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.The Montessori method is an educational approach to children based on the research and experiences of Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori (1870–1952).^ The Montessori Method of education is well known.

^ What is the Montessori method of education?

^ (EJ453710) Discusses the work and philosophy of Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

It arose essentially from Dr. Montessori's discovery of what she referred to as "the child's true normal nature" in 1907,[1] which happened in the process of her experimental observation of young children given freedom in an environment prepared with materials designed for their self-directed learning activity.[2] .The method itself aims to duplicate this experimental observation of children to bring about, sustain and support their true natural way of being.^ The basic premises as I understand them are that (1) children have a natural desire to learn and (2) one can learn how to live in freedom only by being free.
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9789562915823): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Maria Montessori, internationally renowned child educator, was originally a medical doctor who brought the scientific methods of observation, experimentation, and research to the study of children, their development and education.

^ EXTRA INFORMATION Quotes from Mammolina: A Story About Maria Montessori": "The real teachers of the Montessori method are the children themselves."
  • The My Hero Project - Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Applying this method involves the teacher in viewing the child as having an inner natural guidance for his or her own perfect self-directed development.^ The teacher is called a directress in the Montessori method because she directs the child.
  • The My Hero Project - Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Montessori method As an educational method, Montessori teaching focuses on the child's experience, characterized by a focus on self-directed activity, where the teacher's role is more observational than what might be considered traditional or typical.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Teachers provide enough guidance to help children work toward independence, self-confidence, and self-discipline; skills that are necessary to be successful in all aspects of life.

[4] .The role of the teacher (sometimes called director, directress, or guide) is therefore to watch over the environment to remove any obstacles that would interfere with this natural development.^ Describes the Montessori professional's identity as director or directress, teacher, and guide.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Partner, nurturer, and guide: The role of the teacher.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The role of the teacher at the Montessori schools is only limited to observing the child and providing he/she objects for learning as well as interaction with the environment.

.The teacher's role of observation sometimes includes experimental interactions with children, commonly referred to as "lessons," to resolve misbehavior or to show how to use the various self-teaching materials that are provided in the environment for the children's free use.^ The Montessori method As an educational method, Montessori teaching focuses on the child's experience, characterized by a focus on self-directed activity, where the teacher's role is more observational than what might be considered traditional or typical.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Properly understood and used, these periods can provide great benefit to children if these bursts are not left ignored or lost in adherence to a rigid curricula.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Experimenting with various materials, she developed a sensory-rich environment, designing letters, beads and puzzles that children could manipulate, and simple tasks such as mat weaving that prepared them for more challenging ones.
  • Madam Montessori | People & Places | Smithsonian Magazine 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.The method is primarily applied with young children (2–6), due to the young child's unique instincts and sensitivity to conditions in the environment.^ This phenomenon is characterized by the young child's capacity for repetition of activities within sensitive period categories, such as exhaustive babbling as language practice leading to language competence.
  • Montessori method - Psychology Wiki 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These needs are based on what Montessori calls ‘Sensitive Periods’, periods where children are naturally absorbed and acutely interested in certain aspects of their environment.
  • The Montessori Method | North Shore Montessori Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC northshoremontessori.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (EJ510657) This reprint of a 1980 article argues that there is a unique global consciousness inherent in the "prepared environment" of Maria Montessori's student-centered, nurturing curriculum for young children.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[6] .However, it is sometimes conducted with elementary age (6–12) children and occasionally with infants and toddlers, as well as at the middle and high school level.^ Toddler (2 to 3 years) Primary (3 to 6 years) Lower Elementary (6 to 9 years) Upper Elementary (9 to 12 years) Middle School (12 to 15 years) .

^ However, the first public Montessori high school in the country, Clark Montessori located in Cincinnati, Ohio, was started in 1994.
  • Montessori method - Psychology Wiki 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2002, Great River High School [1] opened in St. Paul, MN. Several pilot Montessori junior high schools, have opened based on writings by Montessori on Erdkinder , German for "Children of the Land", which was a term Montessori coined for children ages 12 through 18.
  • Montessori method - Psychology Wiki 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8]
Girls at a school learning with Montessori materials.
.Although the "Montessori" name is recognized by many, it is not a trademark, and it is associated with more than one organization.^ The word 'Montessori' is not a trademark, and there are many schools that follow Montessori only obliquely.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ The album explains all the necessary step by step guidelines on more than 100 over Montessori practical activities.

^ This is one of the many insightful and somewhat radical ideas which came from Maria Montessori.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

.Schools differ in their interpretation, practical application, and philosophy in using this method with children.^ Practical application of the methods of Itard and Séguin in the Orthophrenic School at Rome .
  • Montessori Method: Contents 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dr Montessori gave the world a unique scientific method- both practical and tested- for bringing out the very best in young children.

^ However, it is important to note that each school may differ in their interpretation of the Montessori teaching method.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

[9] This article is about Dr. Maria Montessori’s research and discoveries and their practical application by adherents and practitioners with children.

Contents

History

The "Montessori method" developed from experimental research that Dr. Maria Montessori conducted with disabled and mentally challenged children in the early 1900s.[10] .She began this research using the basic idea of scientific education that was developed and employed in the 1800s with special needs children by French physicians Jean Itard and Edouard Seguin.^ Montessori was much influenced by earlier works on child development and psychology, in particular research conducted by Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard and Eduardo Seguin.
  • 546, Renu Singh, The Montessori method 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on the work of French physicians Jean Itard and Edouard Seguin, Maria tried to make an environment for the scientific study of children with physical and mental disabilities.

^ Maria Montessori researched special education and came upon the works of Jean Itard (1775-1838), who was famous for his work with the “Wild Boy of Aveyron” and the works of Itard’s student Edouard Séguin (1812-1880), who created physical and sensory activities to develop mental processes.
  • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]. .A student and associate of Itard, Seguin extended Itard's initial idea of observing children in their natural, free activity by adding a series of exercises with specially designed self-teaching materials.^ Because of this, the children are free to move from activity to activity.

^ The basic premises as I understand them are that (1) children have a natural desire to learn and (2) one can learn how to live in freedom only by being free.
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9789562915823): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The teacher does not need to test the children because it is easy to see how the children are doing by observing their activities.

Based on Dr. Montessori's success using this same approach in her initial research with disabled and physically challenged children, she began to look for an opportunity to study how it might be applied to benefit the education of more ordinary children as well.[12]
.In 1906, the opportunity presented itself when Montessori was asked to establish a day-care center for young children (2–6) in a low-income housing area of Rome's San Lorenzo district.^ The Quarter of San Lorenzo before and since the establishment of the "Children's Houses" .
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^ Also notes the application of Montessori principles to day care for preschool children.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1907 Maria Montessori gave up all her commitments to focus on educating the “normal” child.She was asked to establish a center in the slums of the San Lorenzo quarter of Rome to care for 50 unruly preschool aged children who were left unattended while their parents worked.
  • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .She opened the center in 1907, calling it a Children's House,and began observing the children in the scientific manner indicated before by Seguin.^ The Casa dei Bambini, or Children’s House, opened January 6, 1907.
  • Madam Montessori | People & Places | Smithsonian Magazine 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (EJ499962) Calls for a "renaissance in civility," discussing definitions of civility and the need to encourage manners and responsible behavior in children and adolescents.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Quarter of San Lorenzo before and since the establishment of the "Children's Houses" .
  • Montessori Method: Contents 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] In this process, Dr. Montessori soon discovered that the children responded to the materials with a deep concentration that resulted in a fundamental shift in their way of being, changing from the ordinary behavior of fantasy, inattention, and disorder, to a state of profound peace, calm and order within their environment. .Observing this change occurring with all the children in her environment, she concluded that she had discovered the child's true normal nature.^ Observing the child living freely in this environment.
  • 546, Renu Singh, The Montessori method 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "All children are born to achieve.....The goal of early childhood education should be to cultivate the child's own natural desire to learn" "The real preparation for education is the study of one's self.
  • Montessori Singapore, Montessorian World 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.com.sg [Source type: News]

^ All children talk, no matter what their race or their circumstances or their family, more or less at the same age; they walk, change their teeth, etc.
  • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Later, Dr. Montessori referred to this change as normalization and the new emerging children as normalized.[15]
After 1907, Dr. Montessori reported her discovery and experiences to educators and others who became increasingly interested in learning how these changes came about in children. .This interest soon led her to write various books on the subject and conduct training programs to explain her approach, which eventually came to be known as the "Montessori method."^ The Montessori Method of education is well known.

^ The Montessori Method In great shape and a very interesting book.
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9789562915823): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Search Books by subject: Child & developmental psychology Pre-school & kindergarten Primary & middle schools Teaching skills & techniques Education Education / Teaching EDUCATION / Elementary Education / General Education : Elementary Elementary Montessori Nonfiction / Education Preschool & Kindergarten Teaching Methods & Materials - General Education, Preschool Montessori method of education Philosophy Education & Teaching i.e., each book must be in subject 1 AND subject 2 AND ...
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9789562915823): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[16]
.Following her initial experiments with young children, Montessori extended her research by introducing new materials and studying the effects of her approach with children of different ages.^ For young children, Montessori is a hands-on approach to learning.

^ Montessori is an approach to the education of children.

^ By using the Montessori math material, most children experience many concepts traditionally taught much later, including fractions, squared and cubed numbers, multiples, and factors, for example.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, near the end of her life, in her book De l'Enfant à l'Adolescent,[17] (From Childhood to Adolescence), Montessori contributed to the work of the International Bureau of Education and UNESCO, by relating how her method would apply to the secondary-school and university settings.^ A selection of articles related to Montessori method .

^ Chapter 9 discusses Montessori's ideas for high school and university education.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Index of Articles related to Montessori Method .

.Her writings, lectures, and research during some 40 years until her death in 1952 constituted the basic foundation of knowledge about the method, which is currently conducted according to various philosophies in schools and other institutions associated with the name Montessori throughout the world.^ Montessori schools throughout the world are ...

^ Here are some basic facts about the Montessori Method of teaching: .

^ There are thousands of Montessori schools throughout the world.

[18]
Since Dr. Montessori's death in 1952, the method has developed along several different philosophical tracks. .Each tract has evolved its own distinctive organizational affiliations, training and presentation of the method to the general public.^ Montessori method: Encyclopedia II - Homeschooling - Public opinion Opposition to homeschooling comes from varied sources, including organizations of teachers and school districts.

^ Proposes a list of categories and presentations that can help teachers create their own music program: (1) songs and fingerplays; (2) ear training; (3) movement; (4) rhythm; and (5) use of recorded music.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Philosophy

The philosophy of the Montessori method has remained somewhat obscure and confused because Dr. Montessori's 1907 discovery of the child's true nature was entirely accidental. Throughout her life, Dr. Montessori never described the method that evolved from her discovery in great detail; speaking and writing instead more about the effects of the method on children, rather than the method itself.[20] .The question of its underlying philosophy was therefore left to others, which eventually led in several different directions.^ It describes the philosophy, curriculum, teaching methods, school organizations, and grading methods of several different kinds of nontraditional schools: two continuous-progress schools, a Montessori school, a developmental school, and a microsociety school.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

For some, the method was closely linked to Dr. Montessori's personality, so that when practiced outside her direct control and presence, it was diluted and misapplied, such as to conform to the needs and interests of the particular cultural context.[21]
.Confusion and conflict about the method's philosophy emerged with particular intensity in the modern development of Montessori in the United States[22] where, in 1967, the name "Montessori" was held to be a "generic term" that no organization could claim for its own exclusive use.^ Basic information about using the Montessori Method at home.

^ About Montessori & Montessori Method back to top .

^ Featured articles on: Montessori Method & Philosophy .
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

[23] .Since then, the number and diversity of Montessori organizations and philosophies have expanded considerably.^ It describes the philosophy, curriculum, teaching methods, school organizations, and grading methods of several different kinds of nontraditional schools: two continuous-progress schools, a Montessori school, a developmental school, and a microsociety school.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, since the Montessori education is comprehensive, children are often exceptionally knowledgeable in a number of other areas as well.

  • One main philosophy of the Montessori method is attached to the personality of Dr. Montessori herself. This philosophy defines the Montessori method according to the pronouncements of Dr. Montessori's colleagues and successors who claim authority from Dr. Montessori herself or her biological son and heir, Mario Montessori. .[24]
  • A second major philosophy developed around the idea that the method is controlled by the surrounding culture within which it is operating at the time.^ In developing her philosophy and method, Dr. Montessori drew on her experience and education in science, medicine, philosophy, pedagogy, anthropology, and by no small measure, in life.

    ^ Looking around us at the cultural development of our epoch of evolution, we see no limit to what must be offered to the child.
    • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Montessori Planes of Development: Lower Elementary Characteristics Toddler and Adolescent Similarities Montessori Philosophy - The First Plane of Development: Birth to Age 6 Montessori Philosophy - The Second Plane of Development: Ages 6-12 Montessori Philosophy - The Third Plane of Development: Ages 12-18 Montessori Philosophy - The Fourth Plane of Development: Ages 18-24 .

    .This culture-type philosophy defines the method to fit within the popular theories and ideas of conventional thinking of the day.^ Instead, freedom implied the possibility of taking certain types of action within defined limits.
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    ^ Montessori method: Encyclopedia II - Montessori method - Philosophy The Montessori method is described as a way of thinking about who children are.

    ^ Her methods completely contradicted the educational theories and practice popular during her day.
    • 546, Renu Singh, The Montessori method 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    For example, in this philosophy, the particular effects of the method as described by Dr. Montessori in 1907 would be explained as due to the unique Italian context of that day, which is not possible to replicate with children in a different place and time.[25]
  • .
  • A third main philosophy holds that the Montessori method reflects a way of being committed to infinite and eternal laws of nature, which is outside the context of either personality or culture.^ William Heard Kilpatrick, a leading American educational theorist at Columbia University, criticizes Montessori’s philosophy as being outdated.
    • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Like all children, Montessori students live within a cultural context that involves the mastery of skills and knowledge that are considered essential.
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    ^ Every Montessori program reflects the personalities of the adults running the program.

    .This philosophy has been described as a scientific way of following laws of nature to bring about true normal being.^ Following pointers describe about the topic: .

    ^ In his book, Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work, E.M. Standing described the following characteristics of normalization in the child between the age of three and six: .
    • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This book reiterates the fundamental purpose of Maria Montessori's philosophy of bringing about a "better world by nurturing the spirit of the child."
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    [26] In 2003, a new, comprehensive technology was announced for practicing this particular philosophy.[27]
In practice, the Montessori method is applied with varying degrees of adherence to these three main philosophies, although they all usually subscribe to at least part of the writings of Dr. Montessori on the subject. .While some strictly adhere to one philosophy or another, others develop their own unique blend of philosophies and interpretation of her writings.^ Certainly, my studies in anthropology inspired the method, but experience has given me, as a surprise, another title which seems to me the natural one, "the method of spontaneous writing."

^ There must be another kind of formative help, an effort to become keenly aware of the needs of one's own time and to permeate oneself with civilization.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As parents know their own children’s learning styles and temperaments, teachers, too, develop this sense of each child’s uniqueness by spending a number of years with the students and their parents.
  • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite these differences, there are several concepts that are widely shared by many adherents and practitioners as consistent with the Montessori method.^ However, it is important to note that each school may differ in their interpretation of the Montessori teaching method.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ The Montessori Method is now being used in many public, as well as private schools.

^ Concepts in the Montessori philosophy • The Montessori philosophy is based on the idea that children are markedly different from adults.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

Concepts

  • Inner guidance of nature. .All children have inherent inner directives from nature that guide their true normal development.^ Children of elementary age develop interests in all directions.
    • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Montessori Life, 9, 1, 10-13 (EJ538152) Argues that parents and educators must strive to develop true independence within their children.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Most important, proponents say, Montessori’s self-directed, noncompetitive activities help children develop self-esteem.

    [28]
  • .
  • Freedom for self-directed learning.^ Developed by Dr. Maria Montessori in the early 1900s, the Montessori Method of teaching focuses on clinical observation and self-directed learning!

    ^ (EJ529825) Discusses the use of self-directed learning within the framework of shared inquiry.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They learn to work at a task from beginning to end, and develop their will (defined by Dr. Montessori as the intelligent direction of movement), self-discipline and capacity for total concentration.
    • 546, Renu Singh, The Montessori method 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Montessori method respects individual liberty of children to choose their own activities.^ If Montessori allows the kids to learn at their own pace, how does it ensure kids choose a variety of activities, not just their favourite?
    • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]
    • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The Montessori Method is based on self-directed activity on the part of the child and clinical observation on the part of the teacher.

    ^ Dr Montessori gave the world a unique scientific method- both practical and tested- for bringing out the very best in young children.

    .This freedom allows children to follow their inner guidance for self-directed learning.^ The basic premises as I understand them are that (1) children have a natural desire to learn and (2) one can learn how to live in freedom only by being free.
    • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Advocates eliminating traditional high school or college schedules and allowing for self-paced learning.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Developed by Dr. Maria Montessori in the early 1900s, the Montessori Method of teaching focuses on clinical observation and self-directed learning!

    [29]
  • Planes of development. .The natural development of children proceeds through several distinct planes of development, each one having its own unique conditions and sensitive periods for acquiring basic faculties in the developmental process.^ What are the critical or sensitive periods in brain development?
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Natural history materials, such as an elaborate time line of life, show children the dramatic and colourful spectacle of life forms and their development.
    • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cites this experience as evidence for her theory of sensitive periods and developmental stages.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The first plane (ages 0–6) involves basic personality formation and learning through physical senses.^ In a sense, the human mind is handmade, because through movement and touch, the child explores, manipulates, and builds a storehouse of impressions about the physical world around her.
    • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Today the news media would describe her as a person who thinks outside of the box — a pioneer in enabling children to learn through meaningful experiences.
    • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In essence, they compose their own texts, which preserve for them what they have learned in their own personal format, documents and treasures of their learning experiences.
    • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .During this plane, children experience sensitive periods for acquiring language and developing basic mental order.^ What are the critical or sensitive periods in brain development?
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Two periods in the development of language .
    • Montessori Method: Contents 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cites this experience as evidence for her theory of sensitive periods and developmental stages.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    [30] .The second plane of development (6–12) involves learning through abstract reasoning, developing through a sensitivity for imagination and social interaction with others.^ Suggests that ages 6 through 12 are a sensitive period for using imagination.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He believed that interaction played a key role in cognitive development and that cognitive development was influenced not only by physical development but social surrounding and interactions.
    • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Parents of 9- to 12-year- olds appreciate the added depth of learning through orientation meetings.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The third plane (12–18) is the period of adolescent growth, involving the significant biological changes of puberty, moving towards learning a valuation of the human personality, especially as related to experiences in the surrounding community.^ We have already learned to make use of our surroundings, but I believe that we have arrived at a time when the necessity presents itself for utilising human force, through a scientific education.

    ^ Today the news media would describe her as a person who thinks outside of the box — a pioneer in enabling children to learn through meaningful experiences.
    • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In essence, they compose their own texts, which preserve for them what they have learned in their own personal format, documents and treasures of their learning experiences.
    • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The fourth plane (18+), involves a completion of all remaining development in the process of maturing in adult society.^ While they are growing and maturing at different rates, fourth graders need a careful balance of adult guidance and independence.

    ^ Montessori Planes of Development: Lower Elementary Characteristics Toddler and Adolescent Similarities Montessori Philosophy - The First Plane of Development: Birth to Age 6 Montessori Philosophy - The Second Plane of Development: Ages 6-12 Montessori Philosophy - The Third Plane of Development: Ages 12-18 Montessori Philosophy - The Fourth Plane of Development: Ages 18-24 .

    [31]
  • Prepared environment. .The right precise conditions around children allow for and support their true natural development.^ Natural history materials, such as an elaborate time line of life, show children the dramatic and colourful spectacle of life forms and their development.
    • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Montessori Life, 9, 1, 10-13 (EJ538152) Argues that parents and educators must strive to develop true independence within their children.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Notes that children in developed nations receive much of their information about the environment from the media and are often exposed to conflicting viewpoints about the natural world.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    .For young children, the environment must be prepared in this way by providing a range of physical objects that are organized and made available for free, independent use, to stimulate their natural instincts and interests for self-directed learning.^ What he learns must be interesting, must be fascinating.
    • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They are supervised by a single directress whose primary task is to observe the children and direct their efforts by explaining to them how various didactic materials are used (it's very simple, but nothing is obvious to a young child).
    • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
    • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9789562915823): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They depend on carefully prepared, aesthetically pleasing environments as a pedagogical tool, providing strong messages about the curriculum and respect for children.
    • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [32]
  • .
  • Observation and indirect teaching. The teacher's role is to observe children engaged in activities that follow their own natural interests.^ The Montessori method As an educational method, Montessori teaching focuses on the child's experience, characterized by a focus on self-directed activity, where the teacher's role is more observational than what might be considered traditional or typical.
    • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Underlying the three approaches are variant views of the nature of young children's needs, interests, and modes of learning that lead to contrasts in the ways that teachers interact with children in the classroom, frame and structure learning experiences for children, and follow the children through observation/documentation.
    • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Suggests that teacher educators should teach their students strategies for individualizing their interactions with children rather than encouraging their students to memorize large amounts of material.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    .This indirect teaching to control the environment, not the child, contrasts sharply with the ordinary teacher's role of implementing a pre-determined curriculum.^ The Montessori method As an educational method, Montessori teaching focuses on the child's experience, characterized by a focus on self-directed activity, where the teacher's role is more observational than what might be considered traditional or typical.
    • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The Montessori album , a set five Montessori guide books will equip teachers with the knowledge and skills in presenting Montessori materials in both pre-school and home environment.

    ^ Examines the role of the teacher as learner, revolutionary, and scientist following the child through life.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    .For example, a Montessori method class has the teacher resolving misbehavior by refocusing the child to some positive activity, rather than engaging in the ordinary system of rewards and punishments.^ The role of the teacher is to observe the child rather than being a lecturer!

    ^ The Montessori method As an educational method, Montessori teaching focuses on the child's experience, characterized by a focus on self-directed activity, where the teacher's role is more observational than what might be considered traditional or typical.
    • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Years of rigorous training are required before adults can assume the position of teacher in a Montessori school, and they must be highly proficient in all the subjects they teach.
    • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

    [33]
  • Normalization. .During the 0–6 plane of development, children have the ability to shift their fundamental being from the ordinary condition of disorder, inattention, and attachment to fantasy to a state of perfect normal being, showing such external behavior as spontaneous self-discipline, independence, love of order, and complete harmony and peace with others in the social situation.^ Attachment parenting will help children develop self- esteem, intimacy, nurturance, and discipline.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A love of order A love of work Profound spontaneous concentration Attachment to reality Love of silence and of working alone Sublimation of the possessive instinct Obedience Independence and initiative Spontaneous self-discipline Joy; and The power to act from real choice and not just from idle curiosity.
    • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It defied the conventions of the time in being coeducational (bringing boys and girls together in the classroom), open to children of any background (without entrance examination), comprehensive (from preschool level through high school), and independent of external control (a self-governing administrative unit).
    • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .This psychological shift to normal being occurs through deep concentration on some physical activity of the child's own free choice.^ In a sense, the human mind is handmade, because through movement and touch, the child explores, manipulates, and builds a storehouse of impressions about the physical world around her.
    • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The goal of education at school is the same as that at home, where the teacher gives the child opportunities to master independence and concentration; free choice; gradual difficulty levels of materials; and reading and writing.

    ^ Through both physical and mental activity with this material, the child acquires a profound basis for mathematics.
    • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [34]
  • Absorbent mind. .The young child (0–6) has an absorbent mind which naturally incorporates experiences in the environment directly into its whole basic character and personality for life.^ The first six years of a toddler's life is crucial as this is the period which up to 80% of the child's brain is developed and when the child's character and lifelong attitude is formed.

    ^ Here are just some ideas on how to incorporate the Olympic theme into your Montessori environment.

    ^ The key to teachers' spiritual development can be found in Montessori's insights into the true nature of the child.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    .This mental faculty, which is unique to young children, allows them to learn many concepts in an effortless, spontaneous manner.^ Children learn in many different ways.
    • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In many cases, children with mild physical handicaps or learning disabilities may do very well in a Montessori classroom setting.
    • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Dr Montessori gave the world a unique scientific method- both practical and tested- for bringing out the very best in young children.

    .It also allows them to undergo the key phenomenon of normalization to return to their true natural development.^ The key to teachers' spiritual development can be found in Montessori's insights into the true nature of the child.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An education that suppresses the true nature of the child is an education that leads to the development to anomalies.
    • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

    .After the age of about six, this absorbent mental faculty disappears.^ The Early Childhood Montessori environment for children age three to six is designed to work with the “absorbent mind,” “sensitive periods,” and the tendencies of children at this stage of their development.
    • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [35]
  • Work, not play. Children have an instinctive tendency to develop through spontaneous experiences on the environment, which Dr. Montessori referred to as 'work'.[36] In this sense, the children's normal activity is attached to reality in the present moment, rather than idle play through such means as toys and fantasy. .[37][38]
  • Multi-age grouping.^ The paper concludes with comments regarding the positive aspects of multi-age grouping.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Multi-Age Grouping" offers an analysis of eight specific methods and strategies of multiage practice that serve as a useful guide for implementation.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Children learn from each other in a spontaneous manner that supports their independent self-directed activity.^ The Montessori Method is based on self-directed activity on the part of the child and clinical observation on the part of the teacher.

    ^ This method focuses on the fact that the children are capable of self-directed learning- which means that they can learn from their own mistakes rather than depending on the teacher to tell the correct answer.

    ^ Most important, proponents say, Montessori’s self-directed, noncompetitive activities help children develop self-esteem.

    .The ordinary Montessori classroom therefore consists of a mixed-aged group, such as 2–6 (primary level) or 6–12 (elementary level).^ (ED410021) While many parents are familiar with Montessori schooling at the preschool level, Montessori elementary and middle schools have also proliferated in the past decade.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Montessori Life, 5, 1, 28-29 (EJ465914) Maintains that excellent teachers make it possible for elementary school students in enriched Montessori environments to learn as much by age 12 as most students learn by the time they graduate from high school.
    • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The environment in a Montessori classroom arranges its equipment and activities in line with the age and development of the children.

    [39]

Montessori materials and curriculum

.The Montessori method involves a curriculum of learning that comes from the child's own natural inner guidance and expresses itself in outward behavior as the child's various individual interests are at work.^ How can parents get involved in their child's learning?
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If Montessori allows the kids to learn at their own pace, how does it ensure kids choose a variety of activities, not just their favourite?
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ The key is for the educator to observe and identify a sensitive phase and then take advantage of this concentrated interest by the child to promote periods of intense learning that comes easily and with little effort for the child.
  • Maria Montessori 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Supporting this inner plan of nature, the method provides a range of materials to stimulate the child's interest through self-directed activity.^ The Montessori Method is based on self-directed activity on the part of the child and clinical observation on the part of the teacher.

^ Most important, proponents say, Montessori’s self-directed, noncompetitive activities help children develop self-esteem.

^ Developed by Dr. Maria Montessori in the early 1900s, the Montessori Method of teaching focuses on clinical observation and self-directed learning!

.In the first plane of development (0–6), these materials are generally organized into five basic categories: practical life, sensorial, math, language, and culture.^ It is an ebook focusing on the children's development areas of montessori sensorial , montessori exercises for practical life , montessori cultural , montessori language and montessori math .

^ Montessori curriculum focus on Sensorial, Exercises of Practical Life, Cultural & Biology, Language, and Math.

^ To introduce new curriculum, teachers present demonstration lessons at the point when an individual or small group indicates readiness to advance in the sequence of self-correcting materials, in the areas of practical life, sensorial, mathematics, language, science and geography, and art and music (Humphryes, 1998).
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

Practical life

.Practical life materials and exercises respond to the young child's natural interests to develop physical coordination, care of self and care of the environment.^ Natural history materials, such as an elaborate time line of life, show children the dramatic and colourful spectacle of life forms and their development.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, she believes education must follow and meet the needs of the child's natural development.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether by tending a garden or raking leaves, care of the outdoor environment and of growing things promotes mental as well physical development.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.Specific materials, for example, provide opportunities for self-help dressing activities, using various devices to practice buttoning, bow tying, and lacing.^ Most important, proponents say, Montessori’s self-directed, noncompetitive activities help children develop self-esteem.

^ With the younger students at each level, the teacher is more active, demonstrating the use of materials and presenting activities based on an assessment of the child's requirements.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Children take part in various activities like- keeping the articles or “didactic equipments” back at their place after using them, preparing and serving during the break etc.

.Other practical life materials include pouring, scooping and sorting activities, as well as washing a table and food preparation to develop hand-eye coordination.^ Physical skills Balance, using the hands, coordination of eye-hand work, learning to concentrate and focus, recognizing sizes and shapes, working with knobbed puzzles, crayons and pencils, and practice in speaking.

^ Natural history materials, such as an elaborate time line of life, show children the dramatic and colourful spectacle of life forms and their development.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Montessori teachers use the checklists to track the individual progress of each student by recording the dates a student receives, practices, and masters each topic/activity/material.

.These activities also provide a useful opportunity for children to concentrate bringing about their normalization.^ They depend on carefully prepared, aesthetically pleasing environments as a pedagogical tool, providing strong messages about the curriculum and respect for children.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Children take part in various activities like- keeping the articles or “didactic equipments” back at their place after using them, preparing and serving during the break etc.

^ The living room can provide opportunities for adults and children to do things together, such as listening to music or playing with a selected group of toys.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other practical life activities include lessons in polite manners, such as folding hands, sitting in a chair, walking on a line.^ History The history of life, both before and after the arrival of humankind, is inextricably linked to other subjects such as geology, geography, and biology.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Includes information on the students, adults, and physical environment of such programs, as well as the programs' enrollment, grouping, activities, and materials.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suggests procedures, activities, lesson sequence, materials, and expected outcomes of such an undertaking.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[40]

Sensorial

.The sensorial materials provide a range of activities and exercises for children to experience the natural order of the physical environment, including such attributes as size, color, shape and dimension.^ Many exercises, especially at the early childhood level, are designed to draw children’s attention to the sensory properties of objects within their environment: size, shape, color, texture, weight, smell, sound, etc.
  • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By using the Montessori math material, most children experience many concepts traditionally taught much later, including fractions, squared and cubed numbers, multiples, and factors, for example.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bathroom offers experiences of personal care: bathing, dressing, combing, and brushing teeth, activities that children can perform independently when provided with materials that are scaled down to child-size.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[41] .Many of these materials were originally suggested and developed by Seguin in his prior research with scientific education.^ Suggests that teacher educators should teach their students strategies for individualizing their interactions with children rather than encouraging their students to memorize large amounts of material.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These visits, along with readings, classes, and essay assignments, help students gain a better understanding of the work of scientists and the conduct of scientific research.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These materials are designed to assist a child's development by leading the child, through use and manipulation, toward eventual mental abstraction of the concepts related to the materials.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[42]
.Examples of these materials are pink tower (series of ten sequential cubes, varying in volume); knobbed cylinders (wooden blocks with 10 depressions to fit variable sized cylinders); broad stairs (ten wooden blocks, sequentially varying in two dimensions); color tablets (colored objects for matching pairs or grading shapes of color).^ In addition to these materials there is another series of cards, where, besides the consonant, are painted one or two figures the names of which begin with that particular letter.

^ The pink series are three-letter words with short vowel sounds, and encompasses the first hurdle of reading, that of managing the blending block.

^ They should use educational manipulative materials A Montessori teacher should be able to use educational manipulative materials because these objects can be touched by the children physically.

[43]

Mathematics

.In this area, materials are provided to show such basic concepts as numeration, place value, addition, subtraction, division and multiplication.^ Addition and subtraction from one to twenty: multiplication and division .
  • Montessori Method: Contents 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The structure of the decimal system, the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, and other key concepts follow this same pattern.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural history materials, such as an elaborate time line of life, show children the dramatic and colourful spectacle of life forms and their development.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For numeration, there is a set of ten rods, with segments colored red and blue and “spindle boxes”, which consist of placing sets of objects in groups, 1–10, into separate compartments. .For learning the numeral symbols, there is a set of sandpaper numerals, 1–9. For learning addition, subtraction, and place value, materials provide decimal representation of 1, 10, 100, etc., in various shapes made of beads, plastic, or wood.^ The book explores how overseas developments, changing values, economic forces, and local conditions shaped and continue to shape the services provided for young children.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The children are allowed as much freedom as possible and are provided with "didactic materials" which are various artifacts which they can use to educate themselves.
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ The teacher as observer facilitates better ways for the child to direct his or her own learning by (for example) providing more material they are interested in.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

.Beyond the basic math materials, there are materials to show the concept of fraction, geometrical relationships and algebra, such as the binomial and trinomial theorems.^ By using the Montessori math material, most children experience many concepts traditionally taught much later, including fractions, squared and cubed numbers, multiples, and factors, for example.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural history materials, such as an elaborate time line of life, show children the dramatic and colourful spectacle of life forms and their development.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]

Language

.In the first plane of development (0–6), the Montessori language materials provide experiences to develop use of a writing instrument and the basic skills of reading a written language.^ By using the Montessori math material, most children experience many concepts traditionally taught much later, including fractions, squared and cubed numbers, multiples, and factors, for example.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Montessori Life, 7, 2, 16-18 (EJ505526) Explores the suggestion of a musician studying the Montessori method that children are more susceptible to developing musical skills while in their sensitive period for language.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Witnessing older children reading and writing spontaneously, the younger ones are highly motivated to perfect those language skills which still need work.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For writing skill development, the metal insets provide essential exercises to guide the child's hand in following different outline shapes while using a pencil or pen.^ Her strengths, of course, are her emphases on the liberty and independence of the child (tempered by concern for society), stimulation and development of the senses, and the importance of writing.
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ First, she believes education must follow and meet the needs of the child's natural development.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The design should furnish some sort of control, some mechanical guide, for the pencil, in order to follow with exactness the trace, sensible in reality only to the eye.

.For reading, a set of individual letters, commonly known as sandpaper letters, provide the basic means for associating the individual letter symbols with their corresponding phonetic sounds.^ This basic skill-building in reading and writing is done individually or in very small groups.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .Displaying several letters, a lesson, known as the Seguin three-period lesson (see below), guides children to learn the letter sounds, which finally blend together to make certain simple phonetic words like “up” and “cat”.^ As I see it, teachers make their lives difficult, as well as the lives of the children difficult, by trying to *teach.*.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Making an original play or skit about something they have recently learned is one way in which children truly make knowledge their own.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Making learning visible: Children as individual and group learners.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The aim of these nomenclature lessons is to show the child that letters make sounds, which can be blended together to make words.^ This is followed by a section showing how these three ideas can work together in one classroom to provide a complete and whole education of the mind, body, and spirit.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Let us take the child out to show him real things instead of making objects which represent ideas and closing them in cupboards.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These are not really lessons, but stories or fables, which allow the child to explore and understand our culture and achieve a global vision of cosmic events.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For children over six, Montessori language materials have been developed to help children learn grammar, including parts of speech, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles, prepositions, adverbs, conjunctions, pronouns, and interjections.^ We are a 3 year Kindergarten where children learn by the Montessori Method and materials.
  • Get Montessori Jobs - Your Montessori Jobs Site at GetMontessoriJobs.com 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.getmontessorijobs.com [Source type: News]

^ By using the Montessori math material, most children experience many concepts traditionally taught much later, including fractions, squared and cubed numbers, multiples, and factors, for example.
  • Benefits of the Montessori Method | Karingal Primary School 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC karingalps.vic.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project is based on seven specified values such as the rejection that children with disabilities must be "fixed" before they can be fully included.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[46]

Cultural subjects

.The Montessori classroom may also include other materials and resources to learn cultural subjects, such as geography (map puzzles, globes), and science, such as biology in naming and organizing plants and animals.^ Montessori classrooms and material support and encourage learning.

^ Search Books by subject: Philosophy & theory of education Teaching skills & techniques Education Education / Teaching EDUCATION / Experimental Methods Education / General Education / Teaching Methods & Materials / Social Science Montessori Teaching Methods & Materials - Classroom Planning Teaching Methods & Materials - Social Science Preschool & Kindergarten Teaching Methods & Materials - General Montessori method of education Education & Teaching i.e., each book must be in subject 1 AND subject 2 AND ...
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ (EJ499968) Describes Maria Montessori's early learning "Casa" setting for young children and other models for educational programs for young children.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.Music and art are also commonly involved with children in various ways.^ It is suggested that teachers with limited perspectives on curriculum may violate the various ways of young children's knowing.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children study literature, folktales, and mythology; rhythmic musical movement (eurythmy); practical crafts; natural sciences; foreign languages; art; and music.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I multiplied these exercises in various ways, and the children thus learned to make the movements necessary to reproduce the form of the graphic signs without writing.

.After the age of approximately six, learning resources include reading books and more abstract materials for learning a broad range of advanced subject matter.^ The teacher as observer facilitates better ways for the child to direct his or her own learning by (for example) providing more material they are interested in.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Six appendices include classroom schedules and materials.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children listen as the teacher presents the material, and they integrate what they have learned as they design and illustrate with care and beauty their own lesson books.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[47]

Elementary (6–12) Curriculum

.During the second plane (6–12) of development, the curriculum takes on a more conventional appearance of books and writing activities, since children now function more through abstract reasoning and are no longer as sensitive to the physical environment.^ (Some hold that lack of proper stimulation during these periods of heightened attention can contribute to Children ought to be masters of their environments, with as much control as (or more than) we assume adults have.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Montessori Life, 7, 2, 16-18 (EJ505526) Explores the suggestion of a musician studying the Montessori method that children are more susceptible to developing musical skills while in their sensitive period for language.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suggests that in a traditional curriculum, math is studied as a separate subject and isolated discipline, in an abstract format, with the entire group of children moving together through the prescribed curriculum.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[48] .The contextual format for this more advanced curriculum is described as cosmic education, a concept that was first explained in England in 1935.[49] Cosmic education is the total interrelated functioning of the whole universe, which allows elementary children to store and organize a great amount of knowledge from among a wide range of different subject matter areas and disciplines.^ Suggests that in a traditional curriculum, math is studied as a separate subject and isolated discipline, in an abstract format, with the entire group of children moving together through the prescribed curriculum.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Describes educational thinkers who pursue the intangibles in relation to children's education, and argues these intangibles are equally important as developing cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (EJ499968) Describes Maria Montessori's early learning "Casa" setting for young children and other models for educational programs for young children.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[50]

Lessons

.In the Montessori method, a lesson is an experimental interaction with children to support their true normal development.^ Montessori Life, 7, 2, 16-18 (EJ505526) Explores the suggestion of a musician studying the Montessori method that children are more susceptible to developing musical skills while in their sensitive period for language.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Montessori Life, 9, 1, 10-13 (EJ538152) Argues that parents and educators must strive to develop true independence within their children.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In developing her philosophy and method, Dr. Montessori drew on her experience and education in science, medicine, philosophy, pedagogy, anthropology, and by no small measure, in life.

.[51] With materials, these lessons primarily aim to present their basic use to children according to their own individual interests.^ Properly understood and used, these periods can provide great benefit to children if these bursts are not left ignored or lost in adherence to a rigid curricula.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Suggests that teacher educators should teach their students strategies for individualizing their interactions with children rather than encouraging their students to memorize large amounts of material.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children who were presented the materials with limited discussion or with frequent discussion showed greater interest in the materials but did not score higher on seriation tests than children who were presented the materials with no discussion.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.These lessons are therefore given in such a way that the teacher's personal involvement is reduced to the least amount possible, so as not to interfere with the child's own free learning directly through the materials themselves.^ She shows parents, teachers and administrators how to "free a child to learn through his own efforts".
  • Amazon.com: The Montessori Method (9780805209228): Maria Montessori: Books 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In essence, they compose their own texts, which preserve for them what they have learned in their own personal format, documents and treasures of their learning experiences.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (Available through Learning Materials Workshop, Reggio Children's authorized distributor at http://www.learningmaterialswork.com ) Rinaldi, Carlina.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[52]
.For many presentations, a three-step process, described originally by Seguin, is used in the Montessori method for showing the relationship between objects and names.^ Montessori Life, 7, 4, 37-40 (EJ512465) Describes gender-based imagery preferences in research studies and instructional design, and the relationship of stages of aesthetic development to gender-based imagery preferences.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Later I learned that anyone can use the name Montessori because there are no legal restrictions against doing so.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Montessori method, reading is taught using phonics and a whole language approach.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

.This is called the "three-period lesson."^ Three Period Lessons (Introduction/Demonstration; Practice/Assimilation; Independent Expression) .
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Montessori Three-Period Lesson Revisited Christmas and Boxing Day – Further Reflections on ...

[53] .With this nomenclature lesson, two or three materials are selected from what the children are working with.^ Three hours of uninterrupted Montessori activity ever morning along with two hours in the afternoon, for children at the elementary age.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Children listen as the teacher presents the material, and they integrate what they have learned as they design and illustrate with care and beauty their own lesson books.
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • Period 1 consists of providing the child with the name of the material. In the case of letter sounds, the teacher will have the child trace the letter and say, "This is /u/. This is /p/." .This provides the children with the name of what they are learning.
  • Period 2 is to help the child recognize the different objects.^ Properly understood and used, these periods can provide great benefit to children if these bursts are not left ignored or lost in adherence to a rigid curricula.
    • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

    ^ They depend on carefully prepared, aesthetically pleasing environments as a pedagogical tool, providing strong messages about the curriculum and respect for children.
    • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is therefore necessary that children have first-hand experience in buying objects themselves and that they come to realize what they can buy with a unit of the money of their country.
    • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Most of the time with the three-period lesson is in period 2. Some things the teacher might say are, "Show me the /u/.^ Three Period Lessons (Introduction/Demonstration; Practice/Assimilation; Independent Expression) .
    • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Montessori Three-Period Lesson Revisited Christmas and Boxing Day – Further Reflections on ...

    Show me the /p/” or "Point to the /u/. .Point to the /p/.” After spending some time in the second period, the child may move on to period 3.
  • Period 3 involves checking to see if the child not only recognizes the name of the material, but is able to tell you what it is.^ In the second period there exist, then, possibilities superior to those we used to know in the child.
    • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Independence and An "inner evolution of the individual" (page 3) In the second period the child needs wider boundaries for his social experience.
    • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

    The teacher will point to the "u" sandpaper letter and ask the student, "What is this?" If the child replies with, "uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu", the child fully understands it. With letters, the lesson finally ends with the child blending the letters to make a simple word, such as “up.”[54]

Homeschooling

.The Montessori method is readily employed with children at home.^ Describes Montessori's vision of young children as natural linguists and how home and school can support children's natural abilities in one or more languages.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Montessori Life, 5, 1, 26-27 (EJ465913) Argues that traditional educational methods erode children's natural enthusiasm for learning.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (EJ508825) Discusses the application of the Montessori method to the education of children with disabilities, focusing on various disabilities and techniques that can be used with all special-needs children and Maria Montessori's work with children with disabilities.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.With young children, the practical life materials and exercises are provided through everyday household activities and chores, such as setting the table for meals, food preparation, and folding clothes for laundry.^ Montessori classrooms provide carefully prepared, orderly, pleasing environments and materials where children are free to respond to their natural tendency to work individually or in small groups (see http://www.montessori-namta.org or the videotapes and slide sets for parent education from the North American Montessori Teachers' Association).
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (EJ499968) Describes Maria Montessori's early learning "Casa" setting for young children and other models for educational programs for young children.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suggests activities that establish foundations for work with mathematics materials, extensions of the materials, and activities with everyday math.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.Parents follow the method by using slow, simple movements in showing how to do these chores, as well as by establishing routines for children to conduct their own activities with as much independence and self-direction as possible.^ If Montessori allows the kids to learn at their own pace, how does it ensure kids choose a variety of activities, not just their favourite?
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Other studies show that Montessori children score well on standardized tests and rank well above average on "soft skills" such as following direction, promptness, listening and adapting to new situations.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ I have a series of these activities that increase in difficulty that students can complete at their own pace.

[55]

Criticism of Montessori

Some critics claim that a flaw in the Montessori method is its close association with Dr. Montessori herself. In Maria Montessori: a Biography, Rita Kramer[56] reports that a New York Times writer interviewing Montessori in 1913 stated:
...the method is .Montessori and Montessori is the method and one may well have grave doubts about how it will go with 'auto-education' when Maria Montessori's personality is removed.” (p.^ This is one of the many insightful and somewhat radical ideas which came from Maria Montessori.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Montessori Schools › Montessori Preschools › Montessori Schools Checklist › Life inside one Montessori school › Top Questions About Montessori .
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ My friend, who I will call Jessica, and I even considered opening a Montessori school, but I will say more about that later as well.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

188)
This close association between the method and Dr. Montessori led to many conflicts and lack of collaboration to extend research into the method itself. .[57] For example, despite new insight and greater knowledge available for applying the method in a scientific manner, the philosophical differences of personality and culture still exist to cloud and confuse its representation to the general public.^ Education should not limit itself to seeking new methods for a mostly arid transmission of knowledge: its aim must be to give the necessary aid to human development.
  • Maria Montessori 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC eqi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the cultural differences between the Arab countries and Japan, the study reveals that there are more similarities than differences concerning educational goals.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[58]

Benefits

.Angeline Stoll Lillard's award-winning 2005 book Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius (Oxford University Press) presents a recent overview evaluating Montessori versus conventional education in terms of research relevant to their underlying principles.^ Montessori Life, 7, 3, 22-24 (EJ508915) Presents an interview with Kieran Egan, an award-winning professor of education.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Topics discussed include McNichols' book, his work in Montessori, his Fulbright year in Trinidad, the use of technology in education, public Montessori programs, and the future of Montessori education.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Claims that Montessori's meticulously researched commentary signals an emerging organic vision of the developmental continuum from birth to adulthood that is relevant to the educational needs of our time.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.Lillard cites research indicating that Montessori's basic methods are more suited to what psychology research reveals about human development, and argues the need for more research.^ The Montessori philosophy originates in the teachings of Maria Montessori, who focused on the development of the human individual through all stages of childhood.
  • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ NAMTA Journal, 18, 3, 85-86 (EJ467573) Excerpts from the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development's report "Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century," issued in 1989, indicate the need to develop a more adolescent-centered approach to education in the middle grades that is very similar to the basic ideas of the Montessori method.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The expansion of Montessori education needs to include the traditions which reside in its educational methods and in the changing dynamics of society.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.A 2006 study published in the journal "Science" concluded that Montessori students (at ages 5 and 12) performed better than control students who had lost a random computerized lottery to attend a Montessori school and instead went to a variety of different conventional schools.^ For example, in a 2006 study published in the journal "Science," authors concluded that Montessori students showed better performance in traditional learning areas like mathematics and language as well as social skills.The study used two control groups studied over the course of several years.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Since the early 1900s, Montessori schools have provided a unique learning environment tailored to students of all capabilities from infancy to 18 years old.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ (EJ465896) Examined the nature and degree of autonomous behavior among groups of elementary students from Montessori schools and from traditional public schools.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.This improved performance was achieved in a variety of areas, including not only traditional academic areas such as language and math, but in social skills as well (though by age 12 academic benefits had largely disappeared).^ For example, in a 2006 study published in the journal "Science," authors concluded that Montessori students showed better performance in traditional learning areas like mathematics and language as well as social skills.The study used two control groups studied over the course of several years.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Notes the benefits, including a sense of community, interaction between different age groups, and exposure to culture.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the school suffered a performance drop in 1996, it has made vast strides in helping students achieve academically, especially in writing.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

[59]
.On several dimensions, children at a public inner city Montessori school had superior outcomes relative to a sample of Montessori applicants who, because of a random lottery, attended other schools.^ Montessori programs in public schools .
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (EJ465896) Examined the nature and degree of autonomous behavior among groups of elementary students from Montessori schools and from traditional public schools.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The major portion of the publications consists of employment notices for Montessori teachers and administrators throughout the United States and other nations, as well as notices advertising schools for sale and positions wanted.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.By the end of kindergarten, the Montessori children performed better on standardized tests of reading and math, engaged in positive interaction on the playground more, and showed advanced social cognition and executive control more.^ By the end of kindergarten, the Montessori children performed better on standardized tests of reading and math, engaged in positive interaction on the playground more, and showed advanced social cognition and executive control more.
  • Montessori method - Psychology Wiki 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 2006 study published in the journal "Science" concluded that Montessori students performed better than their standard public school counterparts in a variety of arenas, including not only traditional academic areas such as language and mathematical reasoning, but in social cognition skills as well.
  • Montessori method - Psychology Wiki 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in a 2006 study published in the journal "Science," authors concluded that Montessori students showed better performance in traditional learning areas like mathematics and language as well as social skills.The study used two control groups studied over the course of several years.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

.They also showed more concern for fairness and justice.^ They also showed more concern for fairness and justice.
  • Montessori method - Psychology Wiki 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the end of elementary school, Montessori children wrote more creative essays with more complex sentence structures, selected more positive responses to social dilemmas, and reported feeling more of a sense of community at their school.^ Years of rigorous training are required before adults can assume the position of teacher in a Montessori school, and they must be highly proficient in all the subjects they teach.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ Montessori theory and practice for the elementary classroom are presented in chapters 3 through 8, including children's physical, social, and moral changes; Montessori's "Great Lessons" and "Key Lessons"; classroom materials and environment; the elementary teacher; freedom and responsibility; and observations of a Montessori elementary classroom.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Argues that it is essential that elementary school children develop social awareness and social skills and that secondary school students be encouraged to take a more active part in their communities.
  • CPP | Bilingual Education | Montessori Method | Annotated Bibliography 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.positivepractices.com [Source type: Academic]

.The authors concluded that, "when strictly implemented, Montessori education fosters social and academic skills that are equal or superior to those fostered by a pool of other types of schools."^ Other children can succeed in any type of school.
  • Montessori.org 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC www.montessori.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors concluded that, "when strictly implemented, Montessori education fosters social and academic skills that are equal or superior to those fostered by a pool of other types of schools."
  • Montessori method - Psychology Wiki 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 2006 study published in the journal "Science" concluded that Montessori students performed better than their standard public school counterparts in a variety of arenas, including not only traditional academic areas such as language and mathematical reasoning, but in social cognition skills as well.
  • Montessori method - Psychology Wiki 30 January 2010 2:56 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Research by K. Dohrmann and colleagues [60] supplements this by showing superior math and science performance in high school by children who previously attended public Montessori (as compared to high school classmates, over half of whom were at the most selective city public high schools); and two studies by Rathunde and Csikszentmihalyi[61][62] showing a higher level of interest and motivation while doing school work as well as more positive social relations among Montessori middle-schoolers as opposed to matched controls.^ Montessori programs in public schools .
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, in a 2006 study published in the journal "Science," authors concluded that Montessori students showed better performance in traditional learning areas like mathematics and language as well as social skills.The study used two control groups studied over the course of several years.
  • Montessori Schools | Preschools | Montessori Casa 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

^ It defied the conventions of the time in being coeducational (bringing boys and girls together in the classroom), open to children of any background (without entrance examination), comprehensive (from preschool level through high school), and independent of external control (a self-governing administrative unit).
  • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

  1. ^ Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work, E.M. Standing, p. 174, Publ. Plume, 1998, http://www.penguinputnam.com
  2. ^ The Montessori Method, Maria Montessori, p. 80-81, Publ. Random House, 1988, http://www.randomhouse.com
  3. ^ Discovery of the Child, Maria Montessori, p.46, Publ. Ballantine Books, 1972, http://www.randomhouse.com
  4. ^ Maria Montessori: her life and Work, E.M. Standing, p. 169, Publ. Plume, 1998, http://www.penguinputnam.com
  5. ^ Maria Montessori: Her life and Work, E.M. Standing, p. 305, Publ. Plume, 1998, http://www.penguinputnam.com
  6. ^ Discovery of the Child, Maria Montessori, p. 323-324, Publ. Ballantine Books, 1972, http://www.randomhouse.com
  7. ^ International Bureau of Education/Unesco: Montessori and the New Education Movement Retrieved 27/8/2008
  8. ^ Maria Montessori and informal education
  9. ^ The Essential Montessori, Elizabeth Hainstock, p. 115, Publ. Plume, 1997
  10. ^ Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work, E. M. Standing, 1962, p. 29
  11. ^ Discovery of the Child, Maria Montessori, p. 24, Ballantine Books, 1972 http://www.randomhouse.com
  12. ^ Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work, E. M. Standing, 1962, p. 37
  13. ^ Maria Montesori: A Biography, Rita Kramer, 1976, p.110
  14. ^ Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work, E. M. Standing, 1962, p. 37
  15. ^ The Essential Montessori, Elizabeth Hainstock, p. 62, Publ. Plume, 1997
  16. ^ Maria Montessori: a Biography, Rita Kramer, p.154, Pub. Perseus Books, 1976
  17. ^ http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/services/documentation/collections.html
  18. ^ Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work, E.M. Standing, Author's preface, 1957, Pub. Plume, re-print, 1984
  19. ^ The Essential Montessori, Elizabeth Hainstock, p. 116-118, Publ. Plume, 1997
  20. ^ Education and Peace, Maria Montessori, p. 76, Pub. 1949, Reprint, Montessori-Pierson Publishing Co., 1972
  21. ^ Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work, E.M. Standing, p. 64, 1957, Pub. Plume, re-print, 1984 http://www.penguinputnam.com
  22. ^ The Essential Montessori, Elizabeth Hainstock, p. 117, Pub. (revised) Plume, 1997 http://www.penguin.com
  23. ^ American Montessori Society, Inc. v. Association Montessori Internationale, 155 U.S.P.Q. 591, 592 (1967)
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  • Beineke, J. (1998). And There Were Giants in the Land: The life of William Heard Kilpatrick. New York: Peter Lang Publishing Inc.
  • Kilpatrick, W. H. (1914). The Montessori System Examined. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company
  • Rand, Ayn. (1982). Philosophy: Who Needs It.

Further reading

.
  • Lillard, Angeline: Montessori: The Science behind the Genius ISBN 0-19-516868-2
  • Loeffler, Margaret Howard: Montessori in Contemporary American Culture ISBN 0-435-08709-6
  • Montessori, Maria: The Discovery of the Child ISBN 0-345-33656-9
  • Montessori, Maria: The Montessori Method ISBN 0-8052-0922-0
  • Montessori, Maria: The Secret of Childhood ISBN 0-345-30583-3
  • Montessori Programs in Public Schools.^ Montessori programs in public schools .
    • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Montessori in contemporary American culture.
    • ECRP. Vol 4 No 1. Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC ecrp.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Montessori philosophy originates in the teachings of Maria Montessori, who focused on the development of the human individual through all stages of childhood.
    • The Montessori Method and Philosophy 2 February 2010 16:20 UTC www.ourkids.net [Source type: General]

    ERIC Digest.
  • A Montessori Mother  by  Dorothy Canfield Fisher
  • [1] Montessori Madness! A Parent to Parent Argument for Montessori Education ISBN 978-0-9822833-0-1

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Montessori method, which are similar to those in the above article.








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