Moroccan people: Wikis

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Morocco, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Most Moroccans are Sunni Muslims of Berber or mixed Arab-Berber stock. Morocco was inhabited by Berbers since at least 5000 years ago. The Arabs conquered the territory that would become Morocco in the 7th and 11th centuries, at the time under the rule of various late Byzantine Roman princips and indigenous Berber and Romano-Berber principalities, laying the foundation for the emergence of an Arab-Berber culture. A portion of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnaoua, black or highly mixed race Moroccans. Morocco's Jewish minority has decreased significantly and numbers about 7,000 (See History of the Jews in Morocco). Most of the 100,000 foreign residents are French or Spanish, largely colonists' descendants who are mostly professionals working for European multinationals.

Recent studies make clear no significant genetic differences exist between Arabic and non-Arabic speaking populations, highlighting that in common with most of the Arab World, Arabization was mainly via acculturation of indigenous populations over time.[1] According to the European Journal of Human Genetics, Morrocans from North-Western Africa were slightly genetically closer to Iberian than to West Africans. [2]

Contents

Languages

Ethnolinguistic Groups in Morocco

See also Languages of Morocco

Classical Arabic is Morocco's official language (it is the "classical" Arabic of the Qur'an, literature and news media). The country has a distinctive dialect known as Moroccan-Arabic.

Approximately 12 million Moroccans speak Berber — which exists in Morocco in three different dialects (Tarifit, Tashelhit, and Central Atlas Tamazight) — either as a first language or bilingually with the spoken Arabic dialect. French, which remains Morocco's unofficial third language, is taught at universally and still serves as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics; it is also widely used in education and government. Morocco is a member of La Francophonie. Amazigh (Berber) activists have struggled for half a century for the recognition of their language as the official language of Morocco in the Moroccan constitution. They also demand that this language should be taught in all Moroccan schools and universities.

About 20,000 Moroccans in the northern part of the country speak Spanish. English, while still far behind French and Spanish in terms of the number of speakers, is rapidly becoming the second foreign language of choice among educated youth, after French. As a result of national education reforms entering into force in late 2002, English will be taught in all public schools from the fourth year on.

Emancipation of women

The literacy rate is 51% for males and 42.5% for females. Gender bias is commonplace. Only 26% of the non-agricultural labor is female. However, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary schools is reasonable at 87.9. Under the rule of Mohammed VI, the government has taken many initiatives to improve the status of women in society. For instance, the Moudawana 2003 code of law has greatly improved the family status code. It has given women the right to decisions on crucial issues like marriage, divorce, and custody of children in the case of remarriage/divorce.[3]

Main populated areas

Most people live west of the Atlas Mountains, a range that insulates the country from the Sahara Desert. Casablanca is the center of commerce and industry and the leading port; Rabat is the seat of government; Tangier is the gateway to Morocco from Spain and also a major port; Fez is the cultural and religious center; and Marrakech is a major tourist center.

Education

Education in Morocco is free and compulsory through primary school (age 15). Nevertheless, many children--particularly girls in rural areas--still do not attend school. The country's illiteracy rate is usually around 50% for most of the country, but reaches as high as 90% among girls in rural regions. In July 2006, Prime minister Driss Jettou announced that illiteracy rate has declined by 39%, while two million people had attended literacy courses during the past four years. [5]

Morocco has about 230,000 students enrolled in 14 public universities. The oldest and in some ways the prestigious is Mohammed V in Rabat, with faculties of law, sciences, liberal arts, and medicine. University of Karueein, in Fez, has been a center for Islamic studies for more than 1,000 years. Morocco has one private university, Al Akhawayn University, in Ifrane. Al-Akhawayn, founded in 1993 by King Hassan II and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, is an English-medium, American-style university comprising about 1,000 students.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

Demographics of Morocco, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

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Population

34,859,364 (July 2009 est.)[6]

  • Berber 85%
  • Arab 10.1
  • other 0.7%
  • Jewish 0.2%

Age structure

0-14 years: 30% (male 5,333,396/female(s) 5,131,886)

15-64 years: 64.7% (male 11,261,139/female 11,305,792)

65 years and over: 5.2% (male 781,089/female 1,046,062) (2009 est.)[6]

Population growth rate

1.479% (2009 est.)[6]

Birth rate

20.96 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)[6]

Death rate

5.45 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)[6]

Net migration rate

-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)[6]

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.) [6]

Infant mortality rate

36.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.) [6]

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 71.8 years

male: 69.42 years

female: 74.3 years (2009 est.) [6]

Total fertility rate

2.51 children born/woman (2009 est.)[6]

Nationality

COB data Morocco.PNG

noun: Moroccan(s)

adjective: Moroccan

Category:Moroccan people

Ethnic groups

Category:Ethnic groups in Morocco

Religions

Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.02%.[6]

Category:Religion in Morocco

Literacy

Definition: age 10 and over can read and write

Total population: 61.55% (2007)[7]

Category:Education in Morocco

External links

References

  1. ^ Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by STR analysis
  2. ^ Bosch, Elena; Francesc Calafell, Anna Perez-Lezaun, Jordi Clarimon, David Comas, Eva Mateu, Rosa Martınez-Arias, Bernal Morera, Zahra Brakez, Omar Akhayat,Abdelaziz Sefiani, Ghania Hariti, Anne Cambon-Thomsen and Jaume Bertranpetit (2000). "Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by STR analysis" (online). European Journal of Human Genetics 8 (5): 360–366. http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v8/n5/pdf/5200464a.pdf. 
  3. ^ Morocco Country Profile | Morocco Economy | Economy of Morocco | Thomas White Funds
  4. ^ http://looklex.com/e.o/morocco_4.htm
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The World Factbook - Morocco
  7. ^ L'analphabétisme a reculé au Maroc
Ethnic groups of Morocco[4] Population  % of total Population
Arabs 20 800 000 67.0%
Berbers 31.0% 9 600 000
Sahrawis 770 000 2.0%

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