The Full Wiki

Morelos: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Morelos

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Morelos
Estado Libre y Soberano
de Morelos
—  State  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Location within Mexico
Country  Mexico
Capital Cuernavaca
Municipalities 33
Admission April 17, 1869[1]
Order 27th
Government
 - Governor Marco Adame Castillo (PAN)
 - Federal Deputies PAN: 3
PRD: 1
PRI: 1
 - Federal Senators Adrián Rivera (PAN)
Martha Rivera (PAN)
Graco Ramírez (PRD)
Area
Ranked 30th
 - Total 4,950 km2 (1,911.2 sq mi)
Population (2005)
 - Total 1,612,899 (Ranked 22nd)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
HDI 0.837 - high
Ranked 14th
ISO 3166-2 MX-MOR
Postal abbr. Mor.
Website Morelos State Government Site

Morelos is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. Morelos has an area of about 4,941 square kilometers (1,907.7 sq mi), making it the second-smallest of the country's states. Morelos is bordered by Mexico State to the north-east and north-west, the Federal District to the north, Puebla to the east, and Guerrero to the south-west. In the 2005 census, the population of the state was 1,612,899 people.

Morelos was named after José María Morelos, one of the leaders of the Mexican War of Independence.

Morelos has always had great revolutionary activity, and numerous guerrillas have made their homes and struggled for justice in the region. Most notably, the small farming hamlet of Anenecuilco in Ayala, Morelos was the home town of Emiliano Zapata; the state was the center of Zapata's Mexican Revolution campaign, and a small city in Morelos is named after him.

Morelos was traditionally a Nahuatl-speaking territory, and variants of the language are still spoken today in towns such as Hueyapan in the municipality of Tetela del Volcán and Cuentepec in the municipality of Temixco), as well as Tetelcingo in the municipality of Cuautla, where a highly distinctive dialect is used.

Contents

Geography

Morelos has five kinds of climate: cold, semi-cold with summer rains, cool with summer rains, semi-warm with summer rains, and hot with summer rains. There are three natural regions: Sierra Alta (north), Piedmonte (north and center), and Los Valles (south).

The northern part of the state is a part of the Sierra Madre Trasversal, the east-west range of volcanic mountains in central Mexico. The highest peak is Popocateptl (5,246 m), located in the extreme northeast of the state in the park of the same name.

The capital of Morelos is the city of Cuernavaca(population 332,197). Morelos also contains the cities of Cuautla(population 145,482), Jiutepec(population 153,704), and Temixco(89,915), Yautepec de Zaragoza (39,861), Emiliano Zapata (39,702), and the pre-Columbian ruins of Xochicalco.

History

Pre-Columbian Period

Archaeological studies by Francisco Plancarte y Navarrete (first archaeologist of Morelos and second bishop of Cuernavaca), between 1890 and 1910 demonstrate that the earliest inhabitants of Morelos were nomadic hunters, fishers, and collectors in the areas of Yautepec and Chimalacatlán in about 6000 B.C.[2]

Agricultura came to the area in about 1500 B.C. In 1932, George Vaillant discovered clay jars and figures in Gaulupita, Cuernavaca, as well as three mounds in Santa María Ahuacactitlán which are probably the remains of houses. In 1934 Eulalia Guzmán discovered a relatively large archaeological zone in Chalcatzingo (Jonacatepec), including ceramic and several petroglyphs that clearly demonstrate people working the land.[3] Other discoveries have been made in Cuautla, Xochitepec, Zacualpan, Tepoztlán, Tlayacapan, Tlaltizapan, Amacuzac, Oaxtepec, Olintepec, Xochimicaltingo, Nexpa, and Cacahualmilpa.[3]

The next important developments were during the Classic Age, after the fall of Teotihuacan in the 9th century A.D. In 1940, Florenece Müller found important architectural remains reminiscent of Teotihuacan in Chimalacatlán. Other finds have been made in Las Pilas and Itzamatitlán, while the most important sculpture from the era is the Piedra of Coatlán, which today is found in the Cuauhanuac Museum in Cuernavaca.[4]

The most important inheritor of Teotihuacan is the city-state of Xochicalco (city of flowers). In addition to its probable refuge for citizens of Teotihuacan, Xochicalco demonstrates clear Maya, Tolteca (Tula), and Mixteco-Zapoteca (Monte Alban) influences.[5]

The lords of Tula were priests of Quetzalcóatl, the plumed serpent. One priest, named Mixcóatl, married Chimalma, who was originally from Amatlán (Tepoztlán); their son, Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcóatl, was born in A.D. 935. Some sources related him to the god Tepoztécatl, the god (son of the wind who is said to have invented pulque (an innervating drink brewed from the maguey plant).[6]

Tula fell when their warriors got drunk on pulque, and several groups of wandering tribes migrated south. The Chinamecas founded Totalapan and Chinameca; after A.D. 1156 they were displaced by Xochimilcas. The Xochimilca were excellent farmers and active traders; they founded Tetela, Hueyapan, Ocuituco, Tepoztlán, Atalahuacan, Juniltepec, and Nepopoalco.[7]

After the Xochimilca came the Tlauhuicas, a Nauhua-speaking tribe that settled in Cuauhnáhuac (today Cuernavaca). There is evidence that indicates the Tlauhuicas probably would have been expelled from Morelos if they hadn’t been protected by Xólotl, lord of Acolhua, who granted territory to Tochintecutli, the first lord of Cuauhnáhuac.

The Tlauhiucas were experts at growing cotton, and they also learned how to weave cloth from maguey fiber. In addition to this, they made paper from the bark of the amate tree. Tlauhica communities include Yecapixtla, Yautepec, Xiutepec (today Jiutepec), Tetlamatl, and Oaxtepec.[8]

In the middle of the 14th century, Yautepec, Tetlama, and Xiutepec joined forces in war against Cuauhnáhuac, and the Mexicas began their incursions into the territory. However, it wasn’t until Huitzilíhuitl, lord of Tenochtitlan, married Miahuaxóchitl, a daughter of Texcohuacoatzin, lord of Cuauhnáhuac, at the end of the 14th century that the Mexicas were able to access the Tlauhuica cotton crop. The marriage also produced a son: Moctezuma Ilhuicamina.[9]

Despite this alliance, Huitzílhuitl’s brother, Chimalpopoca fought the Tlauhuica in Yecapixtla, and the lord of Cuauhnáhuac, Moquihuix, was assassinated by the lord of Azcapozalalco. Later, after Chimalpopoca’s death, his younger brother, Izcóatl, took the throne on Tenochtitlan, and forged the Confederation of Anáhuac.

In about 1425 Xiutepec and Cuauhnáhuac fought another war; the Confederation of Anáhuac took advantage of the situation and fell on Morelos: Totoquihuatzin (from Tlacopan) attacked Tlacazacapecheco (today Tres Marías), Izcóatl attacked from Ocuila, and Nezahualcýotl from Amecameca. Cuauhnáhuac fell to Texcoco.[10]

Moctezuma (Motehcuzoma) Ilhuicamina succeeded Izcóatl, and tradition has it that he established a botanical garden in Oaxtepec, as well as vacationing in the warm springs located at the foothills of the Ajusco, located in what is now a resort run by the Social Security Administration (IMSS). Another possible location for Moctezuma’s favorite swimming hole is a nearby pond called “Poza Azul”.[10]

The Mexica built a number of fortifications in the area, notably in the hills called El Sobrerito and Tlatoani near Tlayacapan; the pyramid of Tepozteco (Tepoztlán) may have also been designed as a fort and look-out post. The Tlauhuica built the double-pyramid known as Teopanzolco (in Cuernavaca) at this time also.[11]

Population estimates for the beginning of the 16th century are: Cuauhnáhuac, 50,000; Oaxtepec, 50,000; Yautepec, 30,000; Tepoztán, 20,000; Topolapan, 20,000; and 12,000 each for Tlayacapan, Tetela, Yecapitxtla, and Ocuituco.[12]

The Mexica divided Morelos into two provinces: Cuauhnáhuac in the west, and Oaxtepec in the east. Both regions paid tribute in the form of clothing, cotton armor, feathers, paper of amate, corn (maize), beans, chía (sage seed), and jicamas (a tuber).[13]

Conquest and colonialism

The Spanish conquest of Morelos began in March, 1520, and culminated in the taking of the city of Cuauhnahuac (modern Cuernavaca) in October of that year.

Dutch naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt visited the area in 1804, when he christened Cuernavaca the "City of Eternal Spring."

La Reforma (The Reform)

President Santa Anna was a tyrant; the Plan de Ayutla was proclaimed on March 1, 1854 in response to his tyranny. Armed rebellion broke out in Cuautla, and Santa Anna’s response was to impose burn entire villages. Finally the revolution won, and on October 1, 1855, Cuernavaca (population 6,000) was named the new national capital, with Juan Alvarez president of the republic. The Ley Juárez (Juarez Law) was passed, providing equality for all and eliminating special privileges for the Church and the army. A constitutional convention was called, and in December, Juan Alvarez retired from the presidency and the capital was returned to Mexico City.[14]

Armed struggle continued. Peasants attacked and sacked the haciendas of Tenango, Atlihuayan, San Miguel Treinta, Miacatlán, Acazingo, and San José Vistahermosa. In 1856 the haciendas of San Vicente and Chiconcuac were assaulted, and several Spanish citizens were killed. Spain broke off diplomatic relations with Mexico. The rebels were arrested and punished, but in 1860 the same haciendas were attacked again.[15]

The Three Years’ War began under the leadership of Juan Vicario in Cuernavaca on January 13, 1858. Cuernavaca was a stronghold of the conservatives, while Cuautla was a liberal bastion. More than anything else, anarchy ruled, as bandits roamed the region, burned and destroyed the haciendas of Pantitlán and Xochimancas, and terrorized villagers. The war ended on January 11, 1861 when Benito Juárez took control of Mexico City. Ignacio Manuel Altamirano wrote a novel, set in Yautepec, about the war and the bandits, called El Zarco: Episodios de la Vida Mexicana en 1861-63.[16]

When the French army invaded Mexico, Francisco Leyva raised an army in Morelos to fight in the Battle of Puebla of May 5, 1862. Despite the heroic efforts on that day, the French eventually managed to gain control of the country and install Maximilian of Hapsburg as emperor in 1864. Maximilian chose the Jardin Borda in Cuernavaca as his summer residence,[17] and he built “La Casa del Olindo” in Acapantzingo (Cuernavaca) for Margarita Leguizmo Sedano, his beautiful mistress known as “La India Bonita”.[18]

Maximilian improved the road from Mexico City to Cuernavaca, and he promised to build a railroad and telegraph. However, he had been brought to Mexico at the behest of the conservatives, and there was no way the republicans, led by Juarez, could ever accept a foreign usurper. He simultaneously antagonized the conservatives by supporting reforms that were often more liberal than anything Alvarez or Juárez had ever dreamed of. On January 1, 1867, republican troops under the leadership of Francisco Leyva, Ignacio Figueroa, and Ignacio Manuel Altamirano began an eight-day siege of Cuernavaca. Soon after that Napoleon III withdrew his troops, and by July Benito Juárez had triumphed.[19]

Since independence, Morelos had been a part of the State of Mexico, but on April 17, 1869, Juárez decreed that it was to be a state with its capital in Yautepec de Zaragoza with Pedro Baranda as provisional governor. Soon there were elections, with Francisco Leyva defeating Porfirio Díaz; Leyva was to serve two terms, until 1876.[18] In 1870 the first state constitution was proclaimed.[18]

Leyva moved the capital to Cuernavaca and tried to initiate liberal reforms, including raising taxes for hacienda owners and cutting the salaries of legislators. A telegraph line from Mexico City-Tlapan-Cuernavaca had been laid between 1867 and 1869; in 1870 it was extended to Iguala, Chilpancingo, and Tixla. Another line, between Cuernavaca and Cuautla, was laid in 1875. Attempts were made to improve education, but limited funds made that virtually impossible. On May 11, 1874 the capital was moved to Cuautla; it was returned to Cuernavaca on January 1, 1876.[20]

Porfirio Díaz became president of Mexico in 1877, and five of his allies became governors of Morelos: Carlos Pacheco (1876-1879), Carlos Quaglia (1879-1884), Jesús Preciado (1885-1895), Manuel Alarcón (1896-1900), and Pablo Escandón (1908-1911). Between 1869 and 1910 the population of the state grew from 150,384 to 179,594. By 1910 there were six hospitals and 258 schools in the state, although there were only 39 certified teachers and 90% of the population were illiterate. The Diocese of Cuernavaca was established in 1891 with Fortino Hipólito y Vera as its first bishop; Francisco Plancarte y Navarrete became the second bishop in 1899.[21]

Leyva was a liberal, not a socialist, and he pushed for laws extending the right to private ownership of land. In practice, only the large landowners had enough money to buy such land, and many of them essentially became feudal lords; by 1908, 18 families controlled 40 haciendas and 245,520 hectares of land. Luis García Pimentel alone owned 68,000 hectares (the haciendas of Tenango, Santa Clara, and San Ignacio) and he created the first agro-industrial dairy in the country.[22]

The railroad from Mexico City to Cuautla was inaugurated in 1881; by 1883 it reached Yautepec, and in 1890 Jojutla. Another line connected Mexico City and Cuernavaca in 1897.[18][23]

World sugar prices increased rapidly during the latter part of the 19th century, and sugar production in Morelos grew fivefold between 1870 and 1900; Morelos became the third-most important sugar-producing region in the world (after Hawaii and Puerto Rico).[24]

Despite this, the haciendas utilized only one-eighth of their land and wanted more. By taking land from peasants, the hacienda owners were assured of a ready supply of cheap labor; the workers had no alternative. Large areas of unused land also meant that expensive investment in modern technology and fertilizers was not necessary. A series of laws were passed which made it easy for large landowners to acquire more property, and between 1884 and 1905 eighteen towns in Morelos disappeared. Not only were cultivated fields compensated, but also residential areas in Acatlipa, Tetelpa, and Ahuehuepan. In the most extreme case, Tequesquitengo was flooded in order to assure a steady water supply for the hacienda of San José Buenavista.[25]

Between 1900 and 1910 there was a great deal of social unrest in Morelos. In late 1910, a group consisting of Pablo Torres Burgos, Emiliano Zapata Salazar, Rafael Merino, Catarino Perdomo, Gabriel Tepeg, and others, began to meet. The group closely followed Francisco I. Madero and the Plan de San Luis).[26]

Revolution

Genovevo de la O and Amador Salazar led brief revolts near Cuernavaca and Yautepec respectively, after Madero called for a general revolution on November 20, 1910. Gabriel Tepepa rose in arms on February 7, 1911 in Tlaquiltenango, and Torres Burgos, Emiliano Zapata proclaimed their faithfulness to the Plan de San Luis in Villa de Ayala on March 11. Two weeks later, 200 armed men took Jojutla, forcing Governor Escandón to flee.[27] Zapata was elected supreme commander of the army of the south; Gabriel Tepapa was put in charge of eastern Morelos (near Puebla); Amador Salazar, Felipe Neri, and Otilio Montaño in the center; and Genovevo de la O in the west and south of Cuernavaca.[28]

On May 1, Zapata’s forces took Yautepec, although they had to withdraw four days later after the arrival of Victoriano Huerta. Still, the rebels were able to prevent Huerta’s march on Cuernavaca. On May 13, Zapata took Cuautlixco, and a week later his forces captured Cuautla. All of Morelos was in the hands of the rebels.[29]

Díaz resigned in May, 1911, and left the county in exile. Madero proclaimed victory, but Zapata noted that there could be no peace until the agricultural problems of the state were solved. There were two attempts to reach an agreement between Madero and Zapata in 1911, but without luck. On November 25, Zapata and his cohorts proclaimed the Plan de Ayala and recognized Pascual Orozco as president.[28]

In February, 1912, Madero sent General Juvencio Robles and 6,000 men to establish peace in Morelos. Genovevo de la O attacked Cuernavaca on February 6, and in retaliation Robles burned Santa Maria and the forests around it. Later Robles began what was called “recolonization:” towns, villages, and farms were evacuated and the people were sent to concentration camps, while larger towns and cities were burned and evacuated. Anyone who resisted was shot on sight. Nexpa, San Rafael, Los Elotes, Los Hornos, Villa de Ayala, Coajomulco, Cotepec, and other communities were burned. The soldiers sacked, looted, and raped at will; Robles drafted young men into his army.

Such atrocities did not go unanswered, and Zapata’s forces grew. Madero was forced to replace Robles with General Felipe Angeles. The struggle went on; Patricio Leyva was named governor of Morelos by Madero on December 1, 1912. The Zapatistas imposed a heavy tax on haciendas; when the owners refused to pay, the rebels burned the cane fields of Chinameca, Tenango, Treinta, Atilhuayan, Santa Iñes, and San Gabriel.[30]

Communities

Morelos is subdivided into 33 municipios (municipalities).

Aside from the state capital of Cuernavaca, nicknamed La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera (The City of Eternal Spring), other major communities include:

References

  1. ^ "Congreso de Morelos" (in Spanish). http://www.congresomorelos.gob.mx/acceso_info/Intervenciones/2008/4_Abril/PRD/Dip_Victor_Reymundo_N%C3%A1jera_Medina%20_01_Abr_08.html. 
  2. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 30.
  3. ^ a b Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 37.
  4. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 41.
  5. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 42.
  6. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 44.
  7. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 46-47.
  8. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 47.
  9. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 48-49.
  10. ^ a b Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 51.
  11. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 51-52.
  12. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 53.
  13. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 55-56.
  14. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 132-133.
  15. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 133-136.
  16. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 136-138.
  17. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 138-139.
  18. ^ a b c d Morelos Guía Turística, p. 85.
  19. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 139-140.
  20. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 141-144.
  21. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 145-147.
  22. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 148-151.
  23. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 150.
  24. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, p. 151.
  25. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 152-158.
  26. ^ Morelos Guía Turística, pp. 45-47.
  27. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 168-170.
  28. ^ a b Morelos Guía Turística, p. 47.
  29. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 170-171.
  30. ^ Secretaria de Educación Publica. Morelos: Monografía estatal: 1982, pp. 179-180.

External links

Coordinates: 18°44′51″N 99°04′13″W / 18.7475°N 99.07028°W / 18.7475; -99.07028

Advertisements

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Morelos is a state in Central Mexico. Morelos is a perfect place to learn about Mexico's history and culture, visit the Xochicalco archaeological site, declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO.

  • Xochicalco -- Pre-columbian ruins
  • Tepoztlan -- Cute and small traditional town with historical spots
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of Mexico highlighting Michoacán

Etymology

Named after José María Morelos, a leader in the Mexican War of Independence.

Proper noun

Singular
Morelos

Plural
-

Morelos

  1. A state of Mexico.

Translations

See also


Spanish

Etymology

Named after José María Morelos, a leader in the Mexican War of Independence.

Proper noun

Morelos f.

  1. A state of Mexico.

Related terms

See also

  • Wikipedia-logo.png Morelos on the Spanish Wikipedia.es.Wikipedia

Simple English

State of Morelos
File:Flag of
Flag
File:Coat of arms of
Coat of arms
Location within Mexico
Country
Capital Cuernavaca
Municipalities 33
Government
 - Governor Marco Adame Castillo (PAN)
 - Federal Deputies PAN: 3
PRD: 1
PRI: 1
 - Federal Senators Adrián Rivera (PAN)
Martha Rivera (PAN)
Graco Ramírez (PRD)
Area
Ranked 30th
 - Total 4,950 km2 (1,911.2 sq mi)
Population (2005)
 - Total 1,612,899 (Ranked 22nd)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
HDI (2004) 0.7856 - medium
Ranked 16th
ISO 3166-2 MX-MOR
Postal abbr. Mor.
Website Morelos State Government Site

Morelos is a state in central Mexico. About 1,600,000 people live in Morelos. Its capital is called Cuernavaca.


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message