.

^ The vast majority of inhabitants of Serbia and Montenegro belong to the Orthodox Eastern Church (the Serbian Orthodox Church), but there is a significant Albanian Muslim population in Kosovo and the Sanjak region and some Catholics, particularly among the Hungarian population.
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.Emigration is greatly increasing, especially to America; the number of emigrants is given as 6674 in 1905 and 4346 in 1906. The bulk of the inhabitants belongs to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race.^ The bulk of the inhabitants belongs to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race.

^ Emigration is greatly increasing, especially to America ; the number of emigrants is given as 6674 in 1905 and 4346 in 1906.

^ The absolute number of the members of the Shqiptar national minority was increased due to the high race of natural population increase which is still characteristic of this minority.
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.There were about 5000 Albanians resident in the country in 1goo, besides a small colony of gipsies, numbering about Boo, a few of whom have abandoned their nomadic life and settled on the soil.^ There were about 5000 Albanians resident in the country in 1goo, besides a small colony of gipsies , numbering about Boo, a few of whom have abandoned their nomadic life and settled on the soil.

^ While most officers were Serbs, the force included Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), ethnic Hungarians, a small number of ethnic Albanians, and other ethnic minorities.
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^ Goat keeping has no great economical importance because of the small number; there are no reliable data on goat numbers.
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.The Moslems, whose thrift and industry have won encouragement from the Crown, greatly decreased for some years after 1880 owing to emigration.^ The Moslems, whose thrift and industry have won encouragement from the Crown , greatly decreased for some years after 1880 owing to emigration.

^ With the exception of some frontier troubles, the years since 1880 have been spent in peace, and the country has advanced in prosperity under the autocratic but enlightened rule of Prince Nicholas.

.The capital of Montenegro is Cettigne (3200 inhabitants in 1900, 5138 in 1907).^ The capital of Montenegro is Cettigne (3200 inhabitants in 1900, 5138 in 1907).

.The chief commercial centres are Podgoritza (12,3 4 7) and Nikshitch (6872), with the ports of Antivari (2717) and Dulcigno (5166).^ Montenegro Nikshitch, Spuzh, Podgoritza, Plava, Gusinye and Antivari, but restored Dulcigno to Turkey.

^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

^ Turkish dress is often seen at Antivari, Dulcigno and Podgoritza.

.These towns are described under separate headings.^ These towns are described under separate headings.

^ Closely related linguistically, these peoples are separated by historical and cultural factors that ultimately led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia (see below under History ).
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.Danilovgrad (1226) on the Zeta was founded in 1871 by Prince Nicholas and named after his predecessor, Danilo II. In the vicinity is Orialuka, the prince's palace, with its mulberry nurseries.^ Danilovgrad (1226) on the Zeta was founded in 1871 by Prince Nicholas and named after his predecessor, Danilo II. In the vicinity is Orialuka, the prince's palace, with its mulberry nurseries.

^ In the time of his predecessor, Danilo II., who taught the sons of his chieftains in the palace, there were only three schools in the principality.

.Spuzh (1000), a little lower on the east bank of the Zeta, possesses a fortified acropolis.^ Spuzh (1000), a little lower on the east bank of the Zeta, possesses a fortified acropolis .

.Niegush or Nyegosh (1893), on the road from Cettigne to Cattaro, is the ancestral abode of the ruling family, which originally came from Niegush in Herzegovina.^ Niegush or Nyegosh (1893), on the road from Cettigne to Cattaro, is the ancestral abode of the ruling family, which originally came from Niegush in Herzegovina.

^ The remarkable zigzag road from Cattaro to Niegush and Cettigne was completed in 1881; it was afterwards prolonged to Rieka, Podgoritza, Danilovgrad (where a fine bridge across the Zeta was erected in 1870), and Nikshitch.

^ The Tzernoyevitch dynasty came to an end in 1516, and from this date till 1696 the mountaineers were ruled by the vladikas The Elect or bishops of Cettigne, elected by assemblies of the.

.Zhabliak (1200), near Lake Scutari, was the capital until late in the 15th century.^ Zhabliak (1200), near Lake Scutari, was the capital until late in the 15th century.

^ Rieka (1768), near the northern end of Lake Scutari, derives some commercial importance from its position.

It was a Venetian stronghold. .Rieka (1768), near the northern end of Lake Scutari, derives some commercial importance from its position.^ Rieka (1768), near the northern end of Lake Scutari, derives some commercial importance from its position.

^ Another road connects Podgoritza with its port, Plavnitza, on Lake Scutari; a third runs from Antivari to Rieka, and unites the sea-coasts with the richest districts of the interior.

^ Lake Scutari, the nation's largest lake, is at the southern end of the karst and forms part of the Albanian border.
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.Grahovo (loon), in the extreme west, is famous for the Turkish defeats of 1851 and 1876. Other small towns are Kolashin, Virbazar and Andriyevitza.^ Other small towns are Kolashin, Virbazar and Andriyevitza.

^ Grahovo (loon), in the extreme west, is famous for the Turkish defeats of 1851 and 1876.

.The Montenegrins present all the characteristics of a primitive race as yet but little affected by modern civilization.^ The Montenegrins present all the characteristics of a primitive race as yet but little affected by modern civilization.

.Society National is still in that early stage at which personal valour Character- is regarded as the highest virtue, and warlike prowess lstics. constitutes the principal, if not the only, claim to pre-eminence.^ Society National is still in that early stage at which personal valour Character- is regarded as the highest virtue, and warlike prowess lstics.

^ At the time of the defeat at Kosovo field the region now constituting Montenegro was the virtually independent principality of Zeta in the Serbian empire.
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.The chiefs are distinguished by the splendour of their arms and the richness of their costume; women occupy a subject position; the physically infirm often adopt the profession of minstrels and sing the exploits of their countrymen like the bards of the Homeric age.^ The chiefs are distinguished by the splendour of their arms and the richness of their costume ; women occupy a subject position; the physically infirm often adopt the profession of minstrels and sing the exploits of their countrymen like the bards of the Homeric age.

.A race of warriors, the Montenegrins are brave, proud, chivalrous and patriotic; on the other hand, they are vain, lazy, cruel and revengeful.^ A race of warriors, the Montenegrins are brave, proud, chivalrous and patriotic; on the other hand, they are vain, lazy, cruel and revengeful.

^ Djukanovic, 36, and other Montenegrins say they would like to remain part of Yugoslavia, but not if Mr. Milosevic is in charge.
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^ In the meantime, they organize public classes every day, while a great number of Montenegrin intellectuals, politicians, artists and other citizens supports their actions.
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.They possess the domestic virtues of sobriety, chastity and frugality, and are well-mannered, affable and hospitable, though somewhat contemptuous of strangers.^ They possess the domestic virtues of sobriety, chastity and frugality, and are well-mannered, affable and hospitable, though somewhat contemptuous of strangers.

.They are endowed in no small degree with the high-flown poetic temperament of the Serb race, and delight in interminable recitations of their martial deeds, which are sung to the strains of the gusla, a rudimentary one-stringed fiddle.^ They are endowed in no small degree with the high-flown poetic temperament of the Serb race, and delight in interminable recitations of their martial deeds, which are sung to the strains of the gusla , a rudimentary one-stringed fiddle .

^ As a result, no one could start up production even if they wanted to.

.Dancing is a favourite pastime.^ Dancing is a favourite pastime.

.Two characteristic forms are the slow and stately ring-dance (kolo),' in which women sometimes participate, though it is usually performed by a circle of men; and the livelier measure for both sexes (oro), in which the couples face one another, leaping high into the air, while each man encourages his partner by rapid revolver-firing.^ Two characteristic forms are the slow and stately ring- dance ( kolo ),' in which women sometimes participate, though it is usually performed by a circle of men; and the livelier measure for both sexes ( oro ), in which the couples face one another, leaping high into the air , while each man encourages his partner by rapid revolver-firing.

^ Eunice's training includes journalism and teaching degrees and two diplomas in photography (one in advanced visual communications and another in professional photography).
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^ Not even one representative from Montenegrin Government participated to the conference, even though the Ministry for Human and Minority Rights was one of the donors of the conference.
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.The oro is the traditional dance in the Katunska district.^ The oro is the traditional dance in the Katunska district.

Women chant wild dirges, generally improvised, over the dead; mourners try to excel one another in demonstrations of grief; and funerals are celebrated by an orgy very like an Irish "wake." Like most imaginative peoples, the Montenegrins are extremely superstitious, and belief in the vampire, demons and fairies is almost universal. .Among the mountains they can converse fluently at astonishing distances.^ Among the mountains they can converse fluently at astonishing distances.

The physical type contrasts with that of the northern Serbs: the features are more pronounced, the hair is darker, and the stature is greater. .The men are tall, often exceeding 6 ft.^ The men are tall, often exceeding 6 ft.

in height, muscular, and wonderfully active, displaying a cat-like elasticity of movement when scaling their native rocks; their bearing is soldier-like and manly, though somewhat theatrical. .The women, though frequently beautiful in youth, age rapidly, and are short and stunted, though strong, owing to the drudgery imposed on them from childhood; they work in the fields, carry heavy burdens, and are generally treated as inferior beings.^ The women, though frequently beautiful in youth, age rapidly, and are short and stunted, though strong, owing to the drudgery imposed on them from childhood; they work in the fields, carry heavy burdens, and are generally treated as inferior beings.

^ The social status of women was generally considered inferior to that of men, and women were not well represented in commerce.
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^ Legally, women were entitled to equal pay for equal work; however, they did not always receive it in practice.
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.Like the Albanians, the Montenegrins take great pride in personal adornment.^ Like the Albanians, the Montenegrins take great pride in personal adornment.

.The men wear a red waistcoat, embroidered with gold or black braid, over which a long plaid is sometimes thrown in cold weather; a red girdle, in the folds of which pistols and yataghans are placed; loose dark-blue breeches and white stockings, which are generally covered with gaiters.^ The men wear a red waistcoat, embroidered with gold or black braid , over which a long plaid is sometimes thrown in cold weather; a red girdle , in the folds of which pistols and yataghans are placed; loose dark-blue breeches and white stockings, which are generally covered with gaiters.

^ The women, as befits their servile condition, are generally clothed in black, and wear a black head- dress or veil ; on Sundays and holidays, however, a white embroidered bodice, silver girdle, and bright silk skirt are worn beneath an open coat.

^ Over this is placed a short, sleeveless jacket of red, blue, or violet velvet , according to the wearer's age.

.The opanka, a raw-hide sandal, is worn instead of boots; patent leather long boots are sometimes worn by military officers and a few of the wealthier class.^ The opanka, a raw- hide sandal , is worn instead of boots; patent leather long boots are sometimes worn by military officers and a few of the wealthier class.

^ The coarser cloth worn by the peasants is home-made; the finer kind worn by the wealthier class is imported.

.The headdress is a small cap (kapa), black at the sides, in mourning for Kossovo; red at the top, it is said, in token of the blood shed then and afterwards.^ The headdress is a small cap ( kapa ), black at the sides, in mourning for Kossovo; red at the top, it is said, in token of the blood shed then and afterwards.

.On the top near the side, five semicircular bars of gold braid, enclosing the king's initials, are supposed to represent the five centuries of Montenegrin liberty.^ On the top near the side, five semicircular bars of gold braid, enclosing the king's initials , are supposed to represent the five centuries of Montenegrin liberty.

.There 1 The ring-dance, known as the kolo (literally, "wheel") in all Serb countries, corresponds with the Bulgarian horo (to be distinguished from the Montenegrin oro), and is almost universal throughout the Balkan Peninsula; it is seldom, however, danced in the rocky Katunska district, where level spaces are rare.^ The oro is the traditional dance in the Katunska district.

^ There 1 The ring-dance, known as the kolo (literally, " wheel ") in all Serb countries, corresponds with the Bulgarian horo (to be distinguished from the Montenegrin oro ), and is almost universal throughout the Balkan Peninsula; it is seldom, however, danced in the rocky Katunska district, where level spaces are rare.

^ Like most imaginative peoples, the Montenegrins are extremely superstitious, and belief in the vampire , demons and fairies is almost universal.

is little authority, however, for this and other fanciful interpretations of the pattern, which was adopted in the reign of .Peter I.; the red fez, from which the kapa probably derives its colour, was previously worn.^ Peter I .; the red fez , from which the kapa probably derives its colour, was previously worn.

.A blue or green mantle is sometimes worn in addition by the chiefs.^ A blue or green mantle is sometimes worn in addition by the chiefs.

.The poorer mountaineers are often dressed in coarse sacking, but all without exception carry arms.^ The poorer mountaineers are often dressed in coarse sacking, but all without exception carry arms.

.The women, as befits their servile condition, are generally clothed in black, and wear a black head-dress or veil; on Sundays and holidays, however, a white embroidered bodice, silver girdle, and bright silk skirt are worn beneath an open coat.^ The women, as befits their servile condition, are generally clothed in black, and wear a black head- dress or veil ; on Sundays and holidays, however, a white embroidered bodice, silver girdle, and bright silk skirt are worn beneath an open coat.

^ The men wear a red waistcoat, embroidered with gold or black braid , over which a long plaid is sometimes thrown in cold weather; a red girdle , in the folds of which pistols and yataghans are placed; loose dark-blue breeches and white stockings, which are generally covered with gaiters.

^ Prison conditions generally met international standards; however, conditions varied greatly between facilities, and some guards abused prisoners.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Over this is placed a short, sleeveless jacket of red, blue, or violet velvet, according to the wearer's age. .Unmarried girls are allowed to wear the red kapa, but without the embroidered badge.^ Unmarried girls are allowed to wear the red kapa, but without the embroidered badge.

^ Officers who have completed a course of study abroad are allowed to wear a distinctive emblem on the kapa.

.The Vasoyevitch tribe retain the Albanian costume, in which white predominates.^ The Vasoyevitch tribe retain the Albanian costume, in which white predominates.

.Turkish dress is often seen at Antivari, Dulcigno and Podgoritza.^ Turkish dress is often seen at Antivari, Dulcigno and Podgoritza.

^ The chief commercial centres are Podgoritza (12,3 4 7) and Nikshitch (6872), with the ports of Antivari (2717) and Dulcigno (5166).

^ Montenegro Nikshitch, Spuzh, Podgoritza, Plava, Gusinye and Antivari, but restored Dulcigno to Turkey.

.The dwelling-houses are invariably of stone, except in the eastern districts, where wooden huts are found.^ The dwelling-houses are invariably of stone, except in the eastern districts, where wooden huts are found.

.As a rule, only the mansions of cattle-owners have a second storey: the ground floor, which is dark and unventilated, is occupied by the animals; the upper chambers, in which the family reside, are reached by a ladder or stone staircase.^ As a rule, only the mansions of cattle-owners have a second storey : the ground floor, which is dark and unventilated, is occupied by the animals; the upper chambers, in which the family reside, are reached by a ladder or stone staircase .

.Chimneys are rare, and the smoke of the fireplace escapes through the windows (if any exist) or the open doorway.^ Chimneys are rare, and the smoke of the fireplace escapes through the windows (if any exist) or the open doorway .

.The principal food of the people is rye or maize cake, cheese, potatoes and salted scoranze; their drink is water or sour milk; meat is seldom tasted, except on festive occasions, when raki and red wine are also enjoyed.^ The principal food of the people is rye or maize cake, cheese, potatoes and salted scoranze; their drink is water or sour milk ; meat is seldom tasted, except on festive occasions, when raki and red wine are also enjoyed.

^ Except in the lowlands, which serve as the granary of Montenegro, furnishing wheat , maize , barley , rye , potatoes and capsicums, there is little tillage.

^ The exports, valued at £80,265 in 1906, include cattle (large and small), smoked and salted meat known as castradina, cheese , undressed hides, scoranze, sumach, pyrethrum, tobacco and wool .

.The Montenegrins are great smokers, especially of cigarettes; in the districts which formerly belonged to Turkey the men, whose dignity never permits them to carry burdens, may be seen going to market with the chi/Wile, or long pipe, slung across their backs.^ The Montenegrins are great smokers, especially of cigarettes; in the districts which formerly belonged to Turkey the men, whose dignity never permits them to carry burdens, may be seen going to market with the chi/Wile, or long pipe , slung across their backs.

.The mother possesses little influence over her sons, who are trained from their earliest infancy to cultivate warlike pursuits and to despise the weaker sex.^ The mother possesses little influence over her sons, who are trained from their earliest infancy to cultivate warlike pursuits and to despise the weaker sex .

.Betrothals often take place in early childhood.^ Betrothals often take place in early childhood.

.Young men who are attached to each other are accustomed to swear eternal brotherhood (pobratimstvo); the bond, which receives the sanction of the Church, is never dissolved.^ Young men who are attached to each other are accustomed to swear eternal brotherhood ( pobratimstvo); the bond, which receives the sanction of the Church, is never dissolved.

.Marriages between Montenegrins and converted Turkish girls are a common source of blood-feuds.^ Marriages between Montenegrins and converted Turkish girls are a common source of blood-feuds.

.The zadruga, or house-community, under the rule of a stareshina, or house-father, is found in Montenegro as in other Slavonic lands (see SERvIA).^ The zadruga, or house-community, under the rule of a stareshina, or house-father, is found in Montenegro as in other Slavonic lands (see SERvIA ).

^ Various other explanations of the name Montenegro, mostly of a fanciful character, have been put forward: see Kurt Hassert, "Der Name Montenegro" in Globus, No.

^ On the other hand, the UTIP Crna Gora grants doing everything that will enable future guests to see all the beauty of Montenegro.
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.The tribal system still exists, but possesses less significance than in Albania, owing to the centralization of authority at Cettigne.^ The tribal system still exists, but possesses less significance than in Albania, owing to the centralization of authority at Cettigne.

.The tribe (pleme, p1. plemena) is subdivided into clans (bratstva).^ The tribe ( pleme, p1.

Constitution and
Government. - .Notwithstanding the creation of an elective senate in 1831, the grant of a so-called constitution in 1868, and the establishment of a responsible ministry in 1874, the government remained autocratic till 1905, the whole power, even the control of religion and finance, which the constitution of 1868 had conceded to the senate, being centred in the hands of the prince, who in 1910 assumed the title of king.^ (Nicholas took the title of king in 1910.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Notwithstanding the creation of an elective senate in 1831, the grant of a so-called constitution in 1868, and the establishment of a responsible ministry in 1874, the government remained autocratic till 1905, the whole power, even the control of religion and finance , which the constitution of 1868 had conceded to the senate, being centred in the hands of the prince, who in 1910 assumed the title of king.

^ In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a constitutional framework that allowed Kosovo to establish institutions of self-government and led to Kosovo's first parliamentary election.
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.The senate, instituted by Peter II.^ The senate, instituted by Peter II .

with the object of limiting the power of the tribal chieftains, was in .1881 merged in a council of state, the members of which, six in number, were nominated and dismissed by the prince.^ A Skupshtina was instituted, consisting of 62 elected deputies, 9 ex officio members (the higher ecclesiastical and civil dignitaries), and 3 generals nominated by the prince.

^ Many countries were quick to recognise the new state, most noticeably the US, Albania, and a number of the bigger European member states such as France and Germany.
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^ A confederacy of Serb states was formed under zhupans, or feudal princes, dependent on the grand zhupan, who was nominally the vassal of the Greek emperor.

.The council supervises measures to be laid before the Skupshtina, or national assembly, and exercises a disciplinary control over officials.^ The council supervises measures to be laid before the Skupshtina, or national assembly, and exercises a disciplinary control over officials.

.The ministry comprises six departments: (I) the interior, with separate sections for public works, posts and telegraphs, commerce and industry, shipping, sanitary service and agriculture; (2) foreign affairs; (3) war; (4) finance; (5) justice; and (6) education.^ Agriculture: 11% of GDP. Industry: 18% of GDP. Services: 21% of GDP. Trade (2008): Exports --$11 billion.
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^ The state union ministries of foreign affairs and human and minority rights also participated.
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^ Economic activity centers around government, trade, commerce, industry, and services.
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.On the 19th of December 1905 a new constitution was proclaimed by Prince Nicholas.^ On the 19th of December 1905 a new constitution was proclaimed by Prince Nicholas.

^ In December 1900 Prince Nicholas assumed the title "Royal Highness ."

^ National Council invited the prince regent Alexander to proclaim the new union, and on December 4 the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was announced to the world.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.A Skupshtina was instituted, consisting of 62 elected deputies, 9 ex officio members (the higher ecclesiastical and civil dignitaries), and 3 generals nominated by the prince.^ A Skupshtina was instituted, consisting of 62 elected deputies, 9 ex officio members (the higher ecclesiastical and civil dignitaries), and 3 generals nominated by the prince.

^ The National Assembly of Serbia consists of 250 members that are elected for a four-years term.
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.The Skupshtina is elected by manhood suffrage for a period of four years, and is summoned annually on the 31st of October.^ Members are elected for four-year terms.
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^ The Skupshtina is elected by manhood suffrage for a period of four years, and is summoned annually on the 31st of October.

^ The Chamber of Citizens (Vece Gradana) has 138 members, 60 members elected for a four year term in single seat-constituencies and 78 members by proportional representation.
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.In conjunction with the Crown it exercises the legislative power; the ministers are responsible to it as well as to the Crown.^ In conjunction with the Crown it exercises the legislative power; the ministers are responsible to it as well as to the Crown.

^ In response to the announcements in Brussels, Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica said his government has "done absolutely everything in its power" to capture Mladic and extradite him to the ICTY. .
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^ Under the Constitutional Charter, the Assembly of SCG exercises legislative power.
  • GlobaLex - Guide to Legal Research in the Federal Republic of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The constitution affords financial supervision to the Skupshtina, which elects a board of control and votes an annual budget; it guarantees liberty of the person, of religious belief, and of the XVIII. 25 press, together with the right of public meeting, and abolishes the death penalty for political offences.^ The constitution affords financial supervision to the Skupshtina, which elects a board of control and votes an annual budget ; it guarantees liberty of the person, of religious belief, and of the XVIII. 25 press, together with the right of public meeting, and abolishes the death penalty for political offences.

^ Finally, the new Constitution's section on special minority rights says, "Persons belonging to minority nations and other minority national communities shall be guaranteed the rights and liberties, which they can exercise individually or collectively with others...."
  • freedomhouse.org: Country Report 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Together, the Action Plan for Judicial Reform and the Constitution create the basis for improvements in judicial independence and improved protection of fundamental rights, leading to an improvement in Montenegro's judicial framework and independence rating from 4.25 to 4.00.
  • freedomhouse.org: Country Report 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

Administration and Justice

.For purposes of local administration the country is divided into 5 departments (oblasti), each governed by a prefect (upravitel), and 56 districts (kapetanati), each under an official styled kapetan. The prefects and kapetans are nominated by the king on the recommendation of the minister of the interior.^ The prefects and kapetans are nominated by the king on the recommendation of the minister of the interior.

^ For purposes of local administration the country is divided into 5 departments ( oblasti ), each governed by a prefect ( upravitel ), and 56 districts ( kapetanati ), each under an official styled kapetan.

^ The judges, who are removable, are nominated by the king on the recommendation of the minister of justice.

.Rural communes, each under an elected kmet, or mayor, exist in Montenegro as in all Slavonic countries.^ Rural communes, each under an elected kmet, or mayor , exist in Montenegro as in all Slavonic countries.

^ It was destroyed by the Turks in 1566, after sending out copies of the gospel into all Slavonic countries.

^ Thereafter, the parliament of Serbia stated that the Republic of Serbia was the continuity of the state union, changing the name of the country from Serbia and Montenegro to the Republic of Serbia, with Serbia retaining Serbia and Montenegro's membership in all international organizations and bodies.
  • Serbia (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The kmets act as justices of the peace, and there is an appeal from their decisions to the courts of first instance (kapetanski sudove), of which there is one in each district, the kapetan acting as judge.^ The kmets act as justices of the peace, and there is an appeal from their decisions to the courts of first instance ( kapetanski sudove ), of which there is one in each district, the kapetan acting as judge .

^ While civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security services, there were a few instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of government authority.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The war crimes court confirmed the original 20-year sentence; however, the decision was pending on appeal in the Supreme Court at year's end.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In each of the five departments there is a superior court (oblasni sud), with a president and two judges; at Cettigne there is a high court of justice (veliki sud), which is the final court of appeal.^ There are two types of courts: .
  • GlobaLex - Guide to Legal Research in the Federal Republic of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In each of the five departments there is a superior court ( oblasni sud ), with a president and two judges; at Cettigne there is a high court of justice ( veliki sud ), which is the final court of appeal.

^ There are also gymnasia, or high schools, at Cettigne and Podgoritza, with about 700 pupils.

.The ultimate appeal to the prince was abolished in 1902, when Prince Nicholas laid aside his judicial functions, retaining only the prerogative of pardon.^ The ultimate appeal to the prince was abolished in 1902, when Prince Nicholas laid aside his judicial functions, retaining only the prerogative of pardon .

.The judges, who are removable, are nominated by the king on the recommendation of the minister of justice.^ The prefects and kapetans are nominated by the king on the recommendation of the minister of the interior.

^ The judges, who are removable, are nominated by the king on the recommendation of the minister of justice.

^ The president will now appoint a Judicial Council for a four-year term that will include the president of the Supreme Court, four judges elected by the Conference of Judges, two MPs (one each from the parliamentary majority and opposition), two renowned lawyers nominated by the president, and the minister of justice.
  • freedomhouse.org: Country Report 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.With a single exception there are no professional advocates in Montenegro; each man is his own counsel, bringing his own witnesses.^ With a single exception there are no professional advocates in Montenegro; each man is his own counsel , bringing his own witnesses.

^ In 2007, for the first time in seven years, there was no election held in Montenegro.
  • freedomhouse.org: Country Report 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Trials are heard by panels consisting of professional and lay judges; there are no jury trials.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The local gendarmerie, numbering 150 men, is distributed in the five departments.^ The local gendarmerie , numbering 150 men, is distributed in the five departments.

.The kapetanati have replaced the former local divisions according to plemena; in each of the communes there is one or more of the bratstva. The codification of the law, which had previously been administered according to unwritten custom, was first undertaken by Peter I. in 1796. An improved code, issued by Danlio II. in 1855, still contained many quaint enactments.^ The codification of the law, which had previously been administered according to unwritten custom, was first undertaken by Peter I. in 1796.

^ The kapetanati have replaced the former local divisions according to plemena; in each of the communes there is one or more of the bratstva.

^ An improved code, issued by Danlio II. in 1855, still contained many quaint enactments.

.The excellent code drawn up by Professor Bogishitch, a native of Ragusa, in 1888, was revised and enlarged in 1899. It contains elements from various foreign systems scientifically adapted to national usages and requirements.^ It contains elements from various foreign systems scientifically adapted to national usages and requirements.

^ The excellent code drawn up by Professor Bogishitch, a native of Ragusa, in 1888, was revised and enlarged in 1899.

^ A large number of judicial reforms were carried out by Count Voinovitch, who succeeded Professor Bogishitch in 1899; in 1905 a new code of civil procedure was promulgated, and a criminal code in the following year.

.A large number of judicial reforms were carried out by Count Voinovitch, who succeeded Professor Bogishitch in 1899; in 1905 a new code of civil procedure was promulgated, and a criminal code in the following year.^ A large number of judicial reforms were carried out by Count Voinovitch, who succeeded Professor Bogishitch in 1899; in 1905 a new code of civil procedure was promulgated, and a criminal code in the following year.

^ Legislation and the Action Plan for Judicial Reform were put in place by the end of the year to improve judicial administration.
  • freedomhouse.org: Country Report 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An important step in the direction of separating administration from the personal whim of the ruler was taken by Dusan, who in 1349 promulgated his Zakonik, or code of laws.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.The only prison is at Podgoritza.^ The only prison is at Podgoritza.

.In the old prison at Cettigne, closed after 1902, many of the inmates were free to walk in and out at pleasure.^ In the old prison at Cettigne, closed after 1902, many of the inmates were free to walk in and out at pleasure.

.Some were burdened with fetters, rather as a punishment than for restraint.^ Some were burdened with fetters , rather as a punishment than for restraint .

^ Christians were exempted from military service, and in some regions the tax burden was lighter than it had previously been, although they were taxed more heavily than the Muslim population.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.Until the completion of an asylum in 1903, dangerous lunatics were confined in prison.^ Until the completion of an asylum in 1903, dangerous lunatics were confined in prison.

.The commonest offences are murder and robbery; despite vigorous measures taken by the king and his predecessors, the blood-feud, or vendetta, cannot be stamped out, being approved, and even enforced, by public sentiment.^ The commonest offences are murder and robbery ; despite vigorous measures taken by the king and his predecessors, the blood- feud , or vendetta , cannot be stamped out, being approved, and even enforced, by public sentiment.

.Only women are held exempt from the duty of avenging their next-of-kin; they have been known, however, to undertake it, disguising themselves in male attire.^ Only women are held exempt from the duty of avenging their next-of- kin ; they have been known, however, to undertake it, disguising themselves in male attire.

^ Several domestic and international NGOs pursued activities to assist women; however, they were constrained by a tradition of silence about domestic violence, sexual abuse, and rape.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legally, women were entitled to equal pay for equal work; however, they did not always receive it in practice.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A man who kills his slanderer, or otherwise avenges his honour, often receives a nominal term of imprisonment.^ A man who kills his slanderer, or otherwise avenges his honour, often receives a nominal term of imprisonment.

.Robbery, if practised by means of raids across the frontier, is popularly regarded as a venal offence.^ Robbery, if practised by means of raids across the frontier, is popularly regarded as a venal offence.

.Other forms of crime are rare, and foreigners may traverse all parts of the kingdom, except the neighbourhood of the Albanian border, in perfect safety.^ Other forms of crime are rare, and foreigners may traverse all parts of the kingdom, except the neighbourhood of the Albanian border, in perfect safety.

^ Lake Scutari, the nation's largest lake, is at the southern end of the karst and forms part of the Albanian border.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Special and diplomatic passport holders should verify all visa requirements for this and other destinations, as they may differ from those that apply to regular passport holders.
  • Montenegro Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]
  • Serbia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.The death penalty was first introduced by Peter I. Executions are carried out by a firing party selected from the various tribes, in order to prevent the relatives of the criminal from exacting vengeance.^ The action will be carried out in two parts – the first one will be under the slogan "Tobacco smoke is a serial killer " by August, while the latter part of 2009 will be marked by the motto "Get tobacco smoke out".
  • Articles:Listing Serbia 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

.Exceptional severity is shown in the treatment of political offenders, who in some instances have been subjected to solitary confinement for years without trial.^ Exceptional severity is shown in the treatment of political offenders, who in some instances have been subjected to solitary confinement for years without trial.

^ The special war crimes court commenced several trials during the year.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long-delayed trials for political killings from previous years continued during the year, some with notable progress.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Finance

.Financial statistics are not published.^ Financial statistics are not published.

.The total receipts were estimated in 1907 at 2,773,690 Austrian krone,' the principal sources of income being the taxes on land, houses and cattle, the monopolies of tobacco, salt, petroleum and alcohol, and the customs dues.^ The total receipts were estimated in 1907 at 2,773,690 Austrian krone,' the principal sources of income being the taxes on land, houses and cattle, the monopolies of tobacco, salt , petroleum and alcohol , and the customs dues.

^ National budget transfers include a portion of the collected income tax, land sales tax, concession fees, and motor vehicle registration.
  • freedomhouse.org: Country Report 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.The total expenditure was estimated at 2,730,994 krone, the principal items being: civil list, &c., 189,586 krone; ministry of interior, 574,822 krone; of foreign affairs, 144,547 krone; of justice, 232,710 krone; of finance, 592,561 krone; of war, 133: 696 krone; of worship and education, 269,208 krone; service of national debt, 244,500 krone.^ The total expenditure was estimated at 2,730,994 krone, the principal items being: civil list , &c., 189,586 krone; ministry of interior, 574,822 krone; of foreign affairs, 144,547 krone; of justice, 232,710 krone; of finance, 592,561 krone; of war, 133: 696 krone; of worship and education, 269,208 krone; service of national debt , 244,500 krone.

^ The total receipts were estimated in 1907 at 2,773,690 Austrian krone,' the principal sources of income being the taxes on land, houses and cattle, the monopolies of tobacco, salt , petroleum and alcohol , and the customs dues.

^ The state union ministries of foreign affairs and human and minority rights also participated.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The public debt is under £300,000. The contribution of Montenegro to the Ottoman debt has not been fixed.^ The contribution of Montenegro to the Ottoman debt has not been fixed.

^ The public debt is under £300,000.

^ Montenegro's independence was recognized by the Ottoman Empire in 1799, and in 1829 the Turks granted the Serbs autonomy under a hereditary prince.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From time to time considerable subventions have been I The krone = iod.^ From time to time considerable subventions have been I The krone = iod.

English.
received from Russia and Austria. .The annual Russian subsidy, mainly for military and educational purposes, is stated to be about £40,000. Montenegro has no mint; Austrian paper money and coins are generally employed together with Montenegrin nickel and bronze coins struck in Austria.^ The annual Russian subsidy , mainly for military and educational purposes, is stated to be about £40,000.

^ Montenegro has no mint ; Austrian paper money and coins are generally employed together with Montenegrin nickel and bronze coins struck in Austria.

^ So far, they have got no further than Podgorica, as the health inspection service does not have enough money for them to extend their supervision to other parts of Montenegro.
  • Articles:Listing Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

.Turkish gold and silver are also in circulation.^ Turkish gold and silver are also in circulation.

.The former Turkish and Venetian weights and measures have been superseded by the French.^ The former Turkish and Venetian weights and measures have been superseded by the French.

Defence

.The Montenegrin is a born warrior; his weapons, which he never lays aside, are his most precious possession, and distinction in battle is the sole object of his ambition.^ The Montenegrin is a born warrior; his weapons, which he never lays aside, are his most precious possession, and distinction in battle is the sole object of his ambition.

.Persons of all classes wear a revolver in the kolan or waistband.^ Persons of all classes wear a revolver in the kolan or waistband.

."You might as well take from me my brother as my rifle," says a native proverb; and rifles are almost universally carried near the Albanian frontier, where the tribesmen on either side are in a state of chronic hostility.^ "You might as well take from me my brother as my rifle ," says a native proverb ; and rifles are almost universally carried near the Albanian frontier, where the tribesmen on either side are in a state of chronic hostility.

^ This exciting journey takes you from enigmatic Russia via the little known Baltic and Balkan states to Turkey, where Eastern Europe meets the Middle East.

.Brave to a fault, an unerring marksman, hardy, agile, crafty and enduring, the Montenegrin has few rivals in the practice of guerrilla warfare.^ Brave to a fault , an unerring marksman, hardy, agile, crafty and enduring, the Montenegrin has few rivals in the practice of guerrilla warfare.

The traditional method of fighting is by ambuscade; the enemy is enticed into some intricate defile, surrounded, and harassed by rifle-fire; then the mountaineers, throwing aside their firearms, deliver a swift attack with the hanjar, or yataghan, which they wield with terrific effect. .A number of heads cut off in battle adorned the parapet of a small tower outside Cettigne, called the "Turks' Tower," as late as 1850. When reduced to extremity the Montenegrins often committed suicide rather than fall into the hands of the enemy, the last cartridge being reserved for this purpose; disabled comrades who could not be removed used to be beheaded; in 1876 a Montenegrin offered to perform this kindly service for a Russian officer who was wounded at Klobuk.^ A number of heads cut off in battle adorned the parapet of a small tower outside Cettigne, called the " Turks ' Tower," as late as 1850.

^ When reduced to extremity the Montenegrins often committed suicide rather than fall into the hands of the enemy, the last cartridge being reserved for this purpose; disabled comrades who could not be removed used to be beheaded; in 1876 a Montenegrin offered to perform this kindly service for a Russian officer who was wounded at Klobuk.

^ Often the seed rate of the nurse crop is too high, and it is cut rather late, often used only when mature.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.Savage methods of warfare, however, have been strongly discountenanced by King Nicholas and his predecessor.^ Savage methods of warfare, however, have been strongly discountenanced by King Nicholas and his predecessor.

.Till the middle of the 19th century the forces of the principality consisted of undisciplined bands of tribesmen under local chiefs, whose rivalries often proved injurious to the national cause.^ Till the middle of the 19th century the forces of the principality consisted of undisciplined bands of tribesmen under local chiefs, whose rivalries often proved injurious to the national cause.

^ Instead, a bitter and protracted civil war erupted in which regular forces and irregular armed bands expelled entire populations from areas brought under their control.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.The supreme command, however, always.^ The supreme command, however, always.

rested with the prince. .The nucleus of a permanent corps was created by Peter II., who formed a bodyguard of picked men known as perianiki, from the feathers (pera) which adorned their caps.^ The nucleus of a permanent corps was created by Peter II., who formed a bodyguard of picked men known as perianiki, from the feathers ( pera ) which adorned their caps.

^ The perianiki, whose numbers were increased by Prince Danilo, were disbanded in 1898, when steps were taken to form a bodyguard of 3000 picked men under Prince Mirko, King Nicholas's second son, but the project was abandoned in view of the jealousies to which the selection gave rise.

^ The name is still borne by a small corps (20 men in 1907) which guards the residences of the king and his sons, but the feathers are no longer worn.

.The name is still borne by a small corps (20 men in 1907) which guards the residences of the king and his sons, but the feathers are no longer worn.^ The name is still borne by a small corps (20 men in 1907) which guards the residences of the king and his sons, but the feathers are no longer worn.

^ The nucleus of a permanent corps was created by Peter II., who formed a bodyguard of picked men known as perianiki, from the feathers ( pera ) which adorned their caps.

^ In 1894 the sultan presented Prince Nicholas with equipment for a small mounted body-guard (32 men), and offered the services of three instructors.

.In 1853 Danilo II. ordered the enrolment of all persons capable of bearing arms, and instituted a military hierarchy of voievodes (generals), sirdars (colonels) and kapetans; the organization, which was based on the tribal system, was remodelled by Servian officers in 1870, when the chiefs were brought to Cettigne to receive military instruction.^ In 1853 Danilo II. ordered the enrolment of all persons capable of bearing arms, and instituted a military hierarchy of voievodes (generals), sirdars (colonels) and kapetans; the organization, which was based on the tribal system, was remodelled by Servian officers in 1870, when the chiefs were brought to Cettigne to receive military instruction.

^ His successor Peter II. (1830-1851), a poet, statesman and reformer, as well as a capable military chief, instituted a senate (1831), abolished the office of civil governor (1832), revived the national printing-press, and did much to educate and civilize his people.

^ Since 1870, though arms and ammunition are manufactured on a small scale within the kingdom, the chief supplies have come from Russia.

.In the same year arms of precision were introduced: the cost and complex structure of the new weapons threatened to cause serious difficulty, but Russian aid was soon forthcoming.^ In the same year arms of precision were introduced: the cost and complex structure of the new weapons threatened to cause serious difficulty, but Russian aid was soon forthcoming.

^ The imports, valued in the same year at £239,505, consist mainly of manufactured articles, such as iron utensils and weapons, soap , candles, &c., and colonial products.

.Since 1870, though arms and ammunition are manufactured on a small scale within the kingdom, the chief supplies have come from Russia.^ Since 1870, though arms and ammunition are manufactured on a small scale within the kingdom, the chief supplies have come from Russia.

^ The Civic Alliance has since changed into a liberal party, but a small social-democratic group still exists within the party.
  • Serbia country update - European Forum - for Democracy and Solidarity 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.europeanforum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1895 the tsar presented Prince Nicholas with 30,000 Berdan rifles, besides ordnance and other war material, and in 1898 sent a further gift of 35,000 Moskovska rifles.^ In 1895 the tsar presented Prince Nicholas with 30,000 Berdan rifles, besides ordnance and other war material, and in 1898 sent a further gift of 35,000 Moskovska rifles.

^ On the 2nd of July 1876 Prince Nicholas, in alliance with Prince Milan of Servia, declared war against Turkey and invaded Herzegovina.

^ They are armed with the Moskovska (repeating) rifle, but a Berdan rifle is.

.Every able-bodied citizen must serve in the army, except Moslems, who are exempt on payment of a capitation tax.^ Every able-bodied citizen must serve in the army, except Moslems, who are exempt on payment of a capitation tax.

.The military organization has undergone a gradual transformation under Prince Nicholas.^ The military organization has undergone a gradual transformation under Prince Nicholas.

^ The progress of education under Prince Nicholas was very remarkable.

^ With the exception of some frontier troubles, the years since 1880 have been spent in peace, and the country has advanced in prosperity under the autocratic but enlightened rule of Prince Nicholas.

in conformity with the changed circumstances of the country and the requirements of modern warfare. .The militia system on the tribal basis is maintained, but in 1896 a permanent battalion of 500 men was established at Cettigne, and two years later another at Podgoritza, each under a komandir, or major, 4 captains and 15 lieutenants.^ The militia system on the tribal basis is maintained, but in 1896 a permanent battalion of 500 men was established at Cettigne, and two years later another at Podgoritza, each under a komandir, or major, 4 captains and 15 lieutenants.

^ With Djukanovic’s political party handily winning elections at the end of March, the prime minister is expected to remain in power for another two years.
  • Articles:Listing Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

^ The tribal system still exists, but possesses less significance than in Albania, owing to the centralization of authority at Cettigne.

.A permanent brigade of artillery was formed at Nikshitch in 1897. In 1905 these were abolished through motives of economy.^ In 1905 these were abolished through motives of economy.

^ A permanent brigade of artillery was formed at Nikshitch in 1897.

.There is a standing corps of officers, but no standing army.^ There is a standing corps of officers, but no standing army.

^ They then receive full commissions and are sent to the local centres to superintend the training of the militia, thus gradually superseding the old militia officers, and replenishing the standing corps of officers of the regular army.

.All young men of military age go through an obligatory period of twelve days' service at the various local military centres.^ All young men of military age go through an obligatory period of twelve days' service at the various local military centres.

^ Its purporse is to serve you as a quick informal guide through your arrival and first days in Montenegro and to give you service informations organized on one place.

.Candidates for a commission afterwards proceed to a military school at Podgoritza for one year; the best and most promising then receive commissions as pod-ofizieri or sous-officiers, and are sent for a further course of instruction of two years to military schools either at Cettigne for the infantry, or at Nikshitch for the artillery.^ Candidates for a commission afterwards proceed to a military school at Podgoritza for one year; the best and most promising then receive commissions as pod-ofizieri or sous-officiers, and are sent for a further course of instruction of two years to military schools either at Cettigne for the infantry , or at Nikshitch for the artillery.

^ The militia system on the tribal basis is maintained, but in 1896 a permanent battalion of 500 men was established at Cettigne, and two years later another at Podgoritza, each under a komandir, or major, 4 captains and 15 lieutenants.

^ There are also gymnasia, or high schools, at Cettigne and Podgoritza, with about 700 pupils.

.They then receive full commissions and are sent to the local centres to superintend the training of the militia, thus gradually superseding the old militia officers, and replenishing the standing corps of officers of the regular army.^ There is a standing corps of officers, but no standing army.

^ They then receive full commissions and are sent to the local centres to superintend the training of the militia, thus gradually superseding the old militia officers, and replenishing the standing corps of officers of the regular army.

.Officers who have completed a course of study abroad are allowed to wear a distinctive emblem on the kapa. The war strength is estimated at from 38,000 to 42,000 men, the infantry being composed of about 32,000 men of the first ban and of 5000 or 6000 of the second or reserve (which, however, would scarcely be employed in the field), the artillery of about 1500. Considerable deduction must be made from these numbers in view of the emigration of recent years; according to some authorities between 20,000 and 22,000 men of military age are absent in America and elsewhere.^ The war strength is estimated at from 38,000 to 42,000 men, the infantry being composed of about 32,000 men of the first ban and of 5000 or 6000 of the second or reserve (which, however, would scarcely be employed in the field), the artillery of about 1500.

^ Officers who have completed a course of study abroad are allowed to wear a distinctive emblem on the kapa.

^ Considerable deduction must be made from these numbers in view of the emigration of recent years; according to some authorities between 20,000 and 22,000 men of military age are absent in America and elsewhere.

.It is expected, however, that many of these would return should the country become involved in war.^ It is expected, however, that many of these would return should the country become involved in war.

^ Available data indicated that there are more than 1,370 survivors; however it is not known how many of these live in Serbia.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discussions began about the possible union of the two countries, but these were interrupted by World War I, when Austrian troops drove Nicholas into exile in Italy.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.The infantry is divided into Ii brigades, each containing from 4 to 6 battalions; the total number of battalions is 56. The battalion is composed of a varying number of tchete, or companies, each of which belongs to a separate clan and has its own bairaktar, or standard-bearer.^ The infantry is divided into Ii brigades, each containing from 4 to 6 battalions; the total number of battalions is 56.

^ The battalion is composed of a varying number of tchete, or companies, each of which belongs to a separate clan and has its own bairaktar, or standard- bearer .

^ For purposes of local administration the country is divided into 5 departments ( oblasti ), each governed by a prefect ( upravitel ), and 56 districts ( kapetanati ), each under an official styled kapetan.

.The younger men of the first ban are occasionally exercised in the neighbourhood of their homes on Sundays and holidays.^ The younger men of the first ban are occasionally exercised in the neighbourhood of their homes on Sundays and holidays.

^ Emily Milich reported in The Sunday Times : We could see three men in a first floor office to our left attempting unsuccessfully to shut the door.

.They are armed with the Moskovska (repeating) rifle, but a Berdan rifle is.^ They are armed with the Moskovska (repeating) rifle, but a Berdan rifle is.

also kept in each household. .The artillery was composed in 1910 of 18 siege, 25 field and 38 mountain guns, with 4 howitzers, 15 mortars and 18 machine-guns (6 Gatling and 12 Maxim-Nordenfeldt); the principal arsenal is at Spuzh, where the heavier guns are kept, the others are distributed among 8 of the 11 local brigades.^ The artillery was composed in 1910 of 18 siege , 25 field and 38 mountain guns, with 4 howitzers, 15 mortars and 18 machine-guns (6 Gatling and 12 Maxim-Nordenfeldt); the principal arsenal is at Spuzh, where the heavier guns are kept, the others are distributed among 8 of the 11 local brigades.

^ The war strength is estimated at from 38,000 to 42,000 men, the infantry being composed of about 32,000 men of the first ban and of 5000 or 6000 of the second or reserve (which, however, would scarcely be employed in the field), the artillery of about 1500.

.The perianiki, whose numbers were increased by Prince Danilo, were disbanded in 1898, when steps were taken to form a bodyguard of 3000 picked men under Prince Mirko, King Nicholas's second son, but the project was abandoned in view of the jealousies to which the selection gave rise.^ The perianiki, whose numbers were increased by Prince Danilo, were disbanded in 1898, when steps were taken to form a bodyguard of 3000 picked men under Prince Mirko, King Nicholas's second son, but the project was abandoned in view of the jealousies to which the selection gave rise.

^ Danilovgrad (1226) on the Zeta was founded in 1871 by Prince Nicholas and named after his predecessor, Danilo II. In the vicinity is Orialuka, the prince's palace, with its mulberry nurseries.

^ The marriage in the same year of Princess Helen , fourth daughter of Prince Nicholas, with the crown prince of Italy, subsequently King Victor Emmanuel III ., led to an increase of Italian influence in the principality.

.Owing to the lack of open country there is no cavalry.^ Owing to the lack of open country there is no cavalry .

^ Soon it was evident that there was no real restoration of democracy and civil society in Yugoslavia and the country was plunged into severe ethnic strifes.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ WARNINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS There is no Official Warning for this country.
  • Montenegro Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]
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.In 1894 the sultan presented Prince Nicholas with equipment for a small mounted body-guard (32 men), and offered the services of three instructors.^ In 1894 the sultan presented Prince Nicholas with equipment for a small mounted body-guard (32 men), and offered the services of three instructors.

^ The native breed of cattle is small, but among other efforts made to improve it a stock- farm is maintained by Prince Nicholas near Nikshitch.

^ The name is still borne by a small corps (20 men in 1907) which guards the residences of the king and his sons, but the feathers are no longer worn.

.This corps, however, ceased to exist in 1898. About 20,000 men can concentrate at a given spot within 48 hours.^ About 20,000 men can concentrate at a given spot within 48 hours.

^ This corps, however, ceased to exist in 1898.

^ The war strength is estimated at from 38,000 to 42,000 men, the infantry being composed of about 32,000 men of the first ban and of 5000 or 6000 of the second or reserve (which, however, would scarcely be employed in the field), the artillery of about 1500.

.The signal for mobilization is mainly given by telegraph; bonfires, trumpet-calls and volley-firing are also employed.^ The signal for mobilization is mainly given by telegraph; bonfires, trumpet -calls and volley-firing are also employed.

.The warriors were formerly summoned by stentorian couriers, who shouted from the tops of the mountains.^ The warriors were formerly summoned by stentorian couriers, who shouted from the tops of the mountains.

.An ambulance corps has been formed.^ An ambulance corps has been formed.

.Transport is deficient, all draught animals, however, in the country have been registered and a few carts have been provided.^ Transport is deficient, all draught animals, however, in the country have been registered and a few carts have been provided.

^ In practice, UNMIK provided protection against refoulement , the return of persons to a country where they feared persecution; however, UNMIK did not grant refugee status or asylum.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The wives and daughters of the troops provide the commissariat, and carry the ammunition.^ The wives and daughters of the troops provide the commissariat , and carry the ammunition.

Religion

.The Montenegrin Church is an autocephalous branch of the Eastern Orthodox communion.^ The Montenegrin Church is an autocephalous branch of the Eastern Orthodox communion.

^ The Christian population was mainly divided between  adherents of the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, but more than one-tenth of the total population were Muslims.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Tensions continued between the canonically unrecognized Montenegrin Orthodox Church and the Serbian Orthodox Church.
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.In 1894 it formally vindicated its independence against the claims of the Russian synod.^ In 1894 it formally vindicated its independence against the claims of the Russian synod .

^ After waging war against Turkey in support of Bosnian rebels in 1876, Serbia formally gained independence in 1878 at the Congress of Berlin, largely thanks to Russian support.
  • Serbia (06/09) 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vladikas, or prince-bishops, formerly depended on the patriarchate of Ipek.^ The vladikas, or prince- bishops , formerly depended on the patriarchate of Ipek .

.The theocratic system of government which existed from 1516 to 1851 tended to unite the patriotic and the religious instincts of the people.^ The theocratic system of government which existed from 1516 to 1851 tended to unite the patriotic and the religious instincts of the people.

.Since the separation of the spiritual and temporal powers in 1851, the see of Cettigne, in which the diocese of Ostrog is included, has been occupied by a metropolitan (metropolit), who possesses a nominal jurisdiction over Scutari and the Primore.^ Since the separation of the spiritual and temporal powers in 1851, the see of Cettigne, in which the diocese of Ostrog is included, has been occupied by a metropolitan ( metropolit ), who possesses a nominal jurisdiction over Scutari and the Primore.

.In judgments relative to divorce his verdicts may be reversed by the king.^ In judgments relative to divorce his verdicts may be reversed by the king.

.Otherwise he is supreme in matters spiritual.^ Otherwise he is supreme in matters spiritual.

.There are 159 parishes of the Orthodox Church, 10 Roman Catholic parishes under the archbishop of Antivari and 10 Mahommedan parishes under a mufti.^ There are 159 parishes of the Orthodox Church, 10 Roman Catholic parishes under the archbishop of Antivari and 10 Mahommedan parishes under a mufti.

^ It has been styled "the Lourdes of the Balkans," owing to its reputation for miraculous cures , and is visited annually by thousands of Orthodox pilgrims, and even by Roman Catholics and Moslems.

^ There was no state religion, although the republic constitution mentions the Orthodox Church, the Islamic community, and the Roman Catholic Church as equal and separate from the state; however, the Serbian Orthodox Church received some preferential treatment in practice.
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.The churches are small unpretending structures, almost all exactly alike; a handsome cathedral, however, has been erected at Nikshitch.^ The churches are small unpretending structures, almost all exactly alike; a handsome cathedral , however, has been erected at Nikshitch.

.The principal monasteries, in addition to the convent at Cettigne, are those of St Nicholas, on the Moratcha, and of St Basil at Ostrog.^ The principal monasteries, in addition to the convent at Cettigne, are those of St Nicholas, on the Moratcha, and of St Basil at Ostrog.

^ In the fortress-monastery of St Nicholas (founded in 1252), which overlooks the headwaters of the Moratcha, are some interesting and well-preserved frescoes which date from the 13th century.

.The monastic order is almost extinct; the parochial clergy, who numbered about 400 in 1900, are only distinguishable from the laity by their beards; they wear the national costume, carry weapons, take part in warfare, and follow the ordinary avocations of the peasantry.^ The monastic order is almost extinct; the parochial clergy, who numbered about 400 in 1900, are only distinguishable from the laity by their beards; they wear the national costume, carry weapons, take part in warfare, and follow the ordinary avocations of the peasantry.

^ A large number of judicial reforms were carried out by Count Voinovitch, who succeeded Professor Bogishitch in 1899; in 1905 a new code of civil procedure was promulgated, and a criminal code in the following year.

.Even the old vladikas discarded the episcopal robe, except when engaged in sacerdotal duties.^ Even the old vladikas discarded the episcopal robe, except when engaged in sacerdotal duties.

.The clergy are still for the most part extremely ignorant.^ The clergy are still for the most part extremely ignorant.

^ Parts of the kingdom had already begun to industrialize and to commercialize, but most of its subjects were still living in primitive and isolated communities dependent on subsistence agriculture.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

Education

.The Bogoslovia, a seminary for the instruction of the young priests and schoolmasters, was established at Cettigne in 1869. It is maintained by 'a subvention from the emperor of Russia, while the empress supports the Zhenski Tzrnogorski Institut, an excellently managed school for girls (98 pupils in 1907).^ It is maintained by 'a subvention from the emperor of Russia, while the empress supports the Zhenski Tzrnogorski Institut, an excellently managed school for girls (98 pupils in 1907).

^ The Bogoslovia, a seminary for the instruction of the young priests and schoolmasters, was established at Cettigne in 1869.

^ There are also gymnasia, or high schools, at Cettigne and Podgoritza, with about 700 pupils.

.Government lecturers go on circuit to instruct the older men.^ Government lecturers go on circuit to instruct the older men.

.They may be seen on Sundays, not only distributing general information, but teaching the shepherds how to safeguard their flocks from disease, and the lowland cultivators how to tend their vines and tobacco crops.^ They may be seen on Sundays, not only distributing general information, but teaching the shepherds how to safeguard their flocks from disease, and the lowland cultivators how to tend their vines and tobacco crops.

.An agricultural college at Podgoritza supplements their work.^ An agricultural college at Podgoritza supplements their work.

.Primary education is compulsory.^ Primary education is compulsory.

.In the rural districts it is free; in the towns a small fee is charged.^ In the rural districts it is free; in the towns a small fee is charged.

.In 1906 there were 112 primary schools in the principality with 150 teachers and 9756 pupils; and two secondary schools (at Cettigne and Podgoritza) with 21 professors and about 1000 pupils; the Moslems and Roman Catholics have separate schools.^ There are also gymnasia, or high schools, at Cettigne and Podgoritza, with about 700 pupils.

^ In 1906 there were 112 primary schools in the principality with 150 teachers and 9756 pupils; and two secondary schools (at Cettigne and Podgoritza) with 21 professors and about 1000 pupils; the Moslems and Roman Catholics have separate schools.

^ It has been styled "the Lourdes of the Balkans," owing to its reputation for miraculous cures , and is visited annually by thousands of Orthodox pilgrims, and even by Roman Catholics and Moslems.

.There are also gymnasia, or high schools, at Cettigne and Podgoritza, with about 700 pupils.^ There are also gymnasia, or high schools, at Cettigne and Podgoritza, with about 700 pupils.

^ In 1906 there were 112 primary schools in the principality with 150 teachers and 9756 pupils; and two secondary schools (at Cettigne and Podgoritza) with 21 professors and about 1000 pupils; the Moslems and Roman Catholics have separate schools.

^ In each of the five departments there is a superior court ( oblasni sud ), with a president and two judges; at Cettigne there is a high court of justice ( veliki sud ), which is the final court of appeal.

Students desirous of higher education proceed abroad, for the most part to the university in Belgrade. .The progress of education under Prince Nicholas was very remarkable.^ The progress of education under Prince Nicholas was very remarkable.

^ With the exception of some frontier troubles, the years since 1880 have been spent in peace, and the country has advanced in prosperity under the autocratic but enlightened rule of Prince Nicholas.

^ The military organization has undergone a gradual transformation under Prince Nicholas.

.In the time of his predecessor, Danilo II., who taught the sons of his chieftains in the palace, there were only three schools in the principality.^ In the time of his predecessor, Danilo II., who taught the sons of his chieftains in the palace, there were only three schools in the principality.

^ Danilovgrad (1226) on the Zeta was founded in 1871 by Prince Nicholas and named after his predecessor, Danilo II. In the vicinity is Orialuka, the prince's palace, with its mulberry nurseries.

^ (One of the most celebrated of these leaders was Marko Kraljevic, the son of Vukasin and a chieftain of Prilep, who is immortalized in many of the heroic Serbian folk ballads.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1876, at the beginning of the war, there were 52 schools, with 62 teachers and 3159 pupils.^ In 1876, at the beginning of the war, there were 52 schools, with 62 teachers and 3159 pupils.

^ There are also gymnasia, or high schools, at Cettigne and Podgoritza, with about 700 pupils.

^ In 1906 there were 112 primary schools in the principality with 150 teachers and 9756 pupils; and two secondary schools (at Cettigne and Podgoritza) with 21 professors and about 1000 pupils; the Moslems and Roman Catholics have separate schools.

.The schools were closed during the war, and at its conclusion only 22 could be reopened, owing to want of funds.^ The schools were closed during the war, and at its conclusion only 22 could be reopened, owing to want of funds.

^ Much of the ideological argument which took place during the war was about whether or not the people of Serbia could be trusted to make any changes to their own regime.

^ This attitude of support for the regime was a disaster during the war because it led to the view that the only alternative to NATO was uncritical support for Milosevic.

Elementary education was reorganized in 1878.

Language and Literature

.The Montenegrin language is practically identical with the Serbo-Croatian: it exhibits certain dialectical variations, and has borrowed to some extent from the Turkish and Italian.^ The Montenegrin language is practically identical with the Serbo-Croatian: it exhibits certain dialectical variations, and has borrowed to some extent from the Turkish and Italian.

^ Serbo-Croatian and Albanian are the most common languages used in Serbia.
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^ These presentations are in Serbo-Croatian, so only those with a knowledge of this language can profitably take advantage of them.
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.Existing manuscripts and printed books, chiefly psalters and gospels, bear witness to a period of literary culture among the clergy contemporaneous with the activity of the printing-press at Obod.^ Existing manuscripts and printed books, chiefly psalters and gospels, bear witness to a period of literary culture among the clergy contemporaneous with the activity of the printing -press at Obod.

^ The earlier vladikas were left comparatively unmolested by the Turks, and were enabled to devote their attention to the issue of numerous psalters, missals and gospels from the printing-press at Obod.

^ The fortress of Obod, the site of the famous printing-press, is a heap of ruins; a fragment of one of the first missals printed here is shown at Cettigne; it bears the date 1494.

.This was established in 1493, a few years after Caxton set up his first press in Westminster.^ The US has, over the past few years, consistently argued in favour of Kosovo’s independence, and was the first state to formally recognise the new state on 18 February 2008.
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^ The law sets the punishment for all trafficking in persons violations at up to 10 years' imprisonment.
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^ If the pasture is mown in the first year before seed-set of early annual weeds, in the next year such weeds will not be present.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.It was destroyed by the Turks in 1566, after sending out copies of the gospel into all Slavonic countries.^ It was destroyed by the Turks in 1566, after sending out copies of the gospel into all Slavonic countries.

^ The summit delivered an agenda for the integration of the Western Balkans into the EU, and set out a clear plan to fulfill all the related criteria and conditions of accession.
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^ Rural communes, each under an elected kmet, or mayor , exist in Montenegro as in all Slavonic countries.

.The folk-songs, however, of which the first collection was made in the reign of Peter II., constitute the bulk of the national literature.^ The folk-songs, however, of which the first collection was made in the reign of Peter II., constitute the bulk of the national literature.

^ Uros II (reigned 1282-1321) occupied Skopje and made it his capital.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.The poems of that ruler are accounted among the classics of the Servian language, especially his Gorski Vienatz, or "Mountain Wreath," a drama describing the massacre of the Montenegrin Moslems by their Christian kinsmen in 1702. The reigning family has produced a succession of poets; the songs of Mirko Petrovitch, the father of Prince Nicholas, and the lyrics and dramas of Prince Nicholas himself enjoy great celebrity.^ The reigning family has produced a succession of poets; the songs of Mirko Petrovitch, the father of Prince Nicholas, and the lyrics and dramas of Prince Nicholas himself enjoy great celebrity.

^ The poems of that ruler are accounted among the classics of the Servian language, especially his Gorski Vienatz, or "Mountain Wreath ," a drama describing the massacre of the Montenegrin Moslems by their Christian kinsmen in 1702.

^ The reign of Danilo I. was memorable for the massacre of the Moslems settled in the principality (the "Montenegrin vespers ") on Christmas Eve 1702, the great defeat of the Turkish invaders at Tzarevlatz (1712), the capture of Cettigne by the Turks and the destruction for the third time of its monastery (1714), and the inauguration of the intimate relations which have ever since existed with Russia by the visit of the vladika to Peter the Great in 1715.

The Grlitze, or "Turtledoves," a kind of almanac published at Cettigne by Milakovitch between 1835 and 1839, contained poems, tales, statistics and an abridgment of the Montenegrin annals down to 1830; it was succeeded in the time of Danilo II. by the Orlitch, or "Eaglet." The first Montenegrin newspaper, the Tzrnogoratz, or "Montenegrin," founded in 1870, was prohibited on the Austrian frontier, and soon disappeared; it was replaced by the Glas Tzrnogortza, or "Voice of the Montenegrin," a semi-official publication. .There were in 1910 three other journals in the kingdom.^ There were in 1910 three other journals in the kingdom.

Antiquities

.In Montenegro, as in Albania, the monuments of early civilization bear witness to Roman rather than to Greek influence.^ After the end of the civil war Serbia and Montenegro were found in a difficult political and ecconomic situation with more than 600.000 Serbian refugees from all parts of ex-Yugoslavia and rather unstable situation in Kosovo and Metohija.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.Roman remains occur in many parts of the country east of the Zeta, and early Latin churches exist at Dulcigno (Ulcinium) and other places.^ He wants Kosovo to remain part of Yugoslavia, but this is a view held by the vast majority of Serbians, and was indeed accepted by many in the West until the bombing began.

^ Many churches and monasteries were built that have remained among the architectural glories of the Orthodox church; Milesevo (c.
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^ Strike action began in many parts of the country.

"The organization and forms of the churches, the architecture and ornamentation, point to the West and not to the East." It is evident that Latin civilization was firmly planted in Illyria before the barbarian incursions of the 6th century. Latin sepulchral inscriptions and some finely cut marble blocks have been found at Berane, a little beyond the eastern frontier, and at Budimlye in its neighbourhood. Especially interesting and important are the extensive ruins of Doclea, now known as Dukle, the birthplace of the Emperor Diocletian. The city, which received the franchise under the Flavian emperors, occupied a remarkable site at the junction of the rivers Zeta and Moratcha. .The outer walls are standing in many places, and excavations carried out in 1893 by M. Rovinski and Messrs J. A. R. Munro, Milne and Anderson revealed a considerable portion of the groundplan, including several streets and a forum.^ The names of several modern towns reveal Roman origins, including Sremska Mitrovica (Sirmium) and Nis (Naissus).
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

Among the buildings are a fine civil basilica, with a great inscription on the architrave, two small temples, an early Christian basilica, and a later church; several inscriptions, columns, richly worked capitals and tracery, and mosaic pavements have been brought to light. At Medun there are remnants of polygonal masonry. .Illyrian forts are found in many parts of the country.^ Strike action began in many parts of the country.

The ravages of the Turks obliterated almost every trace of medieval culture. The fortress of Obod, the site of the famous printing-press, is a heap of ruins; a fragment of one of the first missals printed here is shown at Cettigne; it bears the date 1494. Other editions are prese ,ved at the monastery of Tzainitza, on the Bosnian side of the frontier, and at Moscow. .The precious books and relics stored in the monastery of Ivan the Black at Cettigne perished with the destruction of the monastery in 1687. The building, the home of the reigning vladikas, had been previously sacked by the Turks in 1623, and was again destroyed by them in 1714. In the fortress-monastery of St Nicholas (founded in 1252), which overlooks the headwaters of the Moratcha, are some interesting and well-preserved frescoes which date from the 13th century.^ Ivan's son Djuradj built a monastery at Cetinje, founding there the see of a bishopric, and imported from Venice a printing press that produced after 1493 some of the earliest books in the Cyrillic script.
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^ Ethnic Albanian attacks on Serbian Orthodox churches and cemeteries during the March 2004 riots resulted in extensive property damage, including the destruction or damaging of 30 religious sites, some dating from the 14th century.
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^ At least 800 mainly Serbian homes and several Serbian religious buildings were destroyed or damaged.
  • Serbia country update - European Forum - for Democracy and Solidarity 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.europeanforum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The monastery of Ostrog, about twelve miles from Nikshitch, is a comparatively recent foundation, dating from the 18th century.^ Serbia also has some interesting monasteries dating from the 13th to 15th centuries.
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.It has been styled "the Lourdes of the Balkans," owing to its reputation for miraculous cures, and is visited annually by thousands of Orthodox pilgrims, and even by Roman Catholics and Moslems.^ Serbian Orthodox is the predominant religion, although Roman Catholics and several Protestant denominations are represented.
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^ The Christian population was mainly divided between  adherents of the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, but more than one-tenth of the total population were Muslims.
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^ Religions : Serbian Orthodox 62.6%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 5.8%, Protestant 1%, other  (mostly non-religious) 11.6% (1995) .

The upper portion, situated in the cleft of a precipitous rock, was in 1768 and again in 1862 successfully defended by a handful of men against the Turks.

History

.The history of Montenegro as an independent state begins with the battle of Kossovo (1389), but the country had enjoyed periods of independence or semi-independence at various epochs before that event.^ History of Montenegro - from X century to 1914 Liberation, Independence and Union of Serbia and Montenegro HISTORY PAGE RELATED ARTICLES: History of Yugoslavia - a concise survey of the history of Yugoslavia.
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^ Montenegro and Serbia were formally recognized as independent states by the European powers at the Congress of Berlin (1878).
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^ The year 1516 saw a shift in the constitution of Montenegro that many historians regard as having ensured its survival as an independent state.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

It formed a portion of the district of Praevalitana in the Roman province of Illyria, and, lying on the borderland of the empires of the West and East, it alternately shared the fortunes of either till the close of the 5th century. .It was then conquered by the Ostrogoths (A.D. 493), but half a century later definitely passed under Byzantine rule, having already acknowledged the ecclesiastical authority of Constantinople, a circumstance which determined the course of its subsequent history.^ The collapse of the Western Empire in the face of the advancing Germanic Ostrogoths at the end of the 5th century left the Balkans nominally under the rule of Constantinople, but the disruption of imperial administration in reality had gone so far that effective control was no longer possible.
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^ Ecclesiastical authorities were expected to assume many civil functions, including the administration of justice, the collection of taxes, and later also education.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was only under the later Nemanjic rulers that the ecclesiastical allegiance of the Serbs to Constantinople was finally confirmed.
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.Illyria and Dalmatia succumbed to the great SerboCroat invasion of the 6th and 7th centuries; the Serb race by which Montenegro is now inhabited occupied the country about the middle of the 7th century.^ These were soon supplanted by the Slavs, who became widely established in Dalmatia by the middle of the 7th century.
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^ By the time of his retirement to a monastery in 1196, he had consolidated control over the rival Serb realm of Zeta, centred in what is now Montenegro.
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^ Inhabitants of Montenegro belong to Serb, Montenegran, Bosnian and Croatian nationalities.
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.A confederacy of Serb states was formed under zhupans, or feudal princes, dependent on the grand zhupan, who was nominally the vassal of the Greek emperor.^ Montenegro's independence was recognized by the Ottoman Empire in 1799, and in 1829 the Turks granted the Serbs autonomy under a hereditary prince.
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^ The emperor Heraclius formed an alliance with two of the stronger Slavic tribes, the Serbs and the Croats, who at that time were settled north of the Carpathian Mountains.
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^ Forced to accept the position of vassals to the Turks, Serb despots continued to rule a diminished state of Raska, at first from Belgrade and then from Smederevo.
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.The Serb principality of the Zeta, or Zenta, originally included the Herzegovina, Cattaro and Scutari, as well as the Montenegro of to-day, and was ruled by a zhupan resident at Doclea.^ The mountainous principality continued to resist the Turks, but by 1499 most of Montenegro was held by the Turks, while Venice held the port of Kotor and the Montenegrin princes ruled their remnant stronghold from Cetinje.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of his retirement to a monastery in 1196, he had consolidated control over the rival Serb realm of Zeta, centred in what is now Montenegro.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of the defeat at Kosovo field the region now constituting Montenegro was the virtually independent principality of Zeta in the Serbian empire.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The principality, though retaining its zhupans, was practically united with the Servian kingdom between 1159 and 1356 under the Nemanya dynasty, which sprang from Doclea. .After the death of the great Servian tsar Dushan in 1356 the feudatory princes of his empire became more or less independent, and the powerful family of Balsha established a dynasty in the Zeta, eventually transferring its capital from Doclea to Scutari.^ On the death of Stefan Dusan in 1355, the Nemanjic empire began to crumble, and its holdings were divided among the knez (prince) Lazar Hrebeljanovic, the short-lived Bosnian state of Tvrtko I (reigned 1353-91), and a semi-independent chiefdom of Zeta under the house of Balsa, with its capital at Skadar.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Serb people fell under Ottoman control, they became a part of one of the great empires of world history.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They realised that his going would make winning independence--a demand for which they are totally dependent on the Western powers--more difficult.

.After the fatal defeat of Kossovo, which extinguished the independence of Servia for more than four centuries (see Servia), George Balsha, the ruling prince of the Zeta, withdrew to the mountainous portion of his realm, which became an asylum for many of the Servian nobles and for others who had been outlawed or persecuted by the Turkish conqueror.^ The mountainous principality continued to resist the Turks, but by 1499 most of Montenegro was held by the Turks, while Venice held the port of Kotor and the Montenegrin princes ruled their remnant stronghold from Cetinje.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At year's end the PISG had reconstructed more than 95 percent of the houses damaged or destroyed in March 2004 and started church reconstruction (see section 2.c.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 200.000 Serbian refugees were forced to leave the areas in which they had lived since the 15th century.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

The principality now owned no suzerain, and the history of its heroic struggle with the Turks began. .The long record of warfare is varied by conflicts with the Venetians, who at times allied themselves with the mountaineers, but usually deserted them in the hour of need.^ The emperor Heraclius formed an alliance with two of the stronger Slavic tribes, the Serbs and the Croats, who at that time were settled north of the Carpathian Mountains.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Balsha family became extinct in 1421, and a new dynasty was founded by Stephan Tzernoyevitch, or Tzernovitch, who fixed his capital at Zhabliak on the north-east side of Lake Scutari, and joined with his relative, the famous Scanderbeg in many campaigns against the Turks.^ This is despite the probable desires of many Serbians, who in voting against Milosevic also voted against the worst forms of nationalism and warmongering associated with the last decade.

.After the Turkish conquest of Bosnia in 1463, of the Herzegovina in 1476 and of Albania in 1478, and the surrender of Scutari by the Venetians in 1479, the Montenegrins found themselves surrounded on all sides by the Ottoman power, and the struggle was henceforth for existence.^ The two combined republics are bordered by Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina on the west, Hungary on the north, Romania and Bulgaria on the east, and Greece, Albania, and Macedonia on the south.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serbia and Montenegro is bordered by the Adriatic Sea, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia in the west, Hungary in the north, Romania and Bulgaria in the east, and Macedonia and Albania in the south.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serbia was primarily a transit point for internationally trafficked women going to Kosovo as well as to Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, and Western Europe.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Abandoned by Venice and unable to obtain succour from any Christian state, Ivan the Black, the son and successor of Stephan, set fire to Zhabliak in 1484, and withdrew with his people to the mountain village of Tzetinye (Cettigne) which has ever since been the capital of the little principality. Here he founded the famous monastery and created a bishopric in order to establish the spiritual power at the seat of government. .Ivan was one of the greatest heroes of Montenegrin history: according to the national legend, he still sleeps in a cave near his fortress of Obod - to awake when the hour arrives for the expulsion of the Turks from Europe.^ The greatest remaining obstacle to the long held dream of a peaceful, undivided, democratic Europe for the first time in history has now been removed'.

The Tzernoyevitch dynasty came to an end in 1516, and from this date till 1696 the mountaineers were ruled by the vladikas The Elect or bishops of Cettigne, elected by assemblies of the. ch i efs and people, and consecrated by the patriarch of Ipek. The elective vladikas were aided in matters relating to national defence by a civil governor. The institution of a theocratic sovereignty probably saved the country from absorption in the Turkish Empire, the supreme power being vested in a sacrosanct person, whose position was unattainable by ambitious chieftains, and whose holy office precluded the possibility of his defection to Islam. The earlier vladikas were left comparatively unmolested by the Turks, and were enabled to devote their attention to the issue of numerous psalters, missals and gospels from the printing-press at Obod. But the beginning of the 17th century was marked by renewed Turkish aggression. .Cettigne was taken in 1623 and again in 1687, when the monastery of Ivan the Black was blown up by the monks; a tribute was for a time imposed on the mountaineers, but the bolder spirits maintained their resistance in the heights, and the invading armies found it impossible to prolong their stay in these inhospitable regions.^ Fodder production in the lowland is based on arable crops, in hilly regions on ploughed fields and grasslands, and in the mountain region on grasslands; these are often the sole source of livestock feed.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even during the time of Turkish occupation, this region had begun to receive Serb migrants, and these had increased in importance after the Ottomans were forced back across the Danube.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These soils, with different varieties, continue towards lower hilly-mountainous regions.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1696 it was decided to continue the hereditary principle with the theocratic system, and Danilo Petrovitch of Niegush, the first ruler of the present reigning family, was nominated vladika with power to select his successor of Petro- p witch. from among his relatives.^ From 1519 until 1696 the position of vladika was an elective one, but in the latter year Danilo Nikola Petrovic was elected to the position (as Danilo I) with the significant novelty of being able to nominate his own successor.
  • History of Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.kosovo.net [Source type: Original source]

The succession was henceforth regularly from uncle to nephew, owing to the rule of celibacy imposed on the monastic order. .The reign of Danilo I. was memorable for the massacre of the Moslems settled in the principality (the "Montenegrin vespers") on Christmas Eve 1702, the great defeat of the Turkish invaders at Tzarevlatz (1712), the capture of Cettigne by the Turks and the destruction for the third time of its monastery (1714), and the inauguration of the intimate relations which have ever since existed with Russia by the visit of the vladika to Peter the Great in 1715. With Russian aid Danilo was enabled in some degree to repair the ruin which had overtaken his little realm.^ The mountainous principality continued to resist the Turks, but by 1499 most of Montenegro was held by the Turks, while Venice held the port of Kotor and the Montenegrin princes ruled their remnant stronghold from Cetinje.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DOS alliance has disintegrated since 2000, and the defeat of its candidate in the third run of Presidential elections in November 2003 was a great blow to the remains of the alliance.
  • Serbia country update - European Forum - for Democracy and Solidarity 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.europeanforum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The party ranked some time on the third place in the opinion polls, as the populist message of promising jobs to the people appeared a popular one.
  • Serbia country update - European Forum - for Democracy and Solidarity 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.europeanforum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the time of his successor Sava (1737-1782) an impostor named Stephan Mali, who represented himself as the Russian emperor Peter III., won the confidence of the Montenegrins, and governed the country with ability for several years (1768-1773), the mountaineers defeating the combined efforts of the Turks and Venetians to remove him.^ Moreover, largely due to bad timing the EU proposal to sign a cooperation agreement has led to a severe crisis in the Serbian government.
  • Serbia country update - European Forum - for Democracy and Solidarity 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.europeanforum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government coordinated its antitrafficking efforts with other countries in the region, particularly through the Southern European Cooperative Initiative Center in Bucharest.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the year no persons applied to either the Montenegrin government or UNHCR for refugee status.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He was eventually assassinated by a Greek suborned by the pasha of Scutari. .Peter I. (1782-1830), the greatest of the vladikas, took part in the war of Austria and Russia against Turkey (1788-92), but was abandoned by his allies in the treaties of Sistova and Jassy.^ The SDU took a firm stance against nationalism and the war politics of the Serbian and Yugoslav governments.
  • Serbia country update - European Forum - for Democracy and Solidarity 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.europeanforum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He nevertheless completely routed the Turks in the battle of Krussa (1796), annexed the Brda region to the principality, and obtained a formal recognition of Montenegrin independence from the sultan in 1799. In concert with the Russians he besieged the French in Ragusa (1806), and in 1813 -14 expelled them from the Bocche di Cattaro with the aid of a British fleet under Admiral Fremantle.^ Montenegro's independence was recognized by the Ottoman Empire in 1799, and in 1829 the Turks granted the Serbs autonomy under a hereditary prince.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time of the defeat at Kosovo field the region now constituting Montenegro was the virtually independent principality of Zeta in the Serbian empire.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The much-coveted seaport, however, was almost immediately occupied by an Austrian force. Peter I. reorganized the internal administration and promulgated the first Montenegrin code of laws. After his death he was canonized as a saint by the people. His successor Peter II. (1830-1851), a poet, statesman and reformer, as well as a capable military chief, instituted a senate (1831), abolished the office of civil governor (1832), revived the national printing-press, and did much to educate and civilize his people. He was buried by his desire on the summit of Mount Lovchen that his spirit might survey his beloved land. He was the last of the vladikas; his nephew Danilo II. (1851-1860) at once declined the ecclesiastical dignity, and assuming the title of gospodar, or prince, settled the succession on his direct male descendants. He defeated the Turks near Ostrog in 1853, but refrained from attacking them during the Crimean War. His pacific policy produced much discontent among the warlike mountaineers, which culminated in an open revolt. His demand for the recognition of Montenegrin independence and other claims were set aside by the Congress of Paris. In 1858 his brother Mirko, "the Sword of Montenegro," routed the Turks with great slaughter at Grahovo. In 1855 Danilo II. promulgated a new code, assuring civil and religious liberty to his subjects. .On the 11th of August 1860 he was shot at Persano on the Bocche di Cattaro by a Montenegrin whom he had exiled after the revolt, and died two days afterwards.^ On August 28, unknown persons shot and killed Ivan Dejavnovic and Aleksandar Stankovic and injured two passengers in their car in the Serb-majority municipality of Strpce.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He left no male offspring, and was succeeded by Nicholas, the son of his brother Mirko.
Shortly after the accession of Prince Nicholas (Aug. 13, 1860), an insurrection broke out in Herzegovina, and the sympathy which the mountaineers displayed with their Pr Christian kinsmen led to a rupture with Turkey (1862). Notwithstanding the heroic defence of Ostrog by the prince's father, Mirko, the war proved disastrous, owing to the superior armament and discipline of the Turkish troops, and severe terms were imposed on the principality by the convention of Scutari (Aug. 31). .During the fourteen years of peace which followed, the country suffered greatly from pestilence and famine.^ During the year it signed agreements with 2 additional countries to accept unsuccessful migrants and persons without legal residence in those countries, who were primarily Roma.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Within this period a series of reforms were carried out by the prince: the army was rearmed and reorganized, an educational system was initiated, and a constitution under which the prince surrendered various prerogatives to the Senate was granted. .In 1869 the Krivoshians, or Serb inhabitants of the northern shores of the Bocche di Cattaro, rose against the Austrian government; the excitement in Montenegro was intense, but the prince succeeded in checking the warlike ardour of his subjects.^ Montenegro's independence was recognized by the Ottoman Empire in 1799, and in 1829 the Turks granted the Serbs autonomy under a hereditary prince.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inhabitants of Montenegro belong to Serb, Montenegran, Bosnian and Croatian nationalities.
  • Serbia/Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

The revolt in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875 had more important consequences for the principality. On the 2nd of July 1876 Prince Nicholas, in alliance with Prince Milan of Servia, declared war against Turkey and invaded Herzegovina. A victory was gained at Vuchidol (July 28), and Medun was captured; but the Servian army suffered reverses, and an armistice was arranged in November. In the following spring the determination of Russia to take the field against Turkey encouraged the Montenegrins to renew the war. The Turks succeeded in occupying Ostrog, but were subsequently repulsed; the greater part of their forces was soon withdrawn to Bulgaria, and Prince Nicholas captured successively Nikshitch, Antivari and Dulcigno. The recovery of the seaboard, which had belonged to Montenegro in the middle ages, was perhaps the principal achievement of the war. .The enlargement of territory stipulated for by Russia under the treaty of San Stefano (March 3, 1878) would have brought Montenegro into close contiguity with Servia, thus facilitating the eventual union of the Serb race and closing the path of Austria towards the Aegean.^ Government Serbia and Montenegro is a weak federal republic under the constitutional charter that came into effect in 2003.
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^ Despite increased autonomy, Montenegrin leaders have generally avoided any moves that would be supportive of the union and have continued to call for Montenegro's independence.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Officials of the Serb...separate states, including the Serbia - Montenegro union.
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The Berlin Treaty (article xxviii.) gave to Montenegro Nikshitch, Spuzh, Podgoritza, Plava, Gusinye and Antivari, but restored Dulcigno to Turkey. The resistance of the Moslem inhabitants of Plava and Gusinye to annexation led to long negotiations, and eventually the "Corti Compromise" was agreed to by a conference of the Powers at Constantinople (April 18, 1880). Pla y a and Gusinye were to be restored to Turkey, while the Montenegrin frontier was extended so as to include the Hoti and the greater part of the Klementi tribes. This arrangement, which could hardly have proved successful, was not carried out by Turkey, and the Powers subsequently decided to annex Dulcigno to Montenegro in exchange for Playa and Gusinye. The Porte interposed delays, though consenting in principle, and the Albanian League (see Albania) assumed a menacing attitude. On the 28th of September the fleets of the Powers under Admiral Seymour appeared off Dulcigno, and the British government shortly afterwards proposed to occupy Smyrna. On the 11th of November the Porte yielded; on the 22nd the Turkish troops defeated the Albanians, and on the 25th Montenegro obtained possession of Dulcigno. The present frontier, as already described, was shortly afterwards delimited by an international commission. .With the exception of some frontier troubles, the years since 1880 have been spent in peace, and the country has advanced in prosperity under the autocratic but enlightened rule of Prince Nicholas.^ It is only necessary to look at Bosnia, under the West's rule for the past five years, to see exactly what has been achieved in the area: 'After five years of peace, a common Bosnia passport has still not been agreed...while rail links stop at entity boundaries.

^ In some countries their dissolution had been under way for some time, and already many at the top had begun to make the shift to the market.

The relations with Turkey, the traditional foe, have improved, while those with Austria have become less friendly. .In July 1893 the four-hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the printing-press at Obod was celebrated at Cettigne, several foreign universities and learned bodies being represented at the festivities.^ On March 18, leading print media representatives adopted a press code and, on August 10, adopted the statute for a press council to provide for self-regulation of the print media.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In September 1896 the bi-centenary of the Petrovitch dynasty was commemorated. The marriage in the same year of Princess Helen, fourth daughter of Prince Nicholas, with the crown prince of Italy, subsequently King Victor Emmanuel III., led to an increase of Italian influence in the principality. In December 1900 Prince Nicholas assumed the title "Royal Highness." In October 1906 the first Montenegrin parliament assembled at Cettigne; and on the 28th of August 1910, Prince Nicholas (q.v.) assumed the title of king.
Authorities. - Milutinovitch, History of Montenegro (in Russian), (St Petersburg, 1835); Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro (London, 1848); Vuk Karajich, Montenegro and die Montenegriner (Stuttgart, 1857); Kallay, Geschichte der Serben von den altesten Zeiten bis 1815 (trans. from the Hungarian by J. H. Schwicker; Budapest, 1885), Servian trans., Istoria Srpskoga naroda, (Belgrade, 1876); Frilley and Wlahowitj, Le Montenegro contemporain (Paris, 1876); Rash, Montenegro (Leipzig, 1877); Milakovitch, Storia del Montenegro (Ragusa, 1877); Gopchevitch, Montenegro and die Montenegriner (Leipzig, 1877); Yriarte, Les Bords de l'Adriatique et le Montenegro (Paris, 1878); Stefanovitch von Vilovo, Wanderungen durch Montenegro (Vienna, 1880); Chiudina, Storia del Montenegro (Spalato, 1882); Tietze, Geologische Uebersicht von Montenegro (Vienna, 1884); Rovinsky, Tchernagora (in Russian; St Petersburg, 1888); Duchitch, Tzernagora (in Servian; Belgrade, 1891); Medakovitch, Pietro II. Petrovic Niegus (Neusatz, 1892); Hassert, Reise durch Montenegro (Vienna, 1893); Coquelle, Histoire du Montenegro et de la Bosnie (Paris, 1895); Miller, The Balkans, pp. .353-468 (London, 1896); Mantegazza, Al Montenegro (Florence, 1896); Tomanovitch, Petar Drugi Petrovich Niegosh (Cettigne, 1896); Antonio Martini, Il Montenegro (Turin, 1897); Bourchier, "Montenegro and her Prince," in Fortnightly Review (December, 1898); Rouvaratz, Montenegrina (in Servian; Semlin, 1899); Gelchitch, La Zedda e la dinastia dei Balsidi (Spalato, 1899); R. Wyon and G. Prance, The Land of the Black Mountain (London, 1903).^ The mountainous principality continued to resist the Turks, but by 1499 most of Montenegro was held by the Turks, while Venice held the port of Kotor and the Montenegrin princes ruled their remnant stronghold from Cetinje.
  • Serbia and Montenegro Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Serbia and Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The best map is that of the Austrian staff. (J. D. B.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ˌmɒn.tɪˈni.gɹəʊ/, /ˌmɒn.təˈneɪ.gɹəʊ/
  • (UK) IPA: /ˌmɑn.təˈneɪ.gɹoʊ/, /ˌmɑn.tɪˈni.gɹoʊ/
  •  Audio (US)help, file

Proper noun

Singular
Montenegro
Plural
-
Montenegro
.
  1. A country in Europe, formerly one of the two constituent republics of Serbia and Montenegro.^ Montenegro , is a country located in Southeastern Europe.

    ^ Montenegro is a country located in Southeastern Europe .
    • Montenegro - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Serbia & Montenegro - Country Narratives -2005 .
    • Child Prostitution - Serbia & Montenegro 28 January 2010 0:30 UTC www.gvnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Capital and largest city: Podgorica, formerly Titograd.

Translations

See also


Finnish

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Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Montenegro
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Montenegro
  1. Montenegro

Declension

Derived terms

  • montenegrolainen

Galician

Proper noun

Montenegro m.
  1. Montenegro

German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Montenegro
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Montenegro n.
  1. Montenegro

Derived terms

  • Montenegriner
  • Montenegrinerin
  • montenegrinisch

Italian

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Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Montenegro
Wikipedia it

Pronunciation

  • IPA: monteˈneɡro

Proper noun

Montenegro m.
  1. Montenegro

Related terms


Norwegian

Proper noun

Montenegro
  1. Montenegro

Related terms


Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: monteˈneɣɾo

Proper noun

Montenegro
  1. Montenegro

Related terms


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Montenegro, which are similar to those in the above article.