Moors: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Moors

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A self-depiction by the Muslims in Iberia. Taken from the "Tale of Bayad and Riyad"
The Almoravides dynasty, c. 1100 CE. At the dynasty's greatest expanse of control a succession of Moroccan-based states strongly affected culture from modern Senegal to the Iberian Peninsula.
.The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim) people of Berber, Black African and Arab descent from North Africa, some of whom came to conquer and occupy the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years.^ North Africa: Is part of the Arab world Known as the mediterrian people not black africans The Sub-Saharan region: Is known as Black Africa in reference to its "black" populations.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Africa was conquered by the Islamic Arabs in the Seventh century.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moor is the classical name in Europe of the Muslim people of North Africa.

.The North Africans termed it Al Andalus, comprising most of what is now Spain and Portugal.^ In Europe, the name applies particularly to the North African Muslims who invaded Spain in 711, and established a distinctive civilization that lasted nearly 800 years.
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North, East and certain parts of West Africa were comprised of an admixture, most having dark skin but they varied according to anthropologists.
  • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moorish Ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal ) and the Maghreb and western Africa , whose culture is often called Moorish .
  • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moors are not distinct or self-defined people, but the appellation was applied by medieval and early modern Europeans primarily to Berbers, but also Arabs, and Muslim Iberians[1] and West Africans.^ The Moors are ethnically a mix of Arab and Berber origins, plus several West African peoples.
  • Moors - LookLex Encyclopaedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ African Muslim people of mixed Berber and Arab descent.
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Europe, the name applies particularly to the North African Muslims who invaded Spain in 711, and established a distinctive civilization that lasted nearly 800 years.
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

from Mali and Niger who had been absorbed into the Almoravid dynasty.[2] .As early as 1911, mainstream scholars observed that "The term 'Moors' has no real ethnological value."^ To the Christians of early Europe there was no question regarding the ethnicity of the Moors, and numerous sources support the view that the Moors were a black-skinned people.
  • Were there Black people in Medieval England? - Yahoo! Answers 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In the early 16th century the Portuguese called them `Moors' a term which they used for the Muslims who invaded Spain in the 8th century.
  • LankaLibrary.com: Marakkala: the Sri Lankan Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.In the Spanish language, the term for Moors is Moro; in Portuguese the word is mouro.^ In its present form, the word Moor is traced through the Spanish Moro and the Portuguese Mouro, either to the Mauri, the ancient inhabitants of Mauretari, now known as Morocco, or as Tennent, the famous historian of Ceylon suggests, to Maghrib (Morocco).
  • THE NAME �MOORS� A MISNOMER-ABSENCE OF INFORMATION REGARDING EARLYHISTORY-THE ARAB EMPIRE OF THE FIRST CENTURY-COSMAS-THE EMP 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By extension (corresponding to the Spanish moro), the term occasionally denotes any Muslim in general, as in the case of the Moors of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) or of the Philippines.

^ Reminders of the Reconquista are the festivals of moros y cristianos (Castilian or Spanish), mors i cristians (Valencian or Catalan) and mouros e cristãos (Portuguese or Galician) these meaning "Moors and Christians" recreate the fights as colorful parades with elaborate clothes and fireworks, especially on the Spanish Mediterranean coast , popularly known as Levante.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

There seems to have been some confusion about the relationship of the word moro/mouro to the word moreno (which means brown), both from Greek maúros, i.e. black. .However, the two words have different etymological roots.^ Examples: The word natural has many etymological roots in Latin, Old English etc.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

[4][5]
.The Andalusian Moors of the late Medieval era inhabited the Iberian Peninsula after the Moorish conquests of the Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates, and the final Umayyad conquest of Hispania.^ But, except for the part the Moors called Ishbaniya , the Cantabrian coast and the mountains behind it, the Iberian Peninsula was now Al-Ándalus, a province of the Caliphate of Damascus.
  • The Moorish Invasion of Spain and Portugal 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC spainforvisitors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He became the first Caliph of Al-Andalus, the Moorish part of Spain, which occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Muslim Spain and European Culture 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.xmission.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moorish Ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal ) and the Maghreb and western Africa , whose culture is often called Moorish .
  • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.April 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]The Moors' rule stretched at times as far as modern-day Mauritania, West African countries, and the Senegal River.^ Blacks Black Moors traditionally represent the lower class, and there has been little social change to this in modern times.
  • Moors - LookLex Encyclopaedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moor comes from the country "Mauritania" look up where this country is located, it was "controlled" by morocco but only a centry or two before the word moor was coinded by the greeks in around the late 13 hundreds it was part of the Malian empire, And it's main populouse were more related to west africans than anyone else "at that period of time".
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term derives from the Phoenician and Greek name Mauri , applied to the inhabitants of Mauretania (centered on modern-day Morocco, not Mauritania .
  • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Earlier, the Classical Romans interacted (and later conquered) parts of Mauretania, a state which covered northern portions of modern Morocco and much of north western and central Algeria during the classical period.^ This word comes back to Latin and beyond to old Greek where "Mauri" are the inhabitants of "Mauretania or Mauritania", the name of North-Western Africa ( present Morocco and Mauritania ) "Mauri" turned into "Moros" in Spanish, hence "Moors" and "moorish" in English.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word derives from the Latin Mauri, first used by the Romans to denote the inhabitants of the Roman province of Mauretania, comprising the western portion of modern Algeria and the northeastern portion of modern Morocco.

^ The term derives from the Phoenician and Greek name Mauri , applied to the inhabitants of Mauretania (centered on modern-day Morocco, not Mauritania .
  • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as the Mauri.
.The term Mauri, or variations thereof, was later used by European traders and explorers of the 16th to 18th centuries to designate ethnic Berber and Arab groups speaking the Hassaniya Arabic dialect.^ The Berbers mutinied, and as the Arabs were a minority, they brought Syrian troops (who later settled in Andalusia and the Algarve) in to repress the uprising.
  • The Moorish Invasion of Spain and Portugal 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC spainforvisitors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Moors were a group of Arabic -speaking, Muslim invaders who conquered almost all of the Iberian peninsula between the years of 711 and 718 CE .
  • Moor@Everything2.com 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the 18th century European Christians saw themselves as the predestined rulers of the world with a divine mission to civilise the heathen.

.April 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Today such groups inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, western Sahara, Morocco, Niger and Mali and to those in India.^ This word comes back to Latin and beyond to old Greek where "Mauri" are the inhabitants of "Mauretania or Mauritania", the name of North-Western Africa ( present Morocco and Mauritania ) "Mauri" turned into "Moros" in Spanish, hence "Moors" and "moorish" in English.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word derives from the Latin Mauri, first used by the Romans to denote the inhabitants of the Roman province of Mauretania, comprising the western portion of modern Algeria and the northeastern portion of modern Morocco.

^ These Moors live mainly in Western Sahara and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, from which the latter country derives its name.

[6] and Sri Lanka. .Mauri was the genesis of the name of the ancient kingdom of Mauretania, which gave its name to the modern Islamic Republic of Mauritania.^ It was also the name of an ancient Berber Kingdom.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This word comes back to Latin and beyond to old Greek where "Mauri" are the inhabitants of "Mauretania or Mauritania", the name of North-Western Africa ( present Morocco and Mauritania ) "Mauri" turned into "Moros" in Spanish, hence "Moors" and "moorish" in English.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Moors live mainly in Western Sahara and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, from which the latter country derives its name.

.In the Philippines, some residents use a variation of the term to designate some Muslim populations, the Moros.^ This term has been broadly used to denote various people in North Africa, people who came from Morocco or simply to describe Muslims in general Moreno is Spanish, Portuguese and Filipino for a tanned or dark or brown-skinned person.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term Moor came to be synonymous with Muslim in many contexts, for example the Muslim communities in the Philippines are known to this day as Moros .

.Speakers of European languages have historically designated a number of ethnic groups "Moors". In modern Iberia, the term continues to be associated with those of Moroccan ethnicity living in Europe.^ There were white Moors, especially because of their part Berber ancestry and after they had lived in Europe for centuries and had been whitened by mating with Europeans.

^ Civilization was restored to Europe when another group of Africans, the Moors, brought this dark age to an end...
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is particularly evident in the affinity between culture terms referring to the Proto- civilization of the speakers of these languages.
  • MOORS GATE 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.moorsgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some consider it pejorative and racist. .Moor is sometimes used in a wider context to describe any person from North Africa.^ This term has been broadly used to denote various people in North Africa, people who came from Morocco or simply to describe Muslims in general Moreno is Spanish, Portuguese and Filipino for a tanned or dark or brown-skinned person.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ancient Moors also established ports in other parts of North Africa, but after catastrophic events, the Triton Sea was drained.
  • MOORS GATE 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.moorsgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Moors won, and the Gothic Spaniards were forced to retreat, giving the Moors time to land a seemingly inexhaustible supply of soldiers from the population wells of North Africa.
  • The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Spanish use the term and think of it as neutral in local sayings such as "no hay moros en la costa"[citation needed] (literally, "There are no Moors on the coast", meaning "the coast is clear").^ Moros y Cristianos (rice and beans) literally means Moors and Christians .
  • Havana Dining: Eating Cuban at the Source 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

^ Where did i say Moor means Black?
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that year all unbaptized Jews were expelled en masse from Spain, and the infamous Spanish Inquisition, set up to enforce Christendom, was used to persecute Jews, who, because of their collaboration with the Moors, were regarded as the implacable enemies of White Spain.
  • The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Etymology

.In Latin, the word maurus (plural mauri) means coming from Mauretania, a Roman province on the north western fringe of Africa.^ The conquest of the former Roman province of Hispania by the Moors (note that "Moors" only means the people from the north-east corner of Africa who carried out the conquest, including both Arabs and the original natives, the Berbers) marked the history and culture of Portugal and particularly Spain profoundly.
  • The Moorish Invasion of Spain and Portugal 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC spainforvisitors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This word comes back to Latin and beyond to old Greek where "Mauri" are the inhabitants of "Mauretania or Mauritania", the name of North-Western Africa ( present Morocco and Mauritania ) "Mauri" turned into "Moros" in Spanish, hence "Moors" and "moorish" in English.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially under the Numidian kings and to a much greater degree under the Roman empire the North African provinces were given over to extensive grain production.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Medieval Romance languages (such as Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian), the root appeared in such forms as mouro, moro, moir, and mor.^ In its present form, the word Moor is traced through the Spanish Moro and the Portuguese Mouro, either to the Mauri, the ancient inhabitants of Mauretari, now known as Morocco, or as Tennent, the famous historian of Ceylon suggests, to Maghrib (Morocco).
  • THE NAME �MOORS� A MISNOMER-ABSENCE OF INFORMATION REGARDING EARLYHISTORY-THE ARAB EMPIRE OF THE FIRST CENTURY-COSMAS-THE EMP 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reminders of the Reconquista are the festivals of moros y cristianos (Castilian or Spanish), mors i cristians (Valencian or Catalan) and mouros e cristãos (Portuguese or Galician) these meaning "Moors and Christians" recreate the fights as colorful parades with elaborate clothes and fireworks, especially on the Spanish Mediterranean coast , popularly known as Levante.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Moors: Encyclopedia II - Moors - Present-day Moors In modern usage, Moor or Moorish (Italian and Spanish: moro, French: maure, Portuguese: mouro) is used to designate people whose native tongue is the Hassaniya dialect of Arabic.

Derivatives are found in today's versions of the languages. Through nominalization, the root has always referred to various things. Moreno, from the Latin root, can mean "tanned" in Spain and Portugal. .In Cuba and other Spanish-speaking countries, as in Portuguese speaking Brazil, it can mean "black person" or a "mulatto"[citation needed].^ Negro, itself, is derived from the Portuguese or Spanish word for black, 'negro'.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ancient Egyptians called themselves Kam or Kam-Au (Black people/ Black God-people), and their country Kamit (or Khemit), both meaning land of the Blacks and the Black Land.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

Also in Spanish, morapio is a humorous name for "wine", specially that which has not been "baptized" or mixed with water, i.e., pure unadulterated wine. .By extension, Moor was also used to refer generally to dark skinned persons as far back as the time of William Shakespeare, such as in his play Othello the Moor.^ The Governor at the time, General Brownigg, considered the treatment meted to the Moors who were British subjects as an acts of aggression, and Major Hook immediately took the field and advanced as far as Hanwella.
  • THE NAME �MOORS� A MISNOMER-ABSENCE OF INFORMATION REGARDING EARLYHISTORY-THE ARAB EMPIRE OF THE FIRST CENTURY-COSMAS-THE EMP 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This term has been broadly used to denote various people in North Africa, people who came from Morocco or simply to describe Muslims in general Moreno is Spanish, Portuguese and Filipino for a tanned or dark or brown-skinned person.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would also be reasonable to use a Roman or Carthaginian general figure to command your army but remember to make the skin colour darker.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Spanish usage, moro ("Moor") came to have an even broader usage, applied to moros of Mindanao in the Philippines, and the moriscos of Granada.^ Between 1483 and 1486, the Spanish drove the Moors out of the western half of the kingdom of Granada.
  • The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally in 1609, the Spanish king Philip III ordered the physical expulsion of some 250,000 "Moriscos" or Christianized Moors from the country.
  • The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The term Moor came to be synonymous with Muslim in many contexts, for example the Muslim communities in the Philippines are known to this day as Moros .

.Moro is also used to describe all things dark, as in "Moor", "moreno", etc..^ It did not mean black, however it did mean Dark skinned, and later was used to describe all muslims indiscriminantly of skin colour, however it was a term originaly used for dark skinned people and was taken from a region that contained mostly black africans.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Moor" was (and is still today) a very ambiguous term used to describe a number of different peoples, but, predominantly North African types-Berber or Arab.
  • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As demonstrated here and below, the word mouro is used in the Cantigas to describe all Muslims regardless of race or ethnic origin.
  • Muslims in medieval Europe 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to some, it is the basis of such European surnames as Moore,[citation needed] Mauro, Moura, and so on.^ The screenplay rights to some of Moore's books, such as Practical Demonkeeping and Bloodsucking Fiends, have been purchased by Disney, but have not yet been made into movies.

[citation needed] The Milanese Duke Ludovico Il Moro was so-called because of his dark complexion.
."Mouro" may also refer to an enchanted moura, in Portugal and Spain, the word deriving from a Celtic root *MRVOS, (Gaulish: marvos), meaning dead or supernatural being,[7] who comb their long blond hair with a golden comb.^ Woolly nappy hair, if simply washed & dried but never combed or brushed, will naturally entwine into long locks as it grows.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The word zimbabwe is derived from the Shona language, and means houses of stone.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Liberia - Derived from the Latin word liber ("Free") - Reference to the return of Freed American Slaves who founded the modern Republic of Liberia.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

[8][9] .From this celtic root the name moor is also given to unbaptised children meaning not Christian.^ Moros y Cristianos (rice and beans) literally means Moors and Christians .
  • Havana Dining: Eating Cuban at the Source 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

^ The name originally derives from the original Tuareg (Moors) who are known indigenously as the “Imazighen” meaning the “Free Men”.
  • MOORS GATE 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.moorsgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11] .In Basque, Mairu means moor[12] and also refers to a mythical people.^ Egyptian writings also refer to whites as Typhonians or People of Seth, both meaning "the devils."
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

In Northern Portugal, moura also means "stone".[citation needed]

History

Overview

Eastern Hemisphere in 476 CE, showing the Moorish kingdoms after the fall of Rome.
.Although the Moors came to be associated with Muslims, the name Moor pre-dates Islam.^ The conflict came, not with West Africans submitting to Islam, but in the Arabs demanding Moors to denounce their heritage and Moorish genealogy and profess being “Arabians”.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ History named these Muslim conquerors of Spain "Moors," probably because they arrived by way of Morocco.

^ Moors were converted to Islam and became fanatic Muslims.
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It derives from the small Numidian Kingdom of Maure of the 3rd century BCE in what is now northern central and western part of Algeria and a part of northern Morocco.^ Almoravids and Almohads Towards the end of the 11th century in the western Magreb, now Morocco, a new political and religious movement emerged from which was founded the Almoravid dynasty.
  • The Moors in Andalucia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC jannah.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Quimbundos Kingdom, also known as Ndongo, dominated in the western and central areas.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ferdinand had now rendered himself master of all the western part of the kingdom of Grenada, and Boabdil agreed to divide with Zagel the remnant of this desolated state.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[13] The name came to be applied to people of the entire region. "They were called Maurisi by the Greeks," wrote Strabo, "and Mauri by the Romans."[14] During that age, the Maure or Moors were trading partners of Carthage, the independent city state founded by Phoenicians. .During the second Punic war between Carthage and Rome, two Moorish Numidian kings took different sides, Syphax with Carthage, Masinissa with the Romans, decisively so at Zama.^ Relations between the two races were probably promoted by the mistaken belief on both sides that they were historically related.
  • The Influence of Sephardic Jews and Moors on Southeastern Indian Cultures 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.melungeons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Second Punic war came to an end the Romans rewarded their ally by making him king of all Numidia.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially under the Numidian kings and to a much greater degree under the Roman empire the North African provinces were given over to extensive grain production.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thereafter, the Moors entered into treaties with Rome.^ Like Greece and Rome that proceeded them, the Moors of Al-Andalus fell into moral decay and wandered from the intellect that had made them great.
  • Muslim Spain and European Culture 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.xmission.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On both sides, the vanquished parties soon re−entered the field, in utter neglect of the treaties into which they might ever so recently have entered.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He maintained peace with him, aided him in his campaigns against the King of Seville, and even entered into a treaty with Hacchem, the son and successor of his ally.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.Under King Jugurtha collateral violence against merchants brought war.^ He maintained long wars against the kings of Leon and the counts of Castile, who wrested Madrid, then a place of comparative insignificance, from him, A.D. 931, Heg.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Juba, a later king, was a friend of Rome. .Eventually, the region was incorporated into the Roman Empire as the provinces of Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana; the area around Carthage already being the province of Africa.^ He left no heir and Mauretania was annexed to the Roman Empire as the two provinces - Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In AD 533 the Eastern Roman Empire on orders of the Emperor Justinian was able to reconquer the African province around Carthage (Africa Proconsularis) when a small Byzantine army under Count Belisarrius defeated the last Vandal king Gelimer.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially under the Numidian kings and to a much greater degree under the Roman empire the North African provinces were given over to extensive grain production.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roman rule was beneficial and effective enough so that these provinces became fully integrated into the empire.^ Civil revolts, tyranny, extortion, sensuality, and sloth, had annihilated the ambition of universal rule which the Greek and Roman governments had once cherished; and their provinces, neglected or oppressed, became an easy prey to the Moslem power.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

During the Christian era, two prominent Berber churchmen were Tertullian and St. Augustine. After the fall of Rome, the Germanic kingdom of the Vandals ruled much of the area. A century later they were displaced by Byzantine incursions.[citation needed]
.Neither Vandal nor Byzantine exercised an effective rule, the interior being under Moorish Berber control.^ Morocco was the capitol of the old Moorish Empire and has been ruled under various influential cultural names as Carthaginian, Ottoman, Phoenician and Arabian.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He {81} ruled the Moorish empire twenty−six years under the name of the indolent Hacchem.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[15] .For over 50 years, the Berbers resisted Arab armies from the east.^ They were Arabs, from Damascus and Medina, leading armies of North African Berber converts.

.Especially memorable was that led by Kahina the Berber prophetess of the Awras, during 690–701. Yet by the 92nd lunar year after the Hijra, the Arab Muslims had prevailed across North Africa.^ In Europe, the name applies particularly to the North African Muslims who invaded Spain in 711, and established a distinctive civilization that lasted nearly 800 years.
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From their new capital in Damascus, Muslim armies fanned eastward through Mesopotamia to India and Central Asia, westward to the Nile and across North Africa.

^ The several traits seen right across north Africa from Egypt to Morocco/Mauritania are added to by forms of boats and ships both earthly and celestial.
  • MOORS GATE 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.moorsgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

The Moors of Iberia

Progress of the Reconquista (790–1300).
.In 711 CE, the now Islamic Moors conquered Visigothic Christian Hispania.^ In 711 AD, barely 100 years after the establishment of Islam, the Moors crossed over from Northern Africa and conquered most of Spain.
  • Math of the Moors :: squareCircleZ 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.squarecirclez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the next three years, the Moors conquered the majority of Hispania, often helped and welcomed by indigenous peoples.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Moors: Encyclopedia II - Moors - Moorish Empire In AD 711, some Moors invaded Visigoth Christian Spain.

.Under their leader, a general named Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they brought most of Iberia under Islamic rule in an eight-year campaign.^ Rafa and I were bobbing in the wake of Tariq ibn Ziyad, a Muslim general.

^ Under Tarik ibn Ziyad they crossed to Gibraltar in 711 and easily overran the crumbling Visigothic kingdom of Roderick .
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most married into Spanish and Visigoth families or took fair- skinned Galician slaves to wife; soldiers all, they brought no women with them.

They moved northeast across the Pyrenees Mountains but were defeated by the Frank Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732 CE.
The Moorish state fell into civil conflict in the 750s. .The Moors ruled in North Africa and in the Iberian peninsula for several decades, except for areas in the northwest (such as Asturias, where they were defeated at the battle of Covadonga) and the largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees.^ The Moors ruled in North Africa, Spain and Portugal (except for small areas in the northwest and largely Basque regio ...

^ In the 8th century they conquered the Iberian peninsula, but were finally driven out of their last stronghold in Granada at the end of the 15th century.
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The several traits seen right across north Africa from Egypt to Morocco/Mauritania are added to by forms of boats and ships both earthly and celestial.
  • MOORS GATE 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.moorsgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though the number of original "Moors" remained small, many native Iberian inhabitants converted to Islam.^ The Muladi: Christians who converted to Islam after the arrival of the Moors.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus also originated the many instances of conquered, deposed, or murdered kings, that make the history of the Moors of Spain so difficult of methodical arrangement and so monotonous in the perusal.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On a hill outside the city, known to this day as Martyr's Hill, they killed many captives who refused to convert to Islam.
  • The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Ronald Segal,[17] some 5.6 million of Iberia's 7 million inhabitants were Muslim by 1200 CE, virtually all of them native inhabitants.^ Because some Muslims, and Jews, shared common ancestors with Christians, it was difficult to expel all of those with non-Christian ancestors from Iberia.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

.The persecution and forced conversion to Catholicism of the Muslim population during the time of the Christian Reconquista in the second part of the 15th century caused a mass exodus.^ The Moors won, and the Gothic Spaniards were forced to retreat, giving the Moors time to land a seemingly inexhaustible supply of soldiers from the population wells of North Africa.
  • The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Third century saw the mass conversion of the peoples of North Africa, especially the poor, to Christianity.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is considered the main reason why the number of Muslims had shrunk to a relatively small fraction of the total population by 1500.[citation needed]
.In a process of decline, the Al Andalus had broken up into a number of Islamic-ruled fiefdoms, or taifas, which were partly consolidated under the Caliphate of Córdoba.^ Moors , Moors - Moorish Empire , Moors - Origins of the name , Moors - Present-day Moors , Al-Andalus , Caliph of Cordoba , History of Spain , Islamic architecture , Mezquita – an ancient Moorish mosque in Córdoba in Spain.

^ This invasion, under the Ottoman Turkish Rule, demanded strict ‘Denationalization’ of all national name descent and to assume Arabian Islamic (Nationless) genealogy.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were governed in the name of the Bagdad caliphs; but for nearly a century they had been growing into independence, under rulers usually known, from the name of their progenitor, as the Aglabite dynasty.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.The Asturias, a small northwestern Christian Iberian kingdom, initiated the Reconquista (the "reconquest") soon after the Islamic conquest in the 8th century.^ Some small communities of Christianity and Latin speaking survived until the 12th Century.
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 8th century they conquered the Iberian peninsula, but were finally driven out of their last stronghold in Granada at the end of the 15th century.
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1085 Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon wrested the city from the Moors; the Reconquista, or Reconquest of Spain by the Christians, had begun in earnest.

Christian states based in the north and west slowly extended their power over the rest of Iberia...April 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Navarre, Galicia, León, Portugal, Aragón, Catalonia or Marca Hispanica, and Castile began a process of expansion and internal consolidation during the next several centuries under the flag of Reconquista.^ Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre, Pedro II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal, working together defeated the Almohad Caliph Muhammad an-Nasir.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ It was built during the 14th century as a palace in Mudejar style, a lavish blend of Arab and Gothic architecture that graces many Spanish monuments.

^ Ibiza and Jaen fell to the Reconquista in 1232, and in the same year forces under Ferdinand III of Castile recaptured Córdoba.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

Reconstruction of costumes of Moorish nobility from a German book published in 1880
.In 1212, a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of Alfonso VIII of Castile drove the Muslims from Central Iberia.^ They were killed or expelled in large numbers (to the great loss of Spain) in the Christian reconquest, which began with the recovery of Toledo (1085) by Alfonso VI , king of León and Castile.
  • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In capturing this Narbonne, King Pippin the Younger ended Muslim rule north of Iberia.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Raymond of Burgundy and Henry of Burgundy signed a treaty under which Henry promised to recognise Raymond as king upon the death of Alfonso VI of Castile, receiving in exchange the Kingdom of Toledo or of Portugal.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

.The Portuguese side of the Reconquista ended in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve (Arabic الغرب — Al-Gharb) under Afonso III, the first Portuguese monarch to claim the title King of Portugal and the Algarve.^ In 1272 King Afonso III of Portugal took Faro in the Algarve from the Moors, removing the last Muslim state from Portuguese soil and completing the Portuguese Reconquista.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ If you know the history of the Moors in the liberian penisula, the Moors were expelled in the Reconquista, which ended on January 2, 1492 with the conquest of Granada.
  • Math of the Moors :: squareCircleZ 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.squarecirclez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new Mussulman king, who took the title of Emir al Mumenim, adopted in all respects the policy of his father.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Moorish Kingdom of Granada continued for three more centuries in the southern Iberia.^ Moorish Spain , Alhambra – an ancient palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada , in southern Spain.

^ However, this would require a more “National Identity” consciousness and orientation on the part of the Moorish American community.
  • MOORS GATE 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.moorsgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This kingdom is known in modern times for magnificent architectural works such as the Alhambra palace. .On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada surrendered to armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, the Catholic Monarchs).^ Ferdinand and Isabella now ruled Granada.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1469 Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed Princess Isabella of Castile; the marriage would unite Christian Spain under their rule.

^ The marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella sealed the fate of the faltering Granada sultans.

.The remaining Muslims and Jews were forced to leave Spain, or convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be killed for not doing so.^ Local Christians in Spain as in the Languedoc were tolerant, but the Roman Catholic authorities were not.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Muslims and Jews were forced to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain and Portugal and have their assets seized.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the anti-Catholic Christians and Jews resident in Spain did not see the invasion as a totally Bad Thing, since the Moors showed religious tolerance – more than the Catholics did – and made many improvements.
  • Math of the Moors :: squareCircleZ 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.squarecirclez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand instituted the Inquisition in Spain, as one of many changes to the role of the church instituted by the monarchs.^ In 1469 Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed Princess Isabella of Castile; the marriage would unite Christian Spain under their rule.

^ From this heady mix of race and culture sprang the Moorish civilization, an adventure that would last 900 years, one that would change the face--and the soul--of Spain forever.

^ Eventually all Jews were forced to leave Spain in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella, and Portugal some years later.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly — called respectively marranos and moriscos.^ Descendants of those Muslims and Jews who submitted to compulsory conversion to Christianity rather than exile during the early periods of the Inquisition, the Moriscos and Conversos respectively, were later expelled from Spain and Portugal when the Inquisition was at its height.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Muladi: Christians who converted to Islam after the arrival of the Moors.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ That prince oppressed the Christians, who were very numerous in his city; and they secretly implored Alphonso to make war upon Jahiah.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Inquisition also attacked heretics who rejected Roman Catholic orthodoxy, including alumbras who practiced a personal mysticism or spiritualism.^ The ones who were found to be not “Catholic enough” were sent off for torture in the Inquisition.
  • Math of the Moors :: squareCircleZ 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.squarecirclez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roderic's enemies included Julian the Count of Ceuta; who was sheltering Wittiza's family and other partisans, along with Arians and Jews fleeing persecution at the hands of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Its original African founders and early saints were often martyred when this church was usurped by the whites who replaced it with their counterfeit Roman Catholic Church.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

They represented a significant portion of the peasants in some territories, such as Aragon, Valencia or Andalusia. In the years from 1609 to 1614, they were systematically expelled by the government. .Henri Lapeyre has estimated that this affected 300,000 out of an estimated total of 8 million inhabitants of the peninsula.^ Out of a total acreage of more than 12 million acres, the Africans held some 2 million acres.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

[18] .However many of them were converted to Christianity and settled permanently.^ Perhaps their numbers may now amount to nearly twenty millions, among whom, however, though they are mostly of foreign extraction, are many converts from Hinduism.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Java it was the established religion; but, when the Dutch settled that island early in the seventeenth century, many of the natives were converted.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

This is clearly indicated by a "high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%)" that "attests to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants.".[19][20]
.In the meantime, the tide of Islam had rolled not just to Iberia, but also eastward, through India, the Malayan peninsula, and Indonesia up to the Philippines[citation needed].^ From their new capital in Damascus, Muslim armies fanned eastward through Mesopotamia to India and Central Asia, westward to the Nile and across North Africa.

This was one of the major islands of an archipelago which the Spaniards had reached during their voyages westward from the New World. .By 1521, the ships of Magellan and other Spanish explorers had reached that island archipelago, which they named Las Islas de Filipinas, after Philip II of Spain.^ History named these Muslim conquerors of Spain "Moors," probably because they arrived by way of Morocco.

^ It was at the foot of the Sierra Morena, at a place named Las Navas de Toloza, that the three Spanish princes encountered the Moors, A.D. 1212, Heg.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mauritius - The island was named in honor of Prince Maurice of Nassau by Dutch explorers.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Mindanao, the Spaniards named the kris-bearing people as Moros or 'Moors'. Today in the Philippines, this ethnic group of people in Mindanao, who are generally Muslims, are called 'Moros'. This identification of Islamic people as Moros persists in the modern Spanish language spoken in Spain, and as Mouros in the modern Portuguese language.^ The Morisco which it was often called was a Spanish name for a Moor or Moorish (Africa) or Spanish Muslim (Spain,) who after the country was re-conquered after the legendary Charlemagne and Tamer lane battle ( Christian Re-conquest 11-15th.
  • StreetSwing's Dance History Archives - Morris / Moresque Dance Page - Main1 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.streetswing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reminders of the Reconquista are the festivals of moros y cristianos (Castilian or Spanish), mors i cristians (Valencian or Catalan) and mouros e cristãos (Portuguese or Galician) these meaning "Moors and Christians" recreate the fights as colorful parades with elaborate clothes and fireworks, especially on the Spanish Mediterranean coast , popularly known as Levante.
  • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Moors: Encyclopedia II - Moors - Present-day Moors In modern usage, Moor or Moorish (Italian and Spanish: moro, French: maure, Portuguese: mouro) is used to designate people whose native tongue is the Hassaniya dialect of Arabic.

See Reconquista, and Maure.
.According to historian Richard A. Fletcher,[21] 'the number of Arabs who settled in Iberia was very small.^ The Arabic numbers we use today came from he ancient Arab people who were originally Black Africans!
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

"Moorish" Iberia does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e. Berbers from Algeria and Morocco.' .Aline Angoustures[22] says that the Berbers were about 900,000 and the Arabs about 90,000 in Iberia..^ About $22,500,000.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Modern age

.Beside its usage in historical context, Moor and Moorish (Italian and Spanish: moro, French: maure, Portuguese: mouro / moiro, Romanian: maur) is used to designate an ethnic group speaking the Hassaniya Arabic dialect.^ Moors: Encyclopedia II - Moors - Present-day Moors In modern usage, Moor or Moorish (Italian and Spanish: moro, French: maure, Portuguese: mouro) is used to designate people whose native tongue is the Hassaniya dialect of Arabic.

^ The translator ventures to offer an imitation of M. Florian's French version of this Moorish ballad, and appends the Spanish original with which he presents his readers.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Botswana - A name used to collectively describe the Tswana, the country's dominant ethnic group.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

.They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Tunisia, Morocco, Niger and Mali.^ These Moors live mainly in Western Sahara and the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, from which the latter country derives its name.

^ When the Ancient Moabites originally inhabited the land called Morocco, they were guided by the brightest morning star called Venus.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Africa excluding Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Algeria and Egypt.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Niger and Mali, these peoples are also known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara.^ A century afterward these people were conquered by Belisarius: but the Greeks were in their turn subdued by the Arabs, who then proceeded to achieve the conquest of Mauritania.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ghana empire destroyed by regional tensions(11th –12th centuries ) ,and the Muslim empire of Mali, became the illustrations of the dramatic consequences of the Arab presence in Africa.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the presence of the Arabs rapidly produced a great change among these people.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[23]
.In modern, colloquial Spanish, the sometimes pejorative term "Moro" refers to any Arab[citation needed].^ Mauritania - The name is derived from Spanish description of the area as the land of the Moors, a term used to describe Arab rulers of Southern Spain.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly, in modern, colloquial Portuguese, the term "Mouro" is primarely used as a designation for North Africans and secondarily as a derogatory and ironic term by northern Portuguese to refer to the inhabitants of the southern parts of the country (Lisbon, Alentejo and Algarve).^ Out of the dozens of African tribes inhabiting this part of the world, not a single one of them ever made " Umfanegisos " (images) of their God.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The north and northwestern parts are filled with them, and from thence they have wandered over the whole of that vast country.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of Red, Black and Green as colors symbolizing African nationhood was first "adopted by the UNIA-ACL as part of the 1920 Declaration of Rights as the official colors of the African race.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many residents call the local Muslim population in the Southern islands Moros. .They also self-identify that way (see Muslim Filipino).^ History named these Muslim conquerors of Spain "Moors," probably because they arrived by way of Morocco.

The term was introduced by the Spanish colonizers. .Within the context of Portuguese colonization, in Sri Lanka (Portuguese Ceylon), Muslims of Arab origin are called Moors (see Sri Lankan Moors).^ Needfultosay, this unholy onslaught is lead by those who call themselves 'Sunni' or 'Shiite' Muslims under the Post-Mohammed Arab-version of Islam.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the Portuguese dancers, in their ceremonies usual on conferring knighthood fights with the Moors were replicated, and thus the form called Mourisca was originated.
  • StreetSwing's Dance History Archives - Morris / Moresque Dance Page - Main1 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.streetswing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moors and Arabs Muslim Spain and European Culture .
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

Religious relations

.The initial rule of the Moors in the Iberian peninsula under this Caliphate of Córdoba is generally regarded as tolerant in its acceptance of Christians, Muslims and Jews living in the same territories.^ Under their Berber leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they landed at Gibraltar on April 30 and brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic Sharia rule in an eight-year campaign.

.The Caliphate of Córdoba collapsed in 1031 and the Islamic territory in Iberia fell under the rule of the Almoravid dynasty.^ This invasion, under the Ottoman Turkish Rule, demanded strict ‘Denationalization’ of all national name descent and to assume Arabian Islamic (Nationless) genealogy.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

This second stage inaugurated an era of Moorish rulers guided by a version of Islam that left behind the tolerant practices of the past.[citation needed]

Architecture

Interior of the Mezquita, Cordoba
.Moorish architecture is a term used to describe the articulated Islamic architecture of North Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal where the Moors were dominant from 711–1492. The best surviving examples are La Mezquita in Cordoba and the Alhambra palace (mainly 1338–1390),[24] and also the Giralda in 1184.[25] Other notable examples include the ruined palace city of Medina Azahara (936–1010), the church (former mosque) San Cristo de la Luz in Toledo, the Aljafería in Saragossa and baths at for example Ronda and Alhama de Granada.^ Moorish Spain , Alhambra – an ancient palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada , in southern Spain.

^ The Moors themselves never used the term.

^ Saragossa imitated the example of Toledo.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Population genetics

Shomarka Keita, a biological anthropologist from Howard University, has claimed that populations in Carthage circa 200 BC and northern Algeria 1500 BC were very diverse. .As a group, they plotted closest to the populations of Northern Egypt and intermediate to Northern Europeans and tropical Africans.^ Didn’t the Arabs know the true origin of the West African nationals before they stole and sold them into European slavery?
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the process of European colonisation, the swiftly expanding land-hungry Europeans turned the bulk of the African population into a proletariat.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He agreed that Europeans could not expand or grow in wealth unless they could draw more fully upon the reservoirs of labour in the African reserves.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

.Keita claimed that "the data supported the comments from ancient authors observed by classicists: everything from fair-skinned blonds to peoples who were dark-skinned 'Ethiopian' or part Ethiopian in appearance."^ The Arabic numbers we use today came from he ancient Arab people who were originally Black Africans!
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though the caste system (or varna system) was based originally on skin color (varna means color), color is not the main problem as some dark or light skinned people are found at the top and bottom.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This people regarded themselves, with much appearance of truth, as the descendants of those Arabs who originally came into the country with Malek Yarfric, and who are often confounded with the ancient Numidians.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Modern evidence showed a similar diversity among present North Africans.^ Science magazine (9/11/87) states that overwhelming evidence shows that "Africa was the cradle of modern humans...
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Based on the evidence of recent findings, modern (white) science has 'officially' declared that ALL of present humanity came from one race...
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

Moreover, this "diversity" of phenotypes and peoples was probably due to in situ differentiation, not foreign influxes. .Of course foreign influxes certainly had an impact but they did not replace the indigenous Berber population.^ "Lloyd's knew that what they were doing led to the destruction of the indigenous population," Mr Fagan said.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sons of the hadjeb Almanzor successively replaced their illustrious father; but, in inheriting his power, they did not inherit his talents.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.The Y chromosome p49a,f TaqI Haplotype V, which corresponds to Y haplogroup E1b1b1b (M81) —formerly E3b1b, E3b2 and colloquially referred to as the "Berber marker"— has been found among 68.9% of modern Berbers in North Africa and as high as 80% in one group.^ The term Tamana is found in over 24 countries and is one of over 1,000,000 place names Dr. Vamos-Toth has found which link Africa, Asia, and Europe.
  • MOORS GATE 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.moorsgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is evidenced by scientific discoveries that were found around a former lake that existed in North Africa around 9000 to 10,000 years ago.
  • MOORS GATE 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.moorsgate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liberia - Derived from the Latin word liber ("Free") - Reference to the return of Freed American Slaves who founded the modern Republic of Liberia.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is believed to be about 5,600 years old,[28] and to have arrived with the Neolithic expansion from the Near East.^ Also the Hieroglyphics in The Grand Canyon area along with the discovery of an 9,000 year old Mummy dont lie about our existence here in the Americas.
  • Math of the Moors :: squareCircleZ 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.squarecirclez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

M81 is not found in Sub-Saharan Africa. This haplotype has also been observed in as high as 40% of one small group of Andalusians tested. Generally it appears at much lower frequencies among Iberian populations, and lower as distance from North Africa increases.[29]
.Y DNA haplogroup E1b1b (formerly E3b) predominates among North African populations; its E1b1b1b subgroup (M81) is identified especially with Berbers.^ They were Arabs, from Damascus and Medina, leading armies of North African Berber converts.

.The Vb subtype of p49a,f Haplotype V, apparently corresponding to E3b1b, has been found to occur in two-thirds of the Haplotype V Southern Iberians, that is, in about a quarter of all Andalusians tested.^ Thus, in a battle which occurred A.D. 1010 between two Mussulman leaders, there were found among the slain a count of Urgel and three bishops of Catalonia.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The frequency of Vb is at its highest among Berbers, and was found to decline rapidly from West to East among North Africans sampled.^ These gateways of East, West, North and South or Longitude and Latitude, all lead from the center to the outer bounds of life (See: Diagram).
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were Arabs, from Damascus and Medina, leading armies of North African Berber converts.

^ The primitive Moors were the inhabitants of the vast portion of Africa bounded on the east by Egypt, on the north by the Mediterranean, on the west by the Atlantic, and on the south by the deserts of Barbary.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

It is uncommon in France and Italy.[29]
A 2006 mitochondrial DNA study of 12th to 13th century Islamic remains from Priego de Cordoba, Spain, indicates a higher proportion (4%) of sub-Saharan African lineages. .This is attributed only partially to the period of Moorish occupation; researchers believe that more ancient migrations from Africa to Europe were more significant.^ Cress Welsing theorizes that whites (as the albino offspring of Black Africans) migrated or were chased northward from Africa into Europe.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lastly Africa came into contact with Europe only through colonialism, leading to cultural dependence and domination.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In His Divine Constitution for an example: “ The Moorish Americans are the descendants of the ancient Moabites whom inhabited the North Western and South Western shores of Africa.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

[30]
Mitochondrial DNA sequences and restriction fragment polymorphisms were retrieved from three Islamic 12th to 13th century samples of 71 bones and teeth (with >85% efficiency) from Madinat Baguh (today called Priego de Cordoba, Spain). .Compared with 108 saliva samples from the present population of the same area, the medieval samples show a higher proportion of sub-Saharan African lineages that can only partially be attributed to the historic Muslim occupation.^ Insurance companies are only now coming to acknowledge that for many years they charged African- American customers unjustifiably higher rates than whites.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A large proportion of the African population was forced to live upon land to which it had no legal claim.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

.In fact, the unique sharing of transition 16175, in L1b lineages, with Europeans, instead of Africans, suggests a more ancient arrival to Europe from Africa.^ He agreed that Europeans could not expand or grow in wealth unless they could draw more fully upon the reservoirs of labour in the African reserves.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cress Welsing theorizes that whites (as the albino offspring of Black Africans) migrated or were chased northward from Africa into Europe.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have already mentioned the proven existence of more than thirty African languages, which used Arabic characters until the European colonial invasion.
  • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

.The present-day Priego sample is more similar to the current south Iberian population than to the medieval sample from the same area.^ Nowhere is this more true than in the old Muslim capital of Cordoba, where I spent my last Spanish days.

^ His successor shared the same fate, and the Mussulmans were again compelled to submit to a yoke their revolt had rendered even more intolerable than before.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mohammedans of the present day, at least those of Turkey, are less anxious to make proselytes than were those of a former age.
  • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

The increased gene flow in modern times could be the main cause of this difference.

Notable Moors

Aureus of Macrinus. Its elaborate symbolism celebrates the liberalitas ("prodigality") of Macrinus and his son.
Tariq ibn Ziyad, Berber general who conquered Hispania in 711.
Ibn Battuta, Berber explorer who travelled 73,000 miles across much of the Old World in the 14th century.

Bibliography

This section's bibliographical information is not fully provided. If you know these sources and can provide full information, you can help Wikipedia by completing it.
  • Jan Carew, Rape of Paradise
  • David Brion Davis, "Slavery: Black, White, Muslim, Christian"
  • Herodotus, The Histories
  • Shomark O.Y. Keita, "Genetic Haplotyes in North Africa"
  • Shomark O.Y. Keita, "Craniometric Data from North Africa
  • Shomark O.Y. Keita, "Further Craniometric Data from North Africa"
  • Shomark O.Y. Keita, "Bernal vs. Snowden"
  • Bernard Lewis, "The Middle East"
  • Bernard Lewis, "The Muslim Discovery of Europe"
  • Bernard Lewis, "Race and Slavery in Islam"
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, Turkey (1888)
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, The Barbary Corsairs (1890)
  • Stanley Lane-Poole, The History of the Moors in Spain
  • J.A. Rogers, Nature Knows no Color Line
  • Ronald Segal, "Islam's Black Slaves"
  • Ivan van Sertima, The Golden Age of the Moor
  • Frank Snowdon, "Before Color Prejudice"
  • Frank Snowdon, "Blacks in Antiquity"
  • David M. Goldenberg, "The Curse of Ham"
  • Lucotte and Mercier, various genetic studies
  • Eva Borreguero. "The Moors Are Coming, the Moors Are Coming! Encounters with Muslims in Contemporary Spain". Islam and Christian-Muslim relations, 2006, vol. 17, no4, pp. 417–432. Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, Washington DC
  • "The Moors" by Ross Brann, published on New York University website.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Moors? Ross Brann, Cornell University.
    Andalusi Arabic sources, as opposed to later Mudejar and Morisco sources in Aljamiado and medieval Spanish texts, neither refer to individuals as Moors nor recognize any such group, community or culture.
  2. ^ Golden age of the Moor, Volume 11, by Ivan Van Sertima
  3. ^ Moors, Britannica Encyclopedia (1911) p.811 of original.
  4. ^ Irene Marsha Silverblatt, Modern Inquisitions, (Duke University Press: 2004), p.257
  5. ^ Stephen Birmingham, The Grandees: America's Sephardic Elite, (Harper & Row: 1971), p.32
  6. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  7. ^ Google.com
  8. ^ Google.com
  9. ^ Google.com
  10. ^ Google.com
  11. ^ Universidade do Minho (Portuguese)
  12. ^ Euskadi.net (Spanish)
  13. ^ Michael Brett and Elizabeth Fentress, The Berbers at 25 & 77; Gabriel Camps, Les Berberes (Edisud 1996) at 20–21, 25
  14. ^ Strabo, Geographica (c.17 CE.) at XVIII,3,ii (cited by Rene Basset in Moorish Literature (N.Y., Collier 1901) at iii.
  15. ^ Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib (Cambridge Univ., 1971) at 27, 38 & 43; Michael Brett and Elizabeth Fentress, The Berbers (Blackwell 1996) at 14, 24, 41–54; Henri Terrasse, History of Morocco (Casablanca: Atlantides 1952) at 39–49, esp. 43–44; Serge Lancel, Carthage (Librairie Artheme Fayard 1992, Blackwell 1995) at 396–401; Glenn Markoe, The Phoenicians (Univ.of California 2000) at 54–56.
  16. ^ "The conquest of North Africa and Berber resistance" in General History of Africa
  17. ^ Ronald Segal, Islam's Black Slaves (2003), Atlantic Books, ISBN 1-90380981-9
  18. ^ See History of Al-Andalus
  19. ^ "Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) ranging from zero in Gascony to 21.7% in Northwest Castile", The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, Adams et al. 2008
  20. ^ "The study shows that religious conversions and the subsequent marriages between people of different lineage had a relevant impact on modern populations both in Spain, especially in the Balearic Islands, and in Portugal", The religious conversions of Jews and Muslims have had a profound impact on the population of the Iberian Peninsula, Elena Bosch, 2008
  21. ^ Richard Fletcher. Moorish Spain p10. University of California Press. 1993. ISBN 978-0520084964
  22. ^ specialist of Spain history, Aline Angoustures. L'Espagne page 17. Le cavalier bleu, 2004. ISBN 2-84670-078-8
  23. ^ For an introduction to the culture of the Azawagh Arabs, see: Rebecca Popenoe, Feeding Desire — Fatness, Beauty and Sexuality among a Saharan People. Routledge, London (2003) ISBN 0415280966
  24. ^ Curl p.502
  25. ^ Pevsner — The penguin dictionary of architecture
  26. ^ G. Mokhtar."General History of Africa: Ancient Civilizations of Africa", pg 427
  27. ^ "Studies of ancient crania from northern Africa", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 83:35-48 (1990)
  28. ^ Arredi et al. (2004), A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa, Am J Hum Genet. 2004 August; 75(2): 338–345.
  29. ^ a b Nathalie Gérard et al., "North African Berber and Arab Influences in the Western Mediterranean Revealed by Y-Chromosome DNA Haplotypes", Human Biology, Volume 78, Number 3, June 2006, pp. 307–316.
  30. ^ Biologisk institutt

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim) people of Berber and Arab descent from North Africa, some of whom came to inhabit the Iberian Peninsula are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley.^ The Webster's New World Dictionary places the Moors under Arab and Berber (people of North Africa west of the Nile Valley) descent separate from the racial distinction as black for Africans.
  • The Heritage of the Moors - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Mauri ), a mixture of people, mostly derived from Arabs and Berbers inhabiting northern Africa.
  • MOORS 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moor is the classical name in Europe of the Muslim people of North Africa.

.Historically Berbers have been variously known, for instance as Libyans by the ancient Greeks, as Numidians and Mauri by the Romans, and as Moors by medieval and early modern Europeans.^ Historically Berbers have been variously known, for instance as Libyans by the ancient Greeks, as Numidians and Mauri by the Romans, and as Moors by medieval and early modern Europeans.
  • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lands were known to the Romans as Numidia and Mauretania, and the peoples as the Numidians, Gaetulians and Moors (Mauri).
  • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moor comes from the Greek word mauron and the Latin word maurus, both of which were used during early Middle Ages to refer to any black-skinned inhabitant of Mauritania, a generic term for black Africa, not the modern county of the same name.
  • Wow.UAB.edu : The Moors of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sourced

People

.
  • In one sense the word 'Moor' means the Mohammedan Berbers and Arabs of north-western Africa, with some Syrians, who conquered most of Spain in the eighth century and dominated the country for hundreds of years, leaving behind some magnificent examples of their architecture as a lasting memorial of their presence.^ In one sense the word 'Moor' means the Mohammedan Berbers and Arabs of north-western Africa, with some Syrians, who conquered most of Spain in the eighth century and dominated the country for hundreds of years, leaving behind some magnificent examples of their architecture as a lasting memorial of their presence.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ North Africa was conquered by the Islamic Arabs in the Seventh century.
    • Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57) 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fanaticus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ With the rest of North Africa Mauretania was overrun by the Arabs in the 7th century.

    .These so-called 'Moors' were far in advance of any of the peoples of northern Europe at that time, not only in architecture but also in literature, science, technology, industry, and agriculture; and their civilization had a permanent influence on Spain.^ These so-called 'Moors' were far in advance of any of the peoples of northern Europe at that time, not only in architecture but also in literature, science, technology, industry, and agriculture; and their civilization had a permanent influence on Spain.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ With the arrival of the Moors in Spain, Europe witnessed for the first time an Islamic religious and cultural presence within its borders that feed a viable challenge to western Europes concept of civilization, culture and faith.
    • Wow.UAB.edu : The Moors of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Governor at the time, General Brownigg, considered the treatment meted to the Moors who were British subjects as an acts of aggression, and Major Hook immediately took the field and advanced as far as Hanwella.
    • THE NAME �MOORS� A MISNOMER-ABSENCE OF INFORMATION REGARDING EARLYHISTORY-THE ARAB EMPIRE OF THE FIRST CENTURY-COSMAS-THE EMP 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

    .They were Europids, unhybridized with members of any other race.^ They were Europids, unhybridized with members of any other race.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One family in Kent County named Durham is as fair as any Caucasian, and its members resemble the Irish more than any other race.
    • �Mitsawokett: The Moors of Delaware� 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.mitsawokett.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Berbers were (and are) Mediterranids, probably with some admixture from the Cromagnid subrace of ancient times.^ The Berbers were (and are) Mediterranids, probably with some admixture from the Cromagnid subrace of ancient times.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the time of his arrival, this large army was comprised of some 500 Arabs and 6,500 native Ethiopians and Berbers.
    • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Arabs were Orientalids, the Syrians probably of mixed Orientalid and Armenoid stock.^ The Arabs were Orientalids, the Syrians probably of mixed Orientalid and Armenoid stock.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • John Baker, Race, Oxford University Press, 1974, p.226
  • Moor : in English usage, a Moroccan or, formerly, a member of the Muslim population of Spain, of mixed Arab, Spanish, and Berber origins, who created the Arab Andalusian civilization and subsequently settled as refugees in North Africa between the 11th and 17th centuries.^ Moor : in English usage, a Moroccan or, formerly, a member of the Muslim population of Spain, of mixed Arab, Spanish, and Berber origins, who created the Arab Andalusian civilization and subsequently settled as refugees in North Africa between the 11th and 17th centuries.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But with hundreds of thousands of Muslims from North Africa now settling, that is changing.
    • Christian soldiers take a beating over battle with Moors - Times Online 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Arab origins of prominent Moor families.
    • WWW Virtual Library:  From where did the Moors come? 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .By extension (corresponding to the Spanish moro), the term occasionally denotes any Muslim in general, as in the case of the Moors of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) or of the Philippines.^ By extension (corresponding to the Spanish moro), the term occasionally denotes any Muslim in general, as in the case of the Moors of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) or of the Philippines.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In its present form, the word Moor is traced through the Spanish Moro and the Portuguese Mouro, either to the Mauri, the ancient inhabitants of Mauretari, now known as Morocco, or as Tennent, the famous historian of Ceylon suggests, to Maghrib (Morocco).
    • THE NAME �MOORS� A MISNOMER-ABSENCE OF INFORMATION REGARDING EARLYHISTORY-THE ARAB EMPIRE OF THE FIRST CENTURY-COSMAS-THE EMP 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This term has been broadly used to denote various people in North Africa, people who came from Morocco or simply to describe Muslims in general Moreno is Spanish, Portuguese and Filipino for a tanned or dark or brown-skinned person.
    • Moors............confusion in The World in History Channel 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The word derives from the Latin Mauri, first used by the Romans to denote the inhabitants of the Roman province of Mauretania, comprising the western portion of modern Algeria and the northeastern portion of modern Morocco.^ The word derives from the Latin Mauri, first used by the Romans to denote the inhabitants of the Roman province of Mauretania, comprising the western portion of modern Algeria and the northeastern portion of modern Morocco.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is significant to note that the term " Moabitarum" is very frequently used by medieval-era European writers to describe the "Moorish" inhabitants of northwest Africa or Mauretania.
    • Golden Age of the Moors - African History - Origins The Nation of Moorish Americans 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.thenationofmoorish-americans.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Moor comes from the Greek word mauron and the Latin word maurus, both of which were used during early Middle Ages to refer to any black-skinned inhabitant of Mauritania, a generic term for black Africa, not the modern county of the same name.
    • Wow.UAB.edu : The Moors of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Modern Mauritanians are also sometimes referred to as Moors (as with the French maure); the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, however, lies in the large Saharan area between Morocco and the republics of Senegal and Mali.^ Modern Mauritanians are also sometimes referred to as Moors (as with the French maure); the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, however, lies in the large Saharan area between Morocco and the republics of Senegal and Mali.
    • The Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The name Moor is however still applied to the populations speaking Arabic who inhabit the country extending from Morocco to the Senegal , and to the Niger as far east as Timbuktu , i.e.

    ^ Moor comes from the Greek word mauron and the Latin word maurus, both of which were used during early Middle Ages to refer to any black-skinned inhabitant of Mauritania, a generic term for black Africa, not the modern county of the same name.
    • Wow.UAB.edu : The Moors of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • 'Moorish' Spain does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e. Berbers from northwest Africa. .
  • Who were these conquerors, who had so quickly and so completely overturned the strongest western European monarchy of their day ?^ Who were these conquerors, who had so quickly and so completely overturned the strongest western European monarchy of their day ?
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Who took over Moorish Spain?
    • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Moorish Ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal ) and the Maghreb and western Africa , whose culture is often called Moorish .
    • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is customary to refer to these stirrings events as 'Arab' or the 'Islamic' invasion and conquest of spain.^ It is customary to refer to these stirrings events as 'Arab' or the 'Islamic' invasion and conquest of spain.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A century afterward these people were conquered by Belisarius: but the Greeks were in their turn subdued by the Arabs, who then proceeded to achieve the conquest of Mauritania.
    • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These conquests extended the borders of Spain to the Straits of Gibraltar, a border it has kept to this day.
    • The Third Great Race War: The Moors Invade Europe 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

    .But only in a very limited sense was it either Arab or Islamic : it was mainly Berber.^ But only in a very limited sense was it either Arab or Islamic : it was mainly Berber.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By 711, the Arabs and Berbers had converted to the Islamic religion which was dominating the rest of northern Africa.

    ^ The migration to the North has only been fruitful for Arabs and Africans in the sense that it has resulted in increased communication with the outside world and provided the possibility to know the "others."
    • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Berbers were, as they still are, the indigenous inhabitants of northwest Africa, the Maghrib.^ The Berbers were, as they still are, the indigenous inhabitants of northwest Africa, the Maghrib.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Berbers from northwest Africa.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mauri ), a mixture of people, mostly derived from Arabs and Berbers inhabiting northern Africa.
    • MOORS 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • The Andalusians themselves were of varied origins.^ The Andalusians themselves were of varied origins.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Sarabande also is a Spanish dance of Moorish origin when the moors invaded Spain.
    • StreetSwing's Dance History Archives - Morris / Moresque Dance Page - Main1 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.streetswing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Moorish Spain by Richard Fletcher .
    • Muslim Spain and European Culture 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.xmission.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The numerically tiny Arab elite had intermarried with other people, including local Iberians, ever since they arrived.^ The numerically tiny Arab elite had intermarried with other people, including local Iberians, ever since they arrived.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The descendants of African and European slaves were fully integrated; but the most numerous Muslim community stemmed from local Iberians.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On the other hand, Arabs penetrated into Europe through wars, which was not the case when they came to Africa.
    • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Berbers were still the most numerous of the conquerors, while the Jewish community was also large and influential.^ Berbers were still the most numerous of the conquerors, while the Jewish community was also large and influential.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The descendants of African and European slaves were fully integrated; but the most numerous Muslim community stemmed from local Iberians.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The descendants of African and European slaves were fully integrated; but the most numerous Muslim community stemmed from local Iberians.^ The descendants of African and European slaves were fully integrated; but the most numerous Muslim community stemmed from local Iberians.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The numerically tiny Arab elite had intermarried with other people, including local Iberians, ever since they arrived.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since the Arabs, Berbers and Ethiopians were darker-skinned than most Europeans, Maure or 'Moor' came to be applied indiscriminately by Europeans to Muslims, North Africans, Saracens , Persians , Indians , and even southern Filipinos ( Moro s).
    • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .By the 11th century these had fused together to form y new Andalusian people.^ By the 11th century these had fused together to form y new Andalusian people.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A century afterward these people were conquered by Belisarius: but the Greeks were in their turn subdued by the Arabs, who then proceeded to achieve the conquest of Mauritania.
    • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Almoravids and Almohads Towards the end of the 11th century in the western Magreb, now Morocco, a new political and religious movement emerged from which was founded the Almoravid dynasty.
    • The Moors in Andalucia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC jannah.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • The noble Moor of Spain is anything but a pure Arab of the desert, he is half a Berber (from the Aryan family) and his veins are so full of Gothic blood that even at the present day noble inhabitants of Morocco can trace their descent back to Teutonic ancestors.^ It was this occupation of Portugal which accounts for the fact that even noble families had absorbed the blood of the Moor .
    • Moor@Everything2.com 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Many people want to trace their ancestors back to the Moors.

    ^ The Webster's New World Dictionary places the Moors under Arab and Berber (people of North Africa west of the Nile Valley) descent separate from the racial distinction as black for Africans.
    • The Heritage of the Moors - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Moorish Spain

.
  • Christianity destroyed for us the whole harvest of ancient civilization, and later it also destroyed for us the whole harvest of Mohammedan civilization.^ Christianity destroyed for us the whole harvest of ancient civilization, and later it also destroyed for us the whole harvest of Mohammedan civilization.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Like their Greek cousins were to do later, these uncivilized whites learned civilization from the Blacks and overthrew them, destroying their great civilization.
    • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The wonderful culture of the Moors in Spain, which was fundamentally nearer to us and appealed more to our senses and tastes than that of Rome and Greece, was trampled down (—I do not say by what sort of feet—) Why?^ The wonderful culture of the Moors in Spain, which was fundamentally nearer to us and appealed more to our senses and tastes than that of Rome and Greece, was trampled down (—I do not say by what sort of feet—) Why?
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We have to thanks these Moors for our greatest sciences, they did the big work for us, they started them, Algebra, Chemistry, Astronomy.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We Are All Moors not only traces Spain's persecution of and efforts to expel all Spaniards of Muslim descent but how those attitudes spread in both Europe and the Americas and encompassed far more than those of Islamic faith.
    • Book Review: We Are All Moors: Ending Centuries of Crusades... by Anouar Majid - Blogcritics Books 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC blogcritics.org [Source type: General]

    .Because it had to thank noble and manly instincts for its origin—because it said yes to life, even to the rare and refined luxuriousness of Moorish life!^ Because it had to thank noble and manly instincts for its origin—because it said yes to life, even to the rare and refined luxuriousness of Moorish life!
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When the conqueror relishes in its victory over the conquered, rarely does it consider the history, contributions and noble strife which has sustained the life of their victim.
    • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The wild, driving rhythms of the Verdiales practised by groups from the Mlaga mountains are said to originate in the songs of Moorish olive-pickers.

    ... .The crusaders later made war on something before which it would have been more fitting for them to have grovelled in the dust -- a civilization beside which even that of our nineteenth century seems very poor and very "senile".
  • These Moors cultivated the sciences with success, and taught Spain and Italy for five centuries.^ Even our eating habits owe something to the Moors.

    ^ These Moors cultivated the sciences with success, and taught Spain and Italy for five centuries.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The crusaders later made war on something before which it would have been more fitting for them to have grovelled in the dust -- a civilization beside which even that of our nineteenth century seems very poor and very "senile".
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Voltaire, A Philosophical Dictionary, J. and H. L. Hunt, 1843, p.172
  • It was, however, from Spain, and not from Arabia, that a knowledge of eastern mathematics first came into western Europe.^ It was, however, from Spain, and not from Arabia, that a knowledge of eastern mathematics first came into western Europe.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ With the arrival of the Moors in Spain, Europe witnessed for the first time an Islamic religious and cultural presence within its borders that feed a viable challenge to western Europes concept of civilization, culture and faith.
    • Wow.UAB.edu : The Moors of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC wow.uab.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Islam has been a part of Europe for so long, first in Spain, then in the Balkans, and the extent to which it has contributed so much towards the civilisation which we all too often think of, wrongly, as entirely Western.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Moors had established their rules in Spain in 747, and by the tenth or eleven century had attained a high degree of civilisation.^ The Moors had established their rules in Spain in 747, and by the tenth or eleven century had attained a high degree of civilisation.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While the scientific leadership of the Moors faded with the breaking of their military unity in the twelfth century, they still retained in some of their smaller kingdoms, and especially in that of Granada, a high degree of culture.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Selections From Poetry of the Spanish Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In Europe, the name applies particularly to the North African Muslims who invaded Spain in 711, and established a distinctive civilization that lasted nearly 800 years.
    • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • W. W. Rouse Ball, A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (1888), Courier Dover, 1960, p.164
  • Our obligations to the Spanish Moors in the arts of life are even more marked than in the higher branches of sciences.^ Our obligations to the Spanish Moors in the arts of life are even more marked than in the higher branches of sciences.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We have to thanks these Moors for our greatest sciences, they did the big work for us, they started them, Algebra, Chemistry, Astronomy.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although generations of Spanish rulers have tried to expunge this era from the historical record, recent archeology and scholarship now shed fresh light on the Moors who flourished in Al-Andalus for more than 700 years.
    • When the Moors Ruled in Europe | Watch Free Documentary Online 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC topdocumentaryfilms.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • John William Draper, A History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, Harper & brothers, 1863, p.356
  • I want to see the gardens and palace of the Alcazar where the Moorish Kings used to live.^ I want to see the gardens and palace of the Alcazar where the Moorish Kings used to live.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John William Draper , A History of the Intellectual Development of Europe , Harper & brothers, 1863, p.356 .
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The last Moorish king gave up the keys of the Alhambra Palace to the conquerors.
    • Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.heritage-history.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It is as perfect an architecture as the Egyptian, Greek or Gothic and just as beautiful, maybe more beautiful and it is well built for it looks as new as if it had just been done.^ It is as perfect an architecture as the Egyptian, Greek or Gothic and just as beautiful, maybe more beautiful and it is well built for it looks as new as if it had just been done.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Greek plagiarism of Egyptian science, philosophy and religion is well documented by George James in Stolen Legacy.
    • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was built during the 14th century as a palace in Mudejar style, a lavish blend of Arab and Gothic architecture that graces many Spanish monuments.

    .We have to thanks these Moors for our greatest sciences, they did the big work for us, they started them, Algebra, Chemistry, Astronomy.^ We have to thanks these Moors for our greatest sciences, they did the big work for us, they started them, Algebra, Chemistry, Astronomy.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These Moors cultivated the sciences with success, and taught Spain and Italy for five centuries.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Our obligations to the Spanish Moors in the arts of life are even more marked than in the higher branches of sciences.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They are our masters.^ They are our masters.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Thomas Eakins, in Vistas de España, Mary Elizabeth Boone, Yale University Press, 2007, p.77
  • Many of the traits on which modern Europe prides itself came to it from Muslim Spain.^ In Europe, the name applies particularly to the North African Muslims who invaded Spain in 711, and established a distinctive civilization that lasted nearly 800 years.
    • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The name Cabeza de Vaca (Cow's Head) came from an ancestor who played a role in a victorious battle of Spain against the Moors in 1212.
    • Southwest Crossroads— Search for "keyword: Moors" 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.southwestcrossroads.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From that time onwards, racial mixing in Portugal, as in Spain, and elsewhere in Europe which came under the influence of Moors, took place on a large scale.
    • Moor@Everything2.com 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Diplomacy, free trade, open borders, the techniques of academic research, of anthropology, etiquette, fashion, various types of medicine, hospitals, all came from this great city of cities.^ Diplomacy, free trade, open borders, the techniques of academic research, of anthropology, etiquette, fashion, various types of medicine, hospitals, all came from this great city of cities.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After the ceremony it came out that he was going to speak that evening in a free software conference in Castellon, the city where live the friends I was going to stay with.
    • Moors, Christians, and no Atheists (2005-04-26 to 2005-05-09) - Free Software Foundation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.fsf.org [Source type: General]

    .Medieval Islam was a religion of remarkable tolerance for its time, allowing Jews and Christians the right to practise their inherited beliefs, and setting an example which was not, unfortunately, copied for many centuries in the West.^ Roman historian Tacitus wrote that many of his time believed that the Jews "were a race of Ethiopian origin."
    • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Perhaps the greatest legacy in Medieval times was religious tolerance, and the tradition of poetry, music and song which can be discerned in the development of the troubadours .
    • The History of the Languedoc: The Moors. 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.midi-france.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For nearly eight centuries under her Muslim rulers Spain set to all Europe a shining example of a civilized and enlightened state.

    The surprise (...) is the extent to which .Islam has been a part of Europe for so long, first in Spain, then in the Balkans, and the extent to which it has contributed so much towards the civilisation which we all too often think of, wrongly, as entirely Western.^ Islam has been a part of Europe for so long, first in Spain, then in the Balkans, and the extent to which it has contributed so much towards the civilisation which we all too often think of, wrongly, as entirely Western.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In Europe, the name applies particularly to the North African Muslims who invaded Spain in 711, and established a distinctive civilization that lasted nearly 800 years.
    • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Master of entire Spain, from Catalonia to the two seas, the first caliph died A.D. 788, Heg.
    • History Of The Moors Of Spain 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Islam is part of our past and our present, in all fields of human endeavour.^ Based on the evidence of recent findings, modern (white) science has 'officially' declared that ALL of present humanity came from one race...
    • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A part of that responsibility is to empower ourselves to be able to enlighten our younger sibling members of the human race.
    • Welcome to The Official site of The Universal Zulu Nation 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.zulunation.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It has helped to create modern Europe.^ It has helped to create modern Europe.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is part of our own inheritance, not a thing apart.

Genetics

.
  • We analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands.^ With respect to northwest Africa, the geographically localized distribution of matches and haplotypes of sub-Saharan African and northwest African origin in the Iberian Peninsula is noteworthy.

    ^ During that time, the haplotype composition of northwest Africa had to be similar to that of the present, and for this reason, sub-Saharan African L and northwest African U6 haplotypes should be uniformly distributed in the Iberian peninsula.

    .Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) (...^ Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) (...
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although the overall absolute frequency of U6 is low (2.4%), this signals a possible current North African ancestry proportion of 8%–9%, because U6 is not a common lineage in North Africa itself.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) with wide geographical variation, ranging from zero in Gascony to 21.7% in Northwest Castile. (...) .Some mtDNA studies find evidence of the characteristic North African haplogroup U6 within the Iberian Peninsula.^ Some mtDNA studies find evidence of the characteristic North African haplogroup U6 within the Iberian Peninsula.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Moors ruled in the Iberian peninsula , except for areas in the northwest and the largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees, and in North Africa for several decades.
    • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although the overall absolute frequency of U6 is low (2.4%), this signals a possible current North African ancestry proportion of 8%–9%, because U6 is not a common lineage in North Africa itself.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Although the overall absolute frequency of U6 is low (2.4%), this signals a possible current North African ancestry proportion of 8%–9%, because U6 is not a common lineage in North Africa itself.^ Although the overall absolute frequency of U6 is low (2.4%), this signals a possible current North African ancestry proportion of 8%–9%, because U6 is not a common lineage in North Africa itself.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) (...
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some mtDNA studies find evidence of the characteristic North African haplogroup U6 within the Iberian Peninsula.
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Moors - Wikiquote 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (...) This might suggest that initial admixture involved movement of approximately equal numbers of males and females. (...) .Immigration events from the Middle East and North Africa over the last two millennia, followed by introgression driven by religious conversion and intermarriage, seem likely to have contributed a substantial proportion of the patrilineal ancestry of modern populations of Spain, Portugal, and the Balearic Islands.^ In Europe, the name applies particularly to the North African Muslims who invaded Spain in 711, and established a distinctive civilization that lasted nearly 800 years.
    • Moors Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Moors 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ North, East and certain parts of West Africa were comprised of an admixture, most having dark skin but they varied according to anthropologists.
    • Moors - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The conquest of the former Roman province of Hispania by the Moors (note that "Moors" only means the people from the north-east corner of Africa who carried out the conquest, including both Arabs and the original natives, the Berbers) marked the history and culture of Portugal and particularly Spain profoundly.
    • The Moorish Invasion of Spain and Portugal 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC spainforvisitors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, Adams et al.^ But in Moorish Spain, "thousands of Jews and Christians lived in peace and harmony with their Muslim overlords."
      • Muslim Spain and European Culture 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.xmission.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Convivencia : Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain by Vivian B. Mann (Editor), Thomas F. Glick (Editor) and Jerrilynn Dodds .
      • Muslim Spain and European Culture 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.xmission.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Later that year, all of the Muslim inhabitants of Spain were expelled, having previously lived more-or-less freely among Spain's Christian inhabitants - a privilege which the Moors freely granted Christians and Jew s.
      • Moor@Everything2.com 11 January 2010 23:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      2008

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Moors
  1. Plural form of Moor.

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of moors
  • rooms

Simple English

The Moors were the Muslim inhabitants who lived on the Iberian Peninsula, the Mahgreb and West Africa in the Middle Ages. In Europe, the word is very often used to talk about people whose ancestors were African.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Moors, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message