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.Morality (from the Latin moralitas "manner, character, proper behavior") is a system of conduct and ethics that is virtuous.^ Character is both values and behavior as reflected in the ways we interact with each other and in moral choices we make on a daily basis (Astin & Antonio, 2000, p.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite all that, the Prophet (saas) tried to teach people of all backgrounds and cultures about the Qur'an, and therefore about proper morality and good behavior.

^ Aristotle: Virtue Ethics The ethical system of Aristotle, developed in the Eudemian Ethics and the Nicomachean Ethics , argues that there is a single highest good that is desirable purely for its own sake.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

It can also be used in regard to sexual matters and chastity. Morality has three principal meanings:
.In its "descriptive" sense, morality refers to personal or cultural values, codes of conduct or social mores that distinguish between right and wrong in the human society.^ Moral intuition, providing an immediate sense of right and wrong.

^ In section 1.2, we distinguished between the empirical and normative senses of ‘morality’.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And if not, who has the authority to say that one person’s sense of morality is more right or wrong than another?
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

.Describing morality in this way is not making a claim about what is objectively right or wrong, but only referring to what is considered right or wrong by people.^ Do moral statements make claims to truth?
  • Less Wrong: Is Morality Preference? 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC lesswrong.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem here is, when you make a decision about right or wrong, that truth is not "objective" in any way.
  • Can someone create an objective moral code apart from God? - Catholic Answers Forums 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I never claimed that morality was objective or subjective.
  • Can someone create an objective moral code apart from God? - Catholic Answers Forums 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the most part right and wrong acts are classified as such because they are thought to cause benefit or harm, but it is possible that many moral beliefs are based on prejudice, ignorance or even hatred.^ And most people are convinced that their morality, or at least a fundamental part of it, is the right morality.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what makes people voluntarily obey laws when they do is either that they believe the law is in conformity with what is morally right (or if it is a procedural law, they believe it does not conflict with what is right) and is just and beneficial, or they believe that the particular law at issue is not so bad, even if wrong, that it is justified to break, either because breaking it would cause more harm than not breaking it or because breaking it would risk undermining the general cultural respect for law.
  • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When socially accepted practices coincide with morality because they are correctly considered to be morally right acts, there is no difference between basing law on morality and basing it on socially accepted practices, though it sounds funny and conceptually weaker to express it in the latter way.
  • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

.This sense of term is also addressed by descriptive ethics.^ Descriptive Evolutionary Ethics: Explaining Morality in the Empirical Sense .
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In its "normative" sense, morality refers directly to what is right and wrong, regardless of what people think.^ Moral intuition, providing an immediate sense of right and wrong.

^ I think markers of morality are in fact an innate sense of right and wrong linked directly to survival.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think morality is seen by most people as a primary from which rights follow.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

.It could be defined as the conduct of the ideal "moral" person in a certain situation.^ Why are we so sensitive to personal moral situations?
  • Morality and War : The Frontal Cortex 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bombing targets from 30,000 feet is a much less personal moral situation than shooting someone at close range.
  • Morality and War : The Frontal Cortex 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moral obligation involved avoidance of causing negative consequences for others, unless the consequence became greater for student assessing the situation than the person being assisted.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This usage of the term is characterized by "definitive" statements such as "That act is immoral" rather than descriptive ones such as "Many believe that act is immoral."^ I don’t know what triggers a society to move in one direction rather than another direction.
  • The Believer - Interview with Frans de Waal 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC believermag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For people such as the Reverend, they believe that one must be persuaded to do the right thing.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Payback is definitely an element of the suspension - a bit like getting Capone for tax evasion rather than murder.
  • 'Sloppy Seconds': Sean Avery and a backwards moral code 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.It is often challenged by a moral skepticism, in which the unchanging existence of a rigid, universal, objective moral "truth" is rejected.^ Ginkgo100 (4 comments) 14.01.2009 at 6:23 PM I think you can have a true morality without a concept of a real personal God… but not without a concept of objective truth.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is intended to show that his belief in independent moral truths is false and should be rejected.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And that’s also why if people now argue that we need to expand morality and have universal human rights, and that we need to care about people elsewhere in the world, they have a big challenge ahead of them.
  • The Believer - Interview with Frans de Waal 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC believermag.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .The normative usage of the term "morality" is also addressed by normative ethics.^ Who owns the definition of the terms “morals” and “ethics”….I dunno, but in this schema that set of inherent principles would most likely be defined as morals or ethics.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are more straightforward ways in which evolutionary biology, as well as results from empirical moral psychology, can play a corrective role in normative ethics.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Can we look to our evolutionary background for moral guidance, gaining insight into the content of morality in the normative sense (as claimed by proponents of prescriptive evolutionary ethics)?
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Morality may also be defined as synonymous with ethics, the field that encompasses the above two meanings and others within a systematic philosophical study of the moral domain.^ Ethics is not ‘just a synonym’ for morality.
  • Morality without God « Derren Brown Blog 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC derrenbrown.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethics at best is merely a synonym of morality.
  • Morality without God « Derren Brown Blog 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC derrenbrown.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethics is merely a synonym of morality.
  • Morality without God « Derren Brown Blog 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC derrenbrown.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Ethics seeks to address questions such as how a moral outcome can be achieved in a specific situation (applied ethics), how moral values should be determined (normative ethics), what morals people actually abide by (descriptive ethics), what the fundamental nature of ethics or morality is, including whether it has any objective justification (meta-ethics), and how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is (moral psychology).^ Moral rules apply to people , not concepts .
  • The Argument From Morality by Stefan Molyneux 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the main questions to be addressed in this section will be whether there are such things as objective moral truths .
  • Morality and Moral Controversies--Syllabus 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.public.coe.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the task of ethics to answer such questions.
  • Selfishness — Ayn Rand Lexicon 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC aynrandlexicon.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.A key issue is the meaning of the terms "moral" or "immoral". Moral realism would hold that there are true moral statements which report objective moral facts, whereas moral anti-realism would hold that morality is derived from any one of the norms prevalent in society (cultural relativism); the edicts of a god (divine command theory); is merely an expression of the speakers' sentiments (emotivism); an implied imperative (universal prescriptivism); or falsely presupposes that there are objective moral facts (error theory).^ Without God, there is no real foundation to morality.
  • Morality without God « Derren Brown Blog 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC derrenbrown.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ So the question Is there an objectively correct morality?
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The statement murder is immoral is just as true in a sense as the statement murder is moral.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some thinkers hold that there is no correct definition of right behavior, that morality can only be judged with respect to particular situations, within the standards of particular belief systems and socio-historical contexts.^ There are no Righteous Ones here.
  • Dissident Voice : Hottentot Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And if no one does, then is moral chaos the only acceptable standard of morality?
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Definitions and Origins The dictionary gives the definition of moral as "conforming to a standard of right behavior".
  • What About Morality? 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: Original source]

.This position, known as moral relativism, often cites empirical evidence from anthropology as evidence to support its claims.^ Moral relativism is a purely theoretical position.
  • Morality/Moral - Keywords 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC depts.washington.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ [These are only a few examples of actions that are often consider as immoral but are often treated positively in the moral source book for many people.

^ Citing remarkable evidence based on his extensive research of primate behavior, de Waal attacks "Veneer Theory," which posits morality as a thin overlay on an otherwise nasty nature.
  • de Waal, F.; Macedo, S. and Ober, J., eds.: Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved. 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .The opposite view, that there are universal, eternal moral truths are known as moral absolutism.^ Is there such a thing as universal morals?
  • MORALITY FAQ 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Does absolute/universal morality exist?
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is there absolute truth of what is moral and good from what is immoral and evil?
  • Adultery, Fornication and Immorality, from the Viewpoint of the Bible 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.pointsoftruth.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moral absolutists might concede that forces of social conformity significantly shape moral decisions, but deny that cultural norms and customs define morally right behavior.^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition (2000) defines moral as of or concerned with the judgment of the goodness or badness of human action and character; teaching or exhibiting goodness or correctness of character and behavior; conforming to standards of what is right or just in behavior; or arising from conscience or the sense of right and wrong.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Consequences) 3) Social Norms/Conformity (Social Consequences) 4) Authority and social-order maintaining orientation 5) Social Contract Orientation 6) Principled Conscience Notice only the earliest, most basic forms of morality are concerned with consequences.
  • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

^ Granted, not all decisions a person might make are moral decisions, but most are.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Anthropological perspectives

Tribal and territorial moralities

.Celia Green has made a distinction between tribal and territorial morality.^ Kantian framework made "razor-sharp cuts" between values that are moral and values that are nonmoral.
  • Self and Values:An Interactivist Foundation for Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Morality may be subjective, in the sense that it is a judgement which can differ among people, but from the point of view of the individual it does provide an absolute distinction between right and wrong.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Distinction Between Positive (or Conventional) Morality and Critical Morality Does Not Help H.L.A. Hart originated, and ensuing legal theorists or philosophers of law utilize, the distinction between positive (or popular) morality and critical morality.
  • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] She characterizes the latter as predominantly negative and proscriptive: it defines a person’s territory, including his or her property and dependents, which is not to be damaged or interfered with. .Apart from these proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive, allowing the individual whatever behaviour does not interfere with the territory of another.^ However, statistics are not the same as ethics—just because the majority of people engage in a particular behaviour, or hold a belief, does not make it morally correct.
  • The New Morality | Prevail Magazine 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.prevailmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, even for these anthropologists “morality” does not often refer to every code of conduct put forward by a society.
  • The Definition of Morality (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Moralities are sets of behaviours designed to protect the social group from individual self-interest.
  • emergent morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.genomicon.com [Source type: Original source]

.By contrast, tribal morality is prescriptive, imposing the norms of the collective on the individual.^ Society today may speak of the moral code of conduct of a specific religion or the accepted moral norms adopted by an individual or group of individuals.
  • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals at the conventional level of reasoning, however, have a basic understanding of conventional morality, and reason with an understanding that norms and conventions are necessary to uphold society.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget rejected this belief that children simply learn and internalize the norms for a group; he believed individuals define morality individually through their struggles to arrive at fair solutions.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These norms will be arbitrary, culturally dependent and ‘flexible’, whereas territorial morality aims at rules which are universal and absolute, such as Kant’s ‘categorical imperative’.^ Does absolute/universal morality exist?
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Universal utilitarianism answers that question without hesitation: such behavior is categorically wrong.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Rich and DeVitis (1994), there are two types of ethics: (1) normative ethics, which describe what individuals ought to do and the different systems of ethics, such as utilitarianism, categorical imperative, etc.; and (2) metaethics which analyzes ethical language and the justification of ethical judgements.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Green relates the development of territorial morality to the rise of the concept of private property, and the ascendancy of contract over status.^ I turn now to the concept of moral development.

^ Relational nature of moral development .
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chapter 4 and 5 update Hoffman's empathy theory and now relate it to other current theories (by Haidt, Greene, Krebs) of moral emotion or intuition.
  • http://cseng.awl.com/catalog/academic/EZPrint_Product/0,2989,0205595243,00.html 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC cseng.awl.com [Source type: Academic]

In-group and out-group

some observers hold that individuals apply distinct sets of moral rules to people depending on their membership of an ."ingroup" (the individual and those they believe to be of the same culture or race) or an "outgroup" (people not entitled to be treated according to the same rules).^ For people such as the Reverend, they believe that one must be persuaded to do the right thing.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who take the Prophet (saas) as a model and abide by his Sunnah must, like him, give people the same glad tidings and warn them.

^ Some cultures have a set of behavioral standards based on its own underlying philosophy - and individuals choose a moral code, typically based on the cultures in which they were raised.
  • Can someone create an objective moral code apart from God? - Catholic Answers Forums 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some biologists, anthropologists and evolutionary psychologists believe this ingroup-outgroup discrimination has evolved because it enhances group survival.^ Love as an Evolved Instinct to enhance survival.
  • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The theory might be that groups with a libertarian morality will be more prosperous and more productive because they cooperate instead of fighting each other and therefore have a better chance of survival.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One or two members of the group thought that Atheist’s lack morals because they don’t ‘believe’ in anything.
  • Morality without God « Derren Brown Blog 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC derrenbrown.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Gary R. Johnson and V.S. Falger have argued that nationalism and patriotism are forms of this ingroup/outgroup boundary. .Jonathan Haidt has noted[6] that experimental observation indicates an ingroup criterion provides one moral foundation substantially used by conservatives, but far less so by liberals.^ By arguing that libertarianism more or less follows from these types of intuitive principles one is thereby defending the reasonableness of libertarian morality.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As noted earlier, moral development has cognitive, affective, and behavioral components, and any one cannot be measured to the exclusion of the other as they are intricately interwoven.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experimental psychology might be used to cast doubts on the moral condemnation of homosexuality by supporting the debunking hypothesis that such judgments stem from projected disgust.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Comparing cultures

Peterson and Seligman [7] approach the anthropological view looking across cultures and across millennia. .They conclude that certain virtues have prevailed in all cultures they examined.^ If careful and critical examination of an argument leads one to conclude that the premises are all true and the conclusion logically follows from the premises, then this suggests that the conclusion is true.
  • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
  • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So when Christians brag that they have such a wonderful morality, all they're really saying is that they have set certain goals for their behavior- not that anyone's meeting those goals, but that this is what they're shooting for.
  • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

.The major virtues they identified include wisdom / knowledge; courage; humanity; justice; temperance; and transcendence.^ It is surely a noble aim that cannot be attained by everyone except the virtuous and those who are characterized by knowledgeability, liberality, courage, and the like good traits.

^ Aristotle identifies this good as happiness ( eudaimonia ) and argues that it can be achieved through practicing the virtues, qualities which he identifies as courage, wisdom, kindness, and so on.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This flagrant negation of humanity, which constitutes the very essence of the State, is from the point of view of the latter the supreme duty and the greatest virtue: it is called patriotism and it constitutes the transcendent morality of the State.
  • The Immorality of the State 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

Each of these includes several divisions. .For instance humanity includes love, kindness, and social intelligence.^ Because human beings are intelligent and flexible in their behavior, there is good reason to believe that we as a species can move beyond tribalism and include all human beings in the moral sphere.
  • One Book One Northwestern - Northwestern University 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a social organism, the human organism depends for survival on socially intelligent behaviour or moral intelligence.

^ Calling Christianity stupid is not calling you stupid, its saying that Christianity has brainwashed you, and most of its followers, who were born as intelligent, loving, perceptive, sensitive human beings into zombies.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fons Trompenaars, author of Did the Pedestrian Die?, tested members of different cultures with various moral dilemmas.^ Kohlberg therefore interviewed both children and adolescents about moral dilemmas, and he did find stages that go well beyond Piaget's.
  • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Critics of Lewis pointed out cultural differences moral code.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, violence, sex, comedy, etc vary between different individuals, particularly between different cultures.
  • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

.One of these was whether the driver of a car would have his friend, a passenger riding in the car, lie in order to protect the driver from the consequences of driving too fast and hitting a pedestrian.^ For example, would one say that there is a morality of driving a car?
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, it would be perverse and opposed to the natural order for a man to hate his own body and attempt to harm it.
  • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How would these two go about persuading one another?
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

.Trompenaars found that different cultures had quite different expectations (from none to almost certain).^ But our conclusion will differ radically from that of Machiavelli, and the reason thereof is quite simple: we are the sons of the Revolution and we have inherited from it the Religion of Humanity which we have to found upon the ruins of the Religion of Divinity.
  • The Immorality of the State 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, he rejected the relativist view point in favor of the view that certain principles of justice and fairness represent the pinnacle of moral maturity, as he found that these basic moral principles are found in different cultures and subcultures around the world (Kohlberg & Turiel, 1971).
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can get quite far, but in the end one will always come accross cultural and personal aspects, differences in interpretation and individual preferences.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

Evolutionary perspectives

Further:Altruism
.The development of modern morality is a process closely tied to the Sociocultural evolution of humanity, however its roots are probably to be found in our very nature.^ Relational nature of moral development .
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's one of the more uplifting facts of human nature: each of us is born with a powerful moral compass, and this compass constrains our behavior."
  • Morality and War : The Frontal Cortex 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Atheists are human beings also, and we are no less moral simply because we ground our ethics in human nature and the happiness of others rather than unquestioning faith in a set of ancient writings.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some evolutionary biologists, particularly sociobiologists, believe that morality is a product of evolutionary forces acting at an individual level and also at the group level through group selection (though to what degree this actually occurs is a controversial topic in evolutionary theory).^ The new force is not group selection but species selection.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual act of giving an injection or a medication is not in itself evil, even though the intention of the person and of the physician are immoral.
  • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But in removing some of their common support, evolutionary theory would pose a significant challenge to those who had relied on that support (Rachels 1990).
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Some sociobiologists contend that the set of behaviors that constitute morality evolved largely because they provided possible survival and/or reproductive benefits (i.e. increased evolutionary success). Humans consequently evolved "pro-social" emotions, such as feelings of empathy or guilt, in response to these moral behaviors.
.In this respect, morality is not absolute, but relative and constitutes any set of behaviors that encourage human cooperation based on their ideology.^ Following that reasoning, in the course of evolutionary history genes predisposing people toward cooperative behavior would have come to predominate in the human population as a whole.
  • The Evolutionary Origin of Moral Instincts by Aparthib 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.mukto-mona.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If faith-based groups teach morality in public schools, they will have to find a way to cooperate and work together.
  • CRFC Summit public morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.crfc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This flagrant negation of humanity, which constitutes the very essence of the State, is from the point of view of the latter the supreme duty and the greatest virtue: it is called patriotism and it constitutes the transcendent morality of the State.
  • The Immorality of the State 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC dwardmac.pitzer.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Biologists contend that all social animals, from ants to elephants, have modified their behaviors, by restraining selfishness in order to make group living worthwhile.^ Perhaps socialization or mental growth can restrain dishonest behavior after all.
  • The Moral Development of Children - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather, what they observe is conformity due to fear of a parent or authority figure, desire to please a parent or authority figure, desire to conform to group expectations, or determination to uphold the social order.

^ There are other such groups as the Ethical Culture Societies promoting ethical principles that are not based on any religion as a basis for ordering social life.
  • Secular Morality as Inferior 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.qcc.cuny.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Human morality, though sophisticated and complex relative to other animals, is essentially a natural phenomenon that evolved to restrict excessive individualism and foster human cooperation.^ The human individual is the source of all morality.

^ In other words, Christian morality is not relative, as though it were subject to human whim or caprice.
  • Fr. Hardon Archives - Gospel Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.therealpresence.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The natural morality—the natural moral code—is built upon the natural phenomenon of human selfishness.
  • Natural Code of Morality.html 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC www.bobkwebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.On this view, moral codes are ultimately founded on emotional instincts and intuitions that were selected for in the past because they aided survival and reproduction (inclusive fitness).^ Morality is just an aid to survival and reproduction, and any deeper meaning is false.
  • Religion Morality Autonomous 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.qcc.cuny.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s a moral sentimentalism—the view that emotions drive morality.
  • The Believer - Interview with Frans de Waal 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC believermag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard Shweder describes taboos and practices found amongst rural Hindus in India which are quite morally meaningless to Americans, because they are associated with beliefs about pollution which are not shared (Shweder et al, 1987).
  • Communitarianism and the Social Construction of Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples: the maternal bond is selected for because it improves the survival of offspring; the Westermarck effect, where close proximity during early years reduces mutual sexual attraction, underpins taboos against incest because it decreases the likelihood of genetically risky behaviour such as inbreeding.^ This mechanism of “kin selection” can explain how worker bees evolved such apparently ‘selfless’ traits, focused on aiding the queen's survival and reproduction.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A society which goes against the moral feelings of the majority can not survive because too few people would cooperate with it, or at the very least it would function very poorly.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This form of selection is of such special importance because, in contrast with individual selection, cultural group selection may reward altruism and any other virtues that strengthen the group, even at the expense of individuals".
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The phenomenon of 'reciprocity' in nature is seen by evolutionary biologists as one way to begin to understand human morality.^ The natural morality—the natural moral code—is built upon the natural phenomenon of human selfishness.
  • Natural Code of Morality.html 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC www.bobkwebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what law is to human nature, morality is to law.
  • Law and Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC store.equip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is one way to be a truly moral animal."
  • Monkey Morality - An Evaluation of Growing Families International 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC journal.equip.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its function is typically to ensure a reliable supply of essential resources, especially for animals living in a habitat where food quantity or quality fluctuates unpredictably.^ We are willing to spend only modest sums to make food animal lives a bit more enjoyable.

.For example, some vampire bats fail to feed on prey on any given night while others consume a surplus.^ The other night , I spent some time with freinds and we talked about the value of ” story”.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, for example, we would not vote for a law that aids some people but hurts others.
  • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, when some people are suffering while others are reasonably content already, it is morally required to help the former group before increasing the happiness of the latter.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

Bats that have successfully fed then regurgitate part of their blood meal to save a conspecific from starvation. Since these animals live in close-knit groups over many years, an individual can count on other group members to return the favor on nights when it goes hungry (Wilkinson, 1984)
.Marc Bekoff and Jessica Pierce (2009) have argued that morality is a suite of behavioral capacities likely shared by all mammals living in complex social groups (e.g., wolves, coyotes, elephants, dolphins, rats, chimpanzees).^ Although I do not agree with moral relativism, I also do not agree than one type of living is best for all people and all cultures.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you had done ANY reading into animal behavior you would have seen that morality is a natural occurrence that ALL higher life forms have on this planet- including us.
  • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of the evolutionary sequence leading to the development in humans of individual and group moral codes, there are the primitive action programs -- the primitive repertoire of behaviors associated with the emotions.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They define morality as "a suite of interrelated other-regarding behaviors that cultivate and regulate complex interactions within social groups."^ Do they exhibit moral behavior?
  • The Believer - Interview with Frans de Waal 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC believermag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, what they observe is conformity due to fear of a parent or authority figure, desire to please a parent or authority figure, desire to conform to group expectations, or determination to uphold the social order.

^ As noted earlier, moral development has cognitive, affective, and behavioral components, and any one cannot be measured to the exclusion of the other as they are intricately interwoven.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This suite of behaviors includes empathy, reciprocity, altruism, cooperation, and a sense of fairness.^ Even versions of evolutionary ethics which hold that cooperation and reciprocal altruism are our species' nature suffer from this problem.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] .In related work, it has been convincingly demonstrated that chimpanzees show empathy for each other in a wide variety of contexts.^ The show would document the behavior and strategies of two groups under similar conditions—one made up of chimpanzees, the other made up of humans.
  • The Believer - Interview with Frans de Waal 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC believermag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To appropriately assess the needs of others, we have to work with students to develop relational skills such as listening and critical thinking and values such as civility, care and compassion.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just as we see the rudiments of empathy and morality in other closely related primates, we also see habits of war.
  • Morality and War : The Frontal Cortex 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .They also possess the ability to engage in deception, and a level of social 'politics'[11] prototypical of our own tendencies for gossip and reputation management.^ They live in their own constructed (and constricted) reality--which is neither yours nor Ours, amazingly.

^ But to claim a right to assert our own interests without regard to the interests of others is social suicide.

^ But perhaps if we were wiser we’d take the time to examine our own values and determine if they truly ennoble our species.
  • Occam's Razor: Morality Tag Archive 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: Original source]

.Christopher Boehm (1982) has hypothesized that the incremental development of moral complexity throughout hominid evolution was due to the increasing need to avoid disputes and injuries in moving to open savanna and developing stone weapons.^ I wish to argue that something is amiss with the picture that is developing here: group selection cannot explain the evolution of morality, at least not universalistic morality.
  • 20th WCP: Evolutionary Ethics and Biologically Supportable Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence, it appears that a pattern of Authoritative parenting, especially with its focus on open supportive communication, is nurturing of children's moral reasoning development.
  • Fostering Goodness: Teaching Parents to Facilitate Children's Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC parenthood.library.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concept fundamental to the development of any moral capability is seen to be the oneness of humankind, which is reinforced throughout the curriculum.
  • Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC info.bahai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other theories are that increasing complexity was simply a correlate of increasing group size and brain size, and in particular the development of theory of mind abilities.^ Whereas we can safely say that it is part of the prescriptive task for readers of this and other articles about moral development to discourage development toward those particular convictions.
  • Self and Values:An Interactivist Foundation for Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is fed and nurtured by the cognitive development of the child, most notably the child's developing ability to take others' perspectives (Damon, 1988) .
  • Fostering Goodness: Teaching Parents to Facilitate Children's Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC parenthood.library.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Dore, 1985) Research on brain development has provided evidence that language, social and cognitive development are essential aspects of each other.
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Culturally Responsive Education 15 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.nwrel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Richard Dawkins in The God Delusion suggested that our morality is a result of our biological evolutionary history and that the Moral Zeitgeist helps describe how morality evolves from biological and cultural origins and evolves with time within a culture.^ Our moral decisions enable us to become like God, and they enable the brotherhood of man to become a reality on a practical level.

^ The Empirical Sense of ‘Morality’ People coming from a scientific perspective, who are interested in descriptive evolutionary ethics, speak of morality as something to be explained scientifically—as in familiar talk of “how morality evolved”.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, if he/she is aware of this, then he/she is morally obliged to refuse such vaccinations on principle, until such time as they can be obtained from cultures which are morally licit.
  • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

Neuroscientific and psychiatric perspectives

Mirror-neurons

.Research on mirror neurons, since their discovery in 1996[12], suggests that they may have a role to play not only in action understanding, but also in emotion sharing empathy.^ Emotion thus is associated with a tendency to specific action, a readiness for that action -- but the action may be moderated or wholly restrained.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This suggests that arguments of utility do indeed play a large role in morality.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because portfolios are the result of a collaboration between teachers, parents, and children, they play a critical role in helping to develop shared meaning and shared memories.
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Culturally Responsive Education 15 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.nwrel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cognitive neuro-scientist Jean Decety thinks that the ability to recognize and vicariously experience what another individual is undergoing was a key step forward in the evolution of social behavior, and ultimately, morality.^ As noted earlier, moral development has cognitive, affective, and behavioral components, and any one cannot be measured to the exclusion of the other as they are intricately interwoven.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some cultures have a set of behavioral standards based on its own underlying philosophy - and individuals choose a moral code, typically based on the cultures in which they were raised.
  • Can someone create an objective moral code apart from God? - Catholic Answers Forums 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of the evolutionary sequence leading to the development in humans of individual and group moral codes, there are the primitive action programs -- the primitive repertoire of behaviors associated with the emotions.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The inability to feel empathy is one of the defining characteristics of psychopathy, and this would appear to lend support to Decety's view.^ In that case it would be irrational to feel remorse and, at the same time, regard one's actions as justified.
  • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And, just as it would be irrational to belive not-P in the face of strong evidence in favor of P, so too it would be irrational to feel remorse in the face of a strong case that one's actions were justified.
  • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the questions that I feel many people, atheists and theists alike, will probably ask when viewing this proposal for the first time is what makes it objective.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

[14][15]

Neuroimaging

.The explicit making of moral right and wrong judgments benchood links to activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex while as the intuitive reactions to situations containing implicit moral issues activates the temporoparietal junction area.^ When a rational agent makes a judgment, whether in the sphere of morality or in such areas as science, mathematics or philosophy, the proper question is not in the first instance what caused that judgment to occur, but what reasons the person had for making it—for thinking it to be true.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet I feel what I have been saying explains both: Everyone’s belief or morality is right for his or her self because that is what they have chosen, with their free-will, to make right or good by appreciating or loving it.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We tell right and wrong through the process of moral justification.
  • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

[16]

Psychological perspectives

.In modern moral psychology, morality is considered to change through personal development.^ Considering you are the one attempting to influence through name change, it's ironic that you bring up Orwell.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kohlberg also sometimes speaks of change occurring through role-taking opportunities, opportunities to consider others' viewpoints (e.g., 1976).
  • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Student Affairs should consider which programs and services that they provide should have explicit goals for the character and moral development of students.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A number of psychologists have produced theories on the development of morals, usually going through stages of different morals.^ Moral development: Advances in research and theory .
  • Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moral development theory .
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stages of moral development .

.Lawrence Kohlberg, Jean Piaget, and Elliot Turiel have cognitive-developmental approaches to moral development; to these theorists morality forms in a series of constructive stages or domains.^ Their concepts also mirror cognitive and moral developmental stages.
  • Moral Development - Definition, Description, Common problems, Parental concerns, Resources 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cognitive-developmental approach to moral education.
  • Educational Psychology Interactive: Moral and Character Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC chiron.valdosta.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the latter 19 th century moral development was revived as a lively research field led by the cognitive-development approach of Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg.
  • Moral Development - AHA 2007 Preconference - The Humanist Institute 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.humanistinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

.Social psychologists such as Martin Hoffman and Jonathan Haidt emphasize social and emotional development based on biology, such as empathy.^ In fact, research overwhelmingly favors multiage grouping because of its positive effects on children's social and emotional development and on the classroom climate (Cotton, 1993).
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Culturally Responsive Education 15 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.nwrel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So that males have reasons to develop social systems and moral systems that protect the family—emphasizing virginity, emphasizing fidelity, at least for the women, not necessarily for the men, but certainly for the women.
  • The Believer - Interview with Frans de Waal 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC believermag.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Research on children's play has provided abundant evidence that play promotes cognitive, language, and social/emotional development.
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Culturally Responsive Education 15 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.nwrel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moral identity theorists, such as William Damon and Mordechai Nisan, see moral commitment as arising from the development of a self-identity that is defined by moral purposes: this moral self-identity leads to a sense of responsibility to pursue such purposes.^ The player needs to see that their choices truly have an effect on the world, and I think there are a lot of interesting questions developers can pose to the player that allow them to truly explore their own morality.
  • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

^ Day 42 :The baby develops nerve connections that will lead to a sense of smell.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Or perhaps we should see in the forms taken by incipient international morality referred to above, the motivation and purpose which can make inter-societal morality a reality.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of historical interest in psychology are the theories of psychoanalysts such as Sigmund Freud, who believe that moral development is the product of aspects of the super-ego as guilt-shame avoidance.^ Moral development: Advances in research and theory .
  • Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moral development theory .
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We regard such pluralism as a healthy challenge for theories of moral development.
  • Self and Values:An Interactivist Foundation for Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Morality and politics

.If morality is the answer to the question 'how ought we to live' at the individual level, politics can be seen as addressing the same question at the social level.^ Each level represented a fundamental shift in the social-moral perspective of the individual.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The question is this: Why ought I be moral tomorrow?
  • Stand to Reason: Monkey Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.str.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Monkey Morality - An Evaluation of Growing Families International 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC journal.equip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Put differently, political questions are moral questions.
  • Law and Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC store.equip.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is therefore unsurprising that evidence has been found of a relationship between attitudes in morality and politics.^ The evidence is that a great many youths are already seriously confused about the relationship between sex and violence.

^ Instead I hope to simply shed some additional light on aspects of the relationship between law and morality in a pluralistic democratic country with a secular government.
  • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Leo Tolstoy writes, the foundation for Morality is founded on our relationship with the Universe.
  • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jonathan Haidt and Jesse Graham have studied the differences between liberals and conservatives, in this regard.^ Philosophical differences between parents and school personnel regarding educational practices can present challenges to effective collaboration.
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Culturally Responsive Education 15 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.nwrel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][18][19] .Haidt found that Americans who identified as liberals tended to value care and fairness higher than loyalty, respect and purity.^ When teachers model respect and acceptance of children for who they are, children are much more likely to identify with teachers as role models and want to emulate their styles of speech and behavior.
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Culturally Responsive Education 15 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.nwrel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students who developed close friendships in college demonstrated higher levels of moral judgement than students who reported maintaining close friendships from high school did.
  • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A source who served in the division in the past says it is "more liberal than the attorney general and the High Court petitions department."
  • IDF Moral Code Explains Those Photos of Dead Civilians | Jewcy.com 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

.Self-identified conservative Americans valued care and fairness less and the remaining three values more.^ Most Christians' votes are influenced more by economic self-interest than by spiritual and moral values.
  • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The more we crack down on the inessentials, the less good will remains, the more everybody is fighting with everybody else.
  • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyone outside of your own about 150-member in-group: less identifiable as your own group (and so "real people"), more identifiable as non-tribe, so less empathy for them and therefore less caring about what they may experience.
  • Statistical evidence that religion leads to immorality : Pharyngula 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

.Both groups gave care the highest over-all weighting, but conservatives valued fairness the lowest, whereas liberals valued purity the lowest.^ While even the most conservative Christian in Congress would love it if all Americans shared his religious beliefs, what matters more is that they share his values.
  • Occam's Razor: Morality Tag Archive 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Oh it’s so sad that almighty God doesn’t need to stoop down to the level of sinful humans and suffer intensely so that suffering will be of the highest value for humanity to live all their lives generation after generation.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

.Haidt also hypothesizes that the origin of this division in the United States can be traced to geohistorical factors, with conservatism strongest in closely knit, ethnically homogenous communities, in contrast to port-cities, where the cultural mix is greater, thus requiring more liberalism.^ A source who served in the division in the past says it is "more liberal than the attorney general and the High Court petitions department."
  • IDF Moral Code Explains Those Photos of Dead Civilians | Jewcy.com 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

.Group morality develops from shared concepts and beliefs and is often codified to regulate behavior within a culture or community.^ One also wonders if his stages do justice to moral development in many traditional village cultures.
  • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of the evolutionary sequence leading to the development in humans of individual and group moral codes, there are the primitive action programs -- the primitive repertoire of behaviors associated with the emotions.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not surprisingly, I prefer to approach the subject in terms of morality as behavior -- of the individual, of the group or of the group of groups (international society).
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various defined actions come to be called moral or immoral.^ [These are only a few examples of actions that are often consider as immoral but are often treated positively in the moral source book for many people.

^ Others, though moral in speaking the truth, are immoral in their actions and thoughts.
  • Immoral 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.aimwell.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many people are moral for religious reasons, stating their morality comes from the Bible or a sacred text (which, while these books can influence morality, are not written with the intention of defining a moral code.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

.Individuals who choose moral action are popularly held to possess "moral fiber", whereas those who indulge in immoral behavior may be labeled as socially degenerate.^ One variable may simply be the extent to which individuals themselves feel the need to maintain consistency between their moral thoughts and actions (Blasi, 1980, Kohlberg and Candee, 1981).
  • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So to answer those who say that moral justification is rationalization only when it fails, only when the argument is transparently ineffective, I intend to argue that it is rationalization also when it succeeds.
  • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who perform bad actions will be flung head first into Fire: "Are you being repaid for anything other than what you did?"

.The continued existence of a group may depend on widespread conformity to codes of morality; an inability to adjust moral codes in response to new challenges is sometimes credited with the demise of a community (a positive example would be the function of Cistercian reform in reviving monasticism; a negative example would be the role of the Dowager Empress in the subjugation of China to European interests).^ Thus, if the positive utility of an infringement of freedom is 11 times as large as the negative utility, then the action is morally good if we assume a moral ratio of 10, for example.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moral philosophers have long recognized that people have often been led to moral judgments based on self-interest or prejudice, for example, and then rationalized their views, inventing justifications for positions held due to other causes.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Evolutionary precursors to morality among animals include conformity to established group practices and cooperation and care.

.Within nationalist movements, there has been some tendency to feel that a nation will not survive or prosper without acknowledging one common morality, regardless of in what it consists.^ If within a species there is variation among individuals in their hereditary traits, and some traits are more conducive to survival and reproduction than others, then those traits will (obviously) become more widespread within the population.
  • Stand to Reason: Monkey Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.str.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Without some standard against which to measure our definitions, how can one of us say the other is wrong?
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let’s all agree that in this human experience, regardless of where it comes from, there really is this common recognition of inherent, essential morality revealed by our relation to narrative and story (a naturalist perspective) 2.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

.Political Morality is also relevant to the behaviour internationally of national governments, and to the support they receive from their host population.^ They wanted the nation to be moral.
  • Law and Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC store.equip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Abortion , Babies , Children , Culture , Family , Government , Life , Morality , Outreach , Parenting , Parents , Politics , Results , Social action , Social conditions , Social gospel , Social justice , Values .
  • Search Illustrations: ""Morality"" | PreachingToday.com 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.preachingtoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors of the Bill of Rights were clearly concerned that government not abrogate moral rights that were not specifically listed in the Bill of Rights, and they were concerned that moral rights not specifically listed were known to be still outside the province of government interference or usurpation.
  • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

Noam Chomsky states that [20][21]
... if we adopt the principle of universality : if an action is right .(or wrong) for others, it is right (or wrong) for us.^ The Ayn Rand Center for Individual Rights For Students Other Sites Contact Us Bookstore Search .
  • The Ayn Rand Center for Individual Rights: Religion 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC religion.aynrand.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without some standard against which to measure our definitions, how can one of us say the other is wrong?
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It makes us feel as if we have done something that's wrong or something that's right.
  • Stand to Reason: Monkey Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.str.org [Source type: Original source]

.Those who do not rise to the minimal moral level of applying to themselves the standards they apply to others -- more stringent ones, in fact -- plainly cannot be taken seriously when they speak of appropriateness of response; or of right and wrong, good and evil.^ Would they be right or wrong?
  • Apologetics: Is Morality Relative? 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.truthnet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One cannot do evil that good may come of it.
  • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No one is all good or all evil.
  • What is Morality? - Issues 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.chabad.org [Source type: Original source]

.In fact, one of the, maybe the most, elementary of moral principles is that of universality, that is, If something's right for me, it's right for you; if it's wrong for you, it's wrong for me.^ Suppose that our present moral sense finds that the morality of early Christianity is one-sided does (or would) that fact show that we are at issue with Christianity?
  • Francis Herbert Bradley "An Unpublished Note on Christian Morality" 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.anthonyflood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wrong” is not merely something that is unhelpful to the species in these instances, but a violation of something in humanity that is objectively, universally, almost sacredly, inviolate.
  • Rad Geek People’s Daily 1998-01-29 – Morality and Atheism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC radgeek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If it turns out you did something wrong, you can get off the hook by pleading ignorance, claiming to be a victim, or denying it ever happened.
  • What Is "Morality"? 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.livereal.com [Source type: Original source]

.Any moral code that is even worth looking at has that at its core somehow.^ So, even for these anthropologists “morality” does not often refer to every code of conduct put forward by a society.
  • The Definition of Morality (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But, even if that was the case, humans routinely create artificial entities and subgroups where they can slough-off their morals routinely and separate a personal code from the group code.
  • Morality and War : The Frontal Cortex 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A moral code that even the founder can't follow is seriously flawed.
  • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

Moral codes

.Codified morality is generally distinguished from custom, another way for a community to define appropriate activity, by the former's derivation from natural or universal principles.^ If a moral philosopher asks “whence morality,” she is more likely to be concerned with the justification of moral principles or the source and nature of obligation.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Chiefly it refers to the ultimate reality of nirvana, the law or nature of the universe, the moral life, right conduct and teaching, and the insights of enlightened understanding.
  • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was claimed earlier on, based on the pragmatic principle, that any worthy moral system must be able to derive principles of justice and authority.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.In certain religious communities, the Divine is said to provide these principles through revelation, sometimes in great detail.^ Nor can personal revelation be a reliable guide - how, even in principle, could one ever distinguish a true communication of God from the prompting of one's own subconscious?
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.Such codes may be called laws, as in the Law of Moses, or community morality may be defined through commentary on the texts of revelation, as in Islamic law.^ Beyond this, morality may be concretized as law.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since such sacrifice was prescribed in the legal code, its (correct) usage would be perfectly legal—within that system of law.

^ A natural code of morality can be built upon Thomas Jefferson's general conception of law: The essence of all law is that no man should injure another; all the rest is commentary.
  • Natural Code of Morality.html 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC www.bobkwebsite.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such codes are distinguished from legal or judicial right, including civil rights, which are based on the accumulated traditions, decrees and legislation of a political authority, though these latter often invoke the authority of the moral law.^ Since such sacrifice was prescribed in the legal code, its (correct) usage would be perfectly legal—within that system of law.

^ Guilt was something that God could legally (under His revealed Law) transfer to another, given such a request by a repentant forgiveness-seeker.

^ Is the Bible a moral code in that it gives us the set of principles that should govern our lives and the laws we create….yes.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

.Morality can also be seen as the collection of beliefs as to what constitutes a good life.^ Yet I feel what I have been saying explains both: Everyone’s belief or morality is right for his or her self because that is what they have chosen, with their free-will, to make right or good by appreciating or loving it.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good morals and behaviour make our life easy and creates a good society to live in.

^ I have been the Christian before, I have seen the affect God can have on one’s morals and beliefs so I understand the position he is coming from.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since throughout most of human history, religions have provided both visions and regulations for an ideal life, morality is often confused with religious precepts.^ For most of human history, the majority has held that the source - not just a source, but the only source - of morality is religion.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It worked for most of human history.
  • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This point of divergence is a fundamental difference in the way this moral system and most theistic ones view human life and refutes any naive claims that one was straightforwardly borrowed from the other.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

In secular communities, lifestyle choices, which represent an individual's conception of the good life, are often discussed in terms of "morality." Individuals sometimes feel that making an appropriate lifestyle choice invokes a true morality, and that accepted codes of conduct within their chosen community are fundamentally moral, even when such codes deviate from more general social principles.
.Moral codes are often complex definitions of moral and immoral that are based upon well-defined value systems.^ Who owns the definition of the terms “morals” and “ethics”….I dunno, but in this schema that set of inherent principles would most likely be defined as morals or ethics.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem I see with atheism is how they base any objective moral code.
  • Can someone create an objective moral code apart from God? - Catholic Answers Forums 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some cultures have a set of behavioral standards based on its own underlying philosophy - and individuals choose a moral code, typically based on the cultures in which they were raised.
  • Can someone create an objective moral code apart from God? - Catholic Answers Forums 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although some people might think that a moral code is simple, rarely is there anything simple about one's values, ethics, etc.^ If morality is about treating people well, what need is there for religion?

^ These are some thoughts I'm thinking about.
  • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

^ I don't think there is enough room in the jails as it is, let alone with you putting away doctors and mothers who want abortions (who probably have families of their own to care for - what do you plan on doing about those people?
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

or, for that matter, the judgment of those of others. .The difficulty lies in the fact that morals are often part of a religion and more often than not about culture codes.^ No more fairy tales about moral codes.
  • IDF Moral Code Explains Those Photos of Dead Civilians | Jewcy.com 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC www.jewcy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have FACTS to PROVE we are more moral than you guys, as a group.
  • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm perfectly fine with a game that presents players with moral grey areas - in fact, I wish more games would do this.
  • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

.Sometimes, moral codes give way to legal codes, which couple penalties or corrective actions with particular practices.^ Since such sacrifice was prescribed in the legal code, its (correct) usage would be perfectly legal—within that system of law.

^ Is the Bible a moral code in that it gives us the set of principles that should govern our lives and the laws we create….yes.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first point against this system is that moral relativism gives us no motivation to better ourselves or our society, no motivation to search for and correct systemic wrongs.
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

.Note that while many legal codes are merely built on a foundation of religious and/or cultural moral codes, oftentimes they are one and the same.^ They are one and the same for me.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One possibility is that the activity they were engaged with was non-cognitive : they were merely expressing non-cognitive states comprising attitudes and states of norm acceptance.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, if he/she is aware of this, then he/she is morally obliged to refuse such vaccinations on principle, until such time as they can be obtained from cultures which are morally licit.
  • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

.Examples of moral codes include the Golden Rule; the Five Precepts and the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism (see Śīla); the ancient Egyptian code of Ma'at ;the ten commandments of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; the yamas and niyama of the Hindu scriptures; the ten Indian commandments; and the principle of the Dessek.^ Is the Bible a moral code in that it gives us the set of principles that should govern our lives and the laws we create….yes.
  • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem I see with atheism is how they base any objective moral code.
  • Can someone create an objective moral code apart from God? - Catholic Answers Forums 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The golden rule is the principle of the practice of the family of God.

.Another related concept is the moral core which is assumed to be innate in each individual, to those who accept that differences between individuals are more important than posited Creators or their rules.^ The relation between emotion, empathy and morality is important.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Life is more important than property.
  • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Individual morality - the relation to emotion 4.
  • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This, in some religious systems and beliefs (e.g.^ Some would define it through a theologic or religious faith belief.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All laws, regardless of their content or their intent, arise from a system of values, from a belief that some things are right and others wrong, that some things are good and others bad, that some things are better and others worse.
  • Law and Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC store.equip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Children in this stage understand the panoply of religious or divine beings within the religious belief system.
  • Moral Development - Definition, Description, Common problems, Parental concerns, Resources 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taoism, Moralism and Gnosticism), is assumed to be the basis of all aesthetics and thus moral choice.^ Thus, morality is always a choice based on how an individual feels.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, on the basis of various standards the libertarian morality is better than alternative moralities.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, not P. With X representing the consequences that I listed in my Critique Of Atheism ( no free will, no moral obligation, no moral responsibility, all choices of belief are equally arbitrary , etc.
  • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moral codes as such are therefore seen as coercive—part of human politics.^ Just as we could never live just like bees, bees could never live just like humans, and no reasonable morality would demand such a thing.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Any moral system that ultimately rests on external authority is no moral system at all (such a system would suffer from the Euthyphro dilemma, which is laid out in Part 5 ).
  • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, your argument seems to be like this: The timeline for development is such and such, therefore human life begins at conception.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

Moral psychology

Religiosity and morality

.In the scientific literature, the degree of religiosity is generally found to be associated with higher ethical attitudes.^ In general the problem is this: Consider any function over the material state of the world F(W) so that an act is ethically good to the degree that it maximizes the value of this function.
  • The Secular Outpost: Atheists have no basis for morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC secularoutpost.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Although a recent study by Gregory S. Paul published in the Journal of Religion and Society argues for a positive correlation between the degree of public religiosity in a society and certain measures of dysfunction [23], an analysis published later in the same journal contends that a number of methodological problems undermine any findings or conclusions to be taken from the research.^ Kseniya: "Regardless, I think what we're really seeing is positive correlation between political conservatism and endorsement of torture."
  • Statistical evidence that religion leads to immorality : Pharyngula 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Ruminatively and conclusively, although I’m someone who likes to meditate on 1 Cor 13 and study Old Testament law, in the end life teaches morality.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I find great many things “not a problem” in the public sense.
  • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

[24] In another response, Gary Jensen builds on and refines Paul's study.[25] .His conclusion, after carrying out elaborate multivariate statistical studies, is that a complex relationship exists between religiosity and homicide with some dimensions of religiosity encouraging homicide and other dimensions discouraging it."^ Instead I hope to simply shed some additional light on aspects of the relationship between law and morality in a pluralistic democratic country with a secular government.
  • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not sufficient because many laws are too complex, too arcane, or too numerous for someone other than an expert to understand them or, in some cases, even know that they exist.
  • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is not to say we shouldn’t try, but to elaborate on what I think is one of the major contributions of anthropology to the study of moral values: not the often touted “moral relativism” of anthropology (which doesn’t really exist), but our understanding of the complexity of moral values.
  • Morality and Anthropology | Savage Minds 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC savageminds.org [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, other studies seem to show positive links in the relationship between religiosity and moral behavior[26][27][28]—for example, surveys suggesting a positive connection between faith and altruism.^ Blasi (1980), after reviewing 75 studies, concludes that overall there is a relationship between moral thought and action, but he suggests that we need to introduce other variables to clarify this relationship.
  • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, if the positive utility of an infringement of freedom is 11 times as large as the negative utility, then the action is morally good if we assume a moral ratio of 10, for example.
  • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moral philosophers have long recognized that people have often been led to moral judgments based on self-interest or prejudice, for example, and then rationalized their views, inventing justifications for positions held due to other causes.
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

[29] .Modern research in criminology also acknowledges an inverse relationship between religion and crime,[30] with many studies establishing this beneficial connection (though some claim it is a modest one).^ If religion is the establishing of a relationship between man and the universe, then morality is the indication and explanation of those activities that automatically result when a person maintains one or other relationship to the universe.
  • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the citizens of Reggio Emilia acknowledge, the process of maintaining a dialogue between parents and teachers is one "which is and should be complicated" (Malaguzzi, 1993, p.
  • Developmentally Appropriate and Culturally Responsive Education 15 September 2009 4:39 UTC www.nwrel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the contrary, the embargo against Iraq has caused the death of many children, estimated by some as many as one million.
  • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] .Indeed, a meta-analysis of 60 studies on religion and crime concluded, “religious behaviors and beliefs exert a moderate deterrent effect on individuals’ criminal behavior”.^ Each individual has a right to his or her own religious beliefs.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Harold Koenig's "The Link between Religion and Health" and Arthur Brooks's "Who Really Cares" quote dozens of scientific studies that document both the physical and ethical benefits of religious belief.
  • The Secular Outpost: Atheists have no basis for morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC secularoutpost.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only real question is how strong the positive effect of religion is, and I trust scientific studies will keep clarifying this matter.
  • The Secular Outpost: Atheists have no basis for morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC secularoutpost.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

[32]

Religion as a source of moral authority

.Many religions provide moral guidelines for their followers.^ Most philosophers today would say something similar about a moral belief still held by many people, especially within traditional religions: .
  • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many philosophers and religions in the past have deduced the morality for how we are to live from the Interconnection and Unity of the Universe .
  • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea of consequences establishing morality is the interpretive Biblical definition of right and wrong that I follow and many people I know follow.
  • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

.They believe that God has instructed them with a way to live, and that following these "rules" will lead to oneness with God.^ Women are the ones that suffer with these "rules".
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Church rules are more hurtful though, since they claim to be based on the "truth and loving word of God".
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a shame that this church imposes these conditions on their own members, but it is an unforgiveable travesty that they attempt, and somtimes succeed, to impose their rules on society as a whole.
  • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Definition of Morality (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  2. ^ Ethics vs morality - the distinction between ethics and morals
  3. ^ Ethics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
  4. ^ Moral Relativism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  5. ^ Green, Celia (2004). Letters from Exile: Observations on a Culture in Decline. Oxford: Oxford Forum. Chapters I-XX.
  6. ^ "When Morality Opposes Justice: Conservatives Have Moral Intuitions that Liberals may not Recognize", Haidt and Graham (<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11211-007-0034-z">doi:10.1007/s11211-007-0034-z</a>)
  7. ^ Peterson, Christopher, and Martin E. P. Seligman. Character Strengths and Virtues. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  8. ^ Shermer, Michael. "Transcendent Morality". The Science of Good and Evil. ISBN 0805075208. http://books.google.com/books?id=eevvWAcMBaAC&pg=PA19&dq=shermer+exegesis&ei=EIC1SNOiE4uWyATTmaj2Bg&sig=ACfU3U3KFh8kP8Ns8-YgpqBuI03N1JrpEg. 
  9. ^ Bekoff, Marc and Jessica Pierce Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press 2009)
  10. ^ O’Connell, Sanjida (July 1995). "Empathy in chimpanzees: Evidence for theory of mind?". Primates 36 (3): 397–410. doi:10.1007/BF02382862. ISSN 0032-8332. 
  11. ^ Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals.
  12. ^ Giacomo Rizzolatti et al. (1996). Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions, Cognitive Brain Research 3 131–141
  13. ^ If It Feels Good to Be Good, It Might Be Only Natural - washingtonpost.com
  14. ^ de Wied M, Goudena PP, Matthys W (2005). "Empathy in boys with disruptive behavior disorders". Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines 46 (8): 867–80. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00389.x. PMID 16033635. 
  15. ^ Fernandez YM, Marshall WL (2003). "Victim empathy, social self-esteem, and psychopathy in rapists". Sexual abuse : a journal of research and treatment 15 (1): 11–26. doi:10.1023/A:1020611606754. PMID 12616926. 
  16. ^ Harenski CL, Antonenko O, Shane MS, Kiehl KA. (2010). A functional imaging investigation of moral deliberation and moral intuition. Neuroimage. 49: 2707–2716. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.10.062 PMID 19878727
  17. ^ Haidt, Jonathan and Graham, Jesse (2006). When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize (DOC) Social Justice Research.
  18. ^ Morality: 2012: Online Only Video: The New Yorker
  19. ^ Why conservatives and liberals talk past each other on moral issues. | Dangerous Intersection
  20. ^ Chomsky, Noam (2002-07-02). "Terror and Just Response". ZNet. http://www.zmag.org/znet/viewArticle/11934. 
  21. ^ Schivone, Gabriel Matthew (2007-08-03). "On Responsibility, War Guilt and Intellectuals". Counterpunch. http://www.counterpunch.org/schivone08032007.html.  Interview.
  22. ^ As is expressed in the review of literature on this topic by: Conroy, S.J. and Emerson, T.L.N. (2004). "Business Ethics and Religion: Religiosity as a Predictor of Ethical Awareness Among Students". Journal of Business Ethics 50 (4): 383--396. doi:10.1023/B:BUSI.0000025040.41263.09.  DOI:10.1023/B:BUSI.0000025040.41263.09
  23. ^ Paul, Gregory S. (2005). "Cross-National Correlations of Quantifiable Societal Health with Popular Religiosity and Secularism in the Prosperous Democracies: A First Look". Journal of Religion and Society (Baltimore, Maryland) 7. http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/2005/2005-11.html. 
  24. ^ Gerson Moreno-Riaño; Mark Caleb Smith, Thomas Mach (2006). "Religiosity, Secularism, and Social Health". Journal of Religion and Society (Cedarville University) 8. http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/2006/2006-1.html. 
  25. ^ Gary F. Jensen (2006) Department of Sociology, Vanderbilt University Religious Cosmologies and Homicide Rates among Nations: A Closer Look http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/2006/2006-7.html http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/pdf/2006-7.pdf Journal of Religion and Society, Volume 8, ISSN 1522-5658 http://purl.org/JRS
  26. ^ KERLEY, KENT R., MATTHEWS, TODD L. & BLANCHARD, TROY C. (2005) Religiosity, Religious Participation, and Negative Prison Behaviors. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44 (4), 443–457. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00296.x
  27. ^ SAROGLOU, VASSILIS, PICHON, ISABELLE, TROMPETTE, LAURENCE, VERSCHUEREN, MARIJKE & DERNELLE, REBECCA (2005) Prosocial Behavior and Religion: New Evidence Based on Projective Measures and Peer Ratings. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 44 (3), 323–348. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00289.x
  28. ^ Regnerus, Mark D. & Burdette, Amy (2006) RELIGIOUS CHANGE AND ADOLESCENT FAMILY DYNAMICS. The Sociological Quarterly 47 (1), 175–194. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2006.00042.x
  29. ^ eg a survey by Robert Putnam showing that membership of religious groups was positively correlated with membership of voluntary organisations
  30. ^ As is stated in: Doris C. Chu (2007). Religiosity and Desistance From Drug Use. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2007; 34; 661 originally published online Mar 7, 2007; DOI: 10.1177/0093854806293485
  31. ^ For example:
    • Albrecht, S. I., Chadwick, B. A., & Alcorn, D. S. (1977). Religiosity and deviance:Application of an attitude-behavior contingent consistency model. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 16, 263–274.
    • Burkett, S.,& White, M. (1974). Hellfire and delinquency:Another look. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,13,455–462.
    • Chard-Wierschem, D. (1998). In pursuit of the “true” relationship: A longitudinal study of the effects of religiosity on delinquency and substance abuse. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Dissertation.
    • Cochran, J. K.,& Akers, R. L. (1989). Beyond hellfire:An explanation of the variable effects of religiosity on adolescent marijuana and alcohol use. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 26, 198–225.
    • Evans, T. D.,Cullen, F. T.,Burton, V. S.,Jr.,Dunaway, R. G.,Payne, G. L.,& Kethineni, S. R. (1996). Religion, social bonds, and delinquency. Deviant Behavior, 17, 43–70.
    • Grasmick, H. G., Bursik, R. J., & Cochran, J. K. (1991). “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s”: Religiosity and taxpayer’s inclinations to cheat. The Sociological Quarterly, 32, 251–266.
    • Higgins, P. C., & Albrecht, G. L. (1977). Hellfire and delinquency revisited. Social Forces, 55, 952–958.
    • Johnson, B. R.,Larson, D. B.,DeLi,S.,& Jang, S. J. (2000). Escaping from the crime of inner cities:Church attendance and religious salience among disadvantaged youth. Justice Quarterly, 17, 377–391.
    • Johnson, R. E., Marcos, A. C., & Bahr, S. J. (1987). The role of peers in the complex etiology of adolescent drug use. Criminology, 25, 323–340.
    • Powell, K. (1997). Correlates of violent and nonviolent behavior among vulnerable inner-city youths. Family and Community Health, 20, 38–47.
  32. ^ Baier, C. J.,& Wright, B. R. (2001). “If you love me, keep my commandments”:A meta-analysis of the effect of religion on crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency,38,3–21.
  33. ^ Stace, Walter T. (1937, Reprinted 1975 by permission of MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc.). The Concept of Morals. New York: The MacMillan Company. ISBN 0-8446-2990-1. 

Bibliography

  • Walker, Martin G. LIFE! Why We Exist...And What We Must Do to Survive (LIFE Why We Exist... .Wiki Book Page) ([1] Web Site), Dog Ear Publishing, 2006, ISBN 1-59858-243-7
  • Trompenaars, Fons.^ You are welcome to use images and text, but please reference them with a link to relevant web page on this site.
    • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Daylight Atheism ][ The Atheism Pages: Home ][ Updates ][ Site Map ][ Links ][ Resources ][ Book Reviews ][ Feedback ] .
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    Did the Pedestrian Die? ISBN 1-84112-436-2

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Morality is the notion of right and wrong conducts.^ By “moral” we mean those aspects of thought and behavior that relate to commonly accepted notions of right and wrong, and to selfish and unselfish actions.

^ Absolute morality just sugar coats it by asserting that the police were right and the criminal was wrong.
  • Relative morality - GOD STILL LOVES US 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC godstilllovesus.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Absolute morality* asserts that there is an absolute definition of right and an absolute definition of wrong which apply to all people at all times, even if they are unaware of it.
  • Relative morality - GOD STILL LOVES US 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC godstilllovesus.org [Source type: Original source]

Sourced

.
  • MORALITY: A traditional code of decency that went out the window about the same time as belief in eternal damnation.^ Note that the same is true of people's beliefs about any other topic -- e.g.
    • Philosophy, et cetera: Society and Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When you tell me your game is about consequences, but in the end my decisions work out to roughly the same thing, then you have lied to me.
    • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Subhan:  "Perhaps they simply find that their wants have changed; brains do change over time.  Perhaps they have formed a verbal belief about what they want, which they have discovered to be mistaken.
    • Less Wrong: Is Morality Preference? 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC lesswrong.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Morality is character and conduct such as is required by the circle or community in which the man's life happens to be placed.^ However, this guide is correctly referred to as a morality only when the individual would be willing for others to adopt that code of conduct, but does not require that they do so, and so does not judge them to be immoral if they do not adopt it.
    • The Definition of Morality (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If we can identify an integrating purpose, then morality -- as a way of conducting life to achieve the purpose -- becomes rationally defensible.
    • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chiefly it refers to the ultimate reality of nirvana, the law or nature of the universe, the moral life, right conduct and teaching, and the insights of enlightened understanding.
    • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It shows how much good men require of us.^ A good moral theory also shows how morality is related to our more general values and to impartiality and rationality.
    • http://aristotle.tamu.edu/~rasmith/Courses/251/gert-paper.html 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC aristotle.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This just shows how much anti-choicers are really not about life, but about making sure that women who have sex pay the price for doing so.
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I don't see how it's going to do much good, when one tyrant leaves office to be replaced with another tyrant that does all the same things the former one did.
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Morality's not practical.^ This seems to me to be a false dichotomy because socially accepted practices, even when immoral, are generally accepted because they are thought to be morally correct, or morally acceptable, practices.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Life and Action: Elementary Structures of Practice and Practical Thought .

    Morality's a gesture. A complicated gesture learnt from books. .
  • All systems of morality are fine.^ Any moral system that ultimately rests on external authority is no moral system at all (such a system would suffer from the Euthyphro dilemma, which is laid out in Part 5 ).
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That morality is a public system does not mean that everyone always agrees on all of their moral judgments, but only that all disagreements occur within a framework of agreement.
    • The Definition of Morality (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Obert:  "All right; suppose I get into a moral argument with a man from a society that practices female circumcision.  I do not think our argument is about the consequences to the woman; the argument is about the morality of these consequences."
    • Less Wrong: Is Morality Preference? 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC lesswrong.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The gospel alone has exhibited a complete assemblage of the principles of morality, divested of all absurdity.^ Hence the ideas of property become necessary in all civil society: Hence justice derives its usefulness to the public: And hence alone arises its merit and moral obligation.
    • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The traditional principles of Catholic morality manifestly forbid all use of nuclear weapons in time of war.
    • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am sick and tired of sanctimonous fools who lecture us all the while diplsaying their complete unadequacy as moral beings.
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is not composed, like your creed, of a few common-place sentences put into bad verse.^ "Now after that experience, I was on a high that I can't put into words, a feeling like I was back with God on Paradise.

    ^ He's in a much smaller capacity than them but I definitely am pissed about him still clinging to some of the secretive policies that the Bush cabal put into place.
    • Statistical evidence that religion leads to immorality : Pharyngula 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I have spent many years studying the Bible, so the first place I would like to start is with your source document.
    • Jeff Schweitzer: Morality Originates in Religion...Not 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    .Do you wish to see that which is really sublime?^ Do you really not see how dishonest that is?
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You really don't see how patronizing that perspective is, do you?
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (George Orwell) You must be the change you wish to see in the world.
    • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    Repeat the Lord's Prayer.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. .419.
  • Everything's got a moral, if only you can find it.^ Depending how you look at it, Voldemort is either Bellatrix's morality pet or a subversion, since her love for him only makes her more Ax Crazy .
    • Morality Pet - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In fact, a person can only find fame and honour in the sight of Allah, Who reveals that that can only come by living the morality of the Qur'an.

    ^ Vera, I agree with Richard that you're only looking at half of the story of moral justification.
    • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • There are two principles of established acceptance in morals; first, that self-interest is the mainspring of all of our actions, and secondly, that utility is the test of their value.^ Let’s all agree that in this human experience, regardless of where it comes from, there really is this common recognition of inherent, essential morality revealed by our relation to narrative and story (a naturalist perspective) 2.
    • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Moralities are sets of behaviours designed to protect the social group from individual self-interest.
    • emergent morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.genomicon.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thus, if the positive utility of an infringement of freedom is 11 times as large as the negative utility, then the action is morally good if we assume a moral ratio of 10, for example.
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The system of morality which Socrates made it the business of his life to teach was raised upon the firm basis of religion.^ In opposition to this, universal utilitarianism - the basis of an atheist's morality - is a system that respects human intelligence and decency.
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Just rambling here, but I can’t think of any other belief system, moral code, life experience that works as well.
    • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ruminatively and conclusively, although I’m someone who likes to meditate on 1 Cor 13 and study Old Testament law, in the end life teaches morality.
    • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The first principles of virtuous conduct which are common to all mankind are, according to this excellent moralist, laws of God; and the conclusive argument by which he supports this opinion is, that no man departs from these principles with impunity.^ I have no argument at all for this claim.
    • http://aristotle.tamu.edu/~rasmith/Courses/251/gert-paper.html 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC aristotle.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ First of all, this ethical system is not universal by virtue of existing independently of us.
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of course if what's pernicious about moral justification is that it absolves us I am worried about (moral) justification because it just results in irresolvable arguments and incorrect conclusions, these results in harm.
    • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

  • Socrates taught that true felicity is not to be derived from external possessions, but from wisdom, which consists in the knowledge and practice of virtue; that the cultivation of virtuous manners is necessarily attended with pleasure as well as profit; that the honest man alone is happy; and that it is absurd to attempt to separate things which are in nature so closely united as virtue and interest.^ Aristotle identifies this good as happiness ( eudaimonia ) and argues that it can be achieved through practicing the virtues, qualities which he identifies as courage, wisdom, kindness, and so on.
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Consequently, it would be perverse and opposed to the natural order for a man to hate his own body and attempt to harm it.
    • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It must have been obvious that in all we have hitherto said, we have not attempted to enjoin anything,we have only set forth the manner in which things happen in the animal world and amongst mankind.
    • Yelah.net - Anarchist Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.yelah.net [Source type: Original source]

  • It is the dutiful disposition of each person to spread morality outside of himself to the best of his ability and knowledge, i.e., to see to it that everyone has the same disposition he has ...^ As far as reinforcing moral values within video games is concerned, I wish everyone the best of luck.
    • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But at the same time we teach him physiology that he may understand the functions of his lungs, and himself choose the posture he knows to be the best.
    • Yelah.net - Anarchist Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.yelah.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This kind of impartiality does not require that we break a moral rule only when we would will that everyone actually break the rule in the same circumstances.
    • http://aristotle.tamu.edu/~rasmith/Courses/251/gert-paper.html 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC aristotle.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It follows from this that the overall end of the moral community as a whole is to produce unanimity concerning matters of morality.^ What matters is what Christians do in real life, and as the examples which follow this top cell will show, their reality falls far short of their claims, leading to a question: what good is a morality if nobody follows it?
    • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But notice that this definition makes > disagreement irrelevant concerning the moral truth of the matter.
    • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Johann Gottlieb Fichte, in The System of Ethics : According to the Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre (2005), p.329
  • Morality rests upon a sense of obligation; and obligation has no meaning except as implying a Divine command, without which it would cease to be.^ I believe the ground of morality rests upon something I call "the moral sense."
    • What is Morality? - Issues 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.chabad.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Without morality probably no civilization would be possible.
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Am I defending moral relativism, in the sense that one morality is no better or worse than another, by observing that morality is subjective and emotional?
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    • James Anthony Froude, reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895), p. .419.
  • Opinions alter, manners change, creeds rise and fall, but the moral law is written on the tablets of eternity.^ There are rabbis as knowledgeable and as moral as I who maintain that the law is the law, that the Biblical verses of Leviticus cannot, must not, dare not be changed.
    • Valley Beth Shalom Welcomes You! 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.vbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Alternative to Holding that Law Ought to be Moral or Enforce/Reflect Morality: The conventional wisdom in America is that one should obey the law until one can get it changed.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Substituting laws for moral principles only changes the locus of the disagreement from being about what the right thing to do is to being about what the right legislation ought to be, or about what the right verdict ought to be when the law itself is not clearly definitive.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    For every false word or unrighteous deed, for cruelty and oppression, for lust or vanity, the price has to be paid at last.
    • James Anthony Froude, in the lecture "The Science of History" (5 February 1864); published in Representative Essays (1885) by George Haven Putnam, p. .274; John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton quoted the first sentence of this an address of 1895, and this has often been misattributed to him.
  • Why do you not judge for yourselves what is right?^ For example, children are asked if Heinz had a right to steal the drug, if he was violating the druggist's rights, and what sentence the judge should give him once he was caught.
    • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The point is that without the first part of the sentence quoted from Michah , the exhortation "...to do justice and to love mercy..."
    • What is Morality? - Issues 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.chabad.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Glenn-- noticing for the first time that the Judge's gentle, warm manner reminds him of Jesus-- grudgingly responds: .

  • Morality is a venereal disease. Its primary stage is called virtue; its secondary stage, boredom; its tertiary stage, syphilis.
    • Karl Kraus, "The Riehl Case" in Die Fackel; also in Karl Kraus (1971) by Harry Zohn, p. .47,
  • Morality without religion is only a kind of dead reckoning, — an endeavor to find our place on a cloudy sea by measuring the distance we have run, but without any observation of the heavenly bodies.^ Without some standard against which to measure our definitions, how can one of us say the other is wrong?
    • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But "no," all religiously based values don't have an a priori place in our public morality..
    • Religious Belief and Public Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC archives.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We must work to find ways to avoid abortions without otherwise violating our faith.
    • Religious Belief and Public Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC archives.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • Morality is the theory that every human act must be either right or wrong, and that 99% of them are wrong.^ You are morally wronged either way.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Right and wrong is subjective in every scenario.
    • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nevertheless, the wifes right to live is a moral right that must be protected.
    • Kohlberg's Moral Stages 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC faculty.plts.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • Bad company ruins good morals.^ If morality must have an absolute grounding point, then that grounding point is this: That which decreases pain and suffering is good; that which increases pain and suffering is bad.
    • Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jcnot4me.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think the more interesting morality is where the morally correct choice leads to bad consequences and where an amoral choice leads to good consequences.
    • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ah, but according to relative morality, that's just it; _we define_ what is good and what is bad.
    • Relative morality - GOD STILL LOVES US 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC godstilllovesus.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • I say quite deliberately that the Christian religion, as organized in its churches, has been and still is the principal enemy of moral progress in the world.^ The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization The Roman Catholic church is the oldest and largest Christian denomination on the planet.
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From this same article, I could say that 58% of non-church-goers place a greater importance on the comfort of enemy combatants than on the lives of American citizens .
    • Statistical evidence that religion leads to immorality : Pharyngula 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I like to believe that the Church is slowly starting to open up after centuries of rigid thinking (due mostly to international pressure), but then I look at the score and realize they're still a far cry from a progressive organization.
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • My thesis is that morality exists outside the human mind in the sense of being not just a trait of individual humans, but a human trait; that is, a human universal.^ He is still a human being.
    • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Does absolute/universal morality exist?
    • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Or the concept of something existing outside of the universe?
    • Can someone create an objective moral code apart from God? - Catholic Answers Forums 15 September 2009 23:22 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

Unsourced

.
  • Never let your sense of morals get in the way of doing what's right.^ And in what way is saving them "doing what is right"?
    • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

    ^ So now it is time for someone else to have a go…Perhaps [biologists] can eventually do what philosophers have never managed, and explain moral behavior in an intellectually satisfying way.
    • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I say that morality trumps law in that I think doing the morally right act is always at least our prima facie obligation.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • In cases of doubtful morality, it is usual to say, Is there any harm in doing this?^ I say that morality trumps law in that I think doing the morally right act is always at least our prima facie obligation.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If we choose the first option, then we are saying that there is a moral standard external to God, and that is this standard, and not God himself, that determines what is good; God would simply be relaying this information to us.
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For example, would one say that there is a morality of driving a car?
    • OBJECTIVE MORALITY 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.percepp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This question may sometimes be best answered by asking ourselves another: Is there any harm in letting it alone?^ On May 19, 1886 in answer to two questions posed by the bishops, the Church forbade the joining of cremation societies which were for the most part of Masonic origin and spirit, and it was further condemned to request cremation of ones own body or the body of another.
    • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We have no evidence that there is another life beyond this one, that a higher power is letting wrongs happen to serve the greater good, or that there is a guarantee that justice will be done in the end.
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But if the question is genuine, and we find ourselves asking it, then rational inquiry is our only hope to an answer.
    • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • I do not believe in the immortality of the individual, and I consider ethics to be an exclusively human concern without any superhuman authority behind it.^ I do not believe in immortality of the individual, and I consider ethics to be an exclusively human concern with no superhuman authority behind it.
    • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A moral choice that has no grounding in human concerns, that could not be defended without recourse to the will of a deity, would be in error.
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He writes 'I believe in Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings.'
    • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • A man's moral conscience is the curse he had to accept from the gods in order to gain from them the right to dream.^ Our moral decisions enable us to become like God, and they enable the brotherhood of man to become a reality on a practical level.

    ^ God is revealed full-orbed in his righteousness, no longer wrenched out of true moral symmetry by man's poor utilitarian ethics.

    ^ Second, The price which he paid in order to avoid this just result of sin in our fallen race was the death of the God-man.

    .
  • It is safe to say that no other superstition is so detrimental to growth, so enervating and paralyzing to the minds and hearts of the people, as the superstition of Morality.^ Whereas we can safely say that it is part of the prescriptive task for readers of this and other articles about moral development to discourage development toward those particular convictions.
    • Self and Values:An Interactivist Foundation for Moral Development 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If there is no teleology in nature and nothing exists but nature, how can you speak of people having "rights", an essentially teleological concept, or say what people ought to do?
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Subhan:  "I defend this proposition: that there is no reason to talk about a 'morality' distinct from what people want."
    • Less Wrong: Is Morality Preference? 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC lesswrong.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • To give a man a full knowledge of true morality, I would send him to no other book than the New Testament.^ Am I defending moral relativism, in the sense that one morality is no better or worse than another, by observing that morality is subjective and emotional?
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Moral obligation involved avoidance of causing negative consequences for others, unless the consequence became greater for student assessing the situation than the person being assisted.
    • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Atheists are human beings also, and we are no less moral simply because we ground our ethics in human nature and the happiness of others rather than unquestioning faith in a set of ancient writings.
    • Ebon Musings: The Ineffable Carrot and the Infinite Stick 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.ebonmusings.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Morality is largely a matter of geography.^ And unless we believe that a collective, no matter how large, has the authority to determine absolute morality (or universal morality as Don has coined it), narrative law also becomes relative morality.
    • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • So far, about morals, I know only that what is moral is what you feel good after and what is immoral is what you feel bad after.^ What moral qualms could you have about that?
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In fact, he's about as far from it as you can get.
    • Morality Pet - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And the only person you can really know that about is yourself.
    • Jeff Schweitzer: Morality Originates in Religion...Not 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • The quality of moral behaviour varies in inverse ratio to the number of human beings involved.^ PAMR (Personal Altruistic Moral Ratio) - Minimum number of units of utility of someone else for which I voluntarily sacrifice one unit of my own utility.
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Moral obligation involved avoidance of causing negative consequences for others, unless the consequence became greater for student assessing the situation than the person being assisted.
    • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This capacity involves being in the state of accepting a norm , which we should thus expect to be a standard part of human moral psychology and its capacity for “linguistically infused motivation” (Gibbard 1990, 55).
    • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Morality without religion, is only a kind of dead reckoning,—an endeavor to find our place on a cloudy sea by measuring the distance we have to run, but without any observation of the heavenly bodies.^ But "no," all religiously based values don't have an a priori place in our public morality..
    • Religious Belief and Public Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC archives.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We must work to find ways to avoid abortions without otherwise violating our faith.
    • Religious Belief and Public Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC archives.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In fact, a person can only find fame and honour in the sight of Allah, Who reveals that that can only come by living the morality of the Qur'an.

    .
  • Ten men have failed from defect in morals where one has failed from defect in intellect.^ Certainly many models of moral development exist for consideration, but many of the ones often utilized by educators fail to take into account the interactional nature of morality.
    • Article 4 20 September 2009 17:54 UTC www.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Obert:  "No, you are the one whose theory makes this incoherent.  Which is why your theory ultimately fails to add up to morality."
    • Less Wrong: Is Morality Preference? 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC lesswrong.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • To denounce moralizing out of hand is to pronounce a moral judgment.^ It is extremely difficult, and I suspect impossible, to develop merely formal procedures that can totally take the judgment out of morality or of deciding which acts are (morally) right.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Progress in this area will not be made either by doing moral philosophy in isolation from the sciences or by taking morality out of the hands of philosophers and looking to scientific inquiry in isolation.
    • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Morality is the best of all devices for leading mankind by the nose.^ So the realist seems to face a dilemma : reject the best available science or lose all justification for our moral beliefs.
    • Morality and Evolutionary Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although I do not agree with moral relativism, I also do not agree than one type of living is best for all people and all cultures.
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In general, each individuals' seeking their own best interest does not necessarily lead to what is best for them all, or even to what is best for each of them.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • We have in fact, two kinds of morality, side by side: one that we preach, but do not practice, and another that we practice, but seldom preach.^ Moral systems are not equal to one another.
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Am I defending moral relativism, in the sense that one morality is no better or worse than another, by observing that morality is subjective and emotional?
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ How would these two go about persuading one another?
    • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

  • Ethics, too, are nothing but reverence for life. .That is what gives me the fundamental principle of morality, namely, that good ;consists in maintaining, promoting, and enhancing life, and that destroying, injuring, and limiting life are evil.^ But can morality then still be defined by a fundamental principle?
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals , pp.
    • What is Morality? - Issues 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.chabad.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Life itself is neither a good nor an evil: life is where good or evil find a place, depending on how you make it for them.
    • Morality Ethics: Discussion of Philosophy Metaphysics of 'Do Unto Others'as Fundamental Morality, Quotes 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: Original source]

  • French morality is not of that strait-laced description which is shocked at trifles.
  • All sects are different, because they come from men; morality is everywhere the same, because it comes from God.^ As they say - same shit, different day.
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our moral decisions enable us to become like God, and they enable the brotherhood of man to become a reality on a practical level.

    ^ Mhari- Women should not be forced to bear all of the burdens that come with Catholic "morality"!
    • Daylight Atheism > The Catholic Church: An Immoral Organization 15 September 2009 16:13 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion.^ Alright, so let's say the moral ratio provides us with a criterion for good and evil.
    • Morality and libertarianism 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.henrysturman.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This may also be the reason that your thoughts seem to appeal to the religiously minded among us, as teaching about morality is central to many religions.
    • Gamasutra: Adam Bishop's Blog - Morality In Video Games 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.gamasutra.com [Source type: General]

    ^ AM There is the argument that religion can make us less moral.
    • Morality and Atheists Rehashed | RagingRev 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC ragingrev.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.^ To directly attack them for any reason at all, such as to destroy a nations morale, is an immoral act.
    • Catholic FAQs:  Morality 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.sspx.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Is the Bible a moral code in that it gives us the set of principles that should govern our lives and the laws we create….yes.
    • On Morality and Narrative Law 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC donmilleris.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But for purposes of this essay, it will not matter whether someone's moral principles are based on religious doctrine or commands or not.
    • http://www.garlikov.com/philosophy/moralityandlaw.htm 10 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.garlikov.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Morality is simply the attitude we adopt towards people whom we personally dislike.^ Allah describes this pleasing attitude adopted by the Prophet (saas) towards those around him in the Qur'an: .

    ^ Allah revealed the following request from the polytheists in the Qur'an, and also told the Prophet (saas) of the attitude he should adopt towards such people: .

    ^ Moral justification is, simply put, a process whereby a person who is evaluating a morally questionable act attempts to make it seem right.
    • Philosophy, et cetera: The Immorality of Moral Justification 20 November 2009 7:13 UTC www.philosophyetc.net [Source type: Original source]

    • Oscar Wilde, Variant: Morality is simply the attitude we adopt to people we personally dislike.

See also: Ethics

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up morality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Simple English

Morality is the concept of doing the right thing. Morals are basic guidelines for living. Many people have written about ways of choosing what the right thing is. Some believe that there is an objective (true even if you do not agree with it) morality, often thinking it was set out by God or another similar being; others think that morality is subjective (that what is good or bad is your choice).

People can learn morals from religion, parents, friends, school, or reading a book. People that teach or follow morals are called moralists.

It can also be a lesson that someone learns in a book or story. It is usually one line at the end of the story ("The moral of this story is....."). Fables are stories with a moral.

The opposites of "moral" is "immoral", meaning the wrong thing to do. "Amoral" means something that is not related to morality, or has no morally good or bad aspect to it. It is the same as "morally neutral".



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Morality, which are similar to those in the above article.








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