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A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. It is also known as a left-handed marriage because in the wedding ceremony the groom holds his bride's right hand with his left hand instead of his right.[1]

Generally, this is a marriage between a male of high birth (such as from a royal or reigning house), and a woman of lesser status (such as from a non-royal or non-reigning house, or with a profession that is traditionally considered lower-status). Neither the bride nor any children of the marriage has any claim on the groom's titles, rights, or entailed property. The children are considered legitimate on other counts and the prohibition of bigamy applies. Morganatic marriage was also practiced by the polygamous Mongols as to their non-principal wives.

It is possible for a woman to marry a man of lower rank morganatically, but this is extremely rare because, in the past, women of high rank often did not have titles that they could pass to their children, and in most cases did not choose their own husbands.

Contents

Etymology

Morganatic, already in use in English by 1727 (according to the Oxford English Dictionary), is derived from the medieval Latin morganaticus from the Late Latin phrase matrimonium ad morganaticam and refers to the gift given by the groom to the bride on the morning after the wedding, morning gift, i.e. dower. The Latin term, applied to a Germanic custom, was adopted from a Germanic term, *morgangeba (compare Early English morgengifu and German Morgengabe). The literal meaning is explained in a 16th century passage quoted by Du Cange: a marriage by which the wife and the children that may be born are gift.[2]

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon of 1888 gives an etymology of the German term Morganitische Ehe[3] as a combination of the ancient Gothic morgjan, to limit, to restrict, occasioned by the restricted gifts from the groom in such a marriage and the morning gift. Morgen is the German word for morning, while the Latin word is matutinus.

The morning gift has been a customary property arrangement for marriage present first in early medieval German cultures (such as Langobards) and also of ancient Germanic tribes, and the church drove its adoption into other countries in order to improve the wife's security by this additional benefit. The bride received a settled property from the bridegroom's clan — it was intended to ensure her livelihood in widowhood, and it was to be kept separate as the wife's discrete possession. However, when a marriage contract is made wherein the bride and the children of the marriage will not receive anything else (than the dower) from the bridegroom or from his inheritance or clan, that sort of marriage was dubbed as "marriage with only the dower and no other inheritance", i.e. matrimonium ad morganaticum.

German-speaking Europe

The practice of morganatic marriage was most common in the German-speaking parts of Europe, where equality of birth between the spouses was considered an important principle among the reigning houses and high nobility. The German name was Ehe zur linken Hand (marriage by the left hand) and the husband gave his left hand during the wedding ceremony instead of the right.

Morganatic marriage is not, and has not been, possible in jurisdictions that do not allow for the required freedom of contracting with regard to the marriage contract, as it is an agreement containing a pre-emptive limitation to the inheritance and property rights of the spouse and the children.

Perhaps the most famous example in modern times was the marriage of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Franz Ferdinand, and Bohemian aristocrat Countess Sophie Chotek von Chotkowa. The marriage was initially resisted by Emperor Franz Joseph I, but after pressure from family members and other European rulers, he eventually relented in 1899 (but did not attend the wedding himself). The bride was made Princess (later Duchess) of Hohenberg, their children took their mother's name and rank, and were excluded from the imperial succession. The couple was assassinated in 1914 (an event that triggered the First World War).

Although the children, or issue, of morganatic marriages were ineligible ever to succeed to their families' respective thrones, some children of morganatic marriages did go on to achieve dynastic success elsewhere in Europe. The marriage of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine and German-Polish noblewoman Countess Julia von Hauke (created Princess of Battenberg), provided a sovereign prince of Bulgaria, and queen-consorts for Spain and Sweden, as well as (through female descent) the consort of the current Queen of the United Kingdom. Likewise, the marriage of Duke Alexander of Württemberg and Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde (created "Countess of Hohenstein") resulted in the House of Teck. That family's most famous member, Mary of Teck, married George V of the United Kingdom, and the present British Royal Family traces descent from her.

Occasionally though, children of morganatic marriages would attempt to overcome their social origins, and succeed to their family's estates. Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden succeeded to the throne of Baden despite being born of a morganatic marriage. The son of Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke of Baden by his second, common-born wife Luise Karoline, Freiin Geyer von Geyersberg, he only became a Prince in 1817 (aged 27), as part of a new law of succession. With Baden's royal family without a male heir, Leopold was enfranchised and married to a Princess of Badenese descent, ascending the throne in 1830. His descendants ruled the Grand Duchy until the abolition of the monarchy in 1918.

This, however, was an exception. When the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg also found itself without a male heir at the beginning of the 20th century, the morganatic Counts of Merenberg proposed themselves as heirs. Grand Duke William IV, however, chose to alter the laws of succession to allow a female successor (his own daughter Marie-Adélaïde) instead. Duke Georg of Mecklenburg, Count of Carlow, morganatic son of Duke George Alexander of Mecklenburg and commoner Natalia Vanljarskaya, claimed the throne of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz as heir to his childless uncle, Duke Charles Michael. The abolition of the monarchies of Germany in 1918, however, meant the validity of this claim was never put to the test. Nevertheless, the Count of Carlow's descendants still style themselves as the head of the Grand Ducal house of Mecklenburg.

Russia

Paul I of Russia promulgated a strict new house law for Russia in 1797. Based on the German Salic Law, the new rules established a clear requirement to marry persons with equal status of nobility at their births (Ger. Ebenburtigkeit). The issue of an unequal marriage would be excluded from the succession.

An early victim was Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich, grandson of Catherine the Great, and viceroy of Poland. In 1820, his marriage to German Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was annulled to allow him to marry Polish noblewoman Joanna Grudzińska. She was known as "Duchess of Łowicz" during her marriage, which produced no children.

One Tsar, Emperor Alexander II of Russia married morganatically in 1880. Princess Ekaterina Mihailovna Dolgorukova, Alexander's second bride, had previously been his long-term mistress and mother of his illegitimate children (who received the titles Prince Yurievsky and Princess Yurievskaya). One of their daughters married a German descendant of a morganatic marriage, the Count of Merenberg.

Another victim of the new laws was Grand Duke Michael Mihailovich of Russia (October 4, 1861 - April 26, 1929), the third child of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and his wife Olga Fedorovna (born Princess Cecilie of Baden). He attracted the displeasure of the Tsar by marrying another member of the morganatic Merenberg Dynasty. As a result, he was exiled from Russia, which ensured that his family avoided the Russian Revolution. His daughters married into the British Aristocracy. Less fortunate was Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia who went into exile in Paris to marry a commoner, Olga Valerianovna Karnovich. Paul returned to serve in the Russian army during the First World War, and Nicholas II rewarded the family by making Olga and her children Princes and Princesses Paley. Paul's patriotism, however, had sealed his fate, and he died at the hands of Russia's revolutionaries in 1917.

However, Nicholas II permitted his brother, Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia, to marry twice-divorced noblewoman Natalya Sergeyevna Wulfert (née Sheremetevskaya), making the bride Countess Brassova. The son of Michael and Natalya, George, took his mother's name and rank. In the throes of the First World War, Nicholas II allowed his sister Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia to end her loveless marriage to her social equal, Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg, to marry commoner Colonel Nikolai Alexandrovich Kulikovsky. Both Michael's and Olga's descendants from these marriages were excluded from the succession.

After the assassination of Nicholas II and his children, the Royal Family's morganatic marriages restricted the number of possible heirs. Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich, Nicholas's cousin, proclaimed himself as Emperor in exile. Controversy accompanied the marriage of his son Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich to Leonida Georgievna Bagration-Mukhransky, a descendant of the Royal House of Georgia. Leonida's family had sometimes been considered to be nobility in Imperial Russia, rather than Royalty, leading to claims that the marriage was unequal. As a result, some factions within Russia's monarchist movement do not support the couple's daughter Grand Duchess Maria, as the rightful heir to the Romanov dynasty (see Line of succession to the Russian throne for further details of the controversy).

Denmark

Succession to the Danish throne followed the Salic Law until the Danish Act of Succession of 1953. Prominent morganatic marriages include the 1615 marriage of King Christian IV of Denmark and minor noblewoman Kirsten Munk. Kirsten was styled 'Countess of Schleswig-Holstein' and bore the King 12 children (all styled 'Count/Countess of Schleswig-Holstein'). King Frederick VII of Denmark married the ballet dancer Louise Rasmussen, who was styled 'Countess Danner', in 1850. There were no children of this marriage.

The abolition of the Salic Law allowed members of the Danish Royal Family much greater freedom in their choice of spouses, and none of the children of Denmark's present Queen have married a person of either Royal birth, or from the titled aristocracy. Members of the Royal Family may still lose their place in the line of succession for themselves and their descendants if they marry without the Monarch's permission.

France

There has never been morganatic marriage in France and morganatic marriage never existed in French laws. Equality of birth is not so important in France because antiquity of nobility in the male line is only taken into account: a Frenchman should have cent ans de noblesse (100 years in the male line) to become a Knight of Malta. A German should have quatre quartiers de noblesse (all four grandparents being noble) for the same purpose.

There was, however, a French practice, somewhat different from morganatic marriage, sometimes used in situations of inequality between the spouses: an "openly secret" marriage - that is, the marriage ceremony took place in private (with only a priest, the bride and groom, and a few witnesses in attendance) and the marriage was never officially announced (although it might be widely known), and thus the woman never publicly shared in her husband's titles and rank. Louis XIV married Madame de Maintenon, his second wife, this way. Madame de Maintenon was too old to bear children in this marriage. However, because of the similar definitions between a secret marriage and a morganatic marriage, this marriage is sometimes mistakenly included in an example list of morganatic marriages. [4][5]

A rumour also exists about a secret marriage between Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin, which is considered a morganatic marriage by those who accept this version.

United Kingdom

The concept of morganatic marriage has never clearly existed in any part of the United Kingdom. All four of Elizabeth II's children have married untitled commoners, with no effect on the order of succession. Wives of British princes are entitled to use the feminine form of their husbands' peerage and hereditary titles.[6] Camilla, second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, legally holds the title "Princess of Wales", but at the time that the engagement was announced, it was declared that she would be known by the title "Duchess of Cornwall" (derived from one of the other titles her husband held as heir apparent) in deference, it has been reported, to public feelings about the title's previous holder, the Prince's first wife Diana. It was simultaneously stated that upon her husband's accession to the throne, it is intended that she be known as "Princess Consort" rather than 'Queen', although as the King's wife she would legally be Queen.[7][8][9] The use of these lower titles does not denote a morganatic marriage.

It has been suggested that William, Prince of Orange, expected to have a strong claim to the throne of England after the Duke of York during the reign of Charles II.[10] In fact, the Duke's two daughters from his first marriage, Princess Mary and Princess Anne, were considered to have the stronger claim by the English establishment. William's expectation was based on the continental practice of morganatic marriage, since the mother of both princesses, Anne Hyde, was a commoner and a lady-in-waiting to William's mother, Princess Mary Stuart. It was by his mother, a sister of Charles II and the Duke of York, that William claimed the throne, because, to his mind, the son of a princess had a stronger claim than the daughter of a commoner. It was to shore up his own claim to the throne that he agreed to marry his first cousin, Princess Mary. When James II fled at the Glorious Revolution, William refused to accept the title of king consort (which Philip II of Spain had been granted under Queen Mary I in the 1550s) and insisted on being named King in his own right. The compromise solution involved naming both to the crown as the only joint rulers in the history of England.

The marriage of King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson was not to be morganatic, although Edward had proposed this expediency to Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, who rejected the idea after consultations with the governments of the Dominions.[11] Ultimately, Edward renounced the throne for himself and his descendants, which was given effect by His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, and he was created Duke of Windsor on 8 March 1937.

Another marriage which might arguably be regarded as morganatic was between John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. When they married after co-habiting for several years all children born previously were subsequently legitimated by Act of Parliament, but King Henry IV later declared that they could not inherit the crown, but it is not clear that he had the right to do this. This marriage was important, as King Henry VII was descended from it, but Parliament declared that he was king by "right of conquest", so some issues remained unresolved.

The Royal Marriages Act of 1772 made it illegal for all persons born into the British royal family to marry without the permission of the Sovereign, and any marriage contracted without the Sovereign’s consent was considered illegal and invalid. This led to several prominent cases of British princes who had gone through marriage ceremonies, and who cohabited with their partners as if married, but whose relationships were not legally recognised. As a result, their partners and children (the latter considered illegitimate) held no titles, and had no succession rights. This differs from morganatic marriages, which are considered legally valid.

Travancore

In the erstwhile princely state of Travancore, in India, the male members of the Travancore Royal Family were, under the existing matrilineal Marumakkathayam system of inheritance and family, permitted to contract marriages with women of the relatively inferior Nair caste only.[12] These were morganatic marriages called Sambandhams wherein the children gained their mother's caste and family name, due to Marumakkathayam. While due to reasons of caste and the nature of the marriage they could not inherit the throne, they did indeed receive the royal title of Thampi and were members of the Ammaveedus which ensured a comfortable living and all royal luxuries for them. [13]

Examples

Royal men who married morganatically:

Royal women who married morganatically:

See also

References

  1. ^ Stritof, Sheri & Bob. "Left-Handed Marriage". about.com. http://marriage.about.com/od/royalty/g/lefthanded.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-13.  
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd Edition
  3. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 4th Edition
  4. ^ "Morganatic and Secret Marriages in the French Royal Family". http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/morganat.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10.  
  5. ^ "Morganatic Marriage - Webster's Online Dictionary". http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/Mo/Morganatic_Marriage.html. Retrieved 2008-07-10.  
  6. ^ Velde, François. [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/prince_highness.htm#After_1917 "Styles of the members of the British royal family: After 1917"]. Heraldica.org. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/prince_highness.htm#After_1917. Retrieved 2009-01-11. "...Times of April 28, 1923: It is officially announced that, in accordance with the settled general rule that a wife takes the status of her husband, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon on her marriage has become Her Royal Highness the Duchess of York, with the status of a Princess."  
  7. ^ "TRH The Prince of Wales & The Duchess of Cornwall". The Royal Family. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/page5559.asp. Retrieved 2009-01-11. "After the wedding, Mrs Parker Bowles became known as HRH The Duchess of Cornwall. When The Prince of Wales accedes to the throne, she will be known as HRH The Princess Consort."  
  8. ^ "Biography". BBC News. http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/personalprofiles/theprinceofwales/biography/index.html. Retrieved 2009-01-11.  
  9. ^ "Camilla 'will be Charles' queen'". The Prince of Wales. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4369217.stm. Retrieved 2009-01-11.  
  10. ^ Van der zee and Van der zee, 1688: A Revolution in the family. Viking, Great Britain: 1988. p 52
  11. ^ Taylor, A.J.P., English History, 1914-1945, Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 401.
  12. ^ Travancore State Manual Vol ii 1940 by TK Velu Pillai
  13. ^ Travancore State Manual Vol ii 1940 by TK Velu Pillai and TSM Vol II 1906 by V Nagam Aiya

Further reading

  • Crawford, Donald. Michael and Natasha, Scribner (1997). ISBN 0-684-83430-8
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MORGANATIC MARRIAGE, a form of marriage properly peculiar to the German peoples, but also found in the royal families of other European countries. It is one in which the contracting parties are not by birth of equal status or rank (ebenbiirtig), and under which the wife, if not ebenbiirtig, does not take the rank of her husband, and the children, whether it be the wife or husband that is of lower rank, have no right of succession to the dignities, fiefs or entailed property of the parent of higher rank. This equality by birth was formerly throughout Germany the necessary condition to a complete and perfect marriage, but it is now only applicable to members of reigning houses or of the higher nobility (hoher Add), and it is thus of force among the "mediatized" princes of the German Empire. In the constitution of the various states, and in the "house laws" (Hausgesetze) of the reigning families, the rules are laid down as to what constitutes ebenbiirtigkeit . Generally it may be said that members of a present or former reigning house, either in Germany or Europe, would be recognized as ebenbiirtig, but a former morganatic marriage would be taken as destroying the qualification. In Great Britain the regulations as to the marriages of members of the royal family are contained in the Royal Marriage Act 1772 (see Marriage). The term "morganatic marriage" is applied generally to any marriage of a person of royal blood with one of inferior rank. The origin of the term, in medieval Latin matrimonium ad morganaticam, is usually taken to refer to the Morgengabe, i.e. the morning gift, made by a husband to his wife on marriage. The German name is Ehe zur linkers Hand (marriage by the left hand, whence the phrase a "left-handed marriage"), the husband of such marriage ceremonies giving the left instead of the right hand to the bride. Such marriages are recognized as fully binding by the Church, and the children are legitimate, and no other marriage can take place during the lifetime of the contracting parties.


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