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Coordinates: 56°25′04″N 3°24′15″W / 56.417903°N 3.404037°W / 56.417903; -3.404037

Scone
Scottish Gaelic: Sgàin
Scots: Scone
Scone is located in Scotland
Scone

 Scone shown within Scotland
Population 4,430 [1]
OS grid reference NO134259
Council area Perth and Kinross
Lieutenancy area Perth and Kinross
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Perth
Postcode district PH2
Dialling code 01738
Police Tayside
Fire Tayside
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Perth and North Perthshire, Pete Wishart, MP
Scottish Parliament North Tayside, John Swinney, MSP
List of places: UK • Scotland •

Scone (pronounced /ˈskuːn/ skoon; Modern Gaelic: Sgàin; Medieval: Scoine) is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. The medieval village of Scone, which grew up around the monastery and royal residence, was abandoned in the early 19th century when the residents were removed and a new palace was built on the site by the Earl of Mansfield. Hence the modern village of Scone, and the medieval village of Old Scone, can often be distinguished.

Both sites lie in the historical province of Gowrie. Old Scone was the historic capital of the Kingdom of Alba (Scotland). In the Middle Ages it was an important royal centre, used as a royal residence and as the coronation site of the kingdom's monarchs. Around the royal site grew the town of Perth and the Abbey of Scone.

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Scone and Scotland

In Gaelic poetry Scone's association with kings and king-making gave it various poetic epithets, for instance, Scoine sciath-airde, "Scone of the high shields", and Scoine sciath-bhinne, "Scone of the noisy shields".[1] Scotland itself was often called the "Kingdom of Scone", "Righe Sgoinde".[2] A comparison would be that Ireland was often called the "Kingdom of Tara", Tara, like Scone, serving as a ceremonial inauguration site.[3] Scone was therefore the closest thing the Kingdom of Scotland had in its earliest years to a "capital". In either 1163 or 1164 King Malcolm IV described Scone Abbey as in principali sede regni nostri, "in the principal seat of our kingdom".[4] By this point, however, the rule of the King of the Scots was not confined to the Kingdom of Scotland, which then only referred to Scotland north of the river Forth. The king also ruled in Lothian, Strathclyde and the Honour of Huntingdon, and spent much of his time in these localities too. Moreover, the king was itinerant and had little permanent bureaucracy, so that any idea that Scone was a "capital" in the way the word is used today can make very little sense in this period; but in the medieval sense Scone can in many ways be called the "capital of Scotland".

In the twelfth century, various foreign influences prompted the Scottish kings to transform Scone into a more convincing royal centre. A village was established there, perhaps in the reign of Alexander I of Scotland. In 1124 the latter wrote to "all merchants of England" (omnibus mercatoribus Angliae) promising them protection if they are to bring goods to Scone by sea.[5] Scone however did not lie on a navigable part of the river, and it was at the nearest suitable location, i.e. Perth, that the new burgh which certainly existed in the reign of David I of Scotland was built.[6] Perth lies 1½ km from the site of medieval Scone, which is almost identical to the distance of Westminster Abbey from the City of London (2.2 km). King Alexander I also established a Benedictine priory at Scone, sometime between 1114 and 1122. In either 1163 or 1164, in the reign of King Máel Coluim IV, Scone Priory's status was increased and it became an abbey.[7] The abbey had important royal functions, being next to the coronation site of Scottish kings and housing the coronation stone (until it was taken away by King Edward I of England). Like other Scottish abbeys, Scone probably doubled up as a royal residence or palace. Scone abbey's obvious function was like the role that Westminster Abbey had for the Kings of England, although by the time records are clear, it appears that Scotland's Norman kings were crowned on Moot Hill (the coronation mound) rather than inside the abbey. This can be attributed, as Thomas Owen Clancy points out, to the importance in Gaelic tradition of swearing the inauguration oath in colle, on the traditional mound, the importance of which continental fashions were apparently unable to overcome.[8] However, the parallel with Westminster certainly existed in the mind of Edward I, who in 1297 transferred the Abbey's coronation relics, the crown, sceptre and the stone, to Westminster in a formal presentation to the English royal saint, Edward the Confessor.[9]

Gaelic coronation site

"Moot hill" and its chapel today.

Like Tara, Scone would have been associated with some of the traditions and rituals of native kingship, what D. A. Binchy describes as "an archaic fertility rite of a type associated with primitive kingship the world over".[10] Certainly, if Scone was not associated with this kind of thing in Pictish times, the Hibernicizing Scottish kings of later years made an effort do so. By the thirteenth century at the latest there was a tradition that Scone's famous inauguration stone, the Stone of Scone, had originally been placed at Tara by Simón Brecc, and only taken to Scone later by his descendent Fergus mac Ferchair when the latter conquered Alba (Scotland).[11] Indeed, the prominence of such a coronation stone associated with an archaic inauguration site was something Scone shared with many like sites in medieval Ireland, not just Tara.[12] Such "unchristian" rites would become infamous in the emerging world of Scotland's Anglo-French neighbours in the twelfth century ".[13]

Scone's role therefore came under threat as Scotland's twelfth century kings gradually became more French and less Gaelic. Walter of Coventry reported in the reign of William I of Scotland that "The modern kings of Scotland count themselves as Frenchmen, in race, manners, language and culture; they keep only Frenchmen in their household and following, and have reduced the Scots to utter servitude."[14] Though exaggerated, there was truth in this. Apparently for this reason, when the Normanized David I of Scotland (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim) went to Scone to be crowned there in the summer of 1124, he initially refused to take part in the ceremonies. According to Ailred of Rievaulx, friend and one time member of David's court, David "so abhorred those acts of homage which are offered by the Scottish nation in the manner of their fathers upon the recent promotion of their kings, that he was with difficulty compelled by the bishops to receive them".[15] Inevitably then this was bound to have an impact on the significance of Scone as a ritual and cult centre, yet the inauguration ceremony was preserved with only some innovation through the thirteenth century[16] and Scottish kings continued to be crowned there until the end of the Scottish kingdom.[17] Moreover, until the later Middle Ages kings continued to reside there, and parliaments, often some of the most importance parliaments in Scottish history, frequently met there too.[18]

Later history

The Stone of Scone in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey, 1855

Although Scone retained its role in royal inaugurations, Scone's role as effective "capital" declined in the later Middle Ages. The abbey itself though enjoyed mixed fortunes. It suffered a fire in the twelfth century and was subject to extensive attacks during the First War of Scottish Independence. It also suffered, as most Scottish abbeys in the period did, decline in patronage. The abbey became a pilgrimage centre for St Fergus, whose head it kept as a relic, and retained older festivals and fame for musical excellence.[19] In the sixteenth century the Scottish Reformation ended the importance of all monasteries in Scotland, and in June 1559 the abbey was attacked by reformers and it was burned down. Some of the monks continued on at the abbey, but by the end of the century monastic life had disappeared and continued to function only as a parish church. In 1581 Scone was placed in the new Earldom of Gowrie, created for William Ruthven. The latter was forfeited after the Gowrie conspiracy of 1600, but in 1606 was given to David Murray, newly created Lord Scone, who in 1621 was promoted to Viscount Stormont. The abbey/palace evidently remained in a decent state, as the Viscounts apparently did some rebuilding and continued to reside there, and it continued to play host to important guests, such as King Charles II, when he was crowned there (indoors) in 1651. It was not until 1803 that the family (now Earls of Mansfield) began constructing another palace at the cost of £70,000, commissioning the renowned English architect William Atkinson.[20]

Scone mercat cross, today almost all that is left of the old village.

Modern town

Constructing the new palace meant destroying the old town and moving its inhabitants to a new settlement. The new village was built in 1805 as a planned town (compare Evanton, built in 1807 by its landowner for similar motives), and originally called New Scone. It is 2 km east of the old location and 1½ km further from Perth.[21] Until 1997 the town was called "New Scone", but is now referred to simply as Scone.[22] The town had 4,430 inhabitants according to the 2001 Census for Scotland, 84.33% of whom are Scottish; it is demographically old even compared with the rest of Scotland.[23]

The site of Old Scone is mostly in the grounds of the modern palace, which is a popular tourist attraction. Visitors come to see the gardens in the palace grounds, the exotic birds which roam freely in the grounds, Moot Hill (which is in the grounds), and the palace.

Trivia

Scone is mentioned in William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth (Act 2, Scene 4), as a place for coronation of Macbeth after he kills the former King, his cousin Duncan. It is also the last word of the play: "So, thanks to all at once and to each one / Whom we invite to see us crown'd at Scone."

See also

A seal of Scone Abbey, depicting the inauguration of King Alexander III of Scotland.
Scone was the ancient capital of Scotland and the coronation site of Scotland's kings. This MS illustration depicts the coronation of King Alexander III of Scotland on Moot Hill, Scone. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh, the royal poet, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Alban, "God Bless the King of Scotland"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy.

Notes

  1. ^ William F. Skene, Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots and Other Early Memorials of Scottish History, (Edinburgh, 1867), pp. 84, 97
  2. ^ Ibid., p. 21.
  3. ^ See, for instance, William F. Scene, "The Coronation Stone", in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 8 (1868-70), p. 88
  4. ^ G.W.S. Barrow (ed.), The Acts of Malcolm IV King of Scots 1153–1165, Together with Scottish Royal Acts Prior to 1153 not included in Sir Archibald Lawrie's "Early Scottish Charters", (Regesta Regum Scottorum vol. i, Edinburgh, 1960) no. 243.
  5. ^ Archibald Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters Prior to A.D. 1153, (Glasgow, 1905) no. xlviii, p. 43.
  6. ^ R.M. Spearman, "The Medieval Townscape of Perth", in Michael Lynch, Michael Spearman & Geoffrey Stell (eds.), The Medieval Scottish Town, (Edinburgh, 1988), p. 47; Lawrie, Early Scottish Charters, p. 296.
  7. ^ Ian B. Cowan, & David E. Easson, Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland With an Appendix on the Houses in the Isle of Man, Second Edition, (London, 1976), pp. 97-8.
  8. ^ Thomas Owen Clancy, "King-Making and Images of Kingship in Medieval Gaelic Literature", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p. 103.
  9. ^ G.W.S. Barrow, "The Removal of the Stone and Attempts at Recovery, to 1328", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p. 201.
  10. ^ D.A. Binchy, "Fair of Tailtiu and the Feast of Tara", in Ériu, vol. 18 (1958), p. 134.
  11. ^ Dauvit Broun, "Origins of the Stone of Scone as a National Icon", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p. 194.
  12. ^ See Elizabeth FitzPatrick, "Leaca and Gaelic Inauguration Ritual in Medieval Ireland", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 107-21.
  13. ^ E.g. John J. O'Meara (ed.), Gerald of Wales: The History and Topography of Ireland, (London, 1951), p. 110.
  14. ^ Memoriale Fratris Walteri de Coventria, ed. W. Stubbs, (Rolls Series, no. 58), ii. 206.
  15. ^ A.O. Anderson, Scottish Annals, p. 232; it should be noted that Ailred was keen to portray David as a good Anglo-Norman, and was anxious to relieve David of anti-Scottish prejudice being made to debase his image in the Anglo-Norman world.
  16. ^ John Bannerman, “The Kings Poet”, in The Scottish Historical Review, vol. 58, (1989), pp. 120 – 49; for some of the innovations, see A.A.M. Duncan, "Before Coronation: Making a King at Scone in the 13th century", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 139-67.
  17. ^ James II of Scotland was not crowned there, but at Holyrood Abbey; he was however a child, there were political problems which made Scone too dangerous. His son James III of Scotland, who succeeded as a child also, was not apparently crowned there either; however, these coronations did not reverse the ancient precedent. which was "revived" by James IV of Scotland.
  18. ^ See Peter G.B. McNeill and Hector L. MacQueen (eds.), Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, (Edinburgh, 1996), pp. 159-82 for places of charter issue.
  19. ^ Richard Fawcett, "The Buildings of Scone Abbey", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 170-2.
  20. ^ Ibid. pp. 172-4.
  21. ^ Compare geo.ed.ac.uk - Old Scone and geo.ed.ac.uk - New Scone.
  22. ^ http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/towns/townfirst154.html
  23. ^ 2001 Census, accessed Nov. 29, 2006

References

  • Barrow, G.W.S. (ed.), The Acts of Malcolm IV King of Scots 1153–1165, Together with Scottish Royal Acts Prior to 1153 not included in Sir Archibald Lawrie's '"Early Scottish Charters"', (Regesta Regum Scottorum vol. i, Edinburgh, 1960)
  • Barrow, G.W.S., "The Removal of the Stone and Attempts at Recovery, to 1328", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), p.
  • Binchy, D.A., "Fair of Tailtiu and the Feast of Tara", in Ériu, vol. 18 (1958), pp. 113–38
  • Broun, Dauvit, "Origins of the Stone of Scone as a National Icon", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 183–97
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "King-Making and Images of Kingship in Medieval Gaelic Literature", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 85–105
  • Cowan, Ian B. & Easson, David E., Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland With an Appendix on the Houses in the Isle of Man, Second Edition, (London, 1976), pp. 97–8
  • Duncan, A.A.M., "Before Coronation: Making a King at Scone in the 13th century", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 139–67
  • Fawcett, Richard, "The Buildings of Scone Abbey", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 169–80
  • FitzPatrick, Elizabeth, "Leaca and Gaelic Inauguration Ritual in Medieval Ireland", in Richard Welander, David J. Breeze and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.), The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon, (Edinburgh, 2003), pp. 107–21
  • Lawrie, Sir Archibald, Early Scottish Charters Prior to A.D. 1153, (Glasgow, 1905)
  • McNeill, Peter G.B., and MacQueen, Hector L., (eds.), Atlas of Scottish History to 1707, (Edinburgh, 1996)
  • O'Meara, John J. (ed.), Gerald of Wales: The History and Topography of Ireland, (London, 1951)
  • Skene, William F. (ed.), Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots and Other Early Memorials of Scottish History, (Edinburgh, 1867)
  • Skene, William F., "The Coronation Stone", in Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 8 (1868-70), pp. 68–99
  • Spearman, R.M., "The Medieval Townscape of Perth", in Michael Lynch, Michael Spearman & Geoffrey Stell (eds.), The Medieval Scottish Town, (Edinburgh, 1988), pp. 42–59

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on the Isle of Man.]]

A moot hill or mons placiti (statute hill)[1] is a hill or mound historically used as a meeting place. In early medieval Britain, such hills were used for moots, meetings of local people to settle local business. Among other things, proclamations might be read; decisions might be taken; court cases might be settled at a moot. Although some moot hills were naturally occurring features or had been created long before as burial mounds, others were purpose-built.

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Etymology

The word "moot" or "mote", of Old English origin, derives from the verb to meet. Initially referring to any popular gathering, in England the folkmoot in time came to be a more specific term for a local assembly with recognized legal rights.

Siting and purpose

Many moot, "mote" or "mute" hills are known by that name today. Others have local names such as Court Hill, Justice Hill, Judgement Hill, Moat Hill, Bonfire Hill, etc. Many are also associated with names such as knock, knowe, or law.

Many other names are used for prominent earthworks, depending to some extent on their location within the United Kingdom, and some of them are known to have served as moot hills at some point in their existence. Terms include Tumulus, how, howe, low, tump, cnwc, pen, butt, toot, tot, cop, mount, mound, hill, knoll, mot, moot, knol, motte, and druid hill. Often the names are combined, as in Knockenlaw, Law Mount, etc.

Some hills known today as "moot hills" were actually historically mottes (from an unrelated French word meaning "mound"), the remains of a motte-and-bailey castle. (In this fortification, a wooden or stone keep was built atop a small mound, usually man-made, which was in turn surrounded by a ditch and an outer ward called the "bailey".) In some cases a mound built as a motte may have seen later use as a functioning moot hill.

Moots may have met on existing archaeological mound sites such as tumuli or mottes; others on entirely natural mounds such as the one at Mugdock or natural mounds which were modified for the intended purpose. One common aid to identification is size: most moot hills, in addition to lacking signs of defensive walls and ditches, are smaller than most mottes.[2]

Some known moot hill sites are surrounded by water, such as Mugdock, Mound Wood and Court Hill at the Hill of Beith; others may well have been, such as Hutt Knowe. Such inaccessibility would have required the use of a boat or raised walkway. Wood Mound is clearly man-made and therefore the relationship between these sites and water may have had some functional or religious significance. Silbury Hill is an example of how many Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments were built in liminal or cross-over points in the landscape, and close to water.[3]

Francis Grose

Francis Grose in 1797 published his 'Antiquities of Scotland', and going from the 1789 date of the numerous engravings this was a little over forty years from the abolition of the abolition of this aspect of the feudal system. Grose states mote hills, or places for administration of public justice, for considerable districts; and courts hills, whereon the ancient lairds held their baronial courts, before the demolition of the feudal system. These mote and court hills serve to explain the use of these high mounts still remaining near our ancient castles.[4] He goes on to say -

In ancient times, courts for the administration of justice were generally held in the open fields, and judgement was both given and executed in the same place; in every earldom, and almost every barony and jurisdiction of any considerable extent, there was a particular place alloted for that purpose; it was generally a small eminence, either natural or artificial, near the principal Mansion-house and was called the mote hill, or in Latin, mons placiti. In that place all the vassals of the of the jurisdiction were obliged to appear at iwdain times; and the superior gave judgement in such cases as fell within the powers committed to him by law or custom; in the same spot too, the gallows was erected for the execution of capital offenders; hence these places commonly go by the name of the Gallows Knoll; near the royal palaces there was usually a mote hill, where all the freeholders of the kingdom met together, both to transact public offices, and to do homage to their sovereign, who was seated on the top of the eminence. The mote hill at Scoons this day universally known. It is highly probable the Hurly Heaky (named after the sport of sliding down a slope on a trough or sledge; tobogganing) was the mote hill of the Castle of Sterling, or perhaps of a much larger jurisdiction. In 1360, a deadly feud which had long subsisted between the Drummonds and Menteaths, at that time two of the most powerful families in Perthshire, and which had heen the cause of much rapine and bloodshed, was composed by the interposition of Sir Robert Erskine and Sir Hugh Eglington, the two great justiciaries of the nation, in the neighbourhood, if not on the very mount. Our authority says, " Super ripam aquae de Forth juxta Strivelyn."

This mode of distributing justice appears to have been the custom of almost all nations, in the more early days of their state; and that it only to give their judicial procedures a greater appearance of impartiality and justice, by being carried on in public view, but because there were not houses large enough to contain the numbers that usually attended them. The court of Areopagus, at Athens, sat for many years after its first institution, in the open air.[5]

Origins

It is known that in Scotland, Brehons or Judges administered justice from 'Court Hills', especially in the highlands, where they were called a tomemoid (from Scots Gaelic tom a' mhòid) - that is, the Court Hillock. In ancient times suitable buildings would rarely have existed and there was usually no alternative other than to use an outdoor gathering place. It is said that Irish colonists brought with them Brehon law, the use of Moot hills and the law of Tannistry.[6] Every baron had a moot hill and the chartularies of religious houses record that they too used moot hills for holding courts.[7]

The moot hills' part in the practice of law derives from the introduction of feudalism by the Normans in England or in Scotland by the Scottish kings such as David I 1125-1153 who introduced feudalism and delegated very extensive jurisdiction over large areas of land to men like the Walter the Steward (Renfrew & the northern half of Kyle) or de Morville (Cunningham) and they in turn delegated quite extensive powers to their own vassals. These invitees, largely of Norman, Fleming and Breton origin were, under feudal charter, given significant grants of land, were invited and did not come as conquerors as had been the case in England. There were in certain instances a close connection between the old Celtic thaneages (a hereditary non-military tenant of the crown) and the new feudal baronies.

There was therefore no wholesale displacement of native lords in Scotland. In 1200 all the earls north of Forth and Clyde were still of Celtic descent; and as late as 1286, eight of the earldoms in Scotland were still in the hands of those of native stock. Many native lords were granted or confirmed in their lands in feudal form. Within a few generations, regular intermarriage and the Wars of Independence had removed most of the differences between native and incomer, although not those between Highlander and Lowlander.[8]

Burgh courts were held in the open air, round the market cross, a standing stone, a moot hill or a prominent tree. These courts were held three times a year - the chief court after Pasch (Passover or Easter), the next after Michaelmas, when the magistrates or burgh-reeves were elected, and the third after Yule or Christmas. All burgesses were bound to attend.[9]

Baronies

A Barony was an area of land, not always contiguous, granted by the Crown to a Tenant. Baronies became a unit in administration and law, however the actual size was variable and they merged or separated from time to time. The holder or Baron had power to hold courts which dealt with civil and criminal cases of less than major importance. Some crimes were reserved for royal courts, namely murder, rape, robbery with violence, fire raising and treason. To come under the jurisdiction of a baronial court, the crime had to have been committed within the barony or concerned its people or property.[10][11]

In England a Baron was a peerage title, this was not the case in Scotland. He or she held their land directly from the King or Queen. After c1700 the emphasis was on administration, a good neighbourhood and economic and other rules for the benefit of those living within the Barony. In 1747 the criminal jurisdiction of a Baron Court was much restricted. The Barony was largely a self-governing community, however there was a system of appeals to the Sheriff and the Central Courts.[10]

The term baron had simply meant "man" originally; later the term baron came to imply holding the barony lands immediately of the King. Finally baron came to mean one who held such lands "of the King" with accompanying rights and duties and the therefore the word came to mean one who held as 'tenant in chief' of the King's lands erected by Charter 'in free barony'. Sir John Skene in his glossary of Scots legal terms defines it as In this Realme he is called ane Barrone quha haldis his landes immediatlie in chiefe of the King and hes power of pit and gallow.[12] The Barons of Scotland continued to have the right to sit in the Scottish Parliament until 1594.[13]

Baronial courts

Baronies were social units and their courts a form of council which enabled the area of the barony to function effectively as an early form of self-government. In mediaeval law the barony required a principal residence at which the legal process could be formally transacted. Many abandoned castles motes therefore continued in use for this purpose.[14] The baron and the baron baillie, his deputy, and the Council, were concerned with such matters as: responsibility for repair to ditches and hedges, assessment of damage caused by cattle found on another's ground, under thirlage laws, the maintenance of the mill race in good order and free from weeds and the mending of the mill dam. Even cases of neighbours using "unreasonable language", and "miscalling one another" were brought before the court. The court might also regulate the rotation of crops and the manuring of the ground. Ecclesiastical courts also existed as shown by the example of the Abbot of Kilwinning's court hill near Beith. [12][13]

The feudal Baron appointed the Officers of a Baron Court. Barons therefore had public law executive and judicial authority over the public affairs of that Barony. The officers were:

  • The Baron-Baillie was the principal administrative officer; the Baillie's insignia of office was a Cap of Justice, a Black legal Robe, and a medal of office on a chain
  • The Baron-Clerk acted as administrative secretary of the Barony.
  • The Dempster or Deemster was responsible for executing the judicial decisions and announced the "doom" as the sentence was called.
  • The Baron-Sergeant kept order, summoned the parties involved and enforced civil decrees of the Court; the Sergeant's insignia of office was a 37" white Ellwand and a Horn to summon attendance.
  • The Procurator Fiscal operated as the civil and criminal prosecutor in matters before the Baron Court.[15]

By the Heritable Jurisdictions Act 1747 the powers of life and death were removed from the Baron Court and the criminal jurisdiction was very significantly reduced but not entirely abolished. The hereditary jurisdictions of Regality Courts and of the Sheriff Courts were abolished and the owners received significant sums in compensation.[12] It can be stated therefore that most moot and gallow hills ceased to have a role in the judicial process at that time.

The Abolition of Feudal Tenure, etc (Scotland) Act 2000 removed all the remaining aspects of the feudal baronial system, apart from the baronial titles themselves. The entire system whereby land was held by a vassal on perpetual tenure from a superior, was, on this appointed day, abolished.[12][13]

Pit and gallows

This phrase described the jurisdiction of a Baron in criminal cases. A pit, according to Mackenzie[16] was a form of dungeon or prison cell, not a pit for drowning the condemned. Others take the view that the pit was the drowning pool for women and the gallows for the men.[10] It is not clear why men were more likely to be hung and women drowned in a fen, river, pit or 'murder hole', however it may relate to ideas of decency. In Norse law the reason was that men, were sent to Wodan, and women were given to Ran (a sea goddess) or Hel. In Norse tradition the pit and gallows stood on the west of the moot-places or the prince's hall ready for use.[17]

The 'furca and fossa', or the 'pit and gallows', refers to the high justice including the capital penalty. The furca was a device for hanging slaves in ancient Rome and refers to the gallows for hanging men; the fossa was a ditch filled with water for the drowning of women. As previously stated, the hereditary right of high justice survived until 1747 when it was removed from the barons and from the holders of Regalities and sheriffdoms, by the Heritable Jurisdictions Act 1747.[12]

It is not clear that the moot hill was also the actual site of executions; folklore, tradition and the association of separate 'gallow' places names with moot hills on balance suggests that the usual place of execution was a separate 'gallows hill'. At Gardyne Law however an eye witness recalled that judgement and execution took place on the same law. It does seems unlikely that in those superstitious days meetings would be held at places of death; at Mugdock separate moot and gallow hills are a good example. Such gallows may have been built of worked timber or a Dule Tree may have been used.[18] RCAHMS records show that human bones have been frequently found in association with 'gallows' place name sites, but not at 'moot' sites. The term 'murder hole' may relate to the drowning sites, bones have been found close to some of these.[19]

The standard of Justice

An Ayrshire story tells of how an Ayrshire baron once strung up an innocent man, just because his visitor had never seen a man hanged before.[18] Hopefully this was an isolated example, however the system suffered from many faults due to bias, lack of legal training, etc., etc. As stated, a right of appeal to Regalities and sheriffdoms courts did exist.[13] Details of the sometimes shocking excesses of baron bailies can make painful reading. As their power was great and generally abused, so many of them enriched themselves. They had many ways of making money for themselves, such as (1) the bailie’s darak, as it was called, or a day’s labour in the year from every tenant on the estate; (2) confiscations, as they generally seized on all the goods and effects of such as suffered capitally; (3) all fines for killing game, blackfish, or cutting green wood were laid on by themselves, and went into their own pockets. These fines amounted to what they pleased almost. (4) Another very lucrative perquisite they had was what was called the Herial Horse, which was the best horse, cow, ox, or other article which any tenant on the estate possessed at the time of his death. This was taken from the widow and children for the bailie, at the time they had most need of assistance. This amounted to a great deal of extra income for the baillie of a large barony.[20]

Summoning people to the moot

At times it would be necessary to summon people to come to the mote for judgement, proclamations, gatherings, etc. This was sometimes done by ringing a bell, which was fitted upon or beside the moot hill, especially when a date for the meeting had not been previously set.[21] At Greenhills near Barrmill in North Ayrshire a different method is said to have been employed, namely that of raising a flag at the Bore stone; a prominent site near the moot hill. It is likely that bonfires would have been lit as a signal, either from the smoke during the day or the light at night. A 'Bonfire hill' place name survives at Stewarton in East Ayrshire. The Tarbolton moot was still used for lighting bonfires up until the 19th-century at least and the name Shinny Hill is suggestive of traditional bonfires; a 'Shinicle' being a halloween bonfire.

Links with the land

It is interesting to note the significance of direct links with the land shown by the standing on 'home' soil at the Scone moot, the use of soil from each parish in the building of the Tynwald Hill and the discovery of soil from several distant locations at the centre of Silbury Hill.[22] This practice may link with beliefs that lay behind the ceremonies at the petrosomatoglyph footprints on Dunadd and at other sites.

In the 15th-century the Tinwald Mote near Dumfries was still the legal head of the barony, where sasine (possession) was given by the ceremony of handing the grantee, before witnesses, a handful of earth and stone from the head messuage called the Mote near the church of Tynwald.[16] In mediaeval law the barony required a principal residence at which the legal process could be formally transacted, which explains why many such motes as that at Ellon were retained, here by the earls of Buchan, when little else remained of their possessions in the district. The mote still carried the dignity of the earldom.[14]

The sasine is the legal act of register of land ownership, pronounced sayseen. Interestingly, in the context of the significance of the physical aspect of soil and stone, the act of conferring sasine was originally (for example in 1615[23]) effected by the handing over of a bowl full of earth from the land and / or a stone of the house by the proprietor or seller to his heir or the buyer, who was then said to be seized of the land or house.[24] Likewise the land rent payable was symbolised by the passing of a bowl of grass and the tithe as a bowl full of grain.[24][25] The act of homage for holding a fief also involved the act of investiture. enacted by the delivering of a turf or a handful of earth to the individual to whom the land was being granted.[26]

The demise of moot hills

In Scotland feudalism and its bonds of allegiance to the local laird was associated with the Jacobite risings with the result that the Hanoverian Government took steps to undermine the system. After 1747 the moot hill was not used as a part of the baronial court process and the requirement for a gathering place for soldiers was also a thing of the past. The construction of Moot halls did away with the need to meet in the outdoors. Moot hills gradually ceased to have any significant role and many have suffered the final ignomy of being ploughed out and their existence almost or actually forgotten. Place names and local folklore have preserved the memory of a few, however records suggest that the majority have been destroyed. A few moot hills ended up with unlikely secondary uses, such as Knockenlaw, which was used as the 'blast wall' for a gunpowder magazine and Chapel Hill which was used as a viewing point for watching horse racing.

A few, notably the Tynwald Hill in the Isle of Man, continue to have a function in the 21st century. Some were built on and took on a new role, such as the moot hill at Riccarton near Kilmarnock, which had a kirk (church) built on it in 1823.

Locating old moot hills

Many baronies lands were merged with other baronies at one time or other and therefore some of the associated moot hills would have ceased to have a role well before the demise of the baronial courts in 1747. Moot hills in this category may have remained as features of the landscape, but often without any local traditions relating to them being recorded. Place names are a guide, especially if local traditions have survived as well. Written records often survive, such as in 1346 a William Baillie, the Baillie of Lambistoun or Lambimtoun, vulgarly called Lamington is listed by Dalrymple[27] amongst the prisoners taken by the English at the Battle of Durham which had taken place on 17 October of that year. He was in the company of a Thomas Boyd of Kilmarnock and Andrew Campbell of Loudoun. This helps to confirm that modern day Lambroughton was a barony. Pre-reformation and other old gravestones often recorded the occupation of the individual, especially if they had held important roles such a baron baillie.

A list of Moot hills, Gallows hills, their associated Baronies and other details

Records of these sites have often been lost & therefore the barony and other associations have only been made where the evidence is credible, backed up by written records, place names or by oral folklore.

Scotland

Aberdeenshire

  • Gallowhill, Banff and Macduff. In 1700 a Freebooter, James McPherson, was locked up in the tolbooth before being hanged, the clock in Banff was reputedly put forward one hour to ensure he was hanged because any possible reprieve arrived. He may have been hanged on the gallowhill.[28]

Angus

  • Gallows Knowe, Lintrathen. This artificial mound is about 45 yards in diameter and between 12 and 15 feet (4.6 m) high. Three stone cists have been found within the knowe.[31]
  • Gardyne Law, near Gardyne Castle, 1¼ miles (2 km) southwest of Friockheim and 3 miles (5 km) east of Letham. An old man told Thomas Lyel, Esq., that he saw two Highlanders, taken with stolen cattle, judged, condemned, and hanged on the Law of Gardyne.[32]

Argyll and Bute

Ayrshire (East)

  • Castle Lowrie - Barony of Loudoun, Darvel. Recorded as a natural mote hill, a meeting-place on the Glen Water, near Bankhead Farm.[24]
  • Chapel Hill, Chapeltoun, Stewarton. 20 feet (6 m) high on the low side and 7 feet (2.1 m) on the high side. A flat top, 22 paces in diameter.[33] A likely Moot Hill as it is unclear where the chapel stood. Also known as the Monk's graveyard and Jockey's cap, as it was used as a viewing platform to watch horse races at festival times. A Moot Hill of Chapelton is recorded in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland as being specifically excluded by King James from a grant of lands including Lainshaw, Robertland and Gallowberry to Alexander Hume in the 15th-century.[34]55°23′43″N 4°19′23″W / 55.3953°N 4.32319°W / 55.3953; -4.32319 (Chapel Hill)
  • Court Hill, a short distance to the south of Aiket Castle. Cunninghame family. Dunlop area.[35]The name applies to the vestiges of a small hill, which appears to have been much higher at one time. It is situated in the corner of a small field near the house called Aiket Mill. Local informants stated that this was where the feues due to the proprietor of Aiket Castle (NS34NE 1) were paid.[19]
  • Craighead Lea or Law hill, near Lugton. This is said to have been a place of trial and it had an arrangement of boulders on its summit until a farmer moved them to aid ploughing of the area.[35][19]
  • Craigie Moot - Smith records that a moot hill existed near the village of Craigie.[18]
  • Dalmellington Moat Hill (NS 482 058). Dalmellington's mound is 154 paces in circumference at the base, surrounded by a ditch, 9 feet (3 m) broad at the bottom, and 4 feet (1 m) deep. Measured from the bottom of this ditch, the mound is 28 feet (9 m) high; the top is 22 paces in diameter, the sides are very steep. A wooden stairs was fitted to the top in Smith's time (1890s).[19] He records that it may have been a fort at one time as well as being used as a moot hill later. A Gillies Knowe, possibly a corruption of Gallows Knowe, is nearby.[36] 55°19′22″N 4°23′38″W / 55.3228°N 4.394°W / 55.3228; -4.394 (Dalmellington Moat Hill)
  • Highlangside Moot hill - Smith records that a moot hill existed here in the Craigie district.[18]
  • Judge's Hill (NS 519 386) - Barony of Loudoun. Shown on the old OS maps under this name. A man made 'Moot Hill' near to the old Loudoun Castle, sometimes called Arclowdun, standing on the Hag Burn. Judge's Hill also stands close to the Hag or Bowhill Burn. This may well be the Justice hill for the Campbell's of Earl's of Loudoun. A Gallows Hill is situated near the upper reaches of the Burn Anne above Shinny Hill.55°37′05″N 4°21′08″W / 55.61813°N 4.35233°W / 55.61813; -4.35233 (Judge's Hill)
  • Justice Hill or Judas hill overlooking the Craufurdland Water. Near Dean castle, Kilmarnock. The Boyds, Lords of Kilmarnock, had this moot hill and their gallows was at Gallows-Knowe which stood in Wellington street, Kilmarnock. It is also said to be the burial site of men killed in battle.[42][43]
  • Knockmarloch in the Craigie district. Smith records that a moot hill existed here.[18]
  • Law Mount (NS 411 447), Barony of Lambroughton and / or Lainshaw by Stewarton. It is also known as Moat Hill[44] or a Moot Hill[45]overlooking Lainshaw House and above Castleton (previously Over or High Castleton). It is an artificial mound which was thought to have a bailey and therefore be a castle motte, hence the name of the farms. Linge [46] is of the opinion that the supposed bailey, clearly visible form the road under the appropriate light conditions, is a natural geographic feature. The mound is 19 m (62 ft) in diameter and 3.5 m (11.5 ft) in height. At the top its diameter is 12 m (39 ft) and seen by satellite imagery it is clearly too small to have been a motte. The secondary use of the mound and fits with its more recent local names, is that it was the site of the Justice Hill where proclamations of the Lainshaw Castle or possibly the Lambroughton Baronial Court's judgements were made. 55°40′11″N 4°31′41″W / 55.6697°N 4.5281°W / 55.6697; -4.5281 (Law Mount)
  • Main Castle, Barony of Loudoun, Darvel. Recorded as an artificial mote hill, a meeting-place in a bend of the Avon Water, where tribal laws were made and open-air courts of justice were held.[24]
  • Mote, now Carmelbank farm, Crosshouse. Carmel Bank House was formerly known as 'Mot' or 'Mote' House and was the site of a Moot Hill, possibly for the barony of Thorntoun.[47]

Ayrshire (North)

  • Court Hill (NS 292 495), Dalry. Barony of Ardrossan.[49][50] A barrow and a moot hill. Previously 290 feet (88 m) in circumference, 20 feet (6 m) high and the diameter of the flat top was 38 feet (12 m). Covered in pit refuse and then excavated and the results published. It had a wooden castle on its summit at one point in its history. A Gallow's stone is said to have stood a short distance to the east of the hill.[51]
  • Court Hill, near Hill of Beith in the Barony of Beith. Dobie states that the Abbot of Kilwinning used it to administered justice to his vassals & tenants. It is a sub-oval, flat-topped mound, measuring 15.0 by 14.5 metres (49.2 x 47.6 ft) over all, 10.0 by 8.0 metres (32.8 x 26.25 ft) across the top, and 2.0 m (6.6 ft) high, situated at the foot of a small valley. A number of large stones are visible in the sides of the mound. It is turf-covered, and probably situated on a low outcrop, it is mostly an artificial work. It pre-dates the channelling of the burn which detours around it, the mound was probably isolated in this once marshy outflow of the former Boghall Loch (see NS35SE 14).[19] It does not seem to lie in the area identified by Smith[52].
  • Giffordland, Dalry. The small Barony of Giffordland was held by the Giffords and later the Craufurd, Blair and Morris families.(Map reference: NS 2662 4893)
  • Green Hill, Largs. Known at one time as Moot Hill because it may have been used as a court or law area moot by local lairds during the Medieval times.[1]
  • Green hill, Barony of Giffen, Barrmill. The moot hill stood near to Greenhill farm.[2]This artificial mound was the site where proclamations of the Giffen Castle Baronial Court's judgements were made. No sign of the Moot hill seems to survive, however a bridge near to Greenhill is marked as 'Tappethillock', meaning a flat-topped hillock, which may refer to it.
  • Hutt Knowe or Hut Knol (NS 375 441), Bonshaw, Barony of Bollingshaw. 'Huit' in Scots is a heap or stack.[3] It also known as Bonshaw or Bollingshaw Mound, 17 m (56 ft) in diameter and 2.7 m (8.9 ft) high, variously described as a mounded corn-kiln or lime kiln.[4] Corn-drying kilns were often built into sloping ground or existing mounds.[5] It is said to have large integral basal stones and was described in 1890[6] as having culverts or 'penns' in its sides, although these are not visible today. This mound has been excavated on several occasions without enough evidence being uncovered to determine its purpose. It lies close to the Glazert; Stacklawhill is nearby. A limekiln and a rarely mentioned ice house are also present on the site and this seems to have resulted in some confusion arising over the description of Hutt Knowe. Satellite imagery clearly shows that the mound stands on a raised irregularly shaped platform.[7]55°23′42″N 4°19′59″W / 55.3949°N 4.333°W / 55.3949; -4.333 (Hutt Knowe)
  • Irvine Moor had a possible moot hill with a gallows hill nearby. It was 20 paces in diameter, 2 feet 6 inches (0.76 m) high on one side and 13 feet 8 inches (4.2 m) on the other. Gallows muir is one name given to the site on the older maps of the area.[8][9]
  • Knockrivoch (NS 253 451), Saltcoats.
  • Law, Auchenmade. This moot hill lay half a mile to the east of Pencote Hill, near Auchenmade & had been ploughed out by 1895.[10][9]
  • Law hill - Symington. Barony of Symington. This moot lay at the bottom of the village and was completely levelled as part of improvements, by a Mr. Boyd in around 1860. Iron arrowheads and combs of horn were found during the demolition.[11]
  • Law Mound, twelve paces in diameter, at Threepwood near Barcraigs Reservoir.[12]
  • Lawthorn Mount (NS 346 407), Perceton. Also a cairn or barrow. It is 21 paces in diameter at the base, and 14 feet (4 m) in diameter on the top, the height being 9 feet 8 inches (2.9 m) It is said by oral tradition to have been a Justice hill. Stanecastle castle is nearby.[13]
  • Mount (NS 202 585), Largs. Situated near the old church of Largs. Said by some to be the moot hill for Largs, but others see it as a burial mound for Norwegians (Norse).[14]

Ayrshire (South)

  • Law Hill - The Fullartons of Fullarton house, Troon, dispensed justice at the Law Hill which was close to their mansion. Farming activity reduced the moot hill and almost levelled it, so that a Pillar was erected there to mark the spot. This pillar was later removed and rebuilt with embellishments at the back gate of Monklands on the Isle O'Pins Road.[16]
  • Barons Stone - Parish of Girvan. At Killochan castle this stone, an erratic, once formed part of a cliff, 2,000 feet (610 m) over its present site, far away among the hills of Loch Doon. In historical times, it formed the "Hill of Justice" of the barons of Killochan, where they mustered their men, planned their raids, shared their booty, and hanged troublesome prisoners.[17][18]
  • Knockushion (NX 1850 9807). Also 'Knockcushan', this Knoll or Hill of Justice in Girvan was a Law or Court Hill. [19] The existence of the mound is now marked by a modern pillar bearing the following inscription:-"Knockushion" (Hill of Justice) - From time immemorial the seat of the head - courts of the ancient jurisdiction of Carrick. King Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick, held court here and granted charter to the Friars of Ayre". The rest of the inscription is weathered away. No mound is visible at the site.[9] 55°14′36″N 4°51′23″W / 55.2433°N 4.8565°W / 55.2433; -4.8565 (Knockushion) Girvan's Stumpy Tower's name comes from the Gaelic “Olladh Stiom Paidh” and relates to the phrase "Great Circle of Justice" which is a similar meaning to Knockcushan Street, upon which the tower sits.
  • Moat of Alloway. The Magistrates of Ayr appear from the records of the town to have frequently held Courts of Justice for the

trial of petty cases, according to their charter, on its summit.[20]

  • Mote-hill. Helenton, near Symington. Barony of Helenton. Some ruins were present on its summit.[11]
  • Tarbolton Mote, Hoodshill or Torbol (NS 4323 2734). Parish of Tarbolton. A fairly substantial mound on a natural prominence on the outskirts of the village. It is classified as a motte and bailey. The artificial mound is 10 feet (3 m) high, 25 yards (23 m) wide at the base and is traditionally said to be a justice seat. It was formerly called the Mote, but now is more frequently named Hoodshill, from a schoolmaster called Hood, whose pupils played on it. It is the only common attached to the village of Tarbolton, and a bonfire was lit on it annually on the night preceding the June Fair up until at least the 1860s.[9] A Gallow Hill is situated nearby overlooking what was the old Coilsfield estate. Paterson records that the moot hill bonfire was built from fuel collected from every house and then placed on a circular altar or fire-place of turf. He states that Tarbolton translates as the town at the Hill where Baal was worshipped.[11] The hall built on this mount was the chief messuage of the Barony, where seisin was invested.[21]55°30′53″N 4°29′04″W / 55.5146°N 4.4844°W / 55.5146; -4.4844 (Tarbolton Mote)
Some Ayrshire Moot Hills

Carrick

Smith states that there were no Moot Hills in Carrick.[1]

Dumfries and Galloway

File:Mote of Urr,
The Mote of Urr.
File:Monreith
The Monreith Cross with signs of the attachment of the old judicial jougs.
  • Mote of Urr. The great judicial centre of the Kings of Galloway, covering the lands below the waters of the River Cree.[3]

East Dunbartonshire

  • Mugdock Moot Hill - Pre the early 1700s the Moot Hill was an island on Mugdock Loch. The loch was drained between 1710 and 1714 to claim land and construct avenues for the newly developing Craigend Estate. Gallowhill is nearby. Before 1747 prisoners of Mugdock Castle’s barony jail were rowed out to Moot Island for the trial, en-route to the gallows at Gallowhill if they were convicted. Gallowhill is located close to the Visitor Centre. In the SW trench the rock fell away quickly into deep peat deposits. A drystone revetment ran alongside the edge of the mound, which had been interpreted as a landing place or quay. Excavation and survey revealed that this was a stock-proof dyke, probably of 19th-century date.[2] The island was renamed Moot Hill when the loch was drained and became a feature for residents and visitors to Craigend House as it was, and still is, situated close to the main avenue. Excavation work at Moot Hill carried out by Glasgow University in 2003 confirmed that Moot Hill is made of solid rock and has deposits of dark coloured peat covering it.

Fife

  • Moat Hill - Cupar. The Burgh Survey states that, through the years, it has been known as Moot Hill, Mote Hill, Cam Hill and Mons Placiti. Sibbald noted in the 18th century that the word ‘‘cam’’ in Gaelic meant crooked and was very descriptive of the long, winding ridge of which Castle Hill formed a part. The Reporter in the Statistical Account of the Burgh suggested that it should have been styled Mote Hill as it was probably the place where the Justiciar of Fife had his courts and published his enactments.[4]

Glasgow

  • Doomster Hill - Parish of Govan NS 554 658, a large earthen mound with a stepped profile and level summit. [5] It stood near the river Clyde, north of the present Govan Cross. It was removed in the early 19th-century and Reid's Dyeworks erected on the site. In 1996, a team from Channel 4's Time Team programme carried out a dig at the site. They suggested that it could be a 12th century Norman motte. The 'Doom' was the name given to the reading of the sentence of the court by the Deemster of the Baronial court. 55°51′49″N 4°18′44″W / 55.8636°N 4.3121°W / 55.8636; -4.3121 (Doomster Hill)

Highland

  • Courthill, Kishorn. A supposed moot-hill lies north of the burial-ground and chapel of Saint Donnan.

Inverclyde

  • Moot hill, Kilmacolm, near the River Gryffe.

Moray

Perth and Kinross

  • Moot Hill, Struan. The assembly mound measures approx. 20-foot (Template:Convert/LoffAonSon) high and is approx. 75 ft (23 m) in diameter across the base and 55 ft (17 m) across the top. It is generally held to be an early stronghold of the Chiefs of Clan Donnachaidh. A number of factors that suggest that it may be a moot.[8]
  • Mote-hill or Torran Mhoid in Scottish Gaelic. Balliemore, near Castle Roy. The title of Laird of Abernethy went with the possession of the moot hill and a story is told of one Earl of Moray who feued out all the other lands of Abernethy, but would not part with the moot hill, even if the top was covered with golden guineas. Another story tells of a Baron Baillie of Balliemore who took earth from the local churchyard and spread it onto his fields. He was persuaded to stop but later died from apoplexy whilst on the moot hill, because although he had stopped stealing the earth, he was still stealing it in his heart and God had punished him accordingly. There was a Drowning pool here where witches and female criminals were drowned.[9][10]
  • Scone Moot Hill. The mons placiti or Scone mote hill is the inauguration site of the Scottish Kings. It is also called 'Boot Hill', possibly from an ancient tradition whereby emissaries swore fealty to their king by wearing the earth of their own lands in their foot-bindings or boots.[12]
"Moot hill" and its chapel today.]]

Ross and Cromarty

  • Hill of Strife, Ullinish, Isle of Skye. Samuel Johnson was informed that this hill near Ulinish House was were justice used to be administered.[13]

Stirling

  • Court Hill, Duntreath, Strathblane. What used to be known as "the Court Hill," now Park Hill, rises on the east side of the Blane Valley. The top has been levelled, possibly for a fort, or a "mons placiti" or Moot Hill where courts of justice were held. The feudal privileges attached to Duntreath, indicate its importance.

England

Buckinghamshire

Cumbria

  • Carlisle Moothill. Tytler's History of Scotland, iv. 413, records that Lord Wharton, after his repulse in a raid up Nithsdale in 1547 held a Court at the Moothill beside Carlisle, and condemned ten of the Scottish "pledges" to be hanged.[14]

Humberside

Northumberland

Nottinghamshire

Wiltshire

Isle of Man

References

  1. Smith, John (1895). Prehistoric Man in Ayrshire. Pub. Elliot Stock. P. 181.
  2. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named RCAHMS
  3. Grose, Francis (1797). The Antiquities of Scotland. High Holborn : Hooper and Wigstead. Facing page 184.
  4. Cupar, Fife website.
  5. British Archaeology Magazine
  6. Dingwall
  7. Hutchison, A. F. (1899), The Lake of Menteith:its islands and vicinity. Pub> Eneas Mackay, Stirling. P. 45.
  8. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named Struan
  9. History of Scotland
  10. In the Days of the Baron Bailies.
  11. Hutchison, A. F. (1899), The Lake of Menteith:its islands and vicinity. Pub> Eneas Mackay, Stirling. P. 40.
  12. Scone and the Moot Hill.
  13. Samuel Johnson.
  14. [http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_025/25_198_256.pdf Moot Hills.}
  15. Bord, Janet & Colin (1973) Mysterious Britain. Pub. Garnstone Press. ISBN 0-85511-1801 P. 88.
  16. Isle of Man
  17. Tynwald Hill

External links


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