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Moravia in relation to the current regions of the Czech Republic.
Historical flag of Moravia (from 1848)

Moravia (Czech: Morava; German: About this sound Mähren ; Silesian: Morawijo; Polish: Morawy) is an historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region.

Contents

Geography

Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia between 1928–1938

Moravia occupies most of the eastern third of the Czech Republic including the South Moravian Region and the Zlín Region, as well as parts of the Moravian-Silesian, Olomouc, Pardubice, Vysočina and South Bohemian regions.

Moravia borders Poland in the north and Czech Silesia in the east, Slovakia; in the south, Lower Austria; and in the west, Bohemia. Its northern boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains which become the Carpathians in the east. The meandering Dyje flows through the border country with Austria and there is a protected area on both sides of the border in the area around Hardegg.

At the heart of the country lie the sedimentary basins of the Morava and the Dyje at a height of 180 to 250 m. In the west, the Bohemian-Moravian Heights rise to over 800 m although the highest mountain is in the north-west, the Praděd in the Sudetes at 1490 m. Further south lie the Jeseníky highlands (400 to 600 m) which fall to 310 m at the upper reaches of the River Oder (the Moravian Gate) near Hranice and then rise again as the Beskids to the 1322 m high Lysá hora. These three mountain ranges plus the "gate" between the latter two form part of the European Watershed. Moravia's eastern boundary is formed by the White Carpathians and Javorníky.

Between 1782–1850, Moravia (also thus known as Moravia-Silesia) also included a small portion of the former province of Silesia – the so-called Austrian Silesia (when Frederick the Great annexed most of ancient Silesia (the land of upper and middle Oder river) to Prussia, Silesia's southernmost part remained with the Habsburgs).

Economy

In the south around Hodonín and Břeclav the land is part of the Viennese Basin and petroleum and lignite are drilled for in its deeper sediments. In the area around Ostrava there was intensive coal mining until around 1995. Iron, chemicals, leather and building materials are the main industrial goods. The main economic centres are Brno, Olomouc, Zlín and Ostrava. As well as other agriculture, Moravia is noted for its viticulture; it contains 94% of the Czech Republic's vineyards and is at the centre of the country's wine industry.

History

Map of Great Moravia at its possible greatest territorial extent during the reign of Svatopluk I (871-894), superimposed on the modern borders of European states. Note that some of the borders of Great Moravia are under debate.
Coat of Arms of Moravia

Ancient Moravia

Around 60 BC the Celtic Volcae people withdrew from the region and were succeeded in turn by the Germanic Quadi and in the sixth century the Slavic tribes. At the end of the eighth century the Moravian Principality came into being in present-day south-eastern Moravia, Záhorie in south-western Slovakia and parts of Lower Austria. In 833 A.D. this became the state of Great Moravia with the conquest of the Principality of Nitra (present-day Slovakia; from 10th century into 1918 part of the Kingdom of Hungary). Their first king was Mojmír I (ruled 830-846). Louis the German invaded Moravia and replaced Mojmír I with his nephew Rastiz who became St. Rastislav.[1] St. Rastislav (846-870) tried to emancipate his land from the Carolingian influence, so he sent envoys to Rome to get missionaries to come. When Rome refused he turned to Constantinople to the Byzantine emperor Michal. The result was the mission of SS Cyril and Methodius who translated liturgical books into Slavonic, which had lately been elevated by the Pope to the same level as Latin and Greek. Methodius became the first Moravian archbishop, but after his death the German influence again prevailed and the disciples of Methodius were forced to flee. So the unique situation which anticipated the II. Vatican Council by several centuries was destroyed. Great Moravia reached its greatest territorial extent in the 890s under Svatopluk I. At this time, the empire encompassed the territory of the present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia, the western part of present Hungary (Pannonia), as well as Lusatia in present-day Germany and Silesia and the upper Vistula basin in southern Poland. After Svatopluk's death in 895, the Bohemian princes defected to become vassals of the East Frankish ruler Arnulf of Carinthia, and the Moravian state ceased to exist after being overrun by invading Magyars in 906/7.

Union with Bohemia

Following the defeat of the Magyars by Emperor Otto I at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, Otto's ally Boleslaus I, the Přemyslid ruler of Bohemia, received Moravia. Boleslaus I of Poland annexed Moravia in 999, and ruled it until 1019, when the Přemyslid prince Bretislaus recaptured it. Upon his father's death in 1035, Bretislaus also became the ruler of Bohemia. In 1054, Bretislaus decreed that the Bohemian and Moravians lands would be inherited together by primogeniture, although he also provided that his younger sons should govern parts of Moravia as vassals to his oldest son.

Throughout the Přemyslid era, junior princes often ruled all or part of Moravia from Olomouc, Brno, or Znojmo, with varying degrees of autonomy from the ruler of Bohemia. Moravia reached its height of autonomy in 1182, when Emperor Frederick I elevated Moravia to the status of a margraviate (or mark), immediately subject to the emperor, independent of Bohemia. This status was short-lived: in 1197, Vladislaus III of Bohemia resolved the succession dispute between him and his brother Ottokar by abdicating from the Bohemian throne and accepting the margraviate of Moravia as a vassal of Bohemia.

Since then, Moravia has shared its history with Bohemia. The Přemyslid dynasty became extinct in 1306, and in 1310 John of Luxembourg became king of Bohemia. Moravia and Bohemia remained within the Luxembourg dynasty of Holy Roman kings and emperors (except during the Hussite wars), until inherited by Albert II of Habsburg in 1437.

After his death followed the interregnum till 1453; land (as the rest of lands of the Bohemian Crown) was administered by the landfriedens (landfrýdy). The rule of young Ladislaus the Posthumous subsisted only less than five years and subsequently (1458) the Hussite George of Poděbrady was elected as the king. He again reunited all Czech lands (then Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Upper & Lower Lusatia) into one-man ruled state. In 1466, Pope Paul II excommunicated George and forbade all Catholics (i.e. circa 15 % of population) from continuing to serve him. The Hungarian crusade followed and in 1469 Matthias Corvinus conquered Moravia and proclaimed himself (with assistance of rebelling Czech nobility) as the king of Bohemia.

The subsequent 21-year period of a divided kingdom was decisive for the rising awareness of a specific Moravian identity, distinct from that of Bohemia. Although Moravia was reunited with Bohemia in 1490 when Vladislaus Jagiellon, king of Bohemia, also became king of Hungary, some attachment to Moravian "freedoms" and resistance to government by Prague continued until the end of independence in 1620. In 1526, Vladislaus' son Louis died in battle and the Habsburg Ferdinand I was elected as his successor.

Under the Habsburgs

The epoch 1526–1620 was marked by increasing animosity between Catholic Habsburg kings (emperors) and rather Protestant Moravian (and other Crowns') estates. Moravia, like Bohemia, remained as a Habsburg possession until the end of World War I. Until 1641 Moravia's capital was the centrally-located Olomouc, but after its capture by the Swedes it moved to the larger city of Brno which resisted the invaders successfully. The Margraviate of Moravia had (from 1348) its own parliament – zemský sněm (Landtag in German), whose deputies were elected (from 1905 onward) in ethnically separate German and Czech constituencies. In 1758 Morvavia was invaded by Prussian forces under Frederick the Great who laid siege to Olomouc before he was forced to withdraw following the Battle of Domstadtl.

Twentieth century

Following the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Moravia became part of Czechoslovakia (and was part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II). In 1945 the ethnic German minority of Moravia were expelled. (See Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II). With the break up of Czechoslovakia, Moravia became a part of the Czech Republic in 1993.

Cities

Regional capitals
Other


People

Male and female Moravian Slovak costumes worn during the Jízda králů Festival held annually in the village of Vlčnov (southeastern Moravia)

The Moravians are a Slavic ethnic group who speak various dialects of Czech. Some Moravians regard themselves as an ethnically distinct group; others consider themselves to be ethnically Czech. In the census of 1991, 1,362,000 (13.2%) of the Czech population described themselves as being of Moravian nationality. In the census of 2001, this number had decreased to 380,000 (3.7% of the population).[citation needed]

Moravia historically had a huge minority of ethnic Germans, although they were largely expelled after World War II.

Notable people from Moravia include:

See also

References

  1. ^ Reuter, Timothy. (1991). "Germany in the Early Middle Ages", London:Longman, page 82
  2. ^ partially lies in Bohemia
  3. ^ mostly (two thirds) lies in Czech Silesia
  4. ^ half of the town (Frýdek) lies in Czech Silesia

Further reading

  • Róna-Tas, András (1999) Hungarians & Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History translated by Nicholas Bodoczky, Central European University Press, Budapest, ISBN 963-9116-48-3 ;
  • Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (1996) A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival St. Martin's Press, New York, ISBN 0-312-16125-5 ;
  • Constantine Porphyrogenitus De Administrando Imperio edited by Gy. Moravcsik, translated by R.J.H. Jenkins, Dumbarton Oaks Edition, Washington D.C. (1993)

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Moravia-Silesia article)

From Wikitravel

Europe : Central Europe : Czech Republic : Moravia-Silesia

Moravia-Silesia is a beautiful region of the Czech Republic located between Bohemia and Slovakia.

  • Olomouc: Vibrant university town; has the 2nd largest historical centre in the Czech Republic
  • Brno: Largest city in Moravia, Moto GP Grand Prix every year takes place here.
  • Český Těšín:
  • Karviná
  • Luhačovice: The largest Moravian spa resort
  • Novosedly : Village in the moravian wine region, you can go on a great horseback trip through the vineyards
  • Opava: The former capital of Czech Silesia
  • Ostrava - largest city in Czech Silesia
  • Rakvice
  • Slavkov u Brna
  • Újezd u Brna
  • Zlín: City in East Moravia, famous Bata shoe company started and developed here before the WWII. interesting functionalistic architecture.
  • Zlaté hory

Other destinations

Moravia has one of the densest clusters of sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in the World

  • Olomouc the impressive Plague Coloumn sits in the historic center of the vibrant university city
  • Telc one of the prettiest towns in the Czech Republic
  • Brno's Cerna Pole district is home to Mies Van der Rohe's Tugendhat Villa, a key work of modernist architecture
  • Lednice-Valtice is one of the largest artificial landscapes in Europe dotted with Palaces and Follies
  • Trebic has one of Europe's best presereved Jewish areas
  • Zdar nad Sazavou contains a fine pilgrimage church
  • Kromeriz has a nice Palace and gardens

Understand

The people of Moravia are some of the most hospitable and friendly people of Central Europe. Moravia is home to gorgeous vineyards, orchards, and fields full of what North Americans would call "organic" produce.

Even though it is not the most industrialized part of Europe, Moravia has factories such as Zbrojovka Brno (weapons) and the famous Zlin Bata factory (shoes).

The dialects spoken in Moravia are very different from those spoken in Bohemia, particularly in Prague. A foreigner trying to master the language will often find himself at loss. But many say it is the clearest Czech spoken in the country.

Moravia features scenic mountains and cute little villages. Even if you visit larger towns (e.g., Brno), you will still feel the small town coziness.

See

The Macocha Caves [1], north of Brno, are definitely worth a visit. You can take a guided tour into the caves, which will take you through a myriad of winding tunnels, with close up views of stalactites and stalagmites. The tour ends with a boat ride on an underground river.

The Battle of Austerlitz - Slavkovské bojiště is one of the most important events in the history of Europe in the 19th century.

Technical museum in Brno (nice and modern)

Lakes under Palava (mountains). This lakes are actually river dams bud good for sailing and fishing (you must have fishing licence) it's full of big fishs.

Respect

Some Moravians consider themselves as a separate nation and there are sometimes even some nationalistic tensions about that. There are no hard separatist movements, armed conflicts or anything even slightly resembling that. However these feelings can be sometimes expressed in a form of verbal quarrels (mostly online, as people tend to be nicer to each other when they meet personally), nationalist jokes, or, in the very worst case, some pub brawls. It means that some people in Moravia may be offended if you call them Czechs, however most of them wouldn't be, because they consider themselves to be both Moravians and Czechs (in the same way as people in California consider themselves to be both Californians and Americans).

If you try to speak some Czech, there is another related catch: Czech language uses name Čechy for Bohemia and Česko for the whole Czech Republic. Both are formed from the same root meaning Czech. 'Česko' started to be used widely after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, because a short name for the new state was needed (the full 'Česká republika' is somewhat impractical in common speech). Some people still think that 'Česko' sounds strangely and sometimes use 'Čechy' for the whole republic. Many Moravians are offended by this. Some people use the word "republic" when speak about all parts of Czech Republic. (e.g. Storms will come to republic from north-west)

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Moravia

Plural
-

Moravia

  1. A historical region in the east of the Czech Republic.

Derived terms

Translations


Simple English

[[File:‎|thumb|250px|Moravian Coat of Arms ]] [[File:|thumb|250px|Moravia in relation to the current kraje of the Czech Republic]] Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. It takes its name from the Morava River which flows from the north to the south of the land.

Together with Bohemia in the West and Silesia in the North, Moravia makes historical-political region called Czech Lands. Today, Moravia, Bohemia and part of Silesia make up the current Czech Republic.

For many years as the capital of the Moravia is considered Brno.

pcd:Moravie








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