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Monterrey
—  City  —
City of Monterrey
Monterrey at night

Nickname(s): Sultan of the North, The City of the Mountains
Motto: Work Tempers the Spirit
Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico

Coordinates: 25°40′N 100°18′W / 25.667°N 100.3°W / 25.667; -100.3
Country

       
Mexico

State

       
Nuevo León

Founded 20 September 1596
Government
 - Mayor Adalberto Madero
(PAN)
Area
 - City 860.70 km2 (332.3 sq mi)
 - Metro 5,346.80 km2 (2,064.4 sq mi)
Elevation 537 m (1,762 ft)
Population (2005)
 - City 1,133,814
 - Density 1,989/km2 (5,151.5/sq mi)
 - Metro 3,864,331
 - Metro Density 685/km2 (1,774.1/sq mi)
 - Demonym Regiomontano(a)
Time zone Central Standard Time.[1] (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) Central Daylight Time[1] (UTC-5)
Website http://www.monterrey.gob.mx

Monterrey (Spanish pronunciation: [montɛˈrei]  ( listen)) (also known as "Sultana del Norte" (Sultan of the North), is the capital city of the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León[1] It has the third largest metropolitan area in Mexico, after Mexico City and Guadalajara.[2] In 2005, the city population was estimated to be 1,133,814,[3] and its metropolitan area had a population of 3.8 million. The city is named after the Countess of Monterrei (a city in Galicia, Spain) wife of the Viceroy of New Spain Gaspar de Zúñiga y Acevedo, Count of Monterrey[citation needed]. The demonym of Monterrey is Regiomontano(a).

Monterrey is located northeast of Mexico, at the foothills of Sierra Madre Oriental. The recorded history of Monterrey starts in 1596, with the foundation by Diego de Montemayor. In the years after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey became an important business center. With the stablishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced industrial growth. Monterrey is an important industrial and business center, serving as operation host for an array of Mexican companies, including CEMEX, Vitro and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma[4][5] and also for international companies such as Carrier, Daewoo, General Electric, LG and Teleperformance, among others.[2][6][7]

Contents

History

See also articles in the category History of Monterrey
File:Cerro de la
Cerro de la Silla, the city's most recognized landmark.

Prehispanic history

Prior to the foundation of the city, there was no established population, instead consisting of indigenous semi-nomad groups that are collectively called Chichimecas. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed hisorians to identify four major groups of Chichimecas in present-day Monterrey: Azalapas, Huachichiles, Coahuiltecos and Borrados.[8]

Foundation

File:Fundación de
Foundation of Monterrey by Crescenciano Garza Rivera. The city was founded on 20 September 1596 by Diego de Montemayor.

In the 14th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area largely unexplored by the Spanish colonizers. The first expeditions and colonization attepts were led by Alberto del Canto, naming the city "Santa Lucia", but was unsuccessful because the population was attacked by the natives and fled. The Spanish expeditionary Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain, which would be called Nuevo León, the "New Kingdom of León". In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey. The New Kingdom of León extended westwards from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya ("New Vizcaya", now State of Chihuahua), and around 1,000 kilometers northwards.) For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited, until a third expedition of thirteen families led by Diego de Montemayor founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey ("Metropolitan City of Our Lady of Monterrey") on 20 September 1596, next to a water spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History and Santa Lucía Riverwalk are now located.

During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens. The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio (now in Texas), Tampico and from Saltillo to the center of the country. Tampico's port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories' trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies (British and French).

After Mexican Independence (19th century)

In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation, especially due to its balanced ties between Europe (with its connections to Tampico), the United States (with its connections to San Antonio), and the capital (through Saltillo). In 1824, the "New Kingdom of León" became the State of Nuevo León, and Monterrey was selected as its capital. However, the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the Governor of the State annexed the Coahuila and Tamaulipas states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the enlarged state.

In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling US forces during the first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center.

Most of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua and Jerónimo Treviño.

Contemporary history

File:Detalle palacio de
Palace of the State Government

During the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry. It was during this period that José Eleuterio González founded the Hospital Civil which is now one of the best public hospitals in the northeast of Mexico, and serves as medical school support to the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León (UANL). Vicente Ferrara founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey,[9] a steel-producing company that accelerated the already fast industrialization of the city and became one of the world's biggest at its time.

In 1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused great damage to the city; the Santa Catarina River overflowed, causing about 100 deaths and severe economic damage.

The city has hosted international events such as the 2002 United Nation Conference on Financing for Development with the participation of more than 50 Heads of State and Government, as well as other ministers and senior delegates from over 150 countries. The conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperation. In 2004, the OAS Special Summit of the Americas was attended by almost all the presidents of the Americas. In 1986, several official games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup were hosted.

In 2007, Monterrey held the Universal Forum of Cultures with four million visitors.

Governance

File:Monterrey Palacio
Monterrey City Hall

Monterrey and its metropolitan area are municipalities each of them governed by a democratically elected Presidente Municipal (Municipal President) or Mayor for a period of three years with no right to reelection. The political environment is one of civility and in the last decade political parties have been alternating office. The current Mayor of Monterrey is Adalberto Madero, he will remain in office until 31 October 2009.[10]

The City Council of Monterrey (Cabildo de Monterrey) is an organ integrated by the Mayor, the Regidores and the Síndicos. The Mayor is the executor of the determinations of the City Council and the person directly in charge of the public municipal administration. The Regidores represent the community and their mission is to collectively define the city policies in all the subjects affecting it. The Síndicos are in charge of watching and legally defend the city interests, as well as in charge of watching the City Treasury status and the municipal patrimony.[11]

The political parties with representation in the city are the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI, the National Action Party or PAN, the Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD, the Labor Party or PT, the Green Party, Convergence, Socialdemocratic Party and Nueva Alianza.

Public safety

Monterrey was ranked as the most secure city in Latin America[12] and Mexico in 2005, and one of the two most secure in 2006. However, the city has experienced violence related to turf battles between warring drug cartels in Mexico. [13][14][15]

There are two police departments guarding the city, the Police of the City of Monterrey (locally known as the Policía Regia),[16] dependent of the municipal government, and the State Public Safety.[17] The Policía Regia protects the city's downtown and main areas, while the State Public Safety is in charge of the farthest areas.

The state governor is considered the "mayor" of the metropolitan area of Monterrey (A group of several municipalities, forming Monterrey city) since the city accounts for about 95% of the state population.

Geography

García
Guadalupe
Juárez
Monterrey
San Nicolás
de los Garza
San Pedro
Garza García
Santa Catarina
Santiago
NUEVO LEÓN
STATE

The city of Monterrey is located at 25°40′N 100°18′W / 25.667°N 100.3°W / 25.667; -100.3, and 530 metres (1,740 ft) above sea level in the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León. The Santa Catarina River—dry most of the year on the surface but with flowing underground water—bisects the city.

Monterrey is adjoined to San Nicolás de los Garza, García and General Escobedo to the north; Guadalupe, Villa de Juárez and Cadereyta Jiménez to the east; Villa de Santiago to the south; and San Pedro Garza García and Santa Catarina to the west.[18]

Monterrey lies north of the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range. A small hill, the Cerro del Topo and the smaller Topo Chico are located in the suburbs of San Nicolás de los Garza and Escobedo. West of the city rises the Cerro de las Mitras (Mountain of the Mitres), which resemble the profile of several bishops with their mitres.

Cerro de la Silla (Saddle Mountain) dominates the view east of the city. Cerro de la Loma Larga—South of the Santa Catarina river—separates Monterrey from the suburb of San Pedro Garza García. At the summit of the Cerro del Obispado, north of the river, is the historic Bishopric Palace, site of one of the most important battles of the Mexican-American War.

Climate chart for Monterrey
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
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average temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: MSN Weather UK (2009-01-07),INEGI, 2006 report

Monterrey has a humid subtropical climate (Cwa). Its weather, though reasonably pleasant in spring and autumn, is hot in the summer; the average high reaches 35 °C (95 °F) in August, with an average low of 21 °C (71 °F). Winters are cool but not cold. The average January high is 18 °C (64 °F) and the average low in January is 8 °C (47 °F); however, temperatures below freezing are rare.[19] Rainfall is scarce, but more prominent during May through September. Humidity in winter can be high, although without showers. Monterrey is very extreme in weather change, sometimes reaching 27°C (80°F) in January and February, the coldest period, though this is not seen frequently. Most extreme weather change occurs with rainfall in summer, which changes extreme heat to cooler temperatures, and the absence of northern winds in winter, sometimes causing extreme or abnormally high temperatures. Snowfall is a very rare event.

Natural areas

The mountains surrounding Monterrey contain many canyons, trails and roads that cross deserts and forests. Suitable trails are available to the general public. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountains south of the city are included in the "Parque Nacional Cumbres de Monterrey" (National Park), which was added to UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program of Biosphere Reserves in 2006.[20]

Cumbres de Monterrey includes:

  • Parque Ecológico Chipinque,[21] which contains forested areas (oak and oak-pine mainly).[22][23][24]
  • La Estanzuela state park, about 7 km (4 mi) south of Monterrey, a river and forested area.[25]
  • La Huasteca, west of the city, in the municipality of García.
  • El Potrero Chico Climbing Area, north east of the city, in the municipality of Hidalgo.

Demographics

Monterrey
population by year
1798 7,000
1833 13,645
1846 15,000
1852 13,534
1862 14,534
1869 14,000
1881 40,000
1890 41,700
1900 62,266
1910 78,528
1921 88,479
1930 132,577
1940 206,152
1950 375,040
1960 708,399
1970 1,246,181
1990 2,213,711
1995 2,516,658
2005 3,864,331
*Note: Figures from 1970-2005, include

municipalities of Monterrey metropolitan area

References:[3][26][27][28][29]

In 2005, the national INEGI population census estimated a population of 1,133,814 inhabitants in the municipality, of which 559,877 were men, and 573,837 were women. According to this census, of the total population of the state of Nuevo León, 27% lived in the municipality of Monterrey.[3]

The Monterrey metropolitan area is the third most populous city in Mexico with more than 3.7 million. It is composed of the adjoined municipalities of Apodaca, Escobedo, García, Guadalupe, Juárez, San Nicolás de los Garza, San Pedro Garza García, and Santa Catarina.[30]

Infrastructure

Transportation

File:Puente
Unity Bridge at night.
See also articles in the category Transportation in Monterrey

Monterrey is well connected with the USA border, the sea and inland Mexico through several modern roads, including the Carretera Nacional (also known as the Panamerican Highway) that runs from Nuevo Laredo to Mexico City and south, and the Carretera Interoceánica connecting Matamoros with the port of Mazatlán on the Pacific; it is also crossed by highways 40, 45, 57. The divided highway Monterrey-Saltillo-Matehuala-Mexico City is the main land corridor to interior Mexico.

There are several between-cities bus lines at the bus station downtown. Buses are modern and efficient, with many arrivals and departures everyday into deeper Mexico, to the U.S. border and into the United States.

Monterrey is also connected by at least three important railroad freight lines: Nuevo Laredo-Mexico City, Monterrey-Tampico, and Monterrey-Pacific (Mazatlán).

The city has a rapid transit system called Metrorrey, which currently has 2 lines.[31][32]

There are many city bus lines that vary in quality and route, although by decree, all bus lines (privately funded) had to change their vehicles by January 2007. Thousands of economical and efficient taxi cabs can also be found. Traffic jams, although less impressive than those seen in other Latin American big cities, are becoming more frequent, primarily at rush hours.

Airports

There are two international airports: General Mariano Escobedo International Airport (served by major international carriers and moving more than 6.5 million passengers in 2007)[33] and Del Norte International Airport, a primarily private airport.

Monterrey is linked through frequent non-stop flights to many Mexican cities and to key United States hubs (Atlanta, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Houston-Intercontinental, JFK/New York, and Las Vegas). Monterrey is the second most important city for the operating routes of Aeroméxico.[34]

Five airlines have their operational bases and headquarters in Monterrey, Aviacsa, Aeroméxico Connect, a new LCC Viva Aerobus; and Magnicharters, a charter airline. There is no public transportation from Monterrey International Airport to the city. However, a cartel of taxi services link the airport with the city and charge around $20 US for a one-way ride to the city. From this airport, there is a bus shuttle to nearby Saltillo. Inter-city bus services run daily into the interior, as well as north to the US border and points beyond.

Health

Monterrey has some of the best hospitals in Mexico, second only to those in Mexico City. Especially in cancer treatment, heart disease, obesity surgery and plastic surgery. There are public and private hospital care. The Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) has two major regional hospitals in the city, the Specialties Regional Hospital # 33 and the Gynecology and Obsterics Regional Hospital, serving also the northeastern states of Coahuila and Tamaulipas. Several smaller IMSS hospitals can be found such as the Traumatology and Orthopedics Hospital and the General Hospital # 25. State government owns the Metropolitan Hospital, located in the suburb of San Nicolás de los Garza and it is building the Hospital of the Children and Mother Care in Guadalupe suburb.

The University of Nuevo León runs the public University Hospital, with a high-level shock-trauma unit and a specialized clinic for child cancer treatment. It is recognized as the best public hospital in the city and the UANL School of Medicine as one of the best in the country. On the other hand the Tecnológico de Monterrey runs the Hospital San José-Tec de Monterrey private hospital.

Monterrey is considered[by whom?] an international healthcare hub because of the world class private hospitals and facilities that can be found in the city, including the only two JCI accredited hospitals in the country, CHRISTUS Muguerza and San José-Tec de Monterrey,[35] the Hospital OCA, the Santa Engracia Hospital, San Vicente Hospital and the San Lucas Hospital (Plastic Surgery). Its convenient location, low prices and quality of medical care have made of Monterrey a very popular medical tourism destination for United States patients.[36][37]

Economy

File:Cerveceria.cuahotemoc.monterrey.
La Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma.

Monterrey is a major industrial center in northern Mexico , producing a GDP of 78.5 billion US dollars[38] (2006). The city's GDP per capita in 2007 was 21,788 US dollars. The city was rated by Fortune magazine in 1999 as the best city in Latin America for business and is currently ranked third best by the América Economía magazine.[39]

Because of its strong steel industry, it is often called "the Pittsburgh of Mexico".[40] The city has prominent positions in sectors such as steel, cement, glass, auto parts, and brewing. In 1999 Fortune magazine recognized Monterrey as the best city in Latin America in which to do business.[39] The magazine attributes its economic wealth in part to its proximity with the United States-Mexican border and mentions Monterrey as a significant city with economic links to the United States.[41]

Industrialization was accelerated in the mid 19th century by the Compañia Fundidora de Fierro y Acero Monterrey a steel-processing company.[42] Today Monterrey is home to transnational conglomerates such as Cemex (the world's third largest cement company),[43] FEMSA (Coca-Cola Latin America), Alfa (petrochemicals, food, telecommunications and auto parts), Axtel (telecommunications), Vitro (glass), Selther (leading mattress and rest systems firm in Latin America), Gruma (food), and Banorte (financial services). The FEMSA corporation owns a large brewery, the Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma that produces the brands Sol, Tecate, Indio, Dos Equis and Carta Blanca among others. By the end of the same year, there were more than 13,000 manufacturing companies, 55,000 retail stores, and more than 52,000 service firms in Monterrey.[44]

The metals sector, dominated by iron and steel, accounted for 6 percent of manufacturing GNP in 1994.[45] Mexico's steel industry is centered in Monterrey, where the country's first steel mills opened in 1903. Steel processing plants in Monterrey, privatized in 1986, accounted for about half of Mexico's total steel output in the early 1990s.[45]

Monterrey was ranked 94th worldwide and fifth in Latin America in terms of Quality of Life according to Mercer Human Resource Consulting (2006),[46] and was ranked second in 2005 and fourth in 2006, according to America Economia.

Some of the shopping malls in the city include Paseo San Pedro, Plaza Fiesta San Agustín, Galerías Monterrey, and Galerías Valle Oriente, which distribute goods and services to the Mexican population.

Education

File:ITESM Entrada
Main entrance of the ITESM

Monterrey has an estimated 3.7% rate of illiteracy. In 2005, from an estimated 983,359 inhabitants above 6 years of age, 36,689 were illiterates.[47]

In 2005, the city had 72 public libraries, with 298,207 books available, serving an estimated 478,047 readers.[47]

Monterrey is also the headquarters of the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Studies, ITESM or "Tec de Monterrey").[48]

File:UANL
Headquarters of the UANL

The Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (Autonomous University of Nuevo León, UANL), is the third largest Mexican university and is ranked by the Reader's Digest-AC Nielsen Survey 2005 as the top public university in northeast Mexico.[49] Its main campus, Ciudad Universitaria (University City), covers approximately 67,630,000 square metres (17,000 acres).[50] The UANL system comprises 26 colleges (faculties), 22 graduate divisions, 24 high schools, 1 center of bilingual education and 3 technical high schools.

Founded in 1969 with the support of local leading multinational corporations such as Cemex, Alfa, Femsa, Gamesa, Protexa & CYDSA, the Universidad Regiomontana is a private university offering high school, undergraduate and graduate programs. With agreements with more than 200 universities across the globe, it is member of GATE (Global Alliance for Transnational Education), FIMPES (Federación de Instituciones Mexicanas Particulares de Educación Superior) and holds an ISO 9001 Certification. Its urban campus attracts many working professionals who complement and enrich the academic experience.

The Universidad de Monterrey was founded by the religious congregations of the Sisters of Immaculate Mary of Guadalupe, the nuns of the Sacred Heart and the Marist and La Salle brothers, all of them supported by an association of catholic citizens.[51] On December 2001 was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) to deliver bachelor and master level educational programs.

Culture

Food

File:Cabritos in
Cabrito (kid goat) is Monterrey's most popular traditional dish

The most traditional dish from Monterrey is cabrito al pastor,[52] kid goat cooked on embers based on the Jewish cuisine of the founders of the city. Other local dishes and customs that perhaps date back to the Crypto-Judaism of these founders are the "semita" (bread without leavening), the capirotada dessert (a mix of cooked bread, cheese, raisins, peanuts, and crystallized sugarcane juice), and the relative absence of pork dishes. Another famous local dish is machacado con huevo, scrambled eggs, dry beef and salsa.

Carne asada (grilled beef) on weekends remains one of the most cherished traditions in Monterrey's families. It is usually served with grilled onions, baked potatoes and sausages or chopped as tacos. Carne asada gatherings generally take place in the afternoons opposed to central Mexico tradition of having carne asada between 2 and 4pm. Locally brewed beer and cola soft drinks are an almost mandatory part of the weekly ritual. The traditional desserts, "glorias" and "obleas," made from goat milk are both traditional candies from Nuevo León.

Although not still comparable with the kaleidoscopic gastronomy of Mexico City and some major Mexican beach resorts, several good restaurants offering Italian, Chinese, Mediterranean, German, Japanese, and Argentinian food can be found throughout downtown Monterrey, Southern Monterrey and San Pedro Garza Garcia suburb.

Sports

See also articles in the category Sport in Monterrey

[[File:|thumb|left|225px|Rayados play in the Estadio Tecnológico stadium.]] Monterrey has two soccer teams in the Mexican league, the Club de Fútbol Monterrey, known as Rayados de Monterrey, which uses Estadio Tecnológico, a facility owned by the ITESM rented to the team, to host matches. And the UANL Tigres, owned by CEMEX,[53] which hosts matches at Estadio Universitario, at the main campus of the UANL. Both teams are related to the city on the derby, called Clásico Regiomontano. There was a proposed project to build a stadium for both teams, the "Estadio Internacional Monterrey",[54] but the idea was dropped out by both teams. The project is still being promoted, and the city is giving a positive view of it, but the UANL Tigres have yet to finish their stadium contract and the Rayados are planning a stadium of their own. Club de Fútbol Monterrey plans to build a new stadium able to sit a crowd of 50,000. It is scheduled to be finished by 2011, named "Estadio de Fútbol Monterrey". The new stadium is to be financed by the club's managing firm, FEMSA, and will remain the club's property for fifty years before becoming property of the government.[55] The city hosted 8 matches during the 1986 FIFA World Cup.[56]

In addition, two professional indoor soccer teams were hosted in the past, the Monterrey La Raza, members of the Continental Indoor Soccer League and World Indoor Soccer League and the Monterrey Fury, members of the current Major Indoor Soccer League. The city was awarded another franchise to begin play in the fall of 2007 in the MISL.

Baseball has a long history in the city, where it became the most popular sport during the early 20th century. Monterrey has been champion of the Little League World Series three times (1957, 1958 and 1997), and has been host of US Major League Baseball games. In the Mexican Baseball League, the Sultanes de Monterrey are one important team every season and have won the national title several times. In the year 2003, the city unsuccessfully attempted to buy (and relocate to Monterrey) the Montreal Expos franchise of the US Major League Baseball.The Sultanes de Monterrey, are a Mexican League baseball team based in Monterrey, Mexico. They are in the Northern Division. The team was formed May 20, 1939 as Carta Blanca (A local beer brand, owned by Cerveceria Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma which owned the team). The team was also known as the gray ghosts. Soon, they became one of the most important teams in the league, winning its first championship in 1943. The Sultanes play in the Estadio de Beisbol Monterrey, the largest baseball stadium in Mexico.[57]

There are two professional basketball teams: Fuerza Regia that plays in the national league, Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional and the Monterrey Venom that plays in the minor league American Basketball Association. Fuerza Regia plays at the Monterrey Arena while the Monterrey Poison plays at the gymnasium of the ITESM.

The city has hosted the Champ Car race in Fundidora Park from 2001 to 2005 and hosted the A1 Grand Prix of Nations on February 2006.

In 2004 Monterrey hosted the World Karate Federation Senior World Championships. In April 2004, Monterrey's Arena Monterrey became the first city to host WWE in Mexico. In 2007 Monterrey hosted the Women's WTBA World Tenpin Bowling Championships

The city has two college Football teams, the Auténticos Tigres (UANL) and the Borregos (ITESM) that play in the National College League (ONEFA). There is also a local children's league called AFAIM.

People can also find golf, fishing, camping, and extreme-sports outdoors near the city (bungee jumping at Cola de Caballo, rock-climbing, hiking, mountain bike). In particular there is international-level rock-climbing places like la Huasteca, Potrero Chico and many other canyons.

Starting 2009 the Monterrey Open is held at Monterrey. This is a professional women's tennis tournament. The event is affiliated with the Women's Tennis Association (WTA), and is be part of the International tournaments on the WTA Tour. [58]

Contemporary music

See also articles in the category Musical groups from Monterrey

Starting in the 60's Monterrey has been known for "Norteño" music which is the trademark music of the city, bands like Ramon Ayala, Pesado, Duelo and other Mexican "Regional" music bands perform at the different clubs in the city. Monterrey, Nuevo León has witnessed the birth of several bands that have become internationally acclaimed. Their genres vary considerably. Bands include Plastilina Mosh, Control Machete, Kinky, El Gran Silencio, Jumbo, Panda, Genitallica. The song "Los Oxidados" by Plastilina Mosh opens the 2005 movie "Mr. & Mrs. Smith". Kinky performed at the 2004 edition of the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in California, along with Radiohead, The Cure and The Killers.

Landmarks and cultural sites

[[File:|thumb|Santa Lucia Riverwalk]]

  • Santa Lucia Riverwalk, an artificial river built between 1996 and 2007. It currently joins the Macroplaza with the Fundidora Park.
  • The Cerro de la Silla (Saddle Mountain) is with no doubt the primary and most recognized symbol of the city.
  • La Macroplaza, one of the world's largest plazas, is the cultural and administrative heart of the city featuring remarkable monuments, green areas and buildings.
  • Faro del Comercio (Lighthouse of Commerce), another trademark of the city. This monuments beams a green laser around the city at night.
  • Barrio Antiguo (old neighborhood), charming area where bars, cafes, art galleries and restaurants can be found. On November of every year the Festival Cultural Barrio Antiguo took place with national and international artists and performers, but now is replaced with the Festival Internacional de Santa Lucia, which now takes place in September.
  • The Museum of Modern Art is a remarkable model of post-modern Mexican architecture designed by Ricardo Legorreta with the objective of creating different ambiances for artists and visitors from all around the world.
  • Monterrey's Inukshuk is one of only a handful of authentic examples to be found outside Canada of these stone monuments from the high Arctic. The sculpture was created in situ by the renowned Inuit artist Bill Nasogaluak in 2007 and was a gift to the state of Nuevo Leon from the Canadian Chamber of Commerce and the Government of Canada.
  • Fundidora Park is a large urban industrial park that contains old foundry buildings, 120 hectares of natural ambiance, artificial lakes, playgrounds, alternative cinema (Cineteca), museum (Photo Collection, the State Plastic Arts Collection, Exhibits and Spaces), hotel, auditorium and convention center.
  • Puente de la Unidad (sometimes called Puente Atirantado) is a suspension bridge that crosses the Río Santa Catarina and joins San Pedro Garza García with Monterrey.
  • The Alfa Planetarium is the first IMAX dome built in Latin America and fourth in the world.
  • The Government Palace of Nuevo León is a pink marble of Neoclassical architecture where the governor's office is located.
  • The Museum of Mexican History contains collections dating from the Pre-Columbian days through the late 1900s. The museum features interactive displays of information, guided tours in both English and Spanish and a large collection of pieces of Mexican history.
  • El Cerro del Obispado (Bishopric Hill) which includes a public, scenic lookout called Mirador del Obispado, a Monumental flag and the museum inside the Palacio del Obispado (the Bishopric Palace).
  • The Museo Metropolitano de Monterrey, formerly the City Hall, is a lovely small museum across from the south end of la Macroplaza.
  • El Museo del Vidrio,[59] devoted mainly to glass art and history; remarkable, diverse and changing exhibits.
  • ITESM, ITESM has two distinctive buildings CEDES which houses the administration of the ITESM nationwide system and the CETEC which houses the main computer classroom and other offices.
  • La Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma, with its XIX century buildings and where the national Baseball Hall of Fame (Salón de la Fama) is located.
  • La Basílica del Roble, one of the three Catholic basilicas of the city (the others being of Guadalupe and "La Purisima". The Basilica del Roble was built in honor of the Virgin "del Roble", patron of the City.
  • Catedral Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey- This imposing cathedral is the seat of the local Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Monterrey. Its exterior and interior demonstrate different architectural styles, having taken from 1770 until 1889 to complete. A pair of towers zealously guarding its belfries flanks the elaborate ornamental work of the facade. Inside there are paintings of the colonial period to the 19th century, as well as murals by Ángel Zárraga depicting themes for the most part of the Franciscan evangelisation. It is worth visiting for its delicate beauty.

Sightseeing

  • Grutas de Garcia - an extensive (2 km?) cave system located northwest of Monterrey in the Villa de Garcia. A scenic "chair-lift" vehicle lifts visitors to the caves' entrance hundreds of feet above, on the hill slope.
  • The Cola de Caballo (Horse tail) waterfall, on the mountains near the towns of Santiago and El Cercado, about 35 km. (22 miles) south.
  • On the way to the Cola de Caballo waterfall (Carretera Nacional going to Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas), in Santiago, the Presa Rodrigo Gomez or "La Boca" ("La Boca" Dam)[60][61] lays nested between green hills.
  • On this area, before La Boca Dam, at Los Cavazos (25 km from Monterrey) there are many small, family-owned restaurants which serve Mexican and local food, produce, flowers, and candies at low prices; there are also stands of Mexican and local handcrafts and hand-made wooden and metal furniture. This area is a mercado by the road; traffic is heavy on summer Sundays.
  • The Carretera Nacional area south of Monterrey enjoys a relatively humid micro climate that allows the growth of lush, subtropical vegetation; this gives this area a garden-like atmosphere. Indeed, most of the city's plant nurseries (viveros) are located in this zone.
  • Bioparque Estrella- Wildlife Safari park.[62]

Broadcasting and media

Monterrey is an important producer and broadcaster of media and entertainment in Mexico. Grupo Multimedios operates 2 television channels in the city, one of them broadcasting also to the Mexican states of Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Chihuahua and Guanajuato, and to several cities in the United States. Televisa and TV Azteca, the two only national television networks, have local stations in the city.

Grupo Reforma, one of the most widely read newsources in Mexico originated in the city with the newspaper El Norte. Milenio Diario de Monterrey, published by Grupo Multimedios, is another newspaper of high distribution, daily printing local editions in the most important Mexican cities. Other local newspapers include El Porvenir and ABC. Northern Mexico's weekly business newspaper Biznews is also headquartered in Monterrey.

Monterrey also has several radio stations broadcasting news, music, entertainment, and culture for the city. The main radio broadcasting groups are Multimedios Radio, Grupo Radio Alegría and Nucleo Radio Monterrey.

There are 11 Air TV channel broadcasting in the city:

Name Network Channel Contents Type
Teleactiva Televisa 2 Entertainment Local
Azteca 13 TV Azteca 4 Entertainment National
Canal 5 Televisa 6 Entertainment (Cartoons, Series) National
Azteca 7 TV Azteca 7 Series, Movies National, Local
Canal de las Estrellas Televisa 10 Entertainment, News National
Multimedios Televisión Multimedios 12 Entertainment, News Regional (Mexico and US)
Galavisión Televisa 22 Entertainment National
TV Nuevo León State Government 28 Cultural, News Local
Monterrey Televisión Televisa 34 Entertainment, News Local
Canal 53 UANL UANL 53 Cultural Local
Canal 64 Multimedios 64 Music videos Local

International development

The 2007 Universal Forum of Cultures was an international cultural event held in Monterrey from September 20 to December 8 2007. [63]

Also the city wanted to bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics,[64] but were rejected.[65] The city council are now bidding for the 2020 Olympic games.[66]

[[File:|right|thumb|Proposed logo for the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics bid]]

Backed by a young people's movement, students of the universities of Monterrey formed the Monterrey 2014 Foundation with the purpose of hosting the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics. In 2009 the Mexican Olympic Committee gave the bid to Guadalajara. The Monterrey 2014 Foundation declared it would bid for 2018 if Guadalajara loses 2014 bid. [67]

Notable people

See also articles in the category People from Monterrey

Notable people from Monterrey include:

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

See article Sister Cities International

Monterrey is twinned with:

References

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  58. ^ Insert footnote text here
  59. ^ Museo del Vidrio
  60. ^ Presa de La Boca
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  67. ^ [2] Monterrey 2014
  68. ^ "Barcelona internacional - Ciutats agermanades" (in Spanish). © 2006-2009 Ajuntament de Barcelona. http://w3.bcn.es/XMLServeis/XMLHomeLinkPl/0,4022,229724149_257215678_1,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-07-13. 
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Further reading

  • Michael Snodgrass, Deference and Defiance in Monterrey: Workers, Paternalism, and Revolution in Mexico, 1890-1950 (Cambridge University Press, 2003) (ISBN 0-521-81189-9)

External links

Coordinates: 25°40′N 100°18′W / 25.667°N 100.3°W / 25.667; -100.3

Template:Nuevo León


Simple English

Monterrey is a city in northern Mexico. It is the capital of the state Nuevo León. It is the third largest city in Mexico, and has a population of 2,056,538.








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