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Kingdom of Morocco
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"الله، الوطن، الملك"
"Allāh, al Waṭan, al Malik"  (transliteration)
"Yakuc - Tamurt - Agllid"
God - Homeland - King
Anthem"Hymne Chérifien"
The striped area on the map shows Western Sahara, most of which is de facto administered by Morocco as its "Southern Provinces". Its sovereignty is currently in dispute
Capital Rabat
34°02′N 6°51′W / 34.033°N 6.85°W / 34.033; -6.85
Largest city Casablanca
Official language(s) Arabic[1]
Ethnic groups  Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%[2]
Demonym Moroccan
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  King Mohammed VI
 -  Prime Minister Abbas El Fassi
Unification 780 
 -  Unified by Idrisid dynasty 780–974 
 -  Saadi Morocco 1554–1659 
 -  Alaouite Morocco 1666–present 
 -  Independence from France March 2, 1956 
 -  Independence from Spain April 7, 1956 
Area
 -  Total 446,550 km2 (57th)
172,414 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 250km² (0,056%)
Population
 -  2009 estimate 31,993,000[3] (37th)
 -  2004 census 29,680,069[3] 
 -  Density 71.6/km2 (122nd)
185.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $146.231 billion[4] (57th)
 -  Per capita $4,587[4] (115th)
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $90.775 billion[4] (58st)
 -  Per capita $2,847[4] (105th)
HDI (2007) 0.654 (medium) (130th)
Currency Moroccan dirham (MAD)
Time zone WET (UTC+0)
 -  Summer (DST) WEST (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ma
Calling code +212
*All data excludes the Western Sahara, much of which is under Moroccan de facto administrative control.
1 French is widely used in official government texts, and by the business community, though neither instance is 'official.' Moroccan Arabic, an Arabic vernacular, is the most common native language. Amazigh or Berber languages are also widely spoken.
Morocco (Arabic: المغرب‎, al-Maġrib; Amazigh: ⴰⵎⵔⵔⵓⴽ/ ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ, Amrruk / Murakuc, French: Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco[5] (المملكة المغربية, al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyya, Tagldit Umrruk), is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of nearly 32 million and an area just under 447,000 square kilometres (173,000 sq mi). Its capital is Rabat, and its largest city is Casablanca. Morocco has a coast on the Atlantic Ocean that reaches past the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with three small Spanish exclaves, Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera), Algeria to the east, and Mauritania to the south.[6]
Several dialects of Arabic and Berber are spoken in Morocco. However, this linguistic diversity doesn't affect the ethnic situation as the population is largely homogeneous.[citation needed] Morocco is one of the two countries in Africa that are not part of the African Union, the other being Eritrea.

Contents

Name

The full Arabic name al-Mamlaka al-Maġribiyya (المملكة المغربية) translates to "The Western Kingdom". Al-Maġrib (meaning "The West") is commonly used. For historical references, medieval Arab historians and geographers used to refer to Morocco as Al-Maghrib al Aqşá ("The Farthest West"), disambiguating it from neighboring historical regions called al-Maghrib al Awsat ("The Middle West", Algeria) and al-Maghrib al Adna ("The Nearest West", Tunisia).[7]
Barbary Lion, often considered the national emblem of Morocco.
The English name "Morocco" originates from Spanish "Marruecos", from medieval Latin "Morroch", which referred to the name of the former Almoravid and Almohad capital, Marrakesh.[8] In Persian and Urdu Morocco is simply called "Marrakesh", just like the pre-modern Arabic name. In Turkish, Morocco is called "Fas" which comes from the ancient Idrisid and Marinid capital, Fes.
The word "Marrakesh" is derived from the Berber word combination Mur-Akush (ⵎⵓⵔ-ⴰⵅⵓⵙⵂ), meaning Land of God.

History

Oldest known flag of Morocco (11th-13th century)
Ancient Morocco
Arab Caliphates (654-780)
Moroccan Dynasties (780-current)
European Protectorate (1912-1956)
Modern Morocco (since 1956)
Historical Figures
Related Topics
Marinid emblem of Morocco.svg

Berber Morocco

The area of present day Morocco has been inhabited since Neolithic times (at least since 8000 BC, as attested by signs of the Capsian culture), a period when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. In Mesolithic ages the geography of Morocco resembled a savanna more than the present day arid landscape.[9] In the classical period, Morocco was known as Mauretania, although this should not be confused with the modern-day country of Mauritania. Modern DNA analysis (see link) has confirmed that various populations have contributed to the present-day gene pool of Morocco in addition to the main ethnic group which is the Amazighs/Berbers. Those other various populations are Arabs, Iberians, Phoenicians, Sephardic Jews and sub-Saharan Africans.

Roman and pre-Roman Morocco

North Africa and Morocco were slowly drawn into the wider emerging Mediterranean world by Phoenician trading colonies and settlements in the early Classical period. Major early substantial settlements of the Phoenicians were at Chellah, Lixus and Mogador,[10] with Mogador being a Phoenician colony as early as the early 6th century BC.[11] The arrival of Phoenicians heralded a long engagement with the wider Mediterranean, as this strategic region formed part of the Roman Empire, as Mauretania Tingitana. In the fifth century, as the Roman Empire declined, the region fell to the Vandals, Visigoths, and then Byzantine Greeks in rapid succession. During this time, however, the high mountains of most of modern Morocco remained unsubdued, and stayed in the hands of their Berber inhabitants. Christianity was introduced in the second century and gained converts in the towns and among slaves and Berber farmers.

Islamic Morocco

Islamic expansion began in the seventh century. In 670 AD, the first Islamic conquest of the North African coastal plain took place under Uqba ibn Nafi, a general serving under the Umayyads of Damascus.
The Kasbah of Aït Benhaddou, High Atlas. Built by the Berbers from the 14th century onwards, a Kasbah was a single family stronghold (as opposed to a Ksar: a fortified tribal village).
Arabs brought their customs, culture, and Islam, to which most of the Berbers converted, forming states and kingdoms such as the Kingdom of Nekor and Barghawata, sometimes after long-running series of civil wars. Under Idris ibn Abdallah who founded the Idrisid Dynasty, the country soon cut ties and broke away from the control of the distant Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and the Umayyad rule in Al-Andalus. The Idrisids established Fes as their capital and Morocco became a centre of learning and a major regional power.
After the reign of the Idrisids, Arab settlers lost political control in the region of Morocco. After adopting Islam, Berber dynasties formed governments and reigned over the country. Morocco would reach its height under these Berber dynasties that replaced the Arab Idrisids after the 11th century.[12] The Almoravids, the Almohads, then the Marinid and finally the Saadi dynasties would see Morocco rule most of Northwest Africa, as well as large sections of Islamic Iberia, or Al-Andalus. Following the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula, large numbers of Muslims and Jews fled to Morocco.[13]
After the Saadi, the Arab Alaouite Dynasty eventually gained control. Morocco was facing aggression from Spain and the Ottoman Empire that was sweeping westward. The Alaouites succeeded in stabilizing their position, and while the kingdom was smaller than previous ones in the region, it remained quite wealthy. In 1684, they annexed Tangier. The organization of the kingdom developed under Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727), who, against the opposition of local tribes began to create a unified state.[14]
Morocco was the first nation to recognize the fledgling United States as an independent nation in 1787.[15] In the beginning of the American Revolution, American merchant ships were subject to attack by the Barbary Pirates while sailing the Atlantic Ocean. On December 20, 1777, Morocco's Sultan Mohammed III declared that the American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty.[16][17]
In the 20th century, under the leadership of Abd el-Krim, the Riffian Berbers struggled against Spanish rule.

European influence

Successful Portuguese efforts to invade and control the Atlantic coast in the fifteenth century did not profoundly affect the Mediterranean heart of Morocco. After the Napoleonic Wars, Egypt and the North African maghreb became increasingly ungovernable from Istanbul, the resort of pirates under local beys, and as Europe industrialized, an increasingly prized potential for colonization. The Maghreb had far greater proven wealth than the unknown rest of Africa and a location of strategic importance affecting the exit from the Mediterranean. For the first time, Morocco became a state of some interest in itself to the European Powers. France showed a strong interest in Morocco as early as 1830.[18] Recognition by the United Kingdom in 1904 of France's sphere of influence in Morocco provoked a reaction from the German Empire; the crisis of June 1905 was resolved at the Algeciras Conference, Spain in 1906, which formalized France's "special position" and entrusted policing of Morocco jointly to France and Spain. A second Moroccan crisis provoked by Berlin, increased tensions between European powers. The Treaty of Fez (signed on March 30, 1912) made Morocco a protectorate of France. By the same treaty, Spain assumed the role of protecting power over the northern and southern Saharan zones on November 27 that year.[19]
Many Moroccan soldiers (Goumieres) served in the French army in both World War I and World War II, and in the Spanish Nationalist Army in the Spanish Civil War and after (Regulares).
Pre-1956 Tangier had a highly heterogeneous population that included 40,000 Muslims, 30,000 Europeans and 15,000 Jews.[20]

Resistance

Nationalist political parties, which subsequently arose under the French protectorate, based their arguments for Moroccan independence on such World War II declarations as the Atlantic Charter (a joint U.S.-British statement that set forth, among other things, the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live). A manifesto of the Istiqlal Party (Independence party in English) in 1944 was one of the earliest public demands for independence. That party subsequently provided most of the leadership for the nationalist movement.
Casablanca in 1950s
France's exile of Sultan Mohammed V in 1953 to Madagascar and his replacement by the unpopular Mohammed Ben Aarafa, whose reign was perceived as illegitimate, sparked active opposition to the French and Spanish protectorates. In August 1953, Ahmed Belbachir Haskouri, the right-hand man of the caliph of Spanish Morocco declared Sultan Mohammed V as the legitimate sultan of Morocco in its entirety in the grand mosque in Tetuan. The most notable violence occurred in Oujda where Moroccans attacked French and other European residents in the streets. Operations by the newly created "Jaish al-tahrir" (Liberation Army), were launched on October 1, 1955. Jaish al-tahrir was created by "Comité de Libération du Maghreb Arabe" (Arab Maghreb Liberation Committee) in Cairo, Egypt to constitute a resistance movement against occupation. Its goal was the return of King Mohammed V and the liberation of Algeria and Tunisia as well. France allowed Mohammed V to return in 1955, and the negotiations that led to Moroccan independence began the following year.[21]
All those events helped increase the degree of solidarity between the people and the newly returned king. For this reason, the revolution that Morocco knew was called "Taourat al-malik wa shaab" (The revolution of the King and the People) and it is celebrated every August 20.

Contemporary Morocco

On November 18, 2006, Morocco celebrated the 50th anniversary of its independence. Morocco recovered its political independence from France on March 2, 1956, and on April 7, France officially relinquished its protectorate. Through agreements with Spain in 1956 and 1958, Moroccan control over certain Spanish-ruled areas was restored, though attempts to claim other Spanish colonial possessions through military action were less successful. The internationalized city of Tangier was reintegrated with the signing of the Tangier Protocol on October 29, 1956 (see Tangier Crisis). Hassan II became King of Morocco on March 3, 1961. His early years of rule would be marked by political unrest. The Spanish enclave of Ifni in the south was reintegrated to the country in 1969. Morocco annexed the Western Sahara during the 1970s ("Marcha Verde", Green March) after demanding its reintegration from Spain since independence, but final resolution on the status of the territory remains unresolved. (See History of Western Sahara.)[22]
Political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997. Morocco was granted Major non-NATO ally status by the United States in June 2004 and has signed free trade agreements with the United States and the European Union.

Politics

Morocco is a de jure constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco, with vast executive powers, can dissolve government and deploy the military, among other prerogatives. Opposition political parties are legal, and several have been formed in recent years. Politics of Morocco take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Morocco is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives of Morocco and the Assembly of Councillors. The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with a Parliament and an independent judiciary.
The constitution grants the king extensive powers; he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers; appoints the Prime Minister following legislative elections, and on recommendations from the latter, appoints the members of the government. While the constitution theoretically allows the king to terminate the tenure of any minister, and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies, to dissolve the Parliament, suspend the constitution, call for new elections, or rule by decree, the only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the chief of the military. Upon the death of his father Mohammed V, King Hassan II succeeded to the throne in 1961. He ruled Morocco for the next 38 years, until he died in 1999. His son, King Mohammed VI, assumed the throne in July 1999.
Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist leader Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government is the first government drawn primarily from opposition parties in decades, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialist, left-of-center, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Abbas El Fassi.

Legislative branch

The legislature's building in Rabat.
Since the constitutional reform of 1996, the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis al-Nuwab/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five year term, 295 elected in multi-seat constituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). The Parliament's powers, though limited, were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters, approving bills, questioning ministers, and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government's actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence.

Judicial branch

The highest court in the judicial structure is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the King. The Youssoufi government continued to implement a reform program to develop greater judicial independence and impartiality. Morocco is divided into 16 administrative regions; the regions are administered by the Walis and governors appointed by the King.

Administrative divisions

As part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature 16 new regions (provided below) were created. It is the primary administrative division of Morocco : Chaouia-Ourdigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulmane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Greater Casablanca, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Oued Eddahab-Lagouira, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tangier-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate

Regions and prefectures

Different versions of maps of Morocco
Morocco is divided into 16 regions,[23] and subdivided into 62 prefectures and provinces.[24]
As part of a 1997 decentralization/regionalization law passed by the legislature, sixteen new regions were created. These regions are:

Western Sahara status

East of the berm is the territory controlled by the Polisario
Because of the conflict over Western Sahara, the status of both regions of "Saguia el-Hamra" and "Río de Oro" is disputed. The United Nations views Western Sahara as a non-self-governing territory, and as a case of unfinished decolonization. Morocco's rule in the territory is not internationally recognized, nor is the independent republic proposed by Polisario, a Saharawi group which fought against the Spanish colonial rule and then for Western Sahara's independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (today headquartered in Algeria). There is a ceasefire in effect since 1991, and a UN mission (MINURSO) is tasked with organizing a referendum on whether the territory should become independent or recognized as a part of Morocco. At the time, both parties signed an agreement to this effect, but Morocco has since 2000 refused to accept such a referendum, while Polisario demands that it be held.
The territory is mostly administered as the Southern Provinces by Morocco since Spain handed over the territory to Morocco and Mauritania after the Madrid Accords in 1975-76. Part of the territory, the Free Zone, is controlled by the Polisario Front as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. A UN-administered cease-fire has been in effect since September, 1991.

Western Sahara War

The Western Sahara War was the armed conflict which saw the Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement Polisario Front battling Spain, Morocco and Mauritania for the control of the former Spanish colony of Western Sahara from 1973 to 1991. The war resulted in the Spanish retreat in 1976, the Mauritanian retreat in 1979 and a cease fire agreement with Morocco. The bigger part of the territory remained under Moroccan control.

Moroccan Autonomy Initiative

Recently, the government of Morocco has suggested autonomous status for the region, through the Moroccan Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS). The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. The proposal was encouraged by Moroccan allies such as the USA and France, but did not gain Security Council approval, and Minurso remains formally committed to the organization of a referendum. The Security Council has called upon the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.[25]

Geography

High Atlas mountains
Rif mountains
Essaouira, waterfront.
Bin el Ouidane river, Beni-Mellal
Barbary Macaque
Moroccan Sahara
The geography of Morocco spans from the Atlantic Ocean, to mountainous areas, to the Sahara (desert). Morocco is a Northern African country, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and the annexed Western Sahara.
A large part of Morocco is mountainous. The Atlas Mountains are located mainly in the center and the south of the country. The Rif Mountains are located in the north of the country. Both ranges are mainly inhabited by the Berber people. At 172,402 sq mi (446,519 km2), Morocco is the fifty-seventh largest country in the world (after Uzbekistan). Algeria borders Morocco to the east and southeast though the border between the two countries has been closed since 1994.
There are also four Spanish enclaves on the Mediterranean coast: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Peñón de Alhucemas, and the Chafarinas islands, as well as the disputed islet Perejil. Off the Atlantic coast the Canary Islands belong to Spain, whereas Madeira to the north is Portuguese. To the north, Morocco is bordered by and controls part of the Strait of Gibraltar, giving it power over the waterways in and out of the Mediterranean sea.
The Rif mountains occupy the region bordering the Mediterranean from the north-west to the north-east. The Atlas Mountains run down the backbone of the country, from the south west to the north east. Most of the south east portion of the country is in the Sahara Desert and as such is generally sparsely populated and unproductive economically. Most of the population lives to the north of these mountains, while to the south is the desert. To the south, lies the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony that was annexed by Morocco in 1975 (see Green March).[6] Morocco claims that the Western Sahara is part of its territory and refers to that as its Southern Provinces.
Morocco's capital city is Rabat; its largest city is its main port, Casablanca. Other cities include Agadir, Essaouira, Fes, Marrakech, Meknes, Mohammadia, Oujda, Ouarzazat, Safi, Salé, Tangier and Tétouan.
Morocco is represented in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 geographical encoding standard by the symbol MA.[26] This code was used as the basis for Morocco's internet domain, .ma.[26]

Climate

The climate is Mediterranean in the North and in some mountains ( West of Atlas), which becomes more extreme towards the interior regions. The terrain is such that the coastal plains are rich and accordingly, they comprise the backbone for agriculture, especially in the North. Forests cover about 12% of the land while arable land accounts for 18%. 5% is irrigated. In the Atlas ( Middle Atlas), there's some different climates: Mediterranean ( with some more humid and fresher variants), Maritime Temperate ( with some humid and fresher variants too) that allow different species of oaks, moss carpets, junipers, atlantic cedars and many other plants, to form extensive and very rich humid cloud forests. In the highest peaks a different climate may occur. On the other side of Atlas mountains ( East Atlas), the climate changes, due to the barrier/shelter effect of these mountainous system, turning it very dry and extremely warm during the summer ( that can last several months), especially on the lowlands and on the valleys faced to the Sahara. Here it starts the big Desert Sahara and it's perfectly visible, for example, on the Draa Valley, on which it's possible to find oasis, sand dunes and rocky desert landscapes. So the climate in this region is desert.

Wildlife

Morocco is known for its wildlife biodiversity. Birds represent the most important fauna.[27] The avifauna of Morocco includes a total of 454 species, of which five have been introduced by humans, and 156 are rare or accidental.[28]

Economy

Project of Tangier city center
Morocco's economy is considered a relatively liberal economy governed by the law of supply and demand. Since 1993, the country has followed a policy of privatization of certain economic sectors which used to be in the hands of the government.[29]
Government reforms and steady yearly growth in the region of 4-5% from 2000 to 2007, including 4.9% year-on-year growth in 2003-2007 helped the Moroccan economy to become much more robust compared to a few years ago. Economic growth is far more diversified, with new service and industrial poles, like Casablanca and Tangier, developing. The agriculture sector is being rehabilitated, which in combination with good rainfalls led to a growth of over 20% in 2009.
The services sector accounts for just over half of GDP and industry, made up of mining, construction and manufacturing, is an additional quarter. The sectors who recorded the highest growth are the tourism, telecoms, information technology, and textile sectors. Morocco , however, still depends to an inordinate degree on agriculture. The sector accounts for only around 14% of GDP but employs 40-45% of the Moroccan population. With a semi-arid climate, it is difficult to assure good rainfall and Morocco’s GDP varies depending on the weather. Fiscal prudence has allowed for consolidation, with both the budget deficit and debt falling as a percentage of GDP.
The economic system of the country presents several facets. It is characterized by a large opening towards the outside world. France remains the primary trade partner (supplier and customer) of Morocco. France is also the primary creditor and foreign investor in Morocco. In the Arab world, Morocco has the second-largest non-oil GDP, behind Egypt, as of 2005.
Since the early 1980s the Moroccan government has pursued an economic program toward accelerating real economy growth with the support of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Paris Club of creditors. The country's currency, the dirham, is now fully convertible for current account transactions; reforms of the financial sector have been implemented; and state enterprises are being privatized.
The major resources of the Moroccan economy are agriculture, phosphates, and tourism. Sales of fish and seafood are important as well. Industry and mining contribute about one-third of the annual GDP. Morocco is the world's third-largest producer of phosphorus (after China, which is first, and the United States which is second),[30] and the price fluctuations of phosphates on the international market greatly influence Morocco's economy. Tourism and workers' remittances have played a critical role since independence. The production of textiles and clothing is part of a growing manufacturing sector that accounted for approximately 34% of total exports in 2002, employing 40% of the industrial workforce. The government wishes to increase textile and clothing exports from $1.27 billion in 2001 to $3.29 billion in 2010.
The high cost of imports, especially of petroleum imports, is a major problem. Another chronic problem is unreliable rainfall, which produces drought or sudden floods; in 1995, the country's worst drought in 30 years forced Morocco to import grain and adversely affected the economy. Another drought occurred in 1997, and one in 1999–2000. Reduced incomes due to drought caused GDP to fall by 7.6% in 1995, by 2.3% in 1997, and by 1.5% in 1999. During the years between drought, good rains brought bumper crops to market. Good rainfall in 2001 led to a 5% GDP growth rate. Morocco suffers both from unemployment (9.6% in 2008), and a large external debt estimated at around $20 billion, or half of GDP in 2002.[31]
Among the various free trade agreements that Morocco has ratified with its principal economic partners, are The Euro-Mediterranean free trade area agreement with the European Union with the objective of integrating the European Free Trade Association at the horizons of 2012; the Agadir Agreement, signed with Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia, within the framework of the installation of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area; the US-Morocco Free Trade Agreement with United States which came into force in January 1, 2006, and lately the agreement of free exchange with Turkey.(See Economy of Morocco)

Demographics

Ethnolinguistic groups in Morocco as of 1973.
Morocco is the fourth most populous Arab country, after Algeria, Egypt and Sudan.[32] Most Moroccans practice Sunni Islam and are of Berber, Arab or mixed Arab-Berber stock. Arabs and Berbers comprise about 99.1% of the Moroccan population.[33]
Morocco has been inhabited by Berbers for at least the last 5000 years. The Arabs conquered the territory that would become Morocco in the 7th and 11th centuries, at the time under the rule of various late Byzantine Roman leaders and indigenous Berber and Romano-Berber principalities, laying the foundation for the emergence of an Arab-Berber culture. A sizeable portion of the population is identified as Haratin and Gnawa (or Gnaoua), black or mixed race. Morocco's Jewish minority (265,000 in 1948) has decreased significantly and numbers about 5,500 (See History of the Jews in Morocco).[34] Most of the 100,000 foreign residents are French or Spanish, largely colonists' descendants, who primarily work for European multinational companies. Prior to independence, Morocco was home to half a million Europeans,[35] mainly Spanish and French settlers (colons).
Recent studies make clear no significant genetic differences exist between Arabic and non-Arabic speaking populations, highlighting that in common with most of the Arab World, Arabization was mainly via acculturation of indigenous populations over time.[36] According to the European Journal of Human Genetics, Moroccans from North-Western Africa were genetically closer to Iberians than to Sub-Saharan Africans of Bantu ethnicity.[37]
The largest concentration of Moroccans outside Morocco is in France, which has reportedly over one million Moroccans. There are also large Moroccan communities in Spain (about 700,000 Moroccans),[38] the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Canada.[39]
Most people live west of the Atlas Mountains, a range that insulates the country from the Sahara Desert. Casablanca is the center of commerce and industry and the leading port; Rabat is the seat of government; Tangier is the gateway to Morocco from Spain and also a major port; Fes is the cultural and religious center; and Marrakech is a major tourist center.
There is a European expatriate population of 100,000, mainly of French or Spanish descent; many are teachers or technicians and more and more retirees, especially in Marrakech.

Languages

Morocco's official language is Modern Standard Arabic. The country's distinctive Arabic dialect is called Moroccan Arabic. Approximately 10 million (30% of the population), mostly in rural areas, speak Berber – which exists in Morocco in three different dialects (Tarifit, Tashelhiyt, and Tamazight) – either as a first language or bilingually with the spoken Arabic dialect.[40] French, which is Morocco's unofficial second language, is taught universally and serves as Morocco's primary language of commerce and economics. It also is widely used in education and government. About 2 million[citation needed] Moroccans in the northern part of the country speak Spanish as a second language in parallel with Tarifit. English, while still far behind French and Spanish in terms of number of speakers, is rapidly becoming the second foreign language of choice among educated youth. As a result of national education reforms entering into force in late 2002, English will be taught in all public schools from the fourth year on. French however, will remain the second foreign language because of Morocco's close economic and social links with other French-speaking countries and especially France.
Linguistically, Berber belongs to the Afro-Asiatic group, and has many accents or variants. The three main accents used in Morocco are Tachelhit, Tamazight and Tarifit (Also called Thamazight by its speakers). Collectively, those Berber languages they are known as "Chelha" in Moroccan Arabic and as "Barbaria" in Classical Arabic used in the Middle East. The terms "Barbar" and "Chelha" are considered by most Berber activists as extremely offending and humiliating. They prefer the word Amazigh.

Culture

A view of King Hassan II Mosque
Morocco is an ethnically diverse country with a rich culture and civilization. Through Moroccan history, Morocco hosted many people coming from East (Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Jews and Arabs), South (Sub-Saharan Africans) and North (Romans, Vandals, Andalusians (including Moors and Jews). All those civilizations have had an impact on the social structure of Morocco. It conceived various forms of beliefs, from paganism, Judaism, and Christianity to Islam.
The production of Moroccan literature has continued to grow and diversify. To the traditional genres—poetry, essays, and historiography—have been added forms inspired by Middle Eastern and Western literary models. French is often used in publishing research in the social and natural sciences, and in the fields of literature and literary studies, works are published in both Arabic and French. Moroccan writers, such as Mohammed Choukri, Driss Chraïbi, Abdallah Laroui, Abdelfattah Kilito, and Fatima Mernissi, publish their works in both French and English. Expatriate writers such as Pierre Loti, William S. Burroughs, and Paul Bowles have drawn attention to Moroccan writers as well as to the country itself.
Since independence a veritable blossoming has taken place in painting and sculpture, popular music, amateur theatre, and filmmaking. The Moroccan National Theatre (founded 1956) offers regular productions of Moroccan and French dramatic works. Art and music festivals take place throughout the country during the summer months, among them the World Sacred Music Festival at Fès.
Moroccan music, influenced by Arab, Amazigh, African, and Andalusian traditions, makes use of a number of traditional instruments, such as the flute (nāy), shawm (ghaita), zither (qanūn), and various short necked lutes (including the ʿūd and gimbrī). These are often backed by explosive percussion on the darbūkka (terra-cotta drum). Among the most popular traditional Moroccan artists internationally are the Master Musicians of Jajouka, an all-male guild trained from childhood, and Hassan Hakmoun, a master of gnāwa trance music, a popular spiritual style that traces its roots to sub-Saharan Africa. Younger Moroccans enjoy raï, a style of plain-speaking Algerian music that incorporates traditional sounds with those of Western rock, Jamaican reggae, and Egyptian and Moroccan popular music.
Each region possesses its own specificities, thus contributing to the national culture and to the legacy of civilization. Morocco has set among its top priorities the protection of its diverse legacy and the preservation of its cultural heritage.
Culturally speaking, Morocco has always been successful in combining its Berber, Jewish and Arabic cultural heritage with external influences such as the French and the Spanish and, during the last decades, the Anglo-American lifestyles.

Cuisine

Spices at the central market in Agadir
Moroccan cuisine has long been considered as one of the most diversified cuisines in the world. This is a result of the centuries-long interaction of Morocco with the outside world. The cuisine of Morocco is a mix of Berber, Spanish, Corsican, Portuguese, Moorish, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, and African cuisines. The cuisine of Morocco has been influenced by the native Berber cuisine, the Arabic Andalusian cuisine brought by the Moriscos when they left Spain, the Turkish cuisine from the Turks and the Middle Eastern cuisines brought by the Arabs, as well as Jewish cuisine.
Spices are used extensively in Moroccan food. While spices have been imported to Morocco for thousands of years, many ingredients, like saffron from Tiliouine, mint and olives from Meknes, and oranges and lemons from Fez, are home-grown. Chicken is the most widely eaten meat in Morocco. The most commonly eaten red meat in Morocco is beef; lamb is preferred but is relatively expensive. Couscous is the most famous Moroccan dish along with pastilla, tajine, and harira. The most popular drink is green tea with mint. The tea is accompanied with hard sugar cones or lumps.

Literature

Moroccan literature is written in Arabic, Berber and French. It also contains literature produced in Al-Andalus. Under the Almohad dynasty Morocco experienced a period of prosperity and brilliance of learning. The Almohad built the Marrakech Koutoubia Mosque, which accommodated no fewer than 25,000 people, but was also famed for its books, manuscripts, libraries and book shops, which gave it its name; the first book bazaar in history. The Almohad Caliph Abu Yakub had a great love for collecting books. He founded a great library, which was eventually carried to the Casbah and turned into a public library.
Modern Moroccan literature began in the 1930s. Two main factors gave Morocco a pulse toward witnessing the birth of a modern literature. Morocco, as a French and Spanish protectorate left Moroccan intellectuals the opportunity to exchange and to produce literary works freely enjoying the contact of other Arabic literature and Europe.
During the 1950s and 1960s, Morocco was a refuge and artistic centre and attracted writers as Paul Bowles, Tennessee Williams and William S. Burroughs. Moroccan literature flourished with novelists such as Mohamed Zafzaf and Mohamed Choukri, who wrote in Arabic, and Driss Chraïbi and Tahar Ben Jelloun who wrote in French. Other important Moroccan authors include, Abdellatif Laabi, Abdelkarim Ghellab, Fouad Laroui, Mohammed Berrada and Leila Abouzeid. It should be noted also, that orature (oral literature) is an integral part of Moroccan culture, be it in Moroccan Arabic or Amazigh.

Music

Jewish Wedding in Morocco by Eugène Delacroix, Louvre, Paris
Moroccan music is predominantly of Arab origins. There also exist other varieties of Berber folk music. Andalusian and other imported influences have had a major effect on the country's musical character. Rock-influenced chabbi bands are widespread, as is trance music with historical origins in Muslim music.
Morocco is home to Andalusian classical music that is found throughout North Africa. It probably evolved under the Moors in Cordoba, and the Persian-born musician Ziryab is usually credited with its invention. A genre known as Contemporary Andalusian music and art is the brainchild of Morisco visual artist/composer/ oudist Tarik Banzi founder of the Al-Andalus Ensemble
Chaabi (popular) is a music consisting of numerous varieties which are descended from the multifarious forms of Moroccan folk music. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting.
Popular Western forms of music are becoming increasingly popular in Morocco, such as fusion, rock, country, metal and particularly hip hop.

Transport

The railway network of Morocco consists of 1907 km 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge and 1003 km electrified with 3 kV DC. There are connections to Algeria, and consecutively Tunisia, but since the 1990s the connections are closed. The Gibraltar Tunnel is a rail tunnel link proposed between Tangier, Morocco and Spain under the Strait of Gibraltar to be in operation in 2025.
There are plans for high-speed lines: Work by ONCF could begin in 2007 from Marrakech to Tangier in the north via Marrakesh to Agadir in the south, and from Casablanca on the Atlantic to Oujda on the Algerian border. If the plans are approved, the 1,500 kilometres of track may take until 2030 to complete at a cost of around 25 billion dirhams ($3.37 billion). Casablanca to Marrakesh could be cut to 1 hour and 20 minutes from over three hours, and from the capital Rabat to Tangier to 1 hour and 30 minutes from 4 hours and 30 minutes.
There are around 56986 kilometres of roads (national, regional and provincial) in Morocco.[41] In addition to 610,5 kilometre of highways.[42]

Military

Compulsory military service in Morocco has been suppressed since September 2006, and the country’s reserve obligation lasts until age 50. The country’s military consists of the Royal Armed Forces—this includes the army (the largest branch) and a small navy and air force—the National Police Force, the Royal Gendarmerie (mainly responsible for rural security), and the Auxiliary Forces. Internal security is generally effective, and acts of political violence are rare (one exception, a terrorist bombing in May 2003 in Casablanca which killed many). The UN maintains a small observer force in Western Sahara, where a large number of Morocco’s troops are stationed. The Saharawi group Polisario maintains an active militia of an estimated 5,000 fighters in Western Sahara and has engaged in intermittent warfare with Moroccan forces since the 1980s.
The military of Morocco is composed of the following main divisions:

Education

Education in Morocco is free and compulsory through primary school (age 15). Nevertheless, many children – particularly girls in rural areas – still do not attend school. The country's illiteracy rate has been stuck at around 50% for some years, but reaches as high as 90% among girls in rural regions. On September 2006, UNESCO awarded Morocco amongst other countries such as Cuba, Pakistan, Rajasthan (India) and Turkey the "UNESCO 2006 Literacy Prize".[43]
Morocco has about 230,000 students enrolled in fourteen public universities. The Mohammed V University in Rabat and Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane (a public university) are highly regarded. Al-Akhawayn, founded in 1993 by King Hassan II and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, is an English-language American-style university comprising about 1,000 students. The University of Al Karaouine, in Fez, is considered the oldest continuously operating university in the world and has been a center of learning for more than 1,000 years.
Morocco allocates approximately one fifth of its budget to education. Much of this is spent on building schools to accommodate the rapidly growing population. Education is mandatory for children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. In urban areas the majority of children in this age group attend school, though on a national scale the level of participation drops significantly. About three fourths of school age males attend school, but only about half of school age girls; these proportions drop markedly in rural areas. Slightly more than half of the children go on to secondary education, including trade and technical schools. Of these, few seek higher education. Poor school attendance, particularly in rural areas, has meant a low rate of literacy, which is about two fifths of the population.

Universities

Morocco has more than four dozen universities, institutes of higher learning, and polytechnics dispersed at urban centres throughout the country. Its leading institutions include Muḥammad V University in Rabat, the country’s largest university, with branches in Casablanca and Fès; the Hassan II Agriculture and Veterinary Institute in Rabat, which conducts leading social science research in addition to its agricultural specialties; and Al-Akhawayn University in Ifrane, the first English-language university in North Africa,[citation needed] inaugurated in 1995 with contributions from Saudi Arabia and the United States. The University of Al-Karaouine or Al-Qarawiyyin is a university located in Fes. It is considered the oldest continuously operating academic degree-granting university in the world.[44]
To find related topics in a list, see List of universities in Morocco.

Sport

Spectator sports in Morocco traditionally centred on the art of horsemanship until European sports—football (soccer), polo, swimming, and tennis—were introduced at the end of the 19th century. Football is the country’s premier sport, popular among the urban youth in particular, and in 1970 Morocco became the first African country to play in World Cup competition. At the 1984 Olympic Games, two Moroccans won gold medals in track and field events, one of whom—Nawal El Moutawakel in the 400 metre hurdles—was the first woman from an Arab or Islamic country to win an Olympic gold medal. Another was Hicham El Guerrouj. Tennis and golf have also become popular. Several Moroccan professional players have competed in international competition, and the country fielded its first Davis Cup team in 1999.
As of 2007, Moroccan society participated in many sports, including handball, football, golf, tennis, basketball, and athletics. Hicham El Guerrouj, a retired middle distance runner for Morocco, won 2 gold medals for Morocco at the Athletics at the 2004 Summer Olympics and holds the 1.609 km (1 mile) world record, along with other notable performances.

International organization affiliations

ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Affiliations

Organization Dates
United Nations since November 12, 1956
Arab League since October 1, 1958
International Olympic Committee since 1959
Organisation of African Unity co-founder May 25, 1963; withdrew November 12, 1984
Group of 77 since June 15, 1964
Organisation of the Islamic Conference since September 22, 1969
World Trade Organization since January 1, 1995
Mediterranean Dialogue group since February 1995
Major non-NATO ally of the United States since January 19, 2004

Bilateral and multilateral agreements

International rankings

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Moroccan Constitution, 1996 (published 1996-09-13), http://www.pogar.org/publications/other/constitutions/mrc-constitution-96-e.pdf, retrieved 2008-12-23 , "An Islamic and fully sovereign state whose official language is Arabic, the Kingdom of Morocco constitutes a part of the Great Arab Maghreb."
  2. ^ "Ethnic groups". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mo.html. Retrieved 2009-10-03. 
  3. ^ a b Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Morocco". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=686&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=43&pr.y=3. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  5. ^ Conventional long form: Kingdom of Morocco - Conventional short form: Morocco - Local long form: al-Mamlakah al-Maġribiyya - Local short form: al-Maġrib - CIA World Factbook
  6. ^ a b Pending resolution of the Western Sahara conflict.
  7. ^ Yahya, Dahiru (1981). Morocco in the Sixteenth Century. Longman. p. 18. 
  8. ^ "Regions of Morocco". statoids.com. http://www.statoids.com/uma.html. Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  9. ^ D. Rubella, Environmentalism and Pi Paleolithic economies in the Maghreb (ca. 20,000 to 5000 B.P.), in, J.D. Clark & S.A. Brandt (eds.), From Hunters to Farmers: The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 41-56
  10. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Mogador: Promontory Fort, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham
  11. ^ Sabatino Moscati, The Phoenicians, Tauris, ISBN 1850435332
  12. ^ The Maghrib under the Almoravids and the Almohads, Encyclopædia Britannica.
  13. ^ "Morocco - History". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  14. ^ "Morocco (Page 8 of 9)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. Archived 2009-11-01.
  15. ^ "Cohen Renews U.S.-Morocco Ties" (mil). U.S. Department of Defense. http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=41811. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  16. ^ Roberts, Priscilla H. and Richard S. Roberts, Thomas Barclay (1728-1793: Consul in France, Diplomat in Barbary, Lehigh University Press, 2008, pp. 206-223.
  17. ^ "Milestones of American Diplomacy, Interesting Historical Notes, and Department of State History". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/s/d/rm/rls/perfrpt/2002/html/18995.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  18. ^ Pennell, C.R. (2000). Morocco since 1830: A History. New York, New York University Press, pg. 40.
  19. ^ * Furlong, Charles Wellington (September 1911). "The French Conquest Of Morocco: The Real Meaning Of The International Trouble". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXII: 14988–14999. 
  20. ^ "Tangier(s)". Jewish Virtual Library.
  21. ^ "Morocco (Page 9 of 9)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. Archived 2009-11-01.
  22. ^ "Morocco". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  23. ^ Regions of Morocco, statoids.com
  24. ^ Regions of Morocco, statoids.com
  25. ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western Sahara (April 13, 2007)" (ped). UN Security Council. http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/299/28/PDF/N0729928.pdf?OpenElement. Retrieved 2007-05-18. 
  26. ^ a b "English country names and code elements". International Organization for Standardization. 2008-05-15. http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes/iso_3166_code_lists/english_country_names_and_code_elements.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  27. ^ "Profile on Morocco". African Conservation Foundation. http://www.africanconservation.org/moroccoprofile.html. Retrieved 2007-05-10. 
  28. ^ Bergier, P., & Thévenot, M. (2006). Liste des oiseaux du Maroc / The List of the Birds of Morocco. Go-South Bull. 3: 51-83. Available online.
  29. ^ Leonard, Thomas M.. Encyclopedia of the Developing World. Taylor & Francis. p. 1085. ISBN 0-4159-7663-4. 
  30. ^ Scientific American magazine, June 2009, "Phosphorus: A Looming Crisis"
  31. ^ Economy - Morocco - import, problem, growth, crops, annual, sector
  32. ^ The CIA Fact book
  33. ^ Berbers: The Proud Raiders. BBC World Service.
  34. ^ The Jews of Morocco. Jewish Virtual Library.
  35. ^ Raimondo Cagiano De Azevedo (1994). "Migration and development co-operation.". p.25.
  36. ^ Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by STR analysis
  37. ^ European Journal of Human Genetics (2000) 8, 360–366
  38. ^ "Población extranjera por sexo, país de nacionalidad y edad (hasta 85 y más).", Avance del Padrón a 1 de enero de 2009. Datos provisionales, Spain: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2009, http://www.ine.es/jaxi/tabla.do?path=/t20/e245/p04/provi/l0/&file=00000010.PX&type=pcaxis&L=0, retrieved 2009-06-13 
  39. ^ Morocco: From Emigration Country to Africa's Migration Passage to Europe. Hein de Haas. Radboud University Nijmegen.
  40. ^ "Berber" Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Archived 2009-11-01.
  41. ^ Le Secteur Routier
  42. ^ Le Secteur Routier
  43. ^ "2006 UNESCO Literacy Prize winners announced". UNESCO.org. http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=33384&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. Retrieved 2006-09-27. 
  44. ^ The Guinness Book Of Records, Published 1998, ISBN 0-5535-7895-2, P.242

External links

Government
General information
News media
Tourism

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : North Africa : Morocco
noframe
Location
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Flag
Image:mo-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Rabat
Government Constitutional monarchy
Currency Moroccan dirham (MAD)
Area total: 446,550 km2
land: 446,300 km2
water: 250 km2
Population 32,725,847 (July 2006 est.)
Language Arabic (official), Berber dialects, Spanish and French are often the languages of business and government
Religion Muslim 98.5%, Christian 1.3%, Jewish 0.2%
Electricity 127-220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +212
Internet TLD .ma
Time Zone UTC
Morocco (المغرب al-Maghreb) [1] is a North African country that has a coastline on both the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It has borders with Mauritania to the south, Algeria to the east and the Spanish North African territories of Ceuta and Melilla on the Mediterranean coast in the north. It is just across the Strait of Gibraltar from Gibraltar.

Understand

Morocco's long struggle for independence from France ended in 1956. The internationalized city of Tangier was turned over to the new country that same year. Morocco virtually annexed Western Sahara during the late 1970s, and even though the status of the territory remains unresolved, the government is trying to conceal this, e.g. on all maps in Morocco, Western Sahara is drawn as an integrated part of the country.
Gradual political reforms in the 1990s resulted in the establishment of a bicameral legislature in 1997, although the king still possesses the actual political power. The press is relatively free, although clampdowns have occurred following criticism of the authorities or articles concerning the Western Sahara situation.

Electricity and voltage

The voltage in Morocco is generally 220 V, and outlets will fit the two-pin plug known as the Europlug. It's probably the most commonly used international plug, found throughout continental Europe and parts of the Middle East, as well as much of Africa, South America, Central Asia and the former Soviet republics. Europlugs are included in most international plug adapter kits.
Watch out for American and Canadian appliances, which are made to use with 110 V. That means that even with an adapter, plugging them into a 220 V socket may damage them. If your appliance is "dual-voltage", it should be fine (it's designed for both 110 and 220 V). If not, you'll need a power converter as well as an adapter.

Holidays

The biggest event on the Moroccan calendar is the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims fast during the daytime and feast at night. Most restaurants are closed for lunch (with the exception of those catering specifically to tourists) and things generally slow down. Traveling during this time is entirely possible, and the restrictions don't apply to non-Muslims, but it's respectful to refrain from eating, drinking or smoking in public during the fast. At the end of the month is the holiday of Eid al-Fitr, when practically everything closes for as long as a week and transport is packed as everybody heads back home. Alcohol consumption is not prohibited for tourists during Ramadan, there a few restaurants and bars serving alcohol. Also, alcohol can be purchased in a supermarket if a tourist shows their passport to the staff as Moroccans are not allowed to buy or consume alcohol during the holy month.
Map of Morocco
Map of Morocco
Mediterranean Morocco
hosts all sorts of towns and cities, several Spanish enclaves and some important ports
North Atlantic Coast
the northern half of Morocco's coast is home to the capital and Casablanca, interspersed with more laid back beach towns
South Atlantic Coast
the southern coast is more laid back, home to gorgeous beach towns like Essaouira and Agadir
High Atlas
covering the High Atlas mountains and the surrounding areas including Marrakech
Middle Atlas
covering the Middle Atlas mountains and the surrounding areas including Fez and Meknes
Saharan Morocco
the vast desert region of Morocco runs along the border with Algeria; camel safaris and sand dunes are the name of the game here
Anti Atlas
the southern portion, covering Tarouddant down to the Western Sahara border
For the sake of travel, Western Sahara is treated as its own entity
A street scene in Marrakech - entrance to a mosque, arrow shows directions showing separate entrances for men and for women
A street scene in Marrakech - entrance to a mosque, arrow shows directions showing separate entrances for men and for women
  • Rabat – The capital of Morocco; very relaxed and hassle-free, highlights include a 12th-century tower and minaret.
  • Casablanca – This modern city by the sea is a starting point for visitors flying into the country. If you have the time, both the historical medina and the contemporary mosque (the second largest in the world) are well worth an afternoon
  • Fez – Fez is the former capital of Morocco and one of the oldest and largest medieval cities in the world.
  • Marrakech (Marrakesh)– Marrakech is a perfect combination of old and new Morocco. Plan to spend at least a few days wandering the huge maze of souks and ruins in the medina. The great plaza of Djeema El Fna at dusk is not to be missed.
  • Meknes – A modern, laid back city that offers a welcome break from the tourist crush of neighbouring Fez.
  • Ouarzazate – Considered the Capital of the South, Ouarzazate is a great example of preservation and tourism that hasn't destroyed the feel of a fantastic and ancient city.
  • Tangier –Tangier is the starting point for most visitors arriving by ferry from Spain. An enigmatic charm which has historically attracted numerous artists (Matisse), musicians (Hendrix), politicians (Churchill), writers (Burroughs) and others (Malcolm Forbes).
  • Tetouan – Nice beaches and is the gateway to the Rif Mountains.
  • Agadir – Agadir is best-known for its beaches. The town is a nice example of modern Morocco, with less emphasis on history and culture. Take the local bus for a few cents and go 2 or 3 villages North, where there are additional beaches
  • Amizmiz – With one of the largest Berber souks in the High Atlas Mountains every Tuesday, Amizmiz is a popular destination for travelers looking for a day trip that is easily accessible (about an hour) from Marrakech
  • Chefchaouen – A mountain town just inland from Tangier full of white-washed winding alleys, blue doors, and olive trees, Chefchaouen is clean as a postcard and a welcome escape from Tangier, evoking the feeling of a Greek island
  • Essaouira – An ancient sea-side town newly rediscovered by tourists. From mid-June to August the beaches are packed but any other time and you'll be the only person there. Good music and great people. Nearest Coast from Marrakech
  • Merzouga and M'Hamid – From either of these two settlements at the edge of the Sahara, ride a camel or 4x4 into the desert for a night (or a week) among the dunes and under the stars
  • Volubilis – 30 kilometers North of Meknes, biggest Roman ruins in Morocco, next to the holy town Moulay Idriss
Ramadan dates
  • 2010 (1431): Aug 11 - Sep 9
  • 2011 (1432): Aug 1 - Aug 29
  • 2012 (1433): Jul 20 - Aug 18
The festival of Eid ul-Fitr is held after the end of Ramadan and may last several days. Exact dates depend on astronomical observations and may vary from country to country.
All visitors to Morocco require a valid passport but visitors from the following countries do not need to obtain visas before arrival: Schengen member states, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Republic of Congo, Guinea, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Kuwait, Libya, Mali, Mexico, New Zealand, Niger, Oman, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, South Korea, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela
For tourists from countries that need a visa to enter Morocco, the Moroccan Embassy is usually the first port of call. They charge the equivalent of £17 for a single entry and £26 for double or multiple entries. (Double or Multiple entries will be issued at embassy discretion). Visas are usually valid for 3 months and take around 5-6 working days to process. Visa requirements are completed application forms, four passport-size photos taken within the previous six months, Valid passport with at least one blank page, and with a photocopy of the relevant data pages; Fee, payable by postal order only, a photocopy of all flight bookings and a photocopy of hotel reservation.
Tourists can stay for up to 90 days and visa extensions can be a frustrating and time-consuming process. (You may find it easier to duck into the Spanish-controlled Ceuta or Melilla and then re-enter Morocco for a new stamp). Anti-cholera vaccination certificates may be required of visitors coming from areas where this disease is prevalent and pets need a health certificate less than ten days old, and an anti-rabies certificate less than six months old.

By plane

There are flights from New York, Montreal, and various European cities to Casablanca as well as seasonal charter flights to Agadir.
Easyjet [2] — Now fly at budget prices from London to Marrakech and Casablanca.
Ryanair [3] — Has signed an agreement with the Moroccan government and flies to Morocco from Bergamo, Girona, Reus, Bremen, Madrid, Frankfurt-Hahn, London. Flying to Fez 3 times per week. Flights to Marrakesh are also available. A Bergamo-Tangier route has been opened in July 2009.
Royal Air Maroc [4] — The state airline, which drastically needs a price cut.
Atlas Blue [5] — A so-called budget airline owned by Royal Air Maroc, but is still fairly expensive.
Jet 4 You [6] — A new low-cost carrier with extremely cheap tickets from France and Belgium.
Aigle Azur[7] — A small North-African carrier with reasonable rates.
Thomson fly [8] — Flights from Manchester to Marrakech and are very reasonably priced.
Binter Canarias [9] — Flights from Canary Islands to Marrakech.
Many visitors also fly to Gibraltar or Malaga (which are often considerably cheaper to get to) and take a ferry from Algeciras, Tarifa or Gibraltar to Tangier. This is not recommended in summer as literally millions of Moroccans living in Europe use this passage during the summer holidays.

By car

The only open border posts on land are the ones at the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. The frontier with Algeria has been closed for ten years. For the closest maritime connection you head for Algeciras or Tarifa in southern Spain. At Algeciras there are ferry services to Ceuta and Tangier that carry cars. Tarifa has a similar service to Tangier and this is the shortest and fastest route, just 35 minutes.
It's possible also to enter Mauritania by car from Dakhla. Most countries citizens need a visa to get in Mauritania which is available at the Mauritanian consulate in Rabat (visas are no longer issued at the border).
It might be hard to get into Morocco with a commercial vehicle. Campervans are acceptable (but they must look like a camper van), but other commercial vehicles might get turned around and prevented from travelling onwards. If you want to take a commercial vehicle, and there is more than one person travelling, it may be worthwhile if a French-speaking person travels to any international border with Morocco of your choice and meets with the head of Customs before you bring in a commercial vehicle.

By boat

Summary

There are several ferry connections to Morocco, mainly from Spain. Algeciras is the main port and serves Ceuta and Tangier. A ferry between Algeciras and Ceuta takes 40 minutes, and less than 2 hours to get to Tangier. You can also get to Tangier from the small port of Tarifa, on the southernmost tip of mainland Spain. This will take 35 minutes. Some companies run buses between Tarifa and Algeciras for free (25 minutes), so you will have no problems getting to the train station. Other Spanish ports that have connections to Morocco are Malaga and Almeria who connect to Melilla and its Moroccan neighbor town of Nador.
Ferries from France also go to Tangier, from the port of Sète near Montpellier and Port Vendres near Perpignan. However these ferries are rather expensive. The Italian towns of Genoa and Naples also have direct connections to Tangier. The British crown colony of Gibraltar connects to Tangier through a high-speed boat service.

Details

From Tarifa to Tangier the ferry costs €45 effective 3rd July 2009. Return cost 81 Euro with the date of return open. However, you can get the ferry ticket from Tangier at Dh 390, about 36 Euro. To Algeciras from Tangier, it costs Dh 395 single.

Get around

Trains are generally the best option because of their speed, frequency and comfort, however the network is limited. Train network links Marrakech and Tangier via Casablanca and Rabat, a branch line to Oujda starts at Sidi Kachem linking Meknes and Fez to the main line.
Luxury buses are the next best bet, with almost universal coverage, if with somewhat odd leaving times in some places. CTM, Supratours and some smaller companies provide good comfort with reasonable prices. Supratours buses offer specific tickets to link with the rail system. All bus companies charge for baggage separately, however CTM is the only one that does this officially and provides baggage receipts. On Supratours, whoever takes your bag will demand up to 20 MAD (pay no more than 5).
Local buses are a completely valid choice for the hardier traveler, and often even have more leg room than the luxury buses although this may be just because the seat in front of you is disintegrating. They can be extraordinarily slow as they will stop for anyone, anywhere, and no buses are air conditioned (and locals hate open windows).
Shared taxi services (grand taxi) also operate between towns; fares are semi-fixed and shared equally between passengers. However note that there are six passenger seats per car not four (this is for the ubiquitous Mercedes, there are 8 or 9 seats in the bigger Peugeots in the southeast). Two people are expected to share the front seat, with four across the back. If you want to leave immediately or you want extra space you can pay for any additional empty seats. Grand taxis generally cost less than a luxury bus but more than the local. Late at night, expect to be charged a little more than at daytime, and also to pay for all the seats in the car as it probably won't show up other customers late. Petit taxis are not allowed to leave the city borders and is thus not an option for traveling between cities.
However you are traveling, work out which direction you are heading and where the sun will be for the majority of your trip and choose a seat on the shady side.

By plane

Domestic flying is not a popular means of transportation, however, Royal Air Maroc, the national flag carrier, has an excellent but expensive network to most cities.

By train

People are incredibly sociable and friendly on the trains in Morocco and you will find yourself perpetually talking to strangers about your journey. Each new person will advise you on some new place you should go or invite you to their home for couscous. Stations in smaller cities are often poorly marked, and your fellow passengers will be more than happy to let you know where you are and when you should get off. It's expected to greet (Salam) new passengers entering your compartment, and if you bring fruit, cake etc its common to offer the other passengers something as well. If you spend a little extra for 1st class you increase your chances of meeting someone proficient in many languages.
There are three daily departures from Tangier, bound for either Oujda or Marrakech, although all of them can be used to reach either destination as there are corresponding trains in Sidi Kachem using the opposite branch of the train coming from Tangier. The night trains between Tangier and Marrakech offer couchettes for an extra dhr 100. This is the only option if you would like to lay down sleeping as there are obstacles between the seats in regular compartments.
The only drawback with Moroccan trains are that they are very frequently delayed, so don't count on the timetables if you are in a hurry.
The train network is operated by ONCF [10].

Availability

The major cities, Marrakech, Meknes, Fez, Tangier, Rabat, Casablanca, etc are all linked by reliable (if not very fast) rail links. There are usually several trains every day to or from every major town. There is also a night train between Marrakech and Tangier.

Cost

The trains are very cheap (compared to Europe). For example, a single from Tangier to Marrakech costs about 200 dh (£15) second class, or 300dh (£20) first class.

By bus

Nearly every city has a central bus-station where you can buy tickets to travel from region to region. You can either choose the buses for tourists with air-conditioning and a TV. Or you can also take the local buses which cost only 25%-50% and are much more fun. They are not very comfortable, but you can get in contact with the local people and learn a lot about the country. The buses often take longer routes than the big ones, so you can see villages you would never get to as a "normal" tourist. For heat-sensitive people this is not advisable though, as locals may tell you that 35 degrees is "cool" and no reason for opening a window. The route from Rissani, Erfoud, and Er Rachidia to Meknes and Fez, while long, runs through the Middle and High Atlas and is particularly scenic.
Luxury buses operated by CTM [11] are also inexpensive and offer an easier travelling experience than local buses.
Supratours [12], a major rival of CTM, complements train network to Essaouira and all major Atlantic-coast towns south to Marrakech.

By taxi

Travel by taxi is common in Morocco. There are two sorts:
  • Petit taxi used only within the area of the town
  • The grand taxi can be used for trips between towns, and for larger groups
Prices for petit taxi are reasonable and it's the law that taxis in town should have a meter - although they are not always on. Insist that the driver starts the meter. If not, ask for the fare before getting in (but it will be more expensive).
The grand taxi is a shared, generally long-distance taxi, with a fixed rate for specific route; the driver stopping and picking up passengers like a bus. Grand taxis are usually found near main bus stops. Negotiate on price if you want a journey to yourself and this will be based on distance traveled and whether you are returning--but price per taxi should not depend on the number of passengers in your group. When sharing grand taxi with others, drivers may cheat tourist-looking passengers charging higher--look how much locals around you pay; don't worry to ask other passengers about the normal price, before boarding or even when you're in.
Grand taxis are usually a ~10-years-old Mercedes regular sedans that in Europe are used for up to 4 passengers plus driver. For grand taxi, it is normal to share a car between up to 6 passengers. Front seat is normally given to two women (as local women are not allowed to be in contact with a man, they rarely take rear seats). Travellers often pay for 2 seats that remain unoccupied to travel with more space inside, and hence comfort.
Grand taxis can also be hired for approximately the price of two petite taxis for shorter trips. This is useful if your party is of four or more. Beware, some taxi drivers will refuse to drive off until the taxi is full, potentially causing you delays. Alternatively, for a relatively reasonable sum (depending on the driver), you can hire a grand taxi in Marrakech for the entire day, allowing you to explore the Ourika valley.
Taxi owners vie with each other to add extras such as sunshades. A clean vehicle and smart driver is usually a good sign of a well maintained vehicle.

By car

The main road network is in good condition. Roads have a good surface, although very narrow, in most cases only one narrow lane in each direction. Note that many roads in the south marked as sealed are actually only one lane total sealed with wide shoulders to be used every time you meet oncoming traffic.
The main cities are connected by toll expressways still being extended.
  • The expressway between Casablanca and Rabat (A3) was finished in 1987.
  • It was extended from Rabat to Kénitra in 1995 and today reaches the northern port of Tangier (A1).
  • Another expressway (A2) goes eastwards from Rabat to Fez some 200 km down the road. It comprises part of the planned transmaghrébine expressway that will continue all the way to Tripoli.
  • South from Casablanca runs the A7. It is planned to reach Agadir in December of 2009 but currently only goes as far as Marrakech 210 km south of Casablanca.
  • Around Casablanca and down the coast is the A5 expressway which connects Mohammedia and El Jadida.
  • Construction started in 2006 for the A2 between Fez and Oujda on the Algerian border which will be completed by 2010.
Fuel is not so common in the countryside so plan ahead and get a good map. Roads are varied and mixed with many cyclists, pedestrians and horse-drawn vehicles.
Roadsigns are in Arabic and French and the traffic law is as in much of Europe but you give way to the right. Be very careful as many drivers respect signs only if a policeman is nearby. This means that traffic on a roundabout gives way to that entering it. There are numerous police checks on the main roads where you must slow down to allow them to see you. The speed limit is enforced especially the 40kph in towns and on dangerous intersections where fines are imposed on the spot. General rule is that vehicles larger than yours should be given a priority: trucks, buses and even grand taxis.
Driving safely in Morocco takes practice and patience but can take you to some really beautiful places.
The centre of Marrakech can be a scary place to drive. You will be constantly beeped at, regardless of how well you drive. Marrakchis like to beep their horns at anyone they feel to be holding them up. This may mean even if you're just in front of them at a red light. Also, pay very close attention to your wingmirrors and your blind spots. The two lane roads often become free-for-alls, up to the point at which you may see four cars wing to wing at a red light. One of the major hazards on the roads in Marrakech are the mobilettes. These pushbikes with an engine will zig-zag around you and generally make themselves a nuisance, however, on longer stretches of road, they tend to keep to the right. Often, a few beeps of the horn will cause a mobilette rider to pay a little more attention to his surroundings. However, be warned that some drivers pay absolutely no attention to your horn, as they have become so used to the sound. Drive defensively, and keep your speed down, so any accident causes minimum damage. Do not be intimidated by other drivers. Make sure that you drive predictably, and don't do anything rash.

Renting a car

Rental firms abound in the large cities. Most worldwide rental networks have their offices in Morocco. Also there are several local rental companies (5-7 have rep offices in Casablanca airport). They offer lower prices, but be sure to check the vehicles condition, spare tire, jack etc. Local companies may be less proficient in English--but if you are ready for a higher risk, when you rent in an airport try to negotiate with them first; if failed you always have worldwide rivals to go next.
Multinational companies seem to easily share cars with each other (although prices and service level may vary), so if your company of choice doesn't have what you need they may ask from another company.
Check where you can drive - some rental companies won't allow travel on unmade roads.
Alamo/National
All Alamo and National Car Rental offices are co-located in Morocco.
During low season (November) expect at least 20% discount from the list price if you come without a reservation--at least for economic class (Peugeot 206, Renault Logan Dacia).
Deposit is taken as a paper slip of a credit card; Alamo is unable to transfer your slip to the city of your destination if it's different from your starting point.
Some economy-class cars (like Peugeot 206) are as old as 4 years, with mileage up to 120,000 km.

Renting a vehicle with driver/guide

Some tour operators will arrange for you to hire a 4x4 or SUV with a driver/guide, and offer customised itineraries, including advanced booking in hotels, ryads, etc.

By tour

Several tour companies operate in Morocco. Each is unique in services offered but most operate with safety in mind.

By Thumb

Hitching is a routine form of travel in the country. Particularly in large farm trucks which supplement income by picking up paying passengers. Price is about half that of a grand taxi. Expect to ride in the back with lots of locals.
A Berber man watches the sea in Tangier
A Berber man watches the sea in Tangier
  • Moroccan Arabic is a dialect of Maghreb Arabic. The language is fairly different from the Arabic traditionally spoken in the Middle East and is also slightly influenced by French or Spanish, depending on where in the country you are. This dialect is also related to Spanish, as Spanish was heavily influenced by Arabic from Morocco before the expulsion of 1492.
  • Berber, or the Amazigh language, is spoken by Morocco's Berber population. In the mountainous regions of the north the dialect is Tarifit, the central region the dialect is Tamazight, and in the south of the country the dialect is Tachelheet.
  • French is widely understood in Morocco, and it is the most useful non-Arabic language to know.
  • Although you will find people who speak English and Spanish in tourist centers, many of these will be touts and faux guides, who may become a burden. Some shop owners and hotel managers in urban centers also speak English, but outside of that English is not widely understood.

Do

Hammams

There are two types of Hammam (steam baths) across Morocco.
The first is the tourist hammam, where you can go and be pampered and scrubbed by an experienced staff member. As these are promoted only to tourists they are the more expensive option with pricing usually around DH 150 for a hammam. They can not be technically referred to as a proper hammam, but they are nonetheless enjoyable, especially for the timid. Your hotel can recommend a good one.
The second option is to visit a "popular" Hammam. Popular hammams are the places where the locals go. Ask the staff at your hotel where they would go.
At the popular hammams, you do it all yourself. To make the most of a popular hammam, you need to take a scrubbing mitten (available cheap in the Souks), a towel, and some extra underwear (otherwise, you will be going home without any, as it will be sopping wet). Popular hammams are often only identified by tiles around a door and entrance way. If you do not speak French or Arabic, it could be a daunting, or at least a very memorable, experience. Men & women have either separate session times or separate hammams.
Nudity in a popular hammam is strictly forbidden for men, so be prepared to wear your underwear or a bathing suit. For women, you'll see some wearing underwear and some going naked.
Whilst in a popular hammam, you may be offered help and a massage from another person. It is essential to remember that this massage is nothing but a massage, with no other intentions. Sexual contact or presumption of sexual contact does not occur in these places. If you accept a massage, be prepared to return the favor.
Normal entrance prices for a popular hammam are DH 7-15, a scrub will cost around DH 30, and a massage another DH 30.

Buy

Money

The local currency is the Moroccan dirham (Dh or MAD), which is divided into 100 centimes (c).
As of October 2009, £1 is worth around DH 13.13, $1 is worth around DH 7.69 and 1€ is worth around DH 11.24.
There are 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, Dh 1, Dh 2, Dh 5, Dh 10 coins, although coins smaller than 20c are rarely seen these days. Notes are available in denominations of Dh 10, Dh 20, Dh 50, Dh 100, and Dh 200.
While the dirham is the only currency officially accepted in Morocco, some hotels may accept your EUR/USD unofficially.
Money Exchange: It's illegal to bring local currency out of the country, so you can't get dirhams outside Morocco. By law, exchange rates should be the same at all banks and official exchanges. Make a note of the exact rates before you go to make sure you're getting a fair deal.
Don't expect to see many banks in the souqs or medinas, although in larger cities there are often an ATM near the main gates, and even one or two inside the large souqs (if you manage to find your way). You may also encounter "helpful" people who will exchange dollars or euros for dirhams. Unofficial exchange on the streets outside souqs or medinas doesn't seem to exist.
Besides banks and dedicated exchange offices, major post offices provide exchange, and work until late hours. There are several exchange offices in Casablanca airport.
ATMs can be found near tourist hotels and in the modern ville nouvelle shopping districts. Make sure that the ATM accepts foreign cards (look for the Maestro, Cirrus or Plus logos) before you put your card in.
Try to have as much small change as possible and keep larger bills hidden separately.

What to buy?

Apart from classical tourist souvenirs like postcards and trinkets, here are some things from this region that are hard to find elsewhere, or even unique:
  • Dates: 10 Dhm for an orange box seems an adequate price after some bargaining.
  • Leatherware: Morocco has a really huge production of leather goods. Markets are full of mediocre models and designer shops are hard to find.
  • Argan oil and products made of it such as soap and cosmetics.
  • Tagines: Classic Moroccan cooking dishes made of clay will improve oil/water based meals you make if you plan to bring Morocco to your kitchen back home.
  • Birad: Classic Moroccan tea pots.
  • Djellabah: Classic Moroccan designer robe with a hood. Often come in intricate designs and some are suited for warm weather while other heavier styles are for the cold.
If you're looking for T-shirts, consider designer items by Kawibi--they look much more inspiring than boring traditional set of themes. They are available in duty-free stores, Atlas Airport Hotel near Casablanca and other places.

Bargaining

Remember that bargaining in the souks is expected. It is not really possible to give an accurate indication of how much to start the bargaining at in relation to the initial asking price, but a general idea would be to aim for approximately 50% off. Prices are set on a daily, even, hourly basis, depending on how much has been sold on a given day (or period of hours), while also reflecting the vendor's personal estimation of the potential client. The souks are often a good reflection of the basic economic principles of supply and demand, particularly with regard to the demand side. If a lot of products have been sold by a particular merchant he/she will raise the price, and may refuse to sell any more products for the rest of that day (or for days) unless the price is much higher than usual. If there are many tourists around prices go higher and bargaining even small amounts off the asking price becomes quite difficult. In addition, the seller will generally inspect the client, whose dress and possessions (particularly if the potential client sports an expensive Swiss watch, camera, etc) are usually the main indication of how high the price may be set above the usual. However, the potential client's attitude is also taken into consideration.
Taking all this and other factors into account (such as the time of day, day of the week, season, etc.), initial prices may be up to 50 times or more in excess of normal prices, especially for more expensive items, such as carpets. Carpets, however, are a very specialized item and it is necessary to have at least a cursory understanding of production techniques and qualities. If possible, an ability to distinguish between hand-made and machine-made carpets, hand-dyes, and the like is helpful to avoid being utterly duped.
Bargaining is an enjoyable experience for most vendors and they prefer clients that don't appear hurried and are willing to take the time to negotiate. It is most often actually necessary to give reasons why you believe the price should be lower. The reasons you might give are limited only by your imagination and often lead to some very entertaining discussions. Common reasons may include: the price of the item elsewhere, the item not being exactly what you are after, the fact that you have purchased other items from the stall/store, that you have built a rapport with the vendor after discussing football and so forth. On the other hand, if there is little movement in the price after some time, the best advice is to begin leaving, this often has the result of kick-starting the bidding anew, and if not, it is likely that the merchant is actually unwilling to go further below a given price, however absurd.
It is also important to show a genuine interest for the workmanship of the product for sale, no matter how disinterested you may actually be in what you are buying. This does not, however, mean that you should appear over-enthusiastic, as this will encourage the vendor to hold his or her price. Rather, it is important to project a critical appreciation for each article/object. Any defects are either unacceptable or a further opportunity to bargain the price down.
You should take caution to never begin bidding for unwanted items or to give the vendor a price you are unwilling or unable (with cash on hand) to pay. Try to avoid paying by credit card at all costs. In the event you do pay by credit card, never let it out of your sight and demand as many receipts as possible. There is typically a credit card carbon copy and an official shop receipt.
Never tell a vendor where you are staying and 'never tell a vendor how much you paid for any other purchases. Just say you got a good price and you want a good price from him or her too. And, above all, never be afraid to say 'No'.
It must also be said that, as is true for buyers, not all sellers are actually very good at what they do. A vendor that is completely disinterested or even aggressive is unlikely to give a good price. Move on.
Spices pyramids in Casablanca's souk
Spices pyramids in Casablanca's souk
Moroccan cuisine is often reputed to be some of the best in the world, with countless dishes and variations proudly bearing the country's colonial and Arabic influences. Unfortunately as a tourist through Morocco, especially if you're on a budget, you'll be limited to the handful of dishes that seem to have a monopoly on cafe and restaurant menus throughout the country. Most restaurants serve dishes foreign to Morocco considering that Moroccans can eat their domestic dishes at home. Apart from major cities, Morocans do not generally eat out in restaurants so choice is generally limited to international fare such as Chinese, Indian and French cuisine.
  • Couscous made from semolina grains and steamed in a colander-like dish known as a couscoussière is the staple food for most Moroccans, and is probably the best known Moroccan meal. It can be served as an accompaniment to a stew or tagine, or mixed with meat and vegetables and presented as a main course. Almost all Moroccan restaurants uphold the tradition of serving couscous on Fridays.
  • Tagine, a spicy stew of meat and vegetables that has been simmered for many hours in a conical clay pot (from which the dish derives its name). Restaurants offer dozens of variations (from Dh 25 in budget restaurant) including chicken tagine with lemon and olives, honey-sweetened lamb or beef, fish or prawn tagine in a spicy tomato sauce. There are many variations of this dish.
  • A popular Berber contribution to Moroccan cuisine is kaliya, a combination of lamb, tomatoes, bell peppers and onion and served with couscous or bread.
  • A popular delicacy in Morocco is Pastilla, made by layering thin pieces of flakey dough between sweet, spiced meat filling (often lamb or chicken, but most enjoyably pigeon) and layers of almond-paste filling. The dough is wrapped into a plate-sized pastry that is baked and coated with a dusting of powdered sugar.
A Dh 3 - Dh 5 serve of harira or besara will always include some bread to mop the soup up and will fill you up for breakfast or lunch:
  • Moroccans often elect to begin their meals with warming bowl of harira (French: soupe marocaine), a delicious soup made from lentils, chick peas, lamb stock, tomatoes and vegetables. Surprisingly, among Moroccans harira has a role of nourishing food for "blue-collars" rather than a high-flying cuisine.
  • Soups are also traditional breakfasts in Morocco. Bissara, a thick glop made from split peas and a generous wallop of olive oil can be found bubbling away near markets and in medinas in the mornings.
Many cafes (see Drink) and restaurants also offer good value petit déjeuner breakfast deals, which basically include a tea or coffee, orange juice (jus d'Orange) and a croissant or bread with marmalade from Dh 10.

Snacks and fast food

Snackers and budget watchers are well catered for in Morocco. Rotisserie chicken shops abound, where you can get a quarter chicken served with fries and salad for around Dh 20. Sandwiches (from Dh 10) served from rotisserie chicken shops or hole-in-the-wall establishments are also popular. These fresh crusty baguettes are stuffed with any number of fillings including tuna, chicken, brochettes and a variety of salads. This is all usually topped off with the obligatory wad of French fries stuffed into the sandwich and lashings of mayonnaise squeezed on top.
You may also see hawkers and vendors selling a variety of nuts, as well as steamed broad beans and BBQ'd corn cobs.

Drink

As a predominantly Muslim country, Morocco is not dry.
Alcohol is available in restaurants, liquor stores, bars, supermarkets, clubs, hotels and discos. Some Moroccans enjoy a drink although it is disapproved in public places. The local brew of choice carries the highly original name of Casablanca Beer. It is a full flavored lager and enjoyable with the local cuisine or as a refreshment. The other two major Moroccan beers are Flag Special and Stork. Also you can find local judeo-berber vodka, mild anise flavored and brewed from figs.
As a rule, do not drink tap water at all in Morocco, even in hotels, as it contains much higher levels of minerals than the water in Europe. For local people this is not a problem as their bodies are used to this and can cope, but for travellers from places such as Europe, drinking the tap water will usually result in illness. Generally this is not serious, an upset stomach being the only symptom, but it is enough to spoil a day or two of your holiday.
Bottled water is widely available. Popular brands of water include Oulmes (sparkling) and Sidi Ali, Sidi Harazem and Ain Saiss DANONE (still). The latter has a slightly mineral and metallic taste. Nothing with a high mineralization produced (so far?).
Any traveller will be offered mint tea at least once a day. Even the most financially modest Moroccan is equipped with a tea pot and a few glasses. Although sometimes the offer is more of a lure into a shop than a hospitable gesture, it is polite to accept. Before drinking, look the host in the eye and say 'bi saha raha'. It means enjoy and relax and any local will be impressed with your language skills.
Note that a solo woman may feel more comfortable having a drink or snack at a pastry shop or restaurant as cafes are traditionally for men. This doesn't apply to couples though.

Sleep

Hotels in Morocco are a matter of choice and fit every budget. Classified hotels are 1 star (simple) to 5 star (luxury), and are classified as an auberge, riad, rural gîtes d'étape or hotel. Stays usually include breakfast, and many include dinner.

Places to stay

Auberges are found in the country or in rural small towns, and are built in the traditional mud (kasbah) style, many with wood burning fireplaces and salons or roof terraces for taking meals. Auberge are very comfortable, small and usually family run and owned.
In Marrakech, Essaouira and Fes or anywhere there is a medina (old city), small hotels renovated from old houses are called riads. Riads are usually small (about 6 rooms or less), clean and charming, often with to a lovely walled garden where breakfast is served on an inner patio or up on a roof terrace. Riads are usually too small to have a swimming pool, but may have what is called a tiny plunge pool to cool off in during summer months. Some riads are in former merchant houses or palaces and may have large opulent rooms and gardens.
Gîtes d'étape are simple country inns and hostel style places, where mountain trekkers can grab a hot shower, a good meal, and have a roof over their head for one night.
Desert bivouacs are traditional nomad carpeted wool tents with a mattress, sheets and blankets. You can shower at the auberge where you will also have breakfast.
Otherwise there are the usual more modern hotels or equivalent found anywhere in the big cities and larger towns around Morocco. On the lower end of the budget scale, HI-affiliated youth hostels can be found in the major cities (dorm beds from around Dh 50) while the cheapest budget hotels (singles from around Dh 65) are usually located in the medina. These hotels can be very basic and often lack hot water and showers, while others will charge you between Dh 5 and Dh 10 for a hot water shower. Instead, consider public hammams as there are quite a lot of them in the medina and in rural areas.
Newer, cleaner and slightly more expensive budget (singles from around Dh 75) and mid-range hotels that are sprinkled throughout the ville nouvelles.
Many hotels, especially those in the medina have delightful roof terraces, where you can sleep if the weather's too hot. If you don't need a room, you can often rent mattresses on the roof from Dh 25.
For those looking to camp, almost every town and city has a campground, although these can often be some way out of the centre. Many of these grounds have water, electricity and cafes. In rural areas and villages, locals are usually more than happy to let you camp on their property; just make sure you ask first.
With the exception of large high end hotels, expect the hot water supply in hotels to not be as stable as in more established countries. In Marrakech, MHamid, near Ourzazate and possibly other places, the hot water temperature varies dramatically while you take a shower.

Learn

Most foreigners looking to study in Morocco are seeking either Arabic or French language courses. All major cities have language centres, and some will even arrange homestays with an Arabic-speaking family during your course.
  • Qalam wa Lawh Center for Arabic Studies [13], 31 Rue Qadi Ben Hamadi Essenhaji, Souissi Rabat. Tel: (37) 75 57 90, arabic@qalamcenter.com. Offers courses in Modern Standard Arabic, Colloquial Morocccan Arabic, Moroccan Culture, and Islamic History.
  • Subul Assalam Centre for the Arabic Language (SACAL) [14], Meknes way, Lotissement Al Hadika, Lot no. Q4/008, Fez. Tel: (+212) 35 65 07 06, sacal_fez@yahoo.com. Offers courses in Modern Standard Arabic, Moroccan Colloquial Arabic and a series of English language courses on Islam and Morocco.
  • The Institute for Language Communication Studies [15], 29 Oukaimeden St, Agdal in Rabat. Tel: (37) 67 59 68, Fax: (37) 67 59 65, ilcs.adm@ilcs.ac.ma. The Insitute is one such centre with accelerated and intensive courses starting from Dh 3,000.
  • The Arabic Language Institute in Fez (ALIF) [16], B.P. 2136, Fez 30000, Morocco. Tel: (212/35) 62 48 50, Fax: (212/35) 93 16 08, info@alif-fes.com This is language school offering a variety of coursework in both Moroccan Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic.
  • Dar Loughat - Cross-Cultural Language Center [17], Tel: +212 66 66 8 77 88, info@cclc-morocco.org. Dar Loughat is a professional language center in Morocco providing intensive courses in all levels of Modern Standard Arabic and Colloquial Moroccan Arabic throughout the year. Through various immersion and language exchange activities, Dar Loughat provides its students daily contact with Moroccan life, allowing them to expand their vocabulary, improve their spoken language performance and better understand the local culture.

Cope

Some Moroccans that you meet on the streets have come up with dozens of ways to part you from your money. Keep your wits about you, but don't let your wariness stop you from accepting any offers of generous Moroccan hospitality. Put on a smile and greet everybody that greets you, but still be firm if you are not interested. This will leave you significantly better off than just ignoring them.
  • Faux guides and touts congregate around tourist areas and will offer to show you around the medinas, help you find accommodation, take you to a handicraft warehouse, or even score some drugs. While these men can often be harmless, never accept drugs or other products from them. Be polite, but make it clear if you're not interested in their services, and if they get too persistent, head for a taxi, salon de the, or into the nearest shop - the shopkeeper will show the faux guide away.
The best way to avoid Faux guides and touts is to avoid eye contact and ignore them, this will generally discourage them as they will try to invest their time in bothering another more willing tourist. Another way is to walk quickly; if eye contact happens just give them a smile, preferably a strong and beaming one rather than a shy one meaning no! thanks (they are very clever in judging human emotions and will bother you if they feel a weakness). The word La ( Arabic for No ) can be particularly effective, since it doesn't reveal your native language. Just another is to pretend you only speak some exotic language and don't understand whatever they say. Be polite and walk away. If you engage in arguing or a conversation with them, you will have a hell of time getting rid of them, as they are incredibly persistent and are masters in harassment, nothing really embarrasses them as they consider this being their way of earning their living.
  • Some of the more common tactics to be aware of are as follows.
Many Faux guides will pretend they are students when they approach you and that they just want to practice their English and learn about your culture, invariably if you follow them, there is a big chance you will end up in a carpet or souvenirs shop. A variant is they will show you an English letter and will ask you to translate it for them, or will ask for your help to their English speaking friend/cousin/relative etc abroad.
Expect to be told that anywhere and everywhere is 'closed'. Invariably, this is not the case, but a con to get you to follow them instead. Do not do this.
Do not accept 'free gifts' from vendors. You will find that a group of people will approach you accusing you of stealing it, and will extort the price from you.
Always insist that prices are fixed beforehand. This is especially true for taxi fares, where trips around a city should cost no more than 20 Dirham, in general, or be done on the meter. This cannot be stressed enough. In ALL situations (including Henna Tatoos) always agree on a price before!
When bargaining, never name a price that you are not willing to pay.
At bus/train stations, people will tell you that there have been cancellations, and that you won't be able to get a bus/train. Again, this is almost always a con to get you to accept a hyped-up taxi fare.
In general, do not accept the services of people who approach you.
Never be afraid to say no.
  • Drugs are another favourite of scam artists. In cities around the Rif Mountains, especially Tetouan and Chefchaouen, you will almost certainly be offered kif (dope). Some dealers will sell you the dope, then turn you in to the police for a cut of the baksheesh you pay to bribe your way out, while others will get you stoned before selling you lawn clippings in plasticine.
  • Ticket inspectors on trains have reportedly attempted to extricate a few extra dirham from unsuspecting tourists by finding something 'wrong' with their tickets. Make sure your tickets are in order before you board, and if you find yourself being hassled, insist on taking the matter up with the station manager at your destination.
  • Moroccan toilets, even those in hotels or restaurants, could lack toilet paper. It is worth buying a roll (french: "papier toilette").
Try to learn at least a phrasebook level of competency in French or Arabic (Spanish may help you in the North - but not largely). Just being able to say "Ith'hab!" ("Go Away!") may be useful to you... Many locals (especially the nice ones who are not trying to take advantage of you) will speak limited English. If you can at least verify prices in French with locals, you could end up saving a lot of money.

What to wear

You won't need high and heavy mountain boots unless you go in coldest time of the year like February: it's quite warm in the country even when it's heavy raining in November. Even in medinas, streets are paved if not asphalted--just be sure your footwear is not toeless in medina, as it may be dirty or unsanitary.
For trekking in valleys, low trekking shoes will be likely enough.
For a desert trip to dunes, ensure your pockets can be easily shaken out as sand gets in there very quickly.

Stay Safe

Like any country, Morocco has its share of problems, but they can be easily avoided should you follow common sense. Avoid dark alleys. Travel in a group whenever possible. Keep money and passports in a safety wallet or in a hotel safety deposit box. Keep backpacks and purses with you at all times. Make sure there is nothing important in outside or back pockets.
Women especially will experience almost constant harassment if alone, but this is usually just cat-calls and (disturbingly) hisses. Don't feel the need to be polite--no Moroccan woman would put up with behaviour like that. Dark sunglasses make it easier to avoid eye contact. If someone won't leave you alone, look for families, a busy shop, or a local woman and don't be afraid to ask for help. If you are so inclined, you could wear a hijab (headscarf), but this is not necessary. Morocco can be a very liberal country and many Moroccan women do not wear headscarves. However, women should always dress conservatively (no low-cut tops, midriffs, or shorts) out of respect for the culture they are visiting. In cities, women can wear more revealing clothing but as a general rule they should follow the lead from local women. Locals will also assume that Moroccan women venturing into ville nouvelle nightclubs or bars alone are prostitutes in search of clientèle but foreign women entering such places will be not be so considered but will be thought of as approachable.
Be careful about being drugged, especially as a solo traveler. The common and easy-to-make drug GHB only lasts 3 hours and is undetectable in the body after 7 hours, so if you are attacked take action immediately.
Hustlers can be a big problem for people travelling to Morocco, and Tangier in particular. It's often difficult to walk down the street without being accosted by somebody offering to give you directions, sell you something, etc. Your best bet is to politely refuse their services and keep walking, as all they are after is money. There are some legitimate tour guides, but just know that your guide will receive a commission on anything you buy while you're with them, so don't let yourself be pressured into purchasing anything you don't want. In certain places, hustlers will do their best to intimidate you, they can be very clingy, insisting that you give them money or offering their 'services'. Don't be intimidated by this; usually a firm "No" does the trick. Some of them can get nasty and abusive but before it gets to that stage walk towards a shop or crowd, most Moroccans would immediately tell the person off if they see that you are being harassed. Generally, western women should not travel to Morocco alone to avoid problems.
Armed fighting in the disputed areas of the Western Sahara are less frequent now, but clashes between government forces and the Polisario Front still occur. Don't wander too far off the beaten path either, as this region is also heavily-mined.
  • Inoculations: No particular inoculations are needed for Morocco under normal circumstances, but check with the CDC's [18] travel web pages for any recent disease outbreaks. As with most travel, it makes good sense to have a recent tetanus immunization. If you plan to eat outside the circle of established restaurants, consider a Hepatitis A inoculation.
  • Food and Drink: Avoid uncooked fruits and vegetables that you can not peel. Avoid any food that is not prepared when you order it (i.e. buffets, etc). Usually fried and boiled foods are safe. Some travellers have also had problems with unrefrigerated condiments (such as mayonnaise) used in fast food outlets.
  • Water: It is advisable to drink bottled water (check that the cap is sealed - some people might try to sell you tap water in recycled bottles). Be wary of ice or cordials that may be made with tap water. Some hotels provide free bottled water to guests and its wise to keep a supply in your room so as not to be tempted with tap water.
  • Shoes: Keep your sandals/tevas etc for the beach. Moroccan streets double as garbage disposal areas and you do not want to wade though fish heads and chicken parts with open-toe shoes.
  • Malaria: Present in the northern, coastal areas of the country but is not a major problem. Take the usual precautions against being bitten (light coloured clothing, insect repellent, etc) and if you are really worried see your doctor about anti-malarial medication before your departure.
  • Greetings among close friends and family (but rarely between men and women!) usually take the form of three pecks on the cheek. In other circumstances handshakes are the norm. Following the handshake by touching your heart with your right hand signifies respect and sincerity.
  • Left hands used to traditionally be considered 'unclean' in the Muslim religion and Arabic nomadic cultures, as they used to be reserved for hygiene in toilets. Like in many cultures in could be considered impolite to shake hands or offer or accept something from someone by your left, more so is giving money by your left, so try to avoid that. While left-handed people may get an occasional exclamation and local children may get pressured by parents to use their right in traditional societies, most people will understand if you do your own business with your left hand.
  • Elders Moroccans still have the tradition of highly respecting their elders and the sick. If someone who is handicapped or older than you is passing, then stop and allot room for them. Or if a taxi arrives and you are waiting with an elder, then it is required for you to allow the older person to take precedence over you. Tourists are not held to these same expectations, but it improves regard for tourists in Morocco when they adhere to the same traditions.

Contact

Telephone

Public telephones can be found in city centres, but private telephone offices (also known as teleboutiques or telekiosques) are also commonly used. The international dialling prefix (to dial out of the country) is 00, but international rates are comparatively expensive. If you have a lot of phone calls to make, it may be worth ducking into the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta or Melilla.
The telephone numbering scheme is changed starting March 2009. All fixed telephone numbers have a 5 inserted after the 0, and all mobile telephone numbers have a 6 inserted after the 0. All numbers are now ten-digit long, counting the initial 0.
Useful Numbers Police: 19; Fire Service: 15; Highway Emergency Service: 177; Information: 160; International Information: 120; Telegrams and telephone: 140; Intercity: 100.
The GSM mobile telephone network in Morocco can be accessed via one of two major operators: Meditel [19] or Maroc Telecom [20]. Prepaid cards are available. More infos on available services, coverage and roaming partners are available at: GSMWorld [21].
It is very easy and cheap to buy a local GSM prepaid card in one of the numberous phone shops showing a Maroc Telecom sign. The SIM card (carte Jawal) costs only 30 DH (3 €) with 10 DH (1 €) airtime. The rate is national: 3-4 DH, to Europe ca. 10 DH, SMS 3 DH. The card is valid 6 month after the last recharge.

Post

The Moroccan postal service is generally reliable and offers a post restante service in major cities for a small fee. You will need some identification (preferably your passport) to collect your mail.
Items shipped as freight are inspected at the post office before they are sent, so wait until this has been done before you seal the box.

Email & internet

Moroccans have really taken to the internet. Internet cafes are open late and are numerous in cities and smaller towns that see significant tourist traffic. Rates are about 4 - 10 dirhams per hour and they are often located next to, above, or below the telekiosque offices. Speeds are acceptable to excellent in the north, but can be a little on the slow side in rural areas. Most internet cafes will allow you to print and burn CDs for a small charge.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.MOROCCO (EL MAGHRIB EL Aksa, " The Farthest West," i.e. of the Mahommedan world), an independent state of North Africa, bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, on the E. by Algeria, on the S. (indefinitely) by the Sahara, and on the W. by the Atlantic as far south as Wad Dra'a.^ Contrary to popular belief, this region of Morocco often looks more like Scotland than North Africa.
  • Compass Properties Morocco: Properties for Sale in Tetouan, Tangier, and Marrakech 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.compasspropertiesabroad.com [Source type: General]

^ Mahommedan world), an independent state of North Africa , bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, on the E. by Algeria , on the S. (indefinitely) by the Sahara , and on the W. by the Atlantic as far south as Wad Dra'a.

^ West Ham´s French midfielder Julien Faubert -- seen here in 2009 -- has applied for an Algerian passport in a bid to achieve his dream of playing at the 2010 World Cup in South Africa, the player h...

.Its landward limits can only be vaguely defined.^ Its landward limits can only be vaguely defined.

.The eastern frontier towards Algeria, determined by the treaty of 1844, is a purely conventional line starting from the mouth of a small stream called the Skis and running across country in a general S.S.E. direction.^ A small mud bridge to get across a stream.

^ The eastern frontier towards Algeria, determined by the treaty of 1844, is a purely conventional line starting from the mouth of a small stream called the Skis and running across country in a general S.S.E. direction.

^ A movement called The polisario was formed by the help of Algeria and Libya to oppose Moroccan rule and to fight for self determination of the Sahrawi.
  • History of morocco - The Magic Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.magicmorocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1900 this was given a westerly trend to the south of the Atlas by the annexation of the Figig, Igli and Tuat oases by France.^ In 1900 this was given a westerly trend to the south of the Atlas by the annexation of the Figig, Igli and Tuat oases by France .

.The southern boundaries expand and contract according to the power and acivity of the central authorities.^ The southern boundaries expand and contract according to the power and acivity of the central authorities.

.Behm and Wagner, who included Figig, Taal, Kenatsa and other oases, estimated (in 1882) the then area of the sultanate at 305,548 sq.^ Behm and Wagner, who included Figig, Taal , Kenatsa and other oases, estimated (in 1882) the then area of the sultanate at 305,548 sq.

^ Area and Population of Countries - Area and Population of Countries (mid-2009 estimates) Country Capital Area (in sq mi) Population ...
  • World Capitals — Infoplease.com 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: News]

m. .The allegiance of many of the tribes within this compass is questionable and intermittent, and the loss of the district from Figig to That, which is not accurately defined, has considerably reduced the area.^ The allegiance of many of the tribes within this compass is questionable and intermittent, and the loss of the district from Figig to That, which is not accurately defined, has considerably reduced the area.

^ The Muslim Berbers proclaimed him their king, and he and his son Idriss II united many of the tribes and brought a spiritual unity to the area.
  • Morocco@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Morocco is still the portion of Northern Africa about which European information is most defective, and all maps are still to a considerable extent composed of unscientific material eked out by probabilities and conjecture.^ Morocco is still the portion of Northern Africa about which European information is most defective, and all maps are still to a considerable extent composed of unscientific material eked out by probabilities and conjecture.

^ Useful Information and Links about Morocco .
  • Morocco - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.kwintessential.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Most marriages in Morocco are still arranged, women are cloistered away, and men form strong emotional bonds with one another that can be easily mistranslated by foreigners.
  • March/April 2005 | Morocco | Features | OutTraveler.com 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.outtraveler.com [Source type: General]

Table of contents

The Mediterranean Coast Lands

.The seawards aspect of Morocco only is known in detail.^ The seawards aspect of Morocco only is known in detail.

.To the Mediterranean it presents for about 200 m.^ To the Mediterranean it presents for about 200 m.

the rugged .profile of the Rif hills (still unexplored), which generally end in lines of cliff broken at intervals by narrow sweeps of sandy beech, but occasionally open up into beautiful and fertile valleys.^ Between the Mediterranean littoral and the Sahara, the Atlas Plateau, broken by ravines and valleys, rivers and smaller streams, contains many tracts of marvellously fertile country.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The setting of Tetouan is beautiful, with dramatic mountains in the south and west, right across the narrow valley from which Tetouan rises.
  • LookLex / Morocco / Tetouan / The old trap changed 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC lexicorient.com [Source type: General]

^ The country is generally a low-lying plateau broken up by 25 sizable rivers that flow into the Indian Ocean.
  • Mozambique: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — Infoplease.com 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

About 6 m. west of the .Skis lies the mouth of the river Mulwiya; and 10 m.^ Skis lies the mouth of the river Mulwiya; and 10 m.

farther on, opposite .Cabo del Agua (Ras Sidi Bashir), is a group of dry and barren islands, owned by Spain, known as Chaffarinas or Jazair Zafran (Spanish las Chafarinas), which protect the best roadstead on the Rif coast.^ Even today, two Spanish enclaves— Ceuta and Melilla —on the Mediterranean coast remain within Morocco, and small islands off the coast also belong to Spain.
  • Morocco - MSN Encarta 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Morocco - MSN Encarta 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the meantime, the northeastern coast can best be reached by taking a plane or ferry from Malaga to the Spanish enclave of Melilla.
  • Moroccan Property, Moroccan Real Estate 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.propertyforge.com [Source type: News]

^ Bahia Del Cabo offers 2 bedroom / 2 bathroom apartments located right opposite the Cabo Negro beach on the Mediterranean Coast.
  • Morocco Property, Morocco Property for Sale, Real Estate In Morocco, Villas For Sale in Morocco, Morocco Real Estate, Golf Property in Morocco, Property for Sale in Morocco, Moroccan Property, Investment Morocco Property, Properties Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.morocco-property.com [Source type: News]

.Between Point Quiviana and Melilla runs a low and sandy shore in front of a great salt marsh, the Mar Chica of the Spaniards.^ Between Point Quiviana and Melilla runs a low and sandy shore in front of a great salt marsh , the Mar Chica of the Spaniards.

Melilla (Meliliya) is a fortified rock convict station or presidio, held by the Spaniards since 1497, forming a peninsula connected by lines of rampart with Fort Rosario on the heights behind. .The fine semicircular bay of Alhucemas is the seaward end of one of the most beautiful valleys in the Rif, clothed with verdure and dotted with hamlets.^ The fine semicircular bay of Alhucemas is the seaward end of one of the most beautiful valleys in the Rif, clothed with verdure and dotted with hamlets.

^ Todra Gorge: Near the High Atlas town of Tinerhir, at the end of a lush valley of palms and mud-brick villages hemmed in by barren craggy mountains is one of Morocco's most glorious natural sights.
  • Welcome to morocco, Maroc, Moroccan Way. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.moroccanway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is definitely one of the most beautiful religious buildings I have ever seen.
  • Morocco travel blogs - travel stories and photos about Morocco - TravelPod 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.travelpod.com [Source type: General]

.A Spanish presidio occupies one of the larger of the Alhucemas islands (Al-Mazemma), which are identified with the Ad Sex Insulas of the itineraries.^ A Spanish presidio occupies one of the larger of the Alhucemas islands (Al-Mazemma), which are identified with the Ad Sex Insulas of the itineraries.

^ Morocco's history may be one of conquest by Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Spanish, and French (in that order), but the robust Berbers remained a thorn in each occupier's side.
  • March/April 2005 | Morocco | Features | OutTraveler.com 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.outtraveler.com [Source type: General]

^ (AP, 7/13/02) 2002 Jul 17, Spanish troops reclaimed the island of Perejil off the coast of Morocco, a week after it was occupied by Moroccan troops.
  • Timeline Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Another Spanish presidio crowns the island rock Penon de Velez; and in the valley off which it lies stood a town known to the Spaniards as Velez de Gomera, to the Arabs as Badis, which continued to be a place of importance in the 16th century.^ Another Spanish presidio crowns the island rock Penon de Velez; and in the valley off which it lies stood a town known to the Spaniards as Velez de Gomera , to the Arabs as Badis, which continued to be a place of importance in the 16th century.

^ Even today, two Spanish enclaves— Ceuta and Melilla —on the Mediterranean coast remain within Morocco, and small islands off the coast also belong to Spain.
  • Morocco - MSN Encarta 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Morocco - MSN Encarta 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Spanish presidio occupies one of the larger of the Alhucemas islands (Al-Mazemma), which are identified with the Ad Sex Insulas of the itineraries.

.The so-called Bay of Tetuan (Tettawan) - the town is just visible from the sea - is little more than the straight stretch of coast between Cape Mazari on the south and Cape Negro or Negrete on the north; but the prominence of these two headlands gives it an appearance of depth.^ The so-called Bay of Tetuan (Tettawan) - the town is just visible from the sea - is little more than the straight stretch of coast between Cape Mazari on the south and Cape Negro or Negrete on the north; but the prominence of these two headlands gives it an appearance of depth.

^ Marrakech awakens just as it has done every morning for more than 800 years, with the same inflected intonation, the call of the muezzin going out from the 70 metre high Koutoubia, the spiritual beacon of Marrakech.

^ Located in between wild mountains rising up from the Mediterranean Sea, at clear days with the southern tip of Spain visible, Tetouan has everything going for it.
  • LookLex / Morocco / Tetouan / The old trap changed 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC lexicorient.com [Source type: General]

.From Cape Negro northwards to Ceuta the most notable object is the summit of Jebel Musa, which, though situated on the Strait of Gibraltar, towers above the intervening hills.^ From Cape Negro northwards to Ceuta the most notable object is the summit of Jebel Musa, which, though situated on the Strait of Gibraltar , towers above the intervening hills.

^ Hundreds of citizens and foreigners, most from sub-Saharan Africa, drown annually attempting to cross the Strait of Gibraltar , or attempting to reach the Canary Islands from Western Sahara .
  • Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.gvnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Westwards, the first point of interest is again Jebel Musa, the Elephas of Strabo , and the Apes' Hill of English charts.

.Ceuta (Sibta), the most important of the Spanish settlements in Morocco, occupies a peninsula - the head, Mt Acho, standing about 4 m.^ Ceuta (Sibta), the most important of the Spanish settlements in Morocco, occupies a peninsula - the head, Mt Acho, standing about 4 m.

^ Even today, two Spanish enclaves— Ceuta and Melilla —on the Mediterranean coast remain within Morocco, and small islands off the coast also belong to Spain.
  • Morocco - MSN Encarta 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Morocco - MSN Encarta 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between Agadir, Safi and Tan Tan, Morocco has the world's most important ports for sardines.
  • BikeAbout: Morocco Sites on the 'Net 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.bikeabout.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

out to sea, and the neck being low and narrow. .It marks the eastern end of the strait.^ It marks the eastern end of the strait.

Westwards, the first point of interest is again Jebel Musa, the Elephas of Strabo, and the Apes' Hill of English charts. About 20 m. farther along the coast lies the .Bay of Tangier (Tanja), one of the finest harbours in Morocco.^ Bay of Tangier (Tanja), one of the finest harbours in Morocco.

^ Tangier is one of the most fascinating cities in Morocco and the birthplace of one of history’s most storied travelers and writers--Ibn Battuta.
  • MOROCCO'S AFRICAN HERITAGE 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.cwo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Properties for rent in Tangiers Apartment Asilah, Tangiers *Off-plan Paradise Beach and Golf Resort will be one of the Premier Resorts in Northern Morocco.
  • Moroccan Property, Moroccan Real Estate 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.propertyforge.com [Source type: News]

.West from Tangier runs the Jebel Kebir (rising to a little over 1000 ft.^ The Atlas Mts., rising to 13,671 ft (4,167 m) in Jebel Toubkal in the southwest, dominate most of the country.
  • The Country & People of Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.hejleh.com [Source type: News]

), the seaward extremity of which forms .Cape Spartel, the north-west angle of the African continent, known to the ancients as Ampelusia or Cotes Promontorium.^ Cape Spartel, the north-west angle of the African continent, known to the ancients as Ampelusia or Cotes Promontorium.

^ In the cave at Cape Spartel Tissot found regularly shaped arrow-heads, and in the north of the country he met with dolmens, barrows and cromlechs, just as in Algeria or Tunisia .

.The lighthouse, 312 ft.^ The lighthouse , 312 ft.

above sea-level, built in .1865 at the cost of the sultan of Morocco, and maintained at the joint expense of England, France, Italy and Spain, is the only one on the western coast.^ One-day Classes: Italy - France - Spain .

^ Morocco, and maintained at the joint expense of England , France, Italy and Spain, is the only one on the western coast.

^ A taxi from Ouarzazate only costs about 10 Dinar ($1.25) but I'd make arrangements with one to take you there and wait for the return journey.

.It is provided with a fixed intermittent white light, visible for 36 m.^ It is provided with a fixed intermittent white light, visible for 36 m.

T L
A N T
Mimsina a'?
? { ?'? /

The Atlantic Coast Line

.The Atlantic coast of Morocco is remarkable for its regularity; it has not a single gulf or noteworthy estuary; the capes are few and for the most part feebly marked.^ A few Moroccan ports become involved in piracy , being part of a belt of semi-independent cities along the Barbary Coast .
  • Morocco / History - LookLex Encyclopaedia 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Westerly winds predominate on the North African coast in winter, while most of the summer the winds are ENE. On the Atlantic coast summer winds are mostly northerly.
  • Noonsite: Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.noonsite.com [Source type: News]

^ Moroccan Amazigh children grow up hearing everyday that Morocco is part of the Umma Arabia (Arabic nation) which spreads from the Gulf to the Atlantic, making them Arabs in spite of themselves.
  • Wafin: Moroccan Connections in America 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.wafin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Southward from Cape Spartel the shore sinks rapidly till it is within a few feet of the sea-level.^ Southward from Cape Spartel the shore sinks rapidly till it is within a few feet of the sea-level.

^ We’ll take our time getting up to 9,400 feet above sea level, while enjoying the breathtaking views of surrounding peaks and Marrakesh on the plains below.

.In the low cliff which it forms about 4Z m.^ In the low cliff which it forms about 4Z m.

from the lighthouse there is a great quarry, which from remote antiquity has yielded the hand-mills used in the Tangier district. .A stretch of low marshy ground along the Tahaddart estuary - W. Muharhar and W. el-Kharrub - agrees with Scylax's Gulf of Cotes (Tissot). Eight m.^ A stretch of low marshy ground along the Tahaddart estuary - W. Muharhar and W. el-Kharrub - agrees with Scylax's Gulf of Cotes ( Tissot).

farther lies .Azila, the ancient Colonia Julia Constantia Zilis, with a Moorish and Jewish population of about 1200. For the next 16 m., between Azila and Laraish (Laraiche), the coast has a tolerably bold background of hills, Jebel Sarsar forming an important landmark for the latter town which, with its Phoenician, Roman and medieval remains, is historically one of the most interesting places in Morocco.^ Morocco is the most exciting place to travel.
  • Morocco Travel Agency / Travel Exploration / Morocco Tours in 4x4 / Private Morocco Tours / Camel Treks / Sahara Desert Tours / 4x4 Excursions / Marrakesh Tour /Berber Villages About Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travel-exploration.com [Source type: News]

^ Most marriages in Morocco are still arranged, women are cloistered away, and men form strong emotional bonds with one another that can be easily mistranslated by foreigners.
  • March/April 2005 | Morocco | Features | OutTraveler.com 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.outtraveler.com [Source type: General]

^ The Mosque and Tomb of Moulay Idris II- Considered one of the most sacred places in all of Morocco, the tomb of Moulay Idris II is a place of pilgrimage for Muslims from throughout Morocco and beyond.
  • Study Abroad in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.amerispan.com [Source type: Academic]

.A line of reddish cliffs about 300 ft.^ A line of reddish cliffs about 300 ft.

high runs south for about 10 m. from the .W. Lekkus, at whose mouth the town is built; then the coast sinks till it reaches the shrine of Mulai Bu Selham on an eminence 220 ft.^ W. Lekkus, at whose mouth the town is built; then the coast sinks till it reaches the shrine of Mulai Bu Selham on an eminence 220 ft.

^ Sheikh Bu Shaib) - once the frontier town of the kingdom of Fez - stands on an eminence about 12 m.

^ From here you can reach town by bus or by grand taxis - ranks are outside the terminal building to your left.
  • Fez - discover the history and culture of Fez, Morocco, Destinations 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.morocco.com [Source type: General]

high. .Between Mulai Bu Selham (often wrongly called " Old Mamora ") and a similar height crowned by the tomb of Sidi `Abd Allah Jelali lies the outlet of the Blue Lake (Marja Zarka), 10 or 12 m.^ Between Mulai Bu Selham (often wrongly called " Old Mamora ") and a similar height crowned by the tomb of Sidi `Abd Allah Jelali lies the outlet of the Blue Lake (Marja Zarka), 10 or 12 m.

^ It was built by Mulai Abd Allah es-Sharif (d.

^ W. Lekkus, at whose mouth the town is built; then the coast sinks till it reaches the shrine of Mulai Bu Selham on an eminence 220 ft.

long. Farther south, and separated from the sea by an unbroken line of rounded hills (230-260 ft.), is the much more extensive .lagoon of Ras ed-Dura, which in the dry season becomes a series of marshy meres, but in the rainy season fills up and discharges into the Sebu.^ Globally, the year is divided into two major periods : the rainy season lasts in principle from October to May, but starting from April and under the influence of high tropical air pressures, the weather in Morocco becomes dry and hot.
  • TRADE GUIDE FOR MOROCCO @ MuslimTrade Network! 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.muslimtrade.net [Source type: Reference]

Eastward it is connected with the Marjat el-Gharb, fed by the W. Meda. .On the south side of the outlet of the Sebu lies Mehediya (otherwise misnamed New Mamora or Mehduma) founded by `Abd el-Mumin, and named after the Muwahhadi Mandi.^ On the south side of the outlet of the Sebu lies Mehediya (otherwise misnamed New Mamora or Mehduma) founded by ` Abd el -Mumin, and named after the Muwahhadi Mandi .

^ Between Mulai Bu Selham (often wrongly called " Old Mamora ") and a similar height crowned by the tomb of Sidi `Abd Allah Jelali lies the outlet of the Blue Lake (Marja Zarka), 10 or 12 m.

^ In 1149 the Murabti power was overthrown by another religious leader, `Abd el Mumin at the head of the Muwahhadi - i.e.

.It was held by Spain from 1614 to 1681. Twenty miles farther is the mouth of the BU Ragrag, with Salli (Sla) on the north side, long famous for its piracies, and still one of the most fanatical places in the empire, and on the south side Rabat, with its conspicuous Hassan tower, and Sheila with its interesting ruins.^ Most marriages in Morocco are still arranged, women are cloistered away, and men form strong emotional bonds with one another that can be easily mistranslated by foreigners.
  • March/April 2005 | Morocco | Features | OutTraveler.com 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.outtraveler.com [Source type: General]

^ The Mosque and Tomb of Moulay Idris II- Considered one of the most sacred places in all of Morocco, the tomb of Moulay Idris II is a place of pilgrimage for Muslims from throughout Morocco and beyond.
  • Study Abroad in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.amerispan.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like most travelers, Agadir is the place where you stop for a night or two to rest up before moving on to the more interesting Taroudannt or Essaouira.
  • Adagir - The Heart of Moroccan Culture in Agadir, Destinations 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.morocco.com [Source type: General]

Onward for 100 m. to .Point Azammur and the mouth of the Um er-Rabi`a river a line of hills skirts the sea; the shore is for the most part low, and, with the exception of capes at Fedala (a small village, originally a port, partly rebuilt by Mulai Isma'il, and completed by Mahommed XVII., who opened it to Europeans between 1760 and 1773) and Dar el-Baida or Casablanca, it runs in a straight line west-south-west.^ Beautifully positioned between the beach and the lagoon, this charming hotel is found in the small fisherman's village of Oualidia, between Casablanca and Safi on the Atlantic coast.

^ CASABLANCA, Morocco -- Morocco has long been viewed as a rare liberalizing, modernizing Islamic state, open to the West and a potential bridge to a ca...

^ This newly-opened, family-run residence is close to the beach and features 9 rooms, most of which have a sea view, and each one fully-equipped with all comforts for a relaxing holiday.

Azammur (Berber for " The Wild Olives," viz. of the .Sheikh Bu Shaib) - once the frontier town of the kingdom of Fez - stands on an eminence about 12 m.^ You then walk 250m from La Linea across the frontier into Gibraltar town centre in about 10 minutes.
  • How to travel by train London to Morocco | Train travel in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

from the sea on the south side of the Urn er-Rabi`a, here some 150 ft. wide, deep and red, with an obstructing bar. The bay of Mazagan, a few miles to the south, curves westward with a boldness of sweep unusual on this coast. About 8 m. to the south, and less than 1 m. inland, lie the extensive ruins of Tit, a town which proved a thorn in the side of the Portuguese of Mazagan till they destroyed it. At Cape Blanco (so called from its white cliffs) the coast, which bulged out at Cape Mazagan, again bends south to resume much the same general direction for 55 m. to Cape Cantin. .On this stretch the only point of interest is the site of the vanished Walidiya, formerly El-Ghait, with an excellent harbour, formed by an extensive lagoon, which by a little dredging would become the safest shipping station on the whole Morocco seaboard.^ Morocco is separated from Spain by the Strait of Gibraltar, and Spain is only eight miles away at the Strait’s narrowest point.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Delegation of the European Commission to Morocco (in Arabic and French only) The Delegations of the External Service serve European Union interests throughout the world.

^ The next 400 years formed Morocco ‘s Dark Age and very little is known about this period.
  • History of morocco - The Magic Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.magicmorocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

About 18 m. farther lies .Saffi (Asfi), the most picturesque spot on the west coast, with the high walls and quare towers of its Portuguese fortifications shown to advantage by the ruggedness of the site.^ Saffi (Asfi), the most picturesque spot on the west coast, with the high walls and quare towers of its Portuguese fortifications shown to advantage by the ruggedness of the site.

^ This comfortable, most-European city in Morocco lacks the high-pressure tourism of the towns on the north coast.
  • Rick Steves' Europe: Morocco: Plunge Deep 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.ricksteves.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the current fortifications seen today are due to the Portuguese influence...

Sixty miles farther south lies Mogador, beyond which the coast becomes more and more inaccessible and dangerous in winter, being known to navigators as the " Iron Coast." From Cape Sim (Ras Tagriwalt),. 10 m. south of .Mogador, the direction is due south to Cape Ghir (Ighir Ufrani), the termination of Jebel Ida u Tanan, a spur of the Atlas.^ Mogador, the direction is due south to Cape Ghir (Ighir Ufrani), the termination of Jebel Ida u Tanan, a spur of the Atlas.

^ At Cape Blanco (so called from its white cliffs) the coast, which bulged out at Cape Mazagan, again bends south to resume much the same general direction for 55 m.

.Beyond this headland lies Agadir (Agadir Ighir), the Santa Cruz Mayor or Santa Cruz de Berberia of the Spaniards, formerly known as the Gate of the Sudan.^ Beyond this headland lies Agadir (Agadir Ighir), the Santa Cruz Mayor or Santa Cruz de Berberia of the Spaniards, formerly known as the Gate of the Sudan .

^ This must not be confounded with Santa Cruz de Mar Pequena, a post established in 1476 somewhere on this coast by Herrera, lord of the Canary Islands .

^ Another Spanish presidio crowns the island rock Penon de Velez; and in the valley off which it lies stood a town known to the Spaniards as Velez de Gomera , to the Arabs as Badis, which continued to be a place of importance in the 16th century.

.1 It is a little town with white battlements three-quarters of a mile in circumference, on a steep eminence 600 ft.^ It is a little town with white battlements three-quarters of a mile in circumference, on a steep eminence 600 ft.

^ On the 30th of July they attacked the European labourers and killed nine of them (three French, three Spaniards, and three Italians), afterwards entering the town and raiding the Jewish quarter.

^ W. Lekkus, at whose mouth the town is built; then the coast sinks till it reaches the shrine of Mulai Bu Selham on an eminence 220 ft.

high. .In the 16th century it was seized by the Portuguese; but in 1536 it was captured by Mulai Ahmad, one of the founders of the Sa'adi dynasty.^ In the 16th century it was seized by the Portuguese; but in 1536 it was captured by Mulai Ahmad, one of the founders of the Sa'adi dynasty.

^ Tarudant, the capital of Sus, is situated between the Atlas and the river Sus; it is a place of from 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants, already a flourishing town in the 12th century, rebuilt by the Sa'adi Dynasty early in the 16th, and ref ortified by El Hasan IV. in 1882.

^ On the failure of the Beni Mann the amirate was seized by Sa`id III., " El Wallas," head of another branch, founder of the short-lived Wattasi dynasty.

Some 60 m. farther south, at the mouth of a river known by the same name, is the roadstead of .Massa, with a mosque popularly reputed the scene of Jonah's restoration to terra firma.^ Massa , with a mosque popularly reputed the scene of Jonah's restoration to terra firma.

.This port 2 was regularly visited by the Genoese traders in the 16th century, who exported skins, gum, wax, gold and indigo.^ Its maronquinerie (leatherware) has been a highly prized item in the cargo of traders since the 16th century.
  • Welcome to morocco, Maroc, Moroccan Way. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.moroccanway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another 50 m. farther south lies .Ifni, a landing-place easily recognizable by the shrine of Sidi Worzek, a few miles to the Character of the Interior.^ Ifni, a landing-place easily recognizable by the shrine of Sidi Worzek, a few miles to the Character of the Interior.

^ As in the Hellenic lands of Christendom, so also in Mauritania, Judaism involuntarily prepared the way for Islam; and the conversion of the Berbers to Islam took place so much the more easily.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

- .The
backbone of the country is the Great Atlas (Daren of the Berbers), for which see Atlas.^ The backbone of the country is the Great Atlas (Daren of the Berbers ), for which see Atlas .

^ See also: Infoplease country profile: Morocco Encyclopedia: Morocco Atlas: Morocco Select another country...

.The principal rivers take their rise in the Atlas Mountains, and the headwaters of the Mulwiya, the Sebu, the Um er-Rabi`a, the Dra`a and the Ziz all rise between 32° 20' and 32° 30' N., and between 3° 30' and 5° W. The Mulwiya (Mulucha and Malva of Pliny, &c.^ The Medina Rabat's Medina is all there was before the French arrived in 1912 it's a dense sector that is nestled between the sea and the river with stone and white washed buildings.
  • Rabat - capital city of Morocco, Destinations 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.morocco.com [Source type: General]

^ Pushing down from the Middle Atlas Mountains, the Bou Regreg river is a vein forking along the exposed skin of the country.
  • Rabat, Morocco News - Topix 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ Moulay Idriss 2 takes power, and during his 20 years reign, control is extended to the northern mountains and to the oases south of the Atlas mountains .
  • Morocco / History - LookLex Encyclopaedia 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) is the river which the French have long wished to make the western boundary of Algeria. Its course is largely unexplored save by native French officials. .About 34 20' N. General Colvile found 'it some zoo yds.^ Agriculture plays a leading role in the Moroccan economy, generating between 15 and 20% of GDP (depending on the harvest) and employing about 40% of the work force.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

wide but quite .8° Scale, r:7,000,000 English Miles 20 Railways....^ Scale, r:7,000,000 English Miles 20 Railways ....

^ It may only be 20,000 miles for a short-haul ticket....

«w. r Principal Routes..... - ? .Ancient Sites
D 6° Aa?;? 5 T C.Spartki i ? ' n Taha dada rt( Azila M'zor laraic Araish) B 4p F Z G Gibraltar (Br.^ Taha dada rt( Azila M'zor laraic Araish) B 4p F Z G Gibraltar (Br.

^ Ancient Sites D 6° Aa ?;?

) .to' ED I Terra Nei .Musa ?^ ED I Terra Nei .Musa ?

.E
Ceuta (SA) J Negro 0 b ? y P A 12 B 10 r f Gibr0.L+Rr -- - ?e.^ P A 12 B 10 r f Gibr0.L+Rr -- - ?e.

^ E Ceuta (SA) J Negro 0 b ?

si .Gyc G ' ``ti'? ??061 <' jo ni Hassan br ?,?r,ah>razan S??^ Hassan br ?,?r,ah> razan S??

b`s r?? i n.?.. r_.;%"? r?'?"K?,t*? .'c 3 3 340 Mogador im Tagriwa 5.) E A N o C Juby A tigal: 4 C.('iir(!ghlr Ufrani /i - ??, ,, Ighir) ti?f.gbawan.? Ag `?a:.s.^ Mogador, the direction is due south to Cape Ghir (Ighir Ufrani), the termination of Jebel Ida u Tanan, a spur of the Atlas.

^ Mogador im Tagriwa 5.

^ E A N o C Juby A tigal: 4 C.('iir(!ghlr Ufrani /i - ??, ,, Ighir) ti?f.gbawan.?

1 ,.?? ad[r " - ?? ?f' us . ?JT ? uQBn??
l ^, ,?  ?11?J?Ur Massa i assi? ??,.` 1 l,y Y-- .'Frd?'sC i'? ?/ ?',.ct3.  ?;`???? lu A l u ? ??la='4I` 1?9 rl?/ B ?? }`? :77?'r ,rrmi?Q; ???°.- ittwalf? 1 rrnc ??!??,`oIUgtr'idar x 1 ?, ,? ASSOFOidrksri??f?i?? ?Ji , n, ry 9 N? ? ?sr? .: "!da '.u 3agr.
?> ss,,foJ ?r'ex ? ?: ?? vy, ?? ??  ?i. ?-z'o???,J?lda+u p0 ?. e'?.  ? .(?Glimtn Ta/t irs ???c?v' ????1-?^ Glimtn Ta/t irs ???c?v' ????1-?

m u ?J ?rar'sa :? g ?? ?C'?
4
???.. ?? C??, ? y,?I'? " ~?-?..- n ? .s,' : U :Taskalemin--.'i'?i, ??"- ???'P ° -A3har -r?; " - %Maderj l 11! B r= c Tabetbala aMohammed 3 28 Longitude West 6° of Greenwich south of which is the Cape Non 3 of the Portuguese. .The better known Cape Nan lies 5 or 6 m.^ The better known Cape Nan lies 5 or 6 m.

north of the .W. Nun, at the mouth of which is Assaka, a port which the sultan of Morocco opened to foreign trade in 1882, but closed after six months.^ W. Nun , at the mouth of which is Assaka, a port which the sultan of Morocco opened to foreign trade in 1882, but closed after six months.

^ Gary Player Opens New Course at Golf de Mogador Located in the beautiful historic port city of Essaouira on Morocco’s Atlantic coastline, the ...
  • Tourist Activities in Morocco | By Morocco Channel 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.morocco.com [Source type: General]

^ Imports are open-except for approximately 10 items which require import licences which are issued by the Ministry of Foreign Trade.
  • Morocco - An Overview 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mbendi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From Assaka to the mouth of the Dra`a the country continues broken and fertile, but farther south it is flatter and more sandy, so that with the Dra`a the Sahara may be said to begin.
.1 This must not be confounded with Santa Cruz de Mar Pequena, a post established in 1476 somewhere on this coast by Herrera, lord of the Canary Islands.^ Phoenician s established trading posts along the Mediterranean coast during the 12th century bc , and Carthage had settlements along the Atlantic coast in the 5th century bc .
  • Morocco -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After obtaining permission to reoccupy the post in 1861, the Spanish government was unable to identify it, though in all probability the original site was the lagoon known as Puerto Cansado, much farther south.^ After obtaining permission to reoccupy the post in 1861, the Spanish government was unable to identify it, though in all probability the original site was the lagoon known as Puerto Cansado, much farther south.

^ In addition, all civil servants and military personnel must obtain written permission from their ministries to leave the country.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If, despite this advice, you decide to travel to Western Sahara you should be aware that travel from Morocco to Western Sahara is restricted by the Moroccan Government and you will need to obtain permission from Moroccan authorities.
  • Travel Advice for Morocco - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

.But this is nowtoo remote a spot to be worth colonizing, hence the desire to substitute some other.^ But this is nowtoo remote a spot to be worth colonizing, hence the desire to substitute some other.

.Ifni, on old maps Gueder, was chosen (1878), there being some evidence to show that it was possibly the true site of the ancient fort.^ Ifni, on old maps Gueder, was chosen (1878), there being some evidence to show that it was possibly the true site of the ancient fort.

^ Once we’re settled into our hotel, there is time to wander through the labyrinth of narrow alleys in the ancient medina, a UNESCO Heritage Site.
  • Adventure Travel and Singletrack Mountain Biking Vacations in Marrakech and Sahara Desert, Morocco – BikeHike Adventures 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.bikehike.com [Source type: General]

.See Valentin Ferdinand, Beschreibung West Afrikas (Mem.^ See Valentin Ferdinand , Beschreibung West Afrikas (Mem.

of the Acad. of .Munich, 3rd Class, pt.^ Munich , 3rd Class, pt.

viii.).
.No, Non, Nor, Naum, Nao, are among the various readings.^ No, Non, Nor, Naum, Nao, are among the various readings.

.It was another Cape Non to the south of Cape Bojador which seems to have given rise to the proverb, Quem pasar o cabo de Nao ou tornara ou nao. See Bol.^ It was another Cape Non to the south of Cape Bojador which seems to have given rise to the proverb , Quem pasar o cabo de Nao ou tornara ou nao.

^ B r= c Tabetbala aMohammed 3 28 Longitude West 6° of Greenwich south of which is the Cape Non 3 of the Portuguese.

de la Soc. Geogr.
(Madrid, 1880), p. 316.
shallow; about 25 m. east of its source, where it is crossed by the route to .Ziz, it is already a powerful stream with a deep bed cut in the granite rock, and shortly afterwards it is joined by the W. Sgimmel, a still larger affluent (Rohlfs). Of the lesser streams which flow into the Mediterranean it is enough to mention the W. Martil or Martin (otherwise W. Bu Sfiha, W. Ras, W. Mejeksa), which falls into the Bay of Tetuan, and is identified with the Tamuda of Pliny and Thaluda of Ptolemy.^ Of the lesser streams which flow into the Mediterranean it is enough to mention the W. Martil or Martin (otherwise W. Bu Sfiha, W. Ras, W. Mejeksa), which falls into the Bay of Tetuan, and is identified with the Tamuda of Pliny and Thaluda of Ptolemy .

^ Ziz, it is already a powerful stream with a deep bed cut in the granite rock, and shortly afterwards it is joined by the W. Sgimmel, a still larger affluent ( Rohlfs).

^ Sus , whose ever-flowing stream is sufficient to turn the whole district into a garden .

.On the Atlantic seaboard there are a number of comparatively small streams north of the Sethi, the chief of which is the winding W. Lekkus, with several tributaries.^ There have been several fatal bus crashes on intercity routes and the number of annual fatalities from road accidents in Morocco remains high.
  • Travel Advice for Morocco - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.smartraveller.gov.au [Source type: News]

.The Sebu (the Subur magnificus et navigabilis of Pliny) may be compared to the Thames in length and width, though not in steadiness and depth of current.^ The Sebu (the Subur magnificus et navigabilis of Pliny) may be compared to the Thames in length and width, though not in steadiness and depth of current.

.At Meshra'at el-Ksiri, about 70 m.^ At Meshra'at el-Ksiri, about 70 m.

from its mouth, it is about ro ft. deep in the month of .May and more than 460 ft.^ May and more than 460 ft.

^ The PJD may have won 10 more seats than it was awarded and agreed to relinquish them.
  • Can Morocco’s Islamists check al-Qaida? - Le Monde diplomatique - English edition 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC mondediplo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 100 layers of pastry dough may be used.
  • Food in Morocco - Moroccan Food, Moroccan Cuisine - popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, staple, rice, famous, main, people, favorite, make, customs, fruits, country, bread, vegetables, bread 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: General]

wide; and, though its banks are 21 ft. high, extensive inundations occur. .The tide ascends as far as El-Kantara, 15 m.^ The tide ascends as far as El-Kantara, 15 m.

above .Ma`mora, and steam barges with a small draught of water could make their way to the ford just mentioned, and possibly even as far as Fez.^ Driving isn't difficult, indeed the roads are far less crowded than in the UK or Europe, making it a very pleasant way to get around.
  • How to travel by train London to Morocco | Train travel in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Evening Roost Evening roost at Fez makes a spectacular sight for bird watching.
  • Fez - discover the history and culture of Fez, Morocco, Destinations 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.morocco.com [Source type: General]

Affluents of the Sebu are W. Mikkes and W. Redem (90 m. long). .The swift and muddy current of W? Beht usually loses itself in a swamp before it reaches the main stream.^ The swift and muddy current of W? Beht usually loses itself in a swamp before it reaches the main stream.

.The Bu Ragrag, which debouches between Rabat and Salli, is about the same length as the Beht, but of much more importance.^ The Bu Ragrag, which debouches between Rabat and Salli, is about the same length as the Beht, but of much more importance.

^ But the Roman province reached only to the Bu Ragrag, on which Sala, now Salli, was its outpost; Volubilis, near Mequinez, being its principal, if not its only, inland city.

^ The towns next in importance are the seaports of Tangier, Casablanca (Dar el Baida), Mogador, Mazagan, Saffi, Salli-Rabat, Laraish and Tetuan.

.It and the Urn er-Rabi`a (mother of grass), although their mouths are widely separated, drain the northern slopes of the central Atlas.^ It and the Urn er-Rabi`a (mother of grass ), although their mouths are widely separated, drain the northern slopes of the central Atlas.

^ Portuguese, but ultimately, on the death of Mahomet VIII., when in possession of the kingdom of Marrakesh, the sharifs defeated his successor and arranged a formal division of the country at the Urn er-Rabi'a.

^ Damnat is a walled town of magnificent situation in the Atlas, east of Marrakesh, between which and the Um er-Rabi`a are the less important Sidi Rahal and El Kid.

.The impetuous Uin erRabi`a, with a rocky bed and many rapids, is perhaps as large as the Sebu.^ The impetuous Uin erRabi`a, with a rocky bed and many rapids, is perhaps as large as the Sebu.

.W. el-Abiad, W. Akhdar and W. Tessaut are the principal affluents.^ W. el-Abiad, W. Akhdar and W. Tessaut are the principal affluents.

.This last is separated by about io m.^ This last is separated by about io m.

only from the valley of the .Tansift, the river which flows to the north of the city of Marrakesh; and by the W. Nefis, the Asif el-Mal (Asif is Berber for river), the W. Usbi, and other smaller tributaries, receives the waters of about 180 m.^ Tansift, the river which flows to the north of the city of Marrakesh ; and by the W. Nefis, the Asif el-Mal (Asif is Berber for river), the W. Usbi, and other smaller tributaries, receives the waters of about 180 m.

^ Djemaa el Fna, Marrakesh Go to this amazing city square festival to enjoy a conglomeration of acrobats, story tellers, musicians and snake charmers.
  • Tourist Activities in Morocco | By Morocco Channel 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.morocco.com [Source type: General]

^ (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A14) 1062 Marrakech [Marrakesh], the Arab name for Morocco, was built as a fortified city by the first Berber dynasty, the Almoravids.
  • Timeline Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

of the Atlas range.
.The valley between_the Atlas and the Anti-Atlas is traversed by the W, ‘.^ The valley between_the Atlas and the Anti-Atlas is traversed by the W, ‘.

^ South of here you will find the Anti Atlas, a lower but equally beautiful mountainous region with the Ameln Valley at its heart.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

^ The Massa or W. al-Ghas, though its headwaters drain only one or two of the lesser valleys at the south-west end of the Anti-Atlas, is "about so yds.

.Sus, whose ever-flowing stream is sufficient to turn the whole district into a garden.^ Sus , whose ever-flowing stream is sufficient to turn the whole district into a garden .

^ Amazigh - who inhabit the mountainous districts, and whose blood to a greater or less extent permeates the whole population.

.The Massa or W. al-Ghas, though its headwaters drain only one or two of the lesser valleys at the south-west end of the Anti-Atlas, is "about so yds.^ The Massa or W. al-Ghas, though its headwaters drain only one or two of the lesser valleys at the south-west end of the Anti-Atlas, is "about so yds.

^ The valley between_the Atlas and the Anti-Atlas is traversed by the W, ‘.

^ A taxi from Ouarzazate only costs about 10 Dinar ($1.25) but I'd make arrangements with one to take you there and wait for the return journey.

from bank to bank at the mouth, with a depth at high water and in the proper channel of something over a fathom." Farther south is the Assaka, known to European geographers as the W. Nun; and finally the W. Dra`a is reached, which in length exceeds all the rivers of Morocco, but, except in spring, when the snows are melting in the highlands, remains throughout its lower reaches a dry sandy channel. .In the upper valleys however innumerable streams from the south side of the main chain of the Atlas, the W. Dades from the east, and the Asif Marghen, W. el-Molah, or Warzazet from the west, flow through populous and fertile valleys, and uniting to form the Dra`a cut their way southward through a gorge in the Jebel Soghar, which, as the name implies, is a lower range running parallel to the Atlas proper.^ In the upper valleys however innumerable streams from the south side of the main chain of the Atlas, the W. Dades from the east, and the Asif Marghen, W. el-Molah, or Warzazet from the west, flow through populous and fertile valleys, and uniting to form the Dra`a cut their way southward through a gorge in the Jebel Soghar, which, as the name implies, is a lower range running parallel to the Atlas proper.

^ Most people live west of the Atlas Mountains, a range which insulates the country from the Sahara Desert.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people live west of the Atlas Mountains, a range that insulates the country from the Sahara Desert.

For the next 130 m. the stream holds .S.S.E., drained at every step by the irrigation canals which turn this region into a green oasis, till at last its dwindling current bends westward to the sebkha (salt marsh) of Debaya.^ S.S.E., drained at every step by the irrigation canals which turn this region into a green oasis , till at last its dwindling current bends westward to the sebkha (salt marsh) of Debaya.

.For a few weeks once a year the thaw-floods fill this shallow but extensive basin and rush onwards to the Atlantic; but in summer it dries up, and, like the bed of the river for some distance below, is covered with flourishing crops.^ For a few weeks once a year the thaw-floods fill this shallow but extensive basin and rush onwards to the Atlantic; but in summer it dries up, and, like the bed of the river for some distance below, is covered with flourishing crops.

^ Ras ed-Dura, which in the dry season becomes a series of marshy meres, but in the rainy season fills up and discharges into the Sebu.

^ During some of the year there is a river to cross to get to the Kasbah, but for most of the year, this has dried up to a trickle so you can easily cross on foot.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

.From the south of the Atlas still farther east descend other streams, the W. Ziz (with its tributaries the W. Todgha and W. Gheris), the W. Ghir, the W. Kenatsa, &c., which, after watering the oases of Medghara, Tafilalt (Sajilmasa), Kenatsa, &c., lose themselves in the sands of the Sahara.^ In 1900 this was given a westerly trend to the south of the Atlas by the annexation of the Figig, Igli and Tuat oases by France .

^ From the snow-capped Atlas Mountains to the endless sands of the Sahara and from the medieval old town of Fes to the spice...
  • Morocco Adventure Trips - Africa Tours - BootsnAll World Adventures 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC adventures.bootsnall.com [Source type: General]

^ Mogador, the direction is due south to Cape Ghir (Ighir Ufrani), the termination of Jebel Ida u Tanan, a spur of the Atlas.

[[[Geology]]

.The Atlas Mountains, which are built up of a series of ridges rising to 12,000 ft.^ The Atlas Mountains, which are built up of a series of ridges rising to 12,000 ft.

^ The Atlas Mts., rising to 13,671 ft (4,167 m) in Jebel Toubkal in the southwest, dominate most of the country.
  • The Country & People of Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.hejleh.com [Source type: News]

^ The northern coast along the Mediterranean Sea is made up of fertile land that rises to elevations of about 8,000 feet (2,400 meters).
  • Food in Morocco - Moroccan Food, Moroccan Cuisine - popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, staple, rice, famous, main, people, favorite, make, customs, fruits, country, bread, vegetables, bread 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: General]

to the east of .Morocco, form the backbone of the country.^ Morocco, form the backbone of the country.

.The central and highest portions consist of slates, crystalline limestones and schists of Archean, Pre-Cambrian and possibly of Cambrian ages.^ The central and highest portions consist of slates, crystalline limestones and schists of Archean, Pre-Cambrian and possibly of Cambrian ages.

^ The mass of Jebel Tezah is composed of mica -schists and porphyries which appear to bear closer resemblances to the metamorphic rocks of Egypt than to the Archean crystalline formation of Central Africa.

.They are much folded and broken through by numerous intrusions of basalts and diorites.^ They are much folded and broken through by numerous intrusions of basalts and diorites.

.The mass of Jebel Tezah is composed of mica-schists and porphyries which appear to bear closer resemblances to the metamorphic rocks of Egypt than to the Archean crystalline formation of Central Africa.^ The mass of Jebel Tezah is composed of mica -schists and porphyries which appear to bear closer resemblances to the metamorphic rocks of Egypt than to the Archean crystalline formation of Central Africa.

^ The central and highest portions consist of slates, crystalline limestones and schists of Archean, Pre-Cambrian and possibly of Cambrian ages.

.The strata of the central ridges are succeeded by a great thickness of purple marls, red sandstones, conglomerates and calcareous rocks, occurring in faulted, folded and detached areas and recently considered to range from Silurian to Trias.^ The strata of the central ridges are succeeded by a great thickness of purple marls, red sandstones, conglomerates and calcareous rocks, occurring in faulted, folded and detached areas and recently considered to range from Silurian to Trias.

.Later palaeozoic rocks of Devonian and Carboniferous ages also form a broad zone extending into the Sahara on the southern and south-eastern flanks.^ Later palaeozoic rocks of Devonian and Carboniferous ages also form a broad zone extending into the Sahara on the southern and south-eastern flanks.

^ It is organized into two Commands, a Northern Zone and a Southern Zone.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Almoravids proved to be highly successful in extending the territory, making it reach as east as today's Libya , north to today's Spain, and as south as deep into Sahara.
  • Morocco / History - LookLex Encyclopaedia 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC looklex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The whole of the Cretaceous system is represented by the shales and limestones occurring between the coast and the edge of the plateau above Morocco, but do not enter into the composition of the High Atlas.^ The whole of the Cretaceous system is represented by the shales and limestones occurring between the coast and the edge of the plateau above Morocco, but do not enter into the composition of the High Atlas.

^ The wooded lands of the High Atlas region of Morocco too have their share of unique Morocco wildlife.
  • Morocco Wildlife, Morocco Travel Guides, Travel Information 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, local elections and the election of representatives to the National Assembly took place and Morocco proclaimed the area reintegrated into Morocco.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moraines, made up largely of unstriated blocks of porphyry, have been reported from the Upper Atlas.^ Moraines, made up largely of unstriated blocks of porphyry , have been reported from the Upper Atlas.

.At the foot of the mountains, extensive mounds of boulder beds are developed on an immense scale and were considered by Maw to belong to the Glacial Epoch.^ At the foot of the mountains, extensive mounds of boulder beds are developed on an immense scale and were considered by Maw to belong to the Glacial Epoch.

^ No moraines occur here, and consequently the glacial origin of the boulder beds described by Maw has been disputed.

.Between Damnat and the sea, however, the signs of a former glaciation appear to be insignificant.^ Between Damnat and the sea, however, the signs of a former glaciation appear to be insignificant.

.No moraines occur here, and consequently the glacial origin of the boulder beds described by Maw has been disputed.^ No moraines occur here, and consequently the glacial origin of the boulder beds described by Maw has been disputed.

^ At the foot of the mountains, extensive mounds of boulder beds are developed on an immense scale and were considered by Maw to belong to the Glacial Epoch.

.They are probably alluvial cones brought down from the High Atlas and mountainous regions.^ They are probably alluvial cones brought down from the High Atlas and mountainous regions.

^ P31 toward the High Atlas Mountains.

^ The wooded lands of the High Atlas region of Morocco too have their share of unique Morocco wildlife.
  • Morocco Wildlife, Morocco Travel Guides, Travel Information 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From Mogador to 60 m. inland, and over the plains around .Marrakesh, a tufaceous deposit forming a hard crust, several feet thick, follows every undulation of the ground.^ Marrakesh, a tufaceous deposit forming a hard crust, several feet thick, follows every undulation of the ground.

.Immense accumulations of tufa are met with in the limestone areas of the mountains.^ Immense accumulations of tufa are met with in the limestone areas of the mountains.

.The chief tectonic structures which trend N. 20° E. belong to the Alpine and Mediterranean systems.^ The chief tectonic structures which trend N. 20° E. belong to the Alpine and Mediterranean systems.

.The Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks are involved in these movements, which, however, were moulded on an earlier folding affecting the palaeozoic rocks of the Atlas region.^ The Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks are involved in these movements, which, however, were moulded on an earlier folding affecting the palaeozoic rocks of the Atlas region.

.The sundering of Africa from Europe at the Straits of Gibraltar took place in late Tertiary times; while the elevation of the Barbary coast to a height of 50 to 70 ft.^ The sundering of Africa from Europe at the Straits of Gibraltar took place in late Tertiary times; while the elevation of the Barbary coast to a height of 50 to 70 ft.

^ The Green March , which took place in 1975, is the most important event in the Reign of Late Hassan II. 350.000 unarmed Moroccans marched south into the desert to reassert the sovereinty of the Sahara which was in the hands of the Spanish at that time.
  • History of morocco - The Magic Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.magicmorocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's a scenic trip, and you can see for yourself just how narrow the straits between Europe and Africa really are, between the two famous 'Pillars of Hercules'!
  • How to travel by train London to Morocco | Train travel in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

is of Recent date.] Climate. - .The climate is good, and produces a hardy race.^ The climate is good, and produces a hardy race.

.Shielded by the Atlas from the hot winds of the Sahara, the coast of the Atlantic offers great attractions to those suffering from chest complaints.^ Shielded by the Atlas from the hot winds of the Sahara, the coast of the Atlantic offers great attractions to those suffering from chest complaints.

^ Essaouira - gem along the Atlantic coast, with a great medina.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

^ We ride along a network of dirt paths,that wind from Marrakech to the highest pass in the Atlas Mountains, then head southbound to the Sahara Desert.
  • Adventure Travel and Singletrack Mountain Biking Vacations in Marrakech and Sahara Desert, Morocco – BikeHike Adventures 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.bikehike.com [Source type: General]

.Tangier is a recognized health resort, and Mogador and Rabat await development as such.^ Tangier is a recognized health resort, and Mogador and Rabat await development as such.

^ The towns next in importance are the seaports of Tangier, Casablanca (Dar el Baida), Mogador, Mazagan, Saffi, Salli-Rabat, Laraish and Tetuan.

.Rain falls only between September and April; on the Atlantic coast it is brought by the south-west wind, and on the Mediterranean sometimes also by the east wind, or sharki, otherwise dry and somewhat trying to invalids.^ Rain falls only between September and April; on the Atlantic coast it is brought by the south-west wind, and on the Mediterranean sometimes also by the east wind, or sharki, otherwise dry and somewhat trying to invalids.

^ Precipitation levels are very low, and any rain that does fall is most likely in November, February and April.
  • Morocco Destination Guide – BikeHike Adventures 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.bikehike.com [Source type: General]

^ To the south and west of the mountains, the Sahara desert starts with mostly dry, barren and stony areas which are relatively flat.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

.The wonderfully temperate climate of Mogador is due in a great measure to trustworthy trade-winds.^ The wonderfully temperate climate of Mogador is due in a great measure to trustworthy trade-winds .

^ The moroccan plitical climat is very stable.The Moroccan government has instituted major reforms and liberalization measures aimed at improving foreign trade and encouraging exoprt.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Tangier and Mogador the thermometer seldom rises over 80° F. or sinks below 40°, although inland the extremes are much greater; and while on the plains or in low-lying cities the heat grows intense, snow gleams on the Atlas nearly all the year round.^ In Tangier and Mogador the thermometer seldom rises over 80° F. or sinks below 40°, although inland the extremes are much greater; and while on the plains or in low-lying cities the heat grows intense, snow gleams on the Atlas nearly all the year round.

^ The heat and dust of the cities dissolved into the lush green of Ifrane, rising 5,000 feet into the Middle Atlas Mountains, as we make our way to Al Akhawayn University (AUI).
  • Morocco Initiative · Exploring Relationships With the Islamic World 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC blogs.iwu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although much of the Atlas Mountains is part of Algeria and even Tunisia , the highest parts are in Morocco.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

.The best months for visiting the interior are September (if rain has fallen), October, November and the early part of December, or May and June.^ They were strengthened by King Hassan's visits to the United States in March 1963, February 1967, November 1978, and May and October 1982, and September 1991.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fauna

.The absence of woodland keeps wild animals in check.^ The absence of woodland keeps wild animals in check.

.Besides the lion, which exists in very limited numbers - and, according to local proverbs, with diminished courage - the spotted leopard, panther, hyaena, jackal, lynx, fox, wild boar, porcupine, antelope and gazelle are the most important.^ Besides the lion , which exists in very limited numbers - and, according to local proverbs, with diminished courage - the spotted leopard , panther , hyaena, jackal , lynx , fox , wild boar , porcupine , antelope and gazelle are the most important.

^ Other residents here include the golden jackal, leopards, red foxes, Egyptian cobras and about 18 endangered breeds.
  • Morocco Wildlife, Morocco Travel Guides, Travel Information 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The audad or wild sheep is found in the more inaccessible parts of the Atlas.^ The audad or wild sheep is found in the more inaccessible parts of the Atlas.

.Rabbits swarm in the country to the north of the Bu Ragrag, and since 1870 they have crossed this stream, which used to be their southern limit.^ Rabbits swarm in the country to the north of the Bu Ragrag, and since 1870 they have crossed this stream, which used to be their southern limit.

.Hares are generally common.^ Hares are generally common.

.Rats are from time to time a plague to agriculturists, and the jerboa is frequently met with.^ Rats are from time to time a plague to agriculturists, and the jerboa is frequently met with.

.A kind of ground-squirrel, the sibsib, occurs in the southern provinces.^ A kind of ground-squirrel , the sibsib, occurs in the southern provinces.

.Monkeys of the same species as those of Gibraltar frequent the neighbourhood of Jebel Musa or Apes' Hill.^ Monkeys of the same species as those of Gibraltar frequent the neighbourhood of Jebel Musa or Apes' Hill.

^ From Cape Negro northwards to Ceuta the most notable object is the summit of Jebel Musa, which, though situated on the Strait of Gibraltar , towers above the intervening hills.

^ Westwards, the first point of interest is again Jebel Musa, the Elephas of Strabo , and the Apes' Hill of English charts.

.The common wild birds include blackbirds, goldfinches, linnets, greenfinches, robins, wagtails, skylarks and crested larks, swifts, magpies, cuckoos, lapwings, rollers, several shrikes, as well as turtle-doves, nightingales, jays and buffbacked egrets.^ The common wild birds include blackbirds, goldfinches, linnets, greenfinches, robins, wagtails, skylarks and crested larks, swifts, magpies, cuckoos, lapwings, rollers, several shrikes, as well as turtle-doves, nightingales, jays and buffbacked egrets.

The house-sparrow is not found; between Marrakesh and Mogador its place is taken by a beautiful bird (Emberiza striolata), locally called tabib, or " doctor." The birds of prey include eagles, vultures, ospreys, buzzards, falcons, harriers, kestrels, kites, ravens and hawks. .Hawking is still indulged in by some of the country governors, and the Moors are very fond of hunting, many keeping greyhounds.^ Hawking is still indulged in by some of the country governors, and the Moors are very fond of hunting , many keeping greyhounds.

^ But I did manage to film many incredible events, some under very ridiculous conditions, like at the Marrakech Folk Festival (in Morocco.

^ In many places in the south, some hotels offer half-board arrangements, which can be very good value.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

.The Barbary partridge is the main resource of the sportsman, though he may also bag several other varieties of partridge, bustards, guinea-fowl, plovers, grouse, snipe, quail, curlew, ducks and other water-fowl.^ The Barbary partridge is the main resource of the sportsman, though he may also bag several other varieties of partridge, bustards, guinea-fowl , plovers, grouse , snipe , quail , curlew , ducks and other water- fowl .

^ Quail, doves, snipe, teal, grouse, pheasants, thrushes, pigeons and even wild boars flourish in vast reserves.
  • casablanca travel and tours MOROCCO SPECIALIST 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.arabwebsite.com [Source type: News]

.Along the coast there is no lack of gulls, gannets, pelicans, flamingoes, herons, whimbrel, oystercatchers, &c.^ Along the coast there is no lack of gulls, gannets, pelicans, flamingoes, herons, whimbrel, oystercatchers, &c.

.Most towns have their colony of storks.^ Most towns have their colony of storks.

.Several venomous snakes and two vipers are found, but are not common, and the same may be said of scorpions and tarantulas, but centipedes are more numerous.^ Several venomous snakes and two vipers are found, but are not common, and the same may be said of scorpions and tarantulas, but centipedes are more numerous.

^ From Assaka to the mouth of the Dra`a the country continues broken and fertile, but farther south it is flatter and more sandy, so that with the Dra`a the Sahara may be said to begin.

.Human parasites are, however, most to be guarded against.^ Human parasites are, however, most to be guarded against.

.Mosquitos give little trouble save in towns or near water.^ Mosquitos give little trouble save in towns or near water.

.Invasions of locusts are serious, but intermittent.^ Invasions of locusts are serious, but intermittent.

.Lizards, chameleons, tortoises and frogs are familiar objects; it is from Morocco that the small tortoises hawked about the streets of London are usually obtained.^ Lizards, chameleons, tortoises and frogs are familiar objects; it is from Morocco that the small tortoises hawked about the streets of London are usually obtained.

.Of domestic animals the mule is the great beast of burden, though camels, mares and asses are also employed.^ Of domestic animals the mule is the great beast of burden , though camels, mares and asses are also employed.

.The horse is usually a sturdy little animal, but far below the ancient reputation of the Barbary steed.^ The horse is usually a sturdy little animal, but far below the ancient reputation of the Barbary steed.

^ Outside the walls Jews may ride any animals but horses, which are considered far too noble for such despised individuals.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is seldom used as a draught animal.^ It is seldom used as a draught animal.

.Roughly broken when young, his mouth is soon spoiled by barbarous bits, and his feet by square shoes.^ Roughly broken when young, his mouth is soon spoiled by barbarous bits, and his feet by square shoes.

.The finest animals are said to be bred in Shiadhma and Abda.^ The finest animals are said to be bred in Shiadhma and Abda.

.In form and size the mules are much superior and usually fetch two or three times the price of the horse.^ In form and size the mules are much superior and usually fetch two or three times the price of the horse.

^ ME26J7: A perfect miniature with two fine sharp octahedral crystals whose faces and edges are very much defined as usual on the samples from the locality.
  • Mineral Specimens / Morocco - Fabre Minerals 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.fabreminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The horned cattle are not unlike Alderneys; but being practically untended, and the oxen having to do the ploughing, they furnish a very different quality of milk, yielding it only while the calf looks on; the sheep, for the improvement of which, also, nothing is done, have spiral horns (not infrequently four), rounded foreheads and long, fine wool; the goats, which furnish the famous leather, needing even less care are still more abundant.^ For those with a strong stomach, pay a visit to the meat department where goat’s heads, bull’s testicles and sheep’s entrails are displayed as fine delicacies.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

^ Now they're getting more of the poorer immigrants, many of whom are more conservative than the former, and not on vacation but immigrating, which is a whole different thing.

^ She got rave reviews in the out-of-town tryouts and the New York opening, even though her "big solo" was less than three minutes long!

.Domestic fowls are kept in great numbers; they are of the Spanish type, small and prolific.^ Domestic fowls are kept in great numbers; they are of the Spanish type, small and prolific.

.The bonito and mackerel fishery off the coast of Casablanca and Tangier attracts fishers from Spain, Portugal and other parts of Europe.^ The bonito and mackerel fishery off the coast of Casablanca and Tangier attracts fishers from Spain, Portugal and other parts of Europe.

^ This timetable shows all trains to and from Tangier, but there are lots of other trains on the mainline linking Marrakech, Casablanca, Rabat, Mekns and Fez.
  • How to travel by train London to Morocco | Train travel in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The country was a source for men, women, and children trafficked to Italy, Spain, and other parts of Europe and the Middle East for forced labor and sexual exploitation.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Occasionally a small shoal may be found as far south as Mogador.^ Occasionally a small shoal may be found as far south as Mogador.

.Soles, turbot, bream, bass, conger eel and mullet are common along the coast, and southern Morocco is visited occasionally by shoals of a large fish called the azlimzah (sciaena aquila), rough scaled and resembling a cod, and the tasargelt (Temnodon saltator), the " blue fish " of North America.^ Soles, turbot , bream , bass , conger eel and mullet are common along the coast, and southern Morocco is visited occasionally by shoals of a large fish called the azlimzah (sciaena aquila ), rough scaled and resembling a cod , and the tasargelt (Temnodon saltator), the " blue fish " of North America .

^ Reign of Mohammed IV. 1873-1894 Reign of Moulay Hassan I. The Sovereign visited the southern provinces of Morocco, including the city of Tarfaya and the Moroccan Sahara, or so-called Western Sahara.
  • History of morocco - The Magic Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.magicmorocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultural, language homogeneity: 4.0 The official language is Arabic but French is the dominant business language in central and southern Morocco and something you can get along with about anywhere.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crayfish, prawns, oysters and mussels swarm in the rocky places, but the natives have no proper method of catching them, and edible crabs seem unknown.^ Crayfish , prawns, oysters and mussels swarm in the rocky places, but the natives have no proper method of catching them, and edible crabs seem unknown.

.The tunny, pilchard and sardine, and a kind of shad known as the " Mogador herring," all prove at times of practical importance.^ The tunny , pilchard and sardine, and a kind of shad known as the " Mogador herring ," all prove at times of practical importance.

.The catching of the shabel, a species of shad, mis-called " Barbary salmon " is a great industry on the principal rivers of the coast, and vast numbers of the fish, which are often from 5 to 15 lb in weight are dried and salted.^ The catching of the shabel, a species of shad, mis-called " Barbary salmon " is a great industry on the principal rivers of the coast, and vast numbers of the fish, which are often from 5 to 15 lb in weight are dried and salted.

^ When Carthage became an independent state, the more civilized Carthaginians arrived and turned the north coast settlements into prosperous towns:they are known to have developed the fish salting and preserving into quite a major industry and their anchovy paste, called "garum" was widely exported.
  • History of morocco - The Magic Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.magicmorocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This musical tapestry continued for nearly 15 minutes, after which the call to prayer came - "Allah is Great!"

.They ascend from the sea in spring.^ They ascend from the sea in spring.

.Barbels and a few other small fish swarm in the streams, but for the angler there is little real sport.^ Barbels and a few other small fish swarm in the streams, but for the angler there is little real sport .

^ On the Atlantic seaboard there are a number of comparatively small streams north of the Sethi, the chief of which is the winding W. Lekkus, with several tributaries.

^ It can be fished in the oueds (rivers) and becomes a real sport in the gorges.
  • casablanca travel and tours MOROCCO SPECIALIST 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.arabwebsite.com [Source type: News]

Flora

From the presence of a large proportion of plants of central and northern Europe (none of the northern plants, however, being of alpine or arctic type) and the absence of southern types characteristic of the sub-tropical zone, Ball concluded that " the Morocco flora is altogether a portion of that great Mediterranean flora which, with local peculiarities, one finds from the Indus to the Atlantic Islands," but that " the mountain flora of Morocco is a southern extension of the European temperate flora, with little or no admixture of extraneous elements, but so long isolated from the neighbouring regions that a considerable number of new specific types have been developed." Of the individual plants none are more remarkable than the arar and the argan. The former (Callitris quadrivalvis, or Thuja articulata of Shaw) is a cypress-like tree that grows on the Atlas both in Morocco and Algeria. .It furnishes gum sandarach; and its beautiful and enduring timber has been identified with the alerce with which the Cordova cathedral (mosque) was roofed, and with the citrus-wood, arbor vitae, of the ancient Romans.^ It furnishes gum sandarach ; and its beautiful and enduring timber has been identified with the alerce with which the Cordova cathedral (mosque) was roofed, and with the citrus-wood, arbor vitae , of the ancient Romans .

.The argan, Elaeodendron argan (Argania sideroxylon) is confined to a tract of country extending about 150 m.^ The argan, Elaeodendron argan (Argania sideroxylon) is confined to a tract of country extending about 150 m.

along the coast, from the river .Tansift almost to the river Sus, and about 30 m.^ Tansift almost to the river Sus, and about 30 m.

in breadth; and it is found nowhere else in the world. .The fruit, which ripens between May and August, is an olive-looking nut, greedily eaten by camels, mules, goats, sheep and horned cattle (but not by horses) for the sake of the fleshy pericarp, and crushed by the natives to extract the oil from the kernel.^ The fruit , which ripens between May and August, is an olive -looking nut , greedily eaten by camels, mules, goats, sheep and horned cattle (but not by horses) for the sake of the fleshy pericarp, and crushed by the natives to extract the oil from the kernel .

^ Riding on the plateau is invigorating and we frequently pass nomads herding their flocks of sheep, goats and horses.
  • Adventure Travel and Singletrack Mountain Biking Vacations in Marrakech and Sahara Desert, Morocco – BikeHike Adventures 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.bikehike.com [Source type: General]

.Though " its strong and fulsome savour " renders it nauseous to the European palate, this oil is largely used in the cookery of southern Morocco.^ Though " its strong and fulsome savour " renders it nauseous to the European palate , this oil is largely used in the cookery of southern Morocco.

.The " prickly pear " and the aloe form part of the features of the landscape from the coast up to the slopes of the mountains, but neither is indigenous.^ The " prickly pear " and the aloe form part of the features of the landscape from the coast up to the slopes of the mountains, but neither is indigenous.

.The cork tree has lost ground enormously though it probably forms the staple of the Ma`mora forest, which extends for some zo m.^ The cork tree has lost ground enormously though it probably forms the staple of the Ma`mora forest, which extends for some zo m.

between the Bu Ragrag and the Sebu. .The palmetto is often locally very abundant, but the most common wild tree on the plains is the thorny lotus or mimosa: in the mountainous regions it is reduced to a mere scrub.^ The palmetto is often locally very abundant, but the most common wild tree on the plains is the thorny lotus or mimosa : in the mountainous regions it is reduced to a mere scrub.

^ Besides the lion , which exists in very limited numbers - and, according to local proverbs, with diminished courage - the spotted leopard , panther , hyaena, jackal , lynx , fox , wild boar , porcupine , antelope and gazelle are the most important.

^ Morocco has one of the most spectacular landscapes in the world and the Atlas Mountains are a very impressive mountain range, with the highest mountain being the Toubkal at 4167 metres.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

.Lentisks, arbutus, oleanders, junipers and broom are also common, but vast stretches of country are devoid of either trees or shrubs.^ Lentisks, arbutus, oleanders, junipers and broom are also common, but vast stretches of country are devoid of either trees or shrubs.

.Citrons, lemons, limes (sweet and sour), apricots, plums, melons, mulberries, walnuts and chestnuts are common in many parts.^ Citrons, lemons, limes (sweet and sour), apricots, plums, melons, mulberries, walnuts and chestnuts are common in many parts.

.Tetuan and Laraish are famous for oranges, Mequinez for quinces, Marrakesh for pomegranates, Fez for figs, Tafilalt and Akka for dates, Sus for almonds, Dukalla for melons, Tagodast, Edanan and Rabat for grapes, and Tarudant for olives.^ Tetuan and Laraish are famous for oranges, Mequinez for quinces, Marrakesh for pomegranates, Fez for figs, Tafilalt and Akka for dates, Sus for almonds, Dukalla for melons, Tagodast, Edanan and Rabat for grapes, and Tarudant for olives.

^ There are rows of spices in all shapes and colours piled high, dozens of varieties of olives, figs and dates just waiting to be tasted.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

^ There are only three great inland cities, each of which in turn serves as metropolis : Fez, Mequinez and Marrakesh.

.The grape is extensively cultivated, but principally for eating; the Jews manufacture crude but palatable wines.^ The grape is extensively cultivated, but principally for eating; the Jews manufacture crude but palatable wines.

Sugar, once grown in Sus, to supply the demands of the whole of Morocco, has disappeared as have also cotton and indigo. .Indian hemp and tobacco are cultivated under the restrictions of an imperial monopoly - the former (of prime quality) being largely used as hashish, the latter, though never smoked, as snuff.^ Indian hemp and tobacco are cultivated under the restrictions of an imperial monopoly - the former (of prime quality) being largely used as hashish , the latter, though never smoked, as snuff .

^ Though " its strong and fulsome savour " renders it nauseous to the European palate , this oil is largely used in the cookery of southern Morocco.

^ Though never used, the lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a majority vote of no confidence.
  • Morocco (03/09) 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Barley is the most usual cereal; but excellent crops of wheat, maize, millet, rye, beans, peas, chickpeas and canary seed are also obtained.^ Barley is the most usual cereal; but excellent crops of wheat , maize , millet , rye , beans, peas, chickpeas and canary seed are also obtained.

^ Maize, peas and chick-peas are also considerable exports in years of good crops.

.Potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages and beets have been introduced from abroad; otherwise the ordinary vegetables are peas, beans, turnips, onions, garlic, capsicums, cucumbers, marrows and carrots.^ Potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages and beets have been introduced from abroad; otherwise the ordinary vegetables are peas, beans, turnips, onions, garlic , capsicums, cucumbers, marrows and carrots.

.Sweet herbs are extensively grown for use in cooking and in the preparation of tea.^ Sweet herbs are extensively grown for use in cooking and in the preparation of tea .

.In some of the Atlas valleys there is a wealth of timber, enormous conifers, 10 to 12 ft.^ In some of the Atlas valleys there is a wealth of timber, enormous conifers, 10 to 12 ft.

^ The Atlas Mountains, which are built up of a series of ridges rising to 12,000 ft.

in girth of stem, oaks, &c., but the greater part of the country has been cleared of forest,"exhibiting only brushwood, and the lesser fruit-trees. .Cowan, writing more immediately of the country between Morocco and Mogador, speaks of " drifts of asphodel, white lilies, blue convolvuli, white broom flowers, thyme and lavender, borage, marigold, purple thistles, colossal daisies and poppies "; and Trotter tells how for miles the undulating plateau of Kasar Fara`on was covered with wild flowers, whose varied colours, and the partiality with which each species confined itself to certain ground, gave to the landscape a brilliant and unique appearance.^ Cowan, writing more immediately of the country between Morocco and Mogador, speaks of " drifts of asphodel , white lilies, blue convolvuli, white broom flowers, thyme and lavender , borage , marigold , purple thistles, colossal daisies and poppies "; and Trotter tells how for miles the undulating plateau of Kasar Fara`on was covered with wild flowers, whose varied colours, and the partiality with which each species confined itself to certain ground, gave to the landscape a brilliant and unique appearance.

^ Dark blue, yellow and red - iris , marigold and poppy occurred in patches an acre in size; farther on whole hills and valleys were of a delicate blue tint from convolvulus and borage.

^ The various Morocco popular destinations are reflections of the country's rich cultural heritage, its glorious past and its triumphant march towards a rosy future.
  • Morocco Popular Destinations, Morocco Travel Guides, Travel Information 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dark blue, yellow and red - iris, marigold and poppy occurred in patches an acre in size; farther on whole hills and valleys were of a delicate blue tint from convolvulus and borage.^ Dark blue, yellow and red - iris , marigold and poppy occurred in patches an acre in size; farther on whole hills and valleys were of a delicate blue tint from convolvulus and borage.

.At times the traveller's tent is pitched on a carpet of mignonette - .^ At times the traveller's tent is pitched on a carpet of mignonette - .

indigenous to the country - at times on a carpet of purple bugloss. .In the country of the Beni Hasan squills are so abundant that the fibres of the bulbs are used instead of hair in making tent-cloth; and in the north of Al Kasar al-Kebir the moors are covered for miles with a beautiful white heather.^ In the country of the Beni Hasan squills are so abundant that the fibres of the bulbs are used instead of hair in making tent-cloth; and in the north of Al Kasar al-Kebir the moors are covered for miles with a beautiful white heather.

^ Berber carpets covered the sand on the floor of each tent, which held twin beds covered with white, sequined wedding blankets.

^ To them we owe the Giralda, Hasan and Kutubiya towers of Seville , Rabat and Marrakesh respectively, the Torre de Oro at Seville, Gibraltar Castle, and the towns of Rabat and Al kasar.

.From such gorgeous combinations of colour one can well imagine that the Moors drew the inspiration of their chromatic art; but the season of floral splendour is brief, and under the hot sun everything soon sinks into the monotony of straw.'^ From such gorgeous combinations of colour one can well imagine that the Moors drew the inspiration of their chromatic art; but the season of floral splendour is brief, and under the hot sun everything soon sinks into the monotony of straw .'

^ The souks sell everything under the sun.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

Inhabitants. .No well-founded estimate exists as to the number of inhabitants within the Moorish Empire, and the suggestions 1 The botany of Morocco has been explored by BaIansa (1867), Hooker, Ball and Maw (1871), Rein and Fritsch (1873), Ibrahim Ammeribt (a Berber collector, 1873, 1876), the Rabbi Mardochee Abi Serur (1872-1873); and the results have been systematically arranged in Cosson's Compendium florae atlanticae: ou Fiore des etats barbaresques (Paris, 1881, &c.^ No well-founded estimate exists as to the number of inhabitants within the Moorish Empire, and the suggestions 1 The botany of Morocco has been explored by BaIansa (1867), Hooker, Ball and Maw (1871), Rein and Fritsch (1873), Ibrahim Ammeribt (a Berber collector , 1873, 1876), the Rabbi Mardochee Abi Serur (1872-1873); and the results have been systematically arranged in Cosson's Compendium florae atlanticae: ou Fiore des etats barbaresques (Paris, 1881, &c.

^ To determine the number of Jewish inhabitants in a land where no statistics are kept and where wide stretches of territory are wholly unexplored is extremely difficult, and any estimate must rest upon the hazardous calculations of travelers.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bibliography.-History: Budgett Meakin, The Moorish Empire, an historical epitome (London, 1899; which contains critical notices of all important books on Morocco to date); Ernest Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (3 vols., Paris, 1888-1891).

).
vary between five and ten millions. .The majority of the inhabitants are pastoral and agricultural in their pursuits; but while large stretches of country are inhabited sparsely or not at all, other parts, especially along the Atlas slopes, are closely dotted with considerable villages whose hardy occupants cultivate every foot of level surface which it is possible to till and irrigate.^ The majority of the inhabitants are pastoral and agricultural in their pursuits; but while large stretches of country are inhabited sparsely or not at all, other parts, especially along the Atlas slopes, are closely dotted with considerable villages whose hardy occupants cultivate every foot of level surface which it is possible to till and irrigate.

^ Being an African country, Morocco wildlife is as exotic and diverse as in the other parts of this Dark Continent.
  • Morocco Wildlife, Morocco Travel Guides, Travel Information 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country had on average 1 physician for every 2,174 inhabitants and 1 hospital bed for every 1,020 inhabitants in 1997.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Three races inhabit Morocco, and the members of two others are continually being introduced.^ Three races inhabit Morocco, and the members of two others are continually being introduced.

^ Being an African country, Morocco wildlife is as exotic and diverse as in the other parts of this Dark Continent.
  • Morocco Wildlife, Morocco Travel Guides, Travel Information 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Someone else of far lesser name and calibre would perform the other two nights: many clubs are now open only three nights a week.

.The most numerous and important are the aboriginal Berbers (q.v.^ The most numerous and important are the aboriginal Berbers (q.v.

) - known locally also as .Amazigh - who inhabit the mountainous districts, and whose blood to a greater or less extent permeates the whole population.^ Amazigh - who inhabit the mountainous districts, and whose blood to a greater or less extent permeates the whole population.

^ You will be accompanied by a local guide who will tell you all about the history of the area and the flora and fauna inhabiting the mountains.

^ Sus , whose ever-flowing stream is sufficient to turn the whole district into a garden .

.These were the people who thrice conquered Spain - once from the Visigoths, and twice from their less stalwart co-religionists.^ These were the people who thrice conquered Spain - once from the Visigoths, and twice from their less stalwart co-religionists.

^ His reign is memor- wattasi able as that in which the " Catholic Princes " Dynasty, expelled his co-religionists from Spain, the last 1471-1548.

.It has been its constant reinforcement by this Berber element that has maintained the independence of Morocco alone among the countries of North Africa.^ It has been its constant reinforcement by this Berber element that has maintained the independence of Morocco alone among the countries of North Africa.

^ Morocco is a country of origin, transit point, and destination for trafficked persons who originate from sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab region, and Asia.
  • freedomhouse.org: Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Morocco Holidays - Excellent beaches & beautiful scenery Morocco is situated in the north western tip of Africa and is bordered by Mauritania and Algeria.
  • Morocco Holidays - Cheap late deals, bargain all inclusive holidays & last minute package offers. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.directline-holidays.co.uk [Source type: General]

.The plains are for the most part occupied by Arabs (q.v.^ The plains are for the most part occupied by Arabs (q.v.

), introduced in the i ith and .12th centuries, long after the so-called " Arab invasion " of the 7th century, which would have left few traces but for the Moslem missionaries who came after them.^ Samir's emotional speech was particularly important to those of us who had engaged him in an hour-long discussion of Arab/Western relations.

^ The Arabs brought Islam, along with Arabic language and culture, to the region from the Arabian Peninsula during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.
  • Morocco (03/09) 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From this point on, we all called him "Berber-man Lou" in honor of his (inadvertent) success in bargaining with a man who came from many generations of rug merchants and traders!

.A large number of the plainsmen are, however, composite Arabicized Berbers, known to foreigners as " Moors " (q.v.^ A large number of the plainsmen are, however, composite Arabicized Berbers, known to foreigners as " Moors " (q.v.

^ Science and technical courses are taught in French, thereby reducing participation of the large, monolingual Arabic‑speaking or Tamazight (Berber)-speaking populations.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On the plains and coast of central Morocco, however, Arabic has superseded Berber, as the language of creed and court.

), to which division also the mixed race of the towns belongs. .Arabs are never found in the mountains save as religious teachers or authorities, but only a small proportion of.^ Arabs are never found in the mountains save as religious teachers or authorities, but only a small proportion of.

them continue nomadic.
.The third race which may be considered native is the Jewish, consisting of two distinct sections: those settled among the Berbers from time immemorial, speaking their language, and in addition a hideously corrupt Arabic; and those expelled from Europe within comparatively modern times, who have got little farther than the ports, where they speak Spanish with the addition of Arabic.^ The third race which may be considered native is the Jewish, consisting of two distinct sections: those settled among the Berbers from time immemorial, speaking their language, and in addition a hideously corrupt Arabic; and those expelled from Europe within comparatively modern times, who have got little farther than the ports, where they speak Spanish with the addition of Arabic.

^ Of these very little is known; but they do not essentially differ from one another or from those of Algeria, notwithstanding considerable variations of pronunciation and a varying proportion of Arabic or other admixtures, there being no written standard to maintain.

^ The proportion who speak both Berber and Spanish is very small indeed; but, as elsewhere, the Jews of the ports have shown themselves apt linguists, and many have mastered both English and French; the facilities afforded by the schools have led to a great proficiency in the latter language.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.These latter are the most progressive and flourishing of all the inhabitants of Morocco, and in their hands is much of the foreign trade.^ Trade : Supermarket business flourishing in Morocco .

^ These latter are the most progressive and flourishing of all the inhabitants of Morocco, and in their hands is much of the foreign trade.

^ Still unsuspecting, Morocco changed into her Bata de Cola , "the dress with the long train that all these very intense ladies kick around."

.It is a remarkable fact that several of the so-called Berber tribes are believed to have been of Jewish origin, having embraced Islam on the coming of Mulai Idris.^ It is a remarkable fact that several of the so-called Berber tribes are believed to have been of Jewish origin, having embraced Islam on the coming of Mulai Idris.

^ Many Jewish tribes of the Berbers also accepted Islam, some being forced thereto, others persuaded by the fact that the enemy had been successful.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a place of apparently 1500 to 2000 inhabitants, compact, and with several large buildings, the principal of which is the shrine of Mulai Idris, the founder of the Moorish Empire, round which the place has grown.

.To these white races constant additions of a negro element are being added by the slave-trade with the western Sudan, while inter-marriages between negro and Arab or Berber have produced a proportion of mulattos.^ To these white races constant additions of a negro element are being added by the slave-trade with the western Sudan, while inter-marriages between negro and Arab or Berber have produced a proportion of mulattos.

^ It has been its constant reinforcement by this Berber element that has maintained the independence of Morocco alone among the countries of North Africa.

^ In 2005 Giles Milton authored “White Gold,” an account of the trade in white slaves.
  • Timeline Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The last class consists of the small colonies of Europeans settled at the ports, for the most part engaged in trade.^ The last class consists of the small colonies of Europeans settled at the ports, for the most part engaged in trade.

^ From the early part of the 13th century there are records of Christian mercenaries and others in the Moorish service, while intermittent trading expeditions had already brought the principal European ports of the Mediterranean into touch with Morocco.

.The largest of these colonies, in this case principally Spanish, is found in Tangier.^ The largest of these colonies, in this case principally Spanish, is found in Tangier.

.All such foreigners are under the local jurisdiction of their own consular courts.^ All such foreigners are under the local jurisdiction of their own consular courts.

^ All the powers are represented in Tangier by diplomatic and consular officials, whose independent jurisdiction over their respective fellow-subjects leads to the frequent confusion of justice.

.They possess moreover the right of claiming the protection of their authorities for natives entrusted with their interests, without which, in the absence of justice, commerce with the interior would be impossible.^ They possess moreover the right of claiming the protection of their authorities for natives entrusted with their interests, without which, in the absence of justice, commerce with the interior would be impossible.

^ The negotiations produced a comprehensive agreement covering not only market access but also intellectual property rights protection, transparency in government procurement, investments, services, and e-commerce.
  • Morocco (03/09) 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the minister of justice, authorities prosecuted 17 members of the security services for human rights violations including torture during the year.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Language

.The language of Morocco is Berber, of which several dialects are spoken, notably that of the Rif, towards Algeria, and the Shilha of central Morocco and the Sus.^ Berber language is spoken in the Rif and Atlas Mountains mainly.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

^ The language of Morocco is Berber, of which several dialects are spoken, notably that of the Rif, towards Algeria, and the Shilha of central Morocco and the Sus.

^ Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of these very little is known; but they do not essentially differ from one another or from those of Algeria, notwithstanding considerable variations of pronunciation and a varying proportion of Arabic or other admixtures, there being no written standard to maintain.^ Of these very little is known; but they do not essentially differ from one another or from those of Algeria, notwithstanding considerable variations of pronunciation and a varying proportion of Arabic or other admixtures, there being no written standard to maintain.

^ Morocco also shares a long Eastern border with Algeria ; the conditions here are the same as those on the other side of the border.

^ There are also six electronic newspapers: three French-language, two Arabic, and one English.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.On the plains and coast of central Morocco, however, Arabic has superseded Berber, as the language of creed and court.^ On the plains and coast of central Morocco, however, Arabic has superseded Berber, as the language of creed and court.

^ A large number of the plainsmen are, however, composite Arabicized Berbers, known to foreigners as " Moors " (q.v.

^ Arabic is Morocco's official language, but French is widely taught and serves as the primary language of commerce and government.
  • Morocco (03/09) 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the 15th century, when Ibn Khaldun found the Arabic of Morocco very corrupt, it has made great strides, and having always been a foreign tongue with the Koran as its model, it has escaped many of the faults into which Eastern Arabic outside Arabia has fallen.^ Since the 15th century, when Ibn Khaldun found the Arabic of Morocco very corrupt, it has made great strides, and having always been a foreign tongue with the Koran as its model, it has escaped many of the faults into which Eastern Arabic outside Arabia has fallen.

^ In 788 Idris ibn Abdallah founded the Idrisid Dynasty, covering most of the territory of modernday Morocco.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

^ Morocco’s most prestigious private English-language university, Al-Akhawayn, was founded in 1993 by King Hassan II and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in Ifrane.
  • Morocco (03/09) 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is especially noticeable in the correct Arab value given to the alphabet and in the strictly classical use of many terms, especially among the litterati of Fez.^ This is especially noticeable in the correct Arab value given to the alphabet and in the strictly classical use of many terms, especially among the litterati of Fez.

Provinces and Towns. - .Political divisions can hardly be said to exist in the Moorish Empire to-day, although it is formed of what were at one time or other the independent kingdoms of Fez and Marrakesh, and the important provinces of Sus, Tafilalt and the Rif, together with the Saharan oases.^ Political divisions can hardly be said to exist in the Moorish Empire to-day, although it is formed of what were at one time or other the independent kingdoms of Fez and Marrakesh, and the important provinces of Sus, Tafilalt and the Rif, together with the Saharan oases.

^ Tetuan and Laraish are famous for oranges, Mequinez for quinces, Marrakesh for pomegranates, Fez for figs, Tafilalt and Akka for dates, Sus for almonds, Dukalla for melons, Tagodast, Edanan and Rabat for grapes, and Tarudant for olives.

^ However, Agadir, Morocco and Tangier, Morocco are cities where the time has surely flown fast and you will notice not much difference from any other modern day city.
  • Morocco Popular Destinations, Morocco Travel Guides, Travel Information 20 September 2009 11:011 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As administrative units the various subdivisions change according to the relative strength of tribesmen and government.^ As administrative units the various subdivisions change according to the relative strength of tribesmen and government.

^ Direct government subsidies vary according to the percentage of the population reading the publication.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Central Morocco, between the two spurs of the Atlas ending towards Rabat and at Cape Ghir, is, however, naturally parcelled out by its rivers into the districts of Tamsna, Shawiya, Dukalla, Abda, Shiadhma and Haha, running from north to south along the coast, and Sraghna and Rahamna lying inland from the last three.^ Central Morocco, between the two spurs of the Atlas ending towards Rabat and at Cape Ghir, is, however, naturally parcelled out by its rivers into the districts of Tamsna, Shawiya, Dukalla, Abda, Shiadhma and Haha, running from north to south along the coast, and Sraghna and Rahamna lying inland from the last three.

^ The so-called Bay of Tetuan (Tettawan) - the town is just visible from the sea - is little more than the straight stretch of coast between Cape Mazari on the south and Cape Negro or Negrete on the north; but the prominence of these two headlands gives it an appearance of depth.

^ Cultural, language homogeneity: 4.0 The official language is Arabic but French is the dominant business language in central and southern Morocco and something you can get along with about anywhere.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are only three great inland cities, each of which in turn serves as metropolis: Fez, Mequinez and Marrakesh.^ There are only three great inland cities, each of which in turn serves as metropolis : Fez, Mequinez and Marrakesh.

^ When the dynasty was feebled, Spain and Portugal were turning eyes towards Morocco .At that time, there was another ruler, Ibn Wattas , who came from Asilah to Fez.
  • History of morocco - The Magic Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.magicmorocco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was so concentrated on what I was doing, and back in those days the cameras had to be reloaded about every three and a half minutes, (there were only 50 foot reels!

.The towns next in importance are the seaports of Tangier, Casablanca (Dar el Baida), Mogador, Mazagan, Saffi, Salli-Rabat, Laraish and Tetuan.^ The towns next in importance are the seaports of Tangier, Casablanca (Dar el Baida), Mogador, Mazagan, Saffi, Salli-Rabat, Laraish and Tetuan.

^ This includes the trade through the eight open Moroccan ports (Tangier, Tetuan, Laraish, Rabat, Casablanca, Mazagan, Saffi and Mogador), the trade through Melilla, and that by the land frontier with Algeria.

^ This timetable shows all trains to and from Tangier, but there are lots of other trains on the mainline linking Marrakech, Casablanca, Rabat, Mekns and Fez.
  • How to travel by train London to Morocco | Train travel in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

All these places are separately noticed. .The ports of Agadir Ighir, Azammur and Azila being closed to trade, are in a decayed condition.^ The ports of Agadir Ighir, Azammur and Azila being closed to trade, are in a decayed condition.

^ W. Nun , at the mouth of which is Assaka, a port which the sultan of Morocco opened to foreign trade in 1882, but closed after six months.

.On the Mediterranean shore, along the coast of Er-Rit, the Spaniards have for centuries possessed Ceuta, Penon de Velez, Alhucemas and Melilla; in 1848 they appropriated the Chaffarinas Islands.^ On the Mediterranean shore, along the coast of Er-Rit, the Spaniards have for centuries possessed Ceuta, Penon de Velez, Alhucemas and Melilla; in 1848 they appropriated the Chaffarinas Islands.

^ Another Spanish presidio crowns the island rock Penon de Velez; and in the valley off which it lies stood a town known to the Spaniards as Velez de Gomera , to the Arabs as Badis, which continued to be a place of importance in the 16th century.

.Inland, besides the three cities named, are the sacred towns of Mulai Idris, Zarhon, Sheshawan and Wazzan (the last-named of which alone is open to Europeans), and the minor towns of Al Kasar, Sifru, Taza, Dibdu and Ujda in northern Morocco (once the kingdom of Fez); Damnat, El Kla, Sidi Rahal, Zettat and Amzmiz in central Morocco (once the kingdom of Marrakesh); Tarudant, Iligh, Tiznit and Glimin in southern Morocco (once the kingdom of Sus.^ Marrakesh is the only really large city of central Morocco.

^ The town of Mulai Idris Zarhon lies to the north of Mequinez.

^ Inland, besides the three cities named, are the sacred towns of Mulai Idris, Zarhon, Sheshawan and Wazzan (the last-named of which alone is open to Europeans), and the minor towns of Al Kasar, Sifru, Taza, Dibdu and Ujda in northern Morocco (once the kingdom of Fez); Damnat, El Kla, Sidi Rahal, Zettat and Amzmiz in central Morocco (once the kingdom of Marrakesh); Tarudant, Iligh, Tiznit and Glimin in southern Morocco (once the kingdom of Sus.

) .The town of Mulai Idris Zarhon lies to the north of Mequinez.^ The town of Mulai Idris Zarhon lies to the north of Mequinez.

.James Jackson, who in 1801 managed to pay a hurried visit, is the only European known to have entered its gates.^ James Jackson , who in 1801 managed to pay a hurried visit, is the only European known to have entered its gates.

.It is a place of apparently 1500 to 2000 inhabitants, compact, and with several large buildings, the principal of which is the shrine of Mulai Idris, the founder of the Moorish Empire, round which the place has grown.^ It is a place of apparently 1500 to 2000 inhabitants, compact, and with several large buildings, the principal of which is the shrine of Mulai Idris, the founder of the Moorish Empire, round which the place has grown.

^ The recorded history of the Moorish Empire commences with the settlement near the Roman ruins of Volubilis in A.D. 788 of Idris the elder (Idris b.

^ It is a remarkable fact that several of the so-called Berber tribes are believed to have been of Jewish origin, having embraced Islam on the coming of Mulai Idris.

Wazzan is the seat of a sharif or noble descended from Mulai Idris, whose family has been greatly reverenced for over two hundred years. .It was built by Mulai Abd Allah es-Sharif (d.^ It was built by Mulai Abd Allah es-Sharif (d.

.1675), and is open to European visitors, which Sheshawan (or Shefshawan), another sacred city of sharifs, founded in 1471, a day's ride into the mountains south of Tetuan, is not.^ European visitors, which Sheshawan (or Shefshawan), another sacred city of sharifs, founded in 1471, a day's ride into the mountains south of Tetuan, is not.

^ As a punishment the richer Jews of Tetuan, at his entry into the city, were tied to the tails of horses and dragged through the city.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sifru is picturesquely situated amidst gardens, a short day's ride from Fez.^ Sifru is picturesquely situated amidst gardens, a short day's ride from Fez.

.Taza is a considerable trading centre on the route between Fez and the Algerian frontier.^ Taza is a considerable trading centre on the route between Fez and the Algerian frontier.

.The population, in Leo's time 20,000, is now 5000, of whom 800 are Jews.^ The population, in Leo's time 20,000, is now 5000, of whom 800 are Jews.

Dibdu, to the east of Taza, is a small but important Jewish centre. About 120 m. east of .Taza, and only Jo from the frontier, is Ujda (Oudjda of the French), in the midst of an orange grove.^ Taza, and only Jo from the frontier, is Ujda (Oudjda of the French), in the midst of an orange grove .

.Marrakesh is the only really large city of central Morocco.^ Marrakesh is the only really large city of central Morocco.

^ There are only three great inland cities, each of which in turn serves as metropolis : Fez, Mequinez and Marrakesh.

^ (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A14) 1062 Marrakech [Marrakesh], the Arab name for Morocco, was built as a fortified city by the first Berber dynasty, the Almoravids.
  • Timeline Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Damnat is a walled town of magnificent situation in the Atlas, east of Marrakesh, between which and the Um er-Rabi`a are the less important Sidi Rahal and El Kid.^ Damnat is a walled town of magnificent situation in the Atlas, east of Marrakesh, between which and the Um er-Rabi`a are the less important Sidi Rahal and El Kid.

^ The principal rivers take their rise in the Atlas Mountains , and the headwaters of the Mulwiya, the Sebu, the Um er-Rabi`a, the Dra`a and the Ziz all rise between 32° 20' and 32° 30' N., and between 3° 30' and 5° W. The Mulwiya (Mulucha and Malva of Pliny , &c.

^ It and the Urn er-Rabi`a (mother of grass ), although their mouths are widely separated, drain the northern slopes of the central Atlas.

.Amzmiz lies in the Atlas, south-west of Marrakesh.^ Amzmiz lies in the Atlas, south-west of Marrakesh.

^ The Massa or W. al-Ghas, though its headwaters drain only one or two of the lesser valleys at the south-west end of the Anti-Atlas, is "about so yds.

.Tarudant, the capital of Sus, is situated between the Atlas and the river Sus; it is a place of from 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants, already a flourishing town in the 12th century, rebuilt by the Sa'adi Dynasty early in the 16th, and ref ortified by El Hasan IV. in 1882. Tiznit, which lies to the south, until then but a village, was in 1882 converted into a town by El Hasan IV., and walled.^ Tarudant, the capital of Sus, is situated between the Atlas and the river Sus; it is a place of from 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants, already a flourishing town in the 12th century, rebuilt by the Sa'adi Dynasty early in the 16th, and ref ortified by El Hasan IV. in 1882.

^ Tiznit, which lies to the south, until then but a village, was in 1882 converted into a town by El Hasan IV., and walled.

^ The only part of the revenue which can be estimated with any degree of accuracy are the customs, which during the early years of the 20th century yielded about £500,000 per annum.

.Iligh (1300 ft.^ Iligh (1300 ft.

) above a stream which joins the .Massa, is the chief town of Tazirwalt, the state of Sidi Hisham, an independent principality founded by Sidi Ahmed u Musa; and Glimin or Agelmin, in like manner is the chief town of the Wad Nun district.^ Massa, is the chief town of Tazirwalt, the state of Sidi Hisham, an independent principality founded by Sidi Ahmed u Musa; and Glimin or Agelmin, in like manner is the chief town of the Wad Nun district.

^ Mahommedan world), an independent state of North Africa , bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, on the E. by Algeria , on the S. (indefinitely) by the Sahara , and on the W. by the Atlantic as far south as Wad Dra'a.

Tagaost, about 40 m. inland from .Ifni, was formerly a large city, and in the 16th century the seat of a Spanish factory trading in archil.^ Ifni, was formerly a large city, and in the 16th century the seat of a Spanish factory trading in archil .

Communications

.Regular and fairly frequent steamship services link Morocco with the principal ports of the world, though in some instances transshipment at Gibraltar is necessary.^ Regular and fairly frequent steamship services link Morocco with the principal ports of the world, though in some instances transshipment at Gibraltar is necessary.

^ From the early part of the 13th century there are records of Christian mercenaries and others in the Moorish service, while intermittent trading expeditions had already brought the principal European ports of the Mediterranean into touch with Morocco.

^ Protection of public health and safety: 3.0 Health services are fairly well developed in Moroccos cities, but health conditions in rural areas remain poor.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The tourist traffic has grown greatly since the last quarter of the 19th century. .Great Britain, Spain, France and Germany have postal agencies, running competing courier mails along the coast and to the capitals, while Great Britain, France and Spain have laid telegraphic cables from Gibraltar, Oran and Tarifa respectively to Tangier; but the extension of wires inland, save for telephones and electric light, was prohibited up to 1909. A railway about 24 m.^ The external trade of Morocco is mainly with Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain.

^ Great Britain , Spain, France and Germany have postal agencies, running competing courier mails along the coast and to the capitals, while Great Britain, France and Spain have laid telegraphic cables from Gibraltar, Oran and Tarifa respectively to Tangier; but the extension of wires inland, save for telephones and electric light, was prohibited up to 1909.

^ A railway about 24 m.

long, connecting .Casablanca and Ber Reshid, was opened in September 1908. This was the first line built in Morocco.^ Casablanca and Ber Reshid, was opened in September 1908.

^ This was the first line built in Morocco.

^ As a first phase of the project, the Casablanca-Tangier line is expected to be operational by the year 2013.

.There is also a railway from Melilla to some neighbouring mines.^ There is also a railway from Melilla to some neighbouring mines.

.In general travelling in the interior is what it was a thousand years ago.^ In general travelling in the interior is what it was a thousand years ago.

.There being practically no made roads and few bridges, vehicular traffic is out of the question, and even the transport of goods and persons on the backs of animals lacks the facilities provided in some Eastern lands - as Persia, for instance - in regular posting stations and caravanserais, here known as fandaks. Travellers have therefore to carry tents and all conveniences desired.^ There being practically no made roads and few bridges , vehicular traffic is out of the question, and even the transport of goods and persons on the backs of animals lacks the facilities provided in some Eastern lands - as Persia , for instance - in regular posting stations and caravanserais, here known as fandaks.

^ Travellers have therefore to carry tents and all conveniences desired.

^ Of these very little is known; but they do not essentially differ from one another or from those of Algeria, notwithstanding considerable variations of pronunciation and a varying proportion of Arabic or other admixtures, there being no written standard to maintain.

.Throughout the central Moroccan plains it is generally perfectly safe to travel unguarded, but in mountainous districts it is customary to be accompanied by a mounted policeman (makhazni) whose duty is as much to prevent travellers attempting exploration as to afford them protection.^ Throughout the central Moroccan plains it is generally perfectly safe to travel unguarded, but in mountainous districts it is customary to be accompanied by a mounted policeman ( makhazni ) whose duty is as much to prevent travellers attempting exploration as to afford them protection.

^ Travelers planning to drive in the mountains and other remote areas may wish to carry a medical kit and a Moroccan phone card for emergencies.

^ Morocco in general is a safe country to travel around.
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

Resources of the Country

.The natural products of the country remain almost entirely undeveloped.^ The natural products of the country remain almost entirely undeveloped.

.In applications for concessions for mining and other exploitation, the government has seen the possibility of further complications with Europe: so that if, by wholesale bribery, any grant was obtained a nullifying clause was inserted, or the first occasion seized to raise anew insuperable obstacles.^ In applications for concessions for mining and other exploitation, the government has seen the possibility of further complications with Europe: so that if, by wholesale bribery , any grant was obtained a nullifying clause was inserted, or the first occasion seized to raise anew insuperable obstacles.

^ The country was a source for men, women, and children trafficked to Italy, Spain, and other parts of Europe and the Middle East for forced labor and sexual exploitation.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Employment of children under the age of 18 is prohibited in stone quarries, mines, or in any other positions deemed hazardous by the government.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.After the conference at Algeciras in 1906, however, the government was obliged to grant various concessions.^ After the conference at Algeciras in 1906, however, the government was obliged to grant various concessions.

^ (HN, 2/1/99) 1906 Apr 7, A general act was issued by the international conference of Algeciras, Spain.
  • Timeline Morocco 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The breeding of horses or cattle and the rearing of birds for European markets increase in spite of restriction and heavy dues.^ The breeding of horses or cattle and the rearing of birds for European markets increase in spite of restriction and heavy dues.

.One of the most promising of recent developments has been the growing supply of chickens, eggs, and fruit to Europe - even to England.^ One of the most promising of recent developments has been the growing supply of chickens, eggs, and fruit to Europe - even to England.

.The fisheries also are capable of great expansion, and are at present almost entirely in the hands of Portuguese and Spaniards.^ The fisheries also are capable of great expansion, and are at present almost entirely in the hands of Portuguese and Spaniards.

Agriculture

.It is still true, as in the time of Addison, that the Moors " seldom reap more than will bring the year about," and the failure of a single harvest causes inevitable dearth.^ During the 2006-7 academic year, more than 80 percent of the attendees at government supported literacy programs were women, 45 percent of whom were in rural areas.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Moors had nothing more fitting to do than to plunder the houses of friendly Jewish families in Tetuan (H. Iliowizi, "Through Morocco to Minnesota," 1888, p.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An annual multi-trip policy is usually cheaper than several single-trip policies even for just 2 or 3 trips a year (I have an annual policy myself).
  • How to travel by train London to Morocco | Train travel in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Only a small part of the available land is cultivated; and the cultivated portion possessed by each tribe is divided into three parts, one only of which is sown each year.^ Only a small part of the available land is cultivated; and the cultivated portion possessed by each tribe is divided into three parts, one only of which is sown each year.

^ The only part of the revenue which can be estimated with any degree of accuracy are the customs, which during the early years of the 20th century yielded about £500,000 per annum.

^ Islam had then been established in these parts for eighty years, but Idris and his son, Idris II., the builder of Fez, extended its influence, uniting the Berbers into a kingdom.

.With a plough of the most primitive description the Moorish peasant scarcely scratches the surface of the soil; his harrow is a few branches of trees weighted with heavy stones.^ With a plough of the most primitive description the Moorish peasant scarcely scratches the surface of the soil; his harrow is a few branches of trees weighted with heavy stones.

.The corn is cut close to the ear with short serrated sickles, and the straw is left standing.^ The corn is cut close to the ear with short serrated sickles, and the straw is left standing.

.Underground granaries or matmoras are excavated beneath the tufaceous crust which covers much of the lowlands, sometimes capable of holding 2000 quarters; they preserve their contents in good condition for many years.^ Underground granaries or matmoras are excavated beneath the tufaceous crust which covers much of the lowlands, sometimes capable of holding 2000 quarters; they preserve their contents in good condition for many years.

^ Fifty-eight percent of the complainants stated that they had been victims of violence for several months, and 37 percent stated that they had been victims for many years.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Mineral Wealth

.That mineral deposits of great value exist in Morocco there is little doubt.^ That mineral deposits of great value exist in Morocco there is little doubt.

.At Jebel Hadid or the Iron Mountain, in Abda, disused mines may still be visited, and in Sus iron has long been worked.^ At Jebel Hadid or the Iron Mountain , in Abda, disused mines may still be visited, and in Sus iron has long been worked.

.In the Beni Madan hills near Tetuan are mines, closed, it is said, by the sultan `Abd er-Rahman; but whether they furnished copper or lead authorities differ.^ In the Beni Madan hills near Tetuan are mines, closed, it is said, by the sultan `Abd er-Rahman; but whether they furnished copper or lead authorities differ.

^ By Sulaiman's direction the imperial umbrella passed to his nephew, Abd-er- Rahman II ., on whom he could rely to maintain his policy.

^ A bombardment of Salli in 1851 secured for the French the settlement of various claims, and when Abd-er-Rahman died, in 1859, the Spaniards were threatening Tetuan.

.On the road to Kenatsa, Rohlfs saw lead and antimony worked.^ On the road to Kenatsa, Rohlfs saw lead and antimony worked.

.Antimony especially seems to be abundant to the south of the Atlas; Rohlfs found it in a very pure state near Tesna, and Dr Allen saw splendid veins of it north of the Dra`a.^ Antimony especially seems to be abundant to the south of the Atlas; Rohlfs found it in a very pure state near Tesna, and Dr Allen saw splendid veins of it north of the Dra`a.

^ Mahommedan world), an independent state of North Africa , bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, on the E. by Algeria , on the S. (indefinitely) by the Sahara , and on the W. by the Atlantic as far south as Wad Dra'a.

.That gold existed in Sus was long suspected; Gatell proved it.^ That gold existed in Sus was long suspected; Gatell proved it.

.Rock-salt occurs in the mountains north of Fez, in the valley of the W. Martil, and probably in Jebel Zarhon.^ Rock- salt occurs in the mountains north of Fez, in the valley of the W. Martil, and probably in Jebel Zarhon.

.In several places, as in the route from Saffi to Morocco, are brine lakes, from which the salt is collected and exported as far as Central Africa.^ Morocco has several of the most beautiful cities anywhere in Africa or the Arabic world and many of the oldest parts of these cities, the medinas, are placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List .
  • Morocco - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: General]

Manufactures

.The manufactures are few, and the most famousleather - is now either exported undressed to Marseilles or Philadelphia, or is counterfeited by machinery in London or Paris.^ The manufactures are few, and the most famousleather - is now either exported undressed to Marseilles or Philadelphia , or is counterfeited by machinery in London or Paris .

.With the exception of slippers and shawls supplied to Moors established in the Levant, manufactured exports consist principally of carpets, rugs, trays, arms and " curios " for decorative purposes.^ With the exception of slippers and shawls supplied to Moors established in the Levant , manufactured exports consist principally of carpets, rugs, trays, arms and " curios " for decorative purposes.

For home use the Moors do much spinning, weaving, and dyeing, chiefly of wool; but although it is possible to dress superbly in native-made articles, every year sees an increasing importation of Manchester and Yorkshire goods, rivalled by the cheaper products of Barcelona and Austria - in the last case with great success.

Commerce

.The external trade of Morocco is mainly with Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain.^ The external trade of Morocco is mainly with Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain.

^ Great Britain , Spain, France and Germany have postal agencies, running competing courier mails along the coast and to the capitals, while Great Britain, France and Spain have laid telegraphic cables from Gibraltar, Oran and Tarifa respectively to Tangier; but the extension of wires inland, save for telephones and electric light, was prohibited up to 1909.

^ Most of Morocco's trade is with Europe, France alone accounts for about a quarter of Morocco's imports and a third of its exports.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The proportion of trade taken by Britain, formerly fully 50% of the whole, had decreased in 1905 to 32%, in which year France's share was 39%, that of Germany nearly 12% and that of Spain 5%.^ The external trade of Morocco is mainly with Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain.

^ The proportion of trade taken by Britain, formerly fully 50% of the whole, had decreased in 1905 to 32%, in which year France's share was 39%, that of Germany nearly 12% and that of Spain 5%.

^ The export partners are france, spain, uk, germany, italy and usa .The import partners are france, spain, italy, germany, usa, uk and saudi arabia .
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Statistics as to its value are difficult to obtain, and not altogether trustworthy; the British consul at Tangier, writing in 1906, declared: " No information is to be obtained from the Moorish custom-houses and no statistics whatever are published by the Moorish government." From such sources as were available the exports in 1873 (a year of phenomenally good crops) were valued at about £1,500,000 and the imports at £934,000. Twenty years later (1903) the exports were valued at £1,601,000 and the imports at £2,656,000. A British consular return gave the value of the trade in 1906 as: Exports £1,756,109, imports £2,976,900. According to French official returns the value of trade fell in 1907 to £3,200,000, but had risen in 1908 to £4,400,000. This includes the trade through the eight open Moroccan ports (Tangier, Tetuan, Laraish, Rabat, Casablanca, Mazagan, Saffi and Mogador), the trade through Melilla, and that by the land frontier with Algeria. .The trade with Algeria is valued at from £300,000 to £500,000 a year.^ The trade with Algeria is valued at from £300,000 to £500,000 a year.

^ The only part of the revenue which can be estimated with any degree of accuracy are the customs, which during the early years of the 20th century yielded about £500,000 per annum.

^ From such sources as were available the exports in 1873 (a year of phenomenally good crops) were valued at about £1,500,000 and the imports at £934,000.

.Statistics as to the considerable trade done by caravans crossing the Sahara are entirely lacking.^ Statistics as to the considerable trade done by caravans crossing the Sahara are entirely lacking.

.The chief articles of exports are skins and hides, sheep, oxen and goats, wool, barley, eggs, beeswax, almonds and slippers.^ The chief articles of exports are skins and hides, sheep, oxen and goats, wool, barley, eggs, beeswax, almonds and slippers.

.Maize, peas and chick-peas are also considerable exports in years of good crops.^ Maize, peas and chick-peas are also considerable exports in years of good crops.

^ Barley is the most usual cereal; but excellent crops of wheat , maize , millet , rye , beans, peas, chickpeas and canary seed are also obtained.

^ From such sources as were available the exports in 1873 (a year of phenomenally good crops) were valued at about £1,500,000 and the imports at £934,000.

Cotton goods form the chief articles of import (exceeding £800,000 in value in 1906), sugar, tea, flour and semolina coming next. .Other imports include cloth, candles, iron and hardware, wines and spirits.^ Other imports include cloth, candles, iron and hardware, wines and spirits .

.Wheat and oxen are imported overland from Algeria.^ Wheat and oxen are imported overland from Algeria.

Finance

.The only part of the revenue which can be estimated with any degree of accuracy are the customs, which during the early years of the 20th century yielded about £500,000 per annum.^ The only part of the revenue which can be estimated with any degree of accuracy are the customs, which during the early years of the 20th century yielded about £500,000 per annum.

^ Conservative estimates of 15% growth per annum for the next 5 years and double digit yields are really possible .

^ It costs only about 53 euros per night for a single, 68 euros for a double.
  • How to travel by train London to Morocco | Train travel in Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Under the provisions of the act of Algeciras the Morocco State Bank was established in 1907. It is a limited liability company and subject to the law of France.^ Banque du Maroc (Bank of Morocco) was established in 1959 to replace the Banque dEtat du Maroc and to ensure the functions of a Central Bank.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his rule the state of the law in Morocco has improved substantially in regards to women’s rights.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new group of Maranos was brought to Morocco through the definite establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal under Pope Paul III. in 1536 ( ib.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The capital of the bank is £800,000 and the head office is at Tangier.^ The capital of the bank is £800,000 and the head office is at Tangier.

.The directors represent the various groups subscribing the capital, French financiers contributing a share twice as large as that of any other group in return for the relinquishment of the right of France to take up all new loans at the rate of the lowest tender.^ The directors represent the various groups subscribing the capital, French financiers contributing a share twice as large as that of any other group in return for the relinquishment of the right of France to take up all new loans at the rate of the lowest tender .

^ There he was visited by the French minister and appeared willing to grant all the demands of France in return for help against his brother.

^ Human rights groups and families continued to claim that the IER did not acknowledge all cases of disappearances, many from the Western Sahara.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The bank holds a concession from the state for forty years, and acts as its treasurer and financial agent.^ The bank holds a concession from the state for forty years, and acts as its treasurer and financial agent .

^ Under the provisions of the act of Algeciras the Morocco State Bank was established in 1907.

^ The act provided also for the institution of a state bank (see supra § Finance).

.It alone has the power of issuing notes.^ It alone has the power of issuing notes.

A Moorish high commissioner and four censors (representing the Bank of England, the Bank of France, the Bank of Spain and the German Imperial Bank) watch over the working of the bank. .In all legal disputes in which the bank is concerned the Federal Court at Lausanne is the final authority.^ In all legal disputes in which the bank is concerned the Federal Court at Lausanne is the final authority.

^ Foreign and Canadian authorities may also require evidence that the adult has the consent of the parents, legal guardian, and/or the court to travel with the children.
  • Morocco Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.There is a Moorish coinage based on that of the Latin Union; Spanish money is also legal tender.^ There is a Moorish coinage based on that of the Latin Union; Spanish money is also legal tender.

^ Morocco's legal system is based on both Islamic law, as inspired by the Malikite school of jurisprudence, and the French and Spanish civil law systems.
  • freedomhouse.org: Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.freedomhouse.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moorish weights and measures vary from town to town, but in the foreign trade the decimal system has almost entirely superseded the native chaos.^ The govenment of Morocco has instituted major reforms and liberalization measures aimed at improving foreign trade and encouraging export oriented investment opportunities.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The moroccan plitical climat is very stable.The Moroccan government has instituted major reforms and liberalization measures aimed at improving foreign trade and encouraging exoprt.
  • Morocco - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Credit is allowed by European houses at their peril, and in some lines profits are cut ruinously fine or done away with altogether by dishonest practices, many arising out of the long credit in vogue.^ Credit is allowed by European houses at their peril, and in some lines profits are cut ruinously fine or done away with altogether by dishonest practices, many arising out of the long credit in vogue.

^ Many had already secured the allegiance of certain provinces some time before, and many retained such allegiance long after the greater portion of the empire had accepted a successful rival.

Government

.The Moorish government is a limited autocracy, the theoretically absolute power of the sultan being greatly circumscribed by the religious influences which in a measure support him, and by the official proletariat with which he is surrounded.^ The Moorish government is a limited autocracy , the theoretically absolute power of the sultan being greatly circumscribed by the religious influences which in a measure support him, and by the official proletariat with which he is surrounded.

^ The government supported and facilitated religious activities of the Jewish community.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The central government is known as the maghzen or makhzan (an Arabic word primarily meaning storehouse), a term also applied to the whole administrative body and collectively to the privileged tribes from whose ranks the state officials are recruited.^ They were divided into bodies akin to tribes, governed by their respective heads, and had to pay the Romans a capitation-tax of 2 shekels.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the head of the administration are wazirs or ministers of state, who possess no power independent of the sultan's will.^ At the head of the administration are wazirs or ministers of state, who possess no power independent of the sultan's will.

^ Local administration is directed by the governors of provinces and towns, who are nominated by the wazir ed dakhalani (minister of the interior).

^ The king as head of state appoints the prime minister, who is the titular head of government.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The wazirs in general accompany the court, but the minister for foreign affairs is stationed at Tangier.^ The wazirs in general accompany the court, but the minister for foreign affairs is stationed at Tangier.

.Local administration is directed by the governors of provinces and towns, who are nominated by the wazir ed dakhalani (minister of the interior).^ Local administration is directed by the governors of provinces and towns, who are nominated by the wazir ed dakhalani (minister of the interior).

^ GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS Morocco is divided into 16 administrative regions (further broken into provinces and prefectures); the regions are administered by Walis (governors) appointed by the King.
  • Morocco (03/09) 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the head of the administration are wazirs or ministers of state, who possess no power independent of the sultan's will.

.The subordinate town officials are appointed by the governor, and sheiks direct the affairs of the villages.^ The subordinate town officials are appointed by the governor, and sheiks direct the affairs of the villages.

^ MOI nominates provincial governors (walis) and local district administrative officials (caids) to the king, who appoints them.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Local administration is directed by the governors of provinces and towns, who are nominated by the wazir ed dakhalani (minister of the interior).

.All appointments are practically without pay, office holders being expected to obtain remuneration from " presents," i.e. bribes and extortion.^ All appointments are practically without pay, office holders being expected to obtain remuneration from " presents," i.e.

.Attached to the government service are a number of tribes (called maghzen tribes), who furnish the sultan's body-guard, garrison certain towns, and perform other duties in return for exemption from taxation.^ Attached to the government service are a number of tribes (called maghzen tribes), who furnish the sultan's body-guard, garrison certain towns, and perform other duties in return for exemption from taxation .

^ The only approach to a regular army consists of certain hereditary troops furnished by the maghzen tribes, the Bokhara (black), the Udaia (mulatto), the Ashragah and Ashrardah (white), and the Gaish, who form a body of police , Makhhaznia (mixed), all of whom are horsemen.

^ The central government is known as the maghzen or makhzan (an Arabic word primarily meaning storehouse), a term also applied to the whole administrative body and collectively to the privileged tribes from whose ranks the state officials are recruited.

.There was no regular assessment for taxation, but such organized spoliation as might be required for public or private ends.^ There was no regular assessment for taxation, but such organized spoliation as might be required for public or private ends.

^ There were no reports that the MOC controlled foreign publications by removing banned publications from circulation.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.That part of the empire where the sultan's authority is supreme is known as blad el-maghzen (government country); those regions where the sultan's authority is precarious are called blad es-siba (the unsubmissive country).^ U.S.-MOROCCAN RELATIONS Morocco was the first country to seek diplomatic relations with the Government of the United States in 1777, and remains one of our oldest and closest allies in the region.
  • Morocco (03/09) 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government owned or partially owned the only television stations whose broadcasts could be received in most parts of the country without decoders or satellite dish antennas.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 11, the government opened the trial of 52 individuals arrested in August 2006 as part of the so-called Ansar El Mehdi case on charges of conspiring to overthrow the monarchy through terrorism.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.All the powers are represented in Tangier by diplomatic and consular officials, whose independent jurisdiction over their respective fellow-subjects leads to the frequent confusion of justice.^ All the powers are represented in Tangier by diplomatic and consular officials, whose independent jurisdiction over their respective fellow-subjects leads to the frequent confusion of justice.

^ Disputes of this nature between powerful men lead frequently to intertribal quarrels.
  • JewishEncyclopedia.com - MOROCCO 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC jewishencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The evidence of non-Mahommedans is not accepted in Moorish courts, where venality reigns, and unprotected Jews suffer constant injustice, besides daily indignities, for which they repay themselves by superior astuteness.^ The evidence of non-Mahommedans is not accepted in Moorish courts, where venality reigns, and unprotected Jews suffer constant injustice, besides daily indignities, for which they repay themselves by superior astuteness.

^ Non-Mohammedans were to be tolerated no longer; Jews and Christians were compelled either to accept Islam or to leave the country.
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^ Among themselves they exercise wonderful charity toward their poor, never suffering them to beg, their cheque taxing every family according to its ability to pay."
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Army

.A half-organized army - service in which is partly hereditary, partly forced - is periodically employed in collecting taxes at sword-point, and in " eating up " the provinces; with it the custom is (or was) for the sultan to go forth to war each summer, spending the winter in one of his capitals.^ A half-organized army - service in which is partly hereditary, partly forced - is periodically employed in collecting taxes at sword -point, and in " eating up " the provinces; with it the custom is (or was) for the sultan to go forth to war each summer, spending the winter in one of his capitals.

^ His demands on the Jews in the way of taxes were enormous; he had them collected by Joshua ben Ḥamoshet, a rich Jew, to whom he was under obligations for various services and whom he appointed chief over the Jews.
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^ To create a new party, organizers must submit to the MOI a declaration signed by at least 300 cofounding members from one-half of the 16 regions of the country.
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.The only approach to a regular army consists of certain hereditary troops furnished by the maghzen tribes, the Bokhara (black), the Udaia (mulatto), the Ashragah and Ashrardah (white), and the Gaish, who form a body of police, Makhhaznia (mixed), all of whom are horsemen.^ The only approach to a regular army consists of certain hereditary troops furnished by the maghzen tribes, the Bokhara (black), the Udaia (mulatto), the Ashragah and Ashrardah (white), and the Gaish, who form a body of police , Makhhaznia (mixed), all of whom are horsemen.

^ Attached to the government service are a number of tribes (called maghzen tribes), who furnish the sultan's body-guard, garrison certain towns, and perform other duties in return for exemption from taxation .

.The infantry (Askaria) are mostly rough levies; only a small portion being well trained under European officers.^ The infantry (Askaria) are mostly rough levies; only a small portion being well trained under European officers.

^ Only a small part of the available land is cultivated; and the cultivated portion possessed by each tribe is divided into three parts, one only of which is sown each year.

.No accurate estimate can be formed of the total available forces, and the arms are of every pattern.^ No accurate estimate can be formed of the total available forces, and the arms are of every pattern.

^ The law specifically prohibits antiunion discrimination but prohibits some public employees (e.g., members of the armed forces, police, and judiciary) from forming unions.
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.There is no navy, but the government possesses several small steamers, one or two mounting guns.^ There is no navy , but the government possesses several small steamers, one or two mounting guns.

^ In 2005 the government reported that there were 600,000 child workers and that 1.5 to two million children were not registered in school.
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^ There are also six electronic newspapers: three French-language, two Arabic, and one English.
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Religion

.The religion of Morocco is Islam, the Moors being among the strictest followers of Mahomet.^ The religion of Morocco is Islam, the Moors being among the strictest followers of Mahomet .

.The divisions of the East are unknown, and their tenets include the principal teachings of both Shias and Sunnis, but, as employing the Maleki ritual, they must be classed with the latter.^ The divisions of the East are unknown, and their tenets include the principal teachings of both Shias and Sunnis, but, as employing the Maleki ritual , they must be classed with the latter.

^ They were principally employed on public works or in galleys under the task-master's lash, both men and women being subjected to every indignity.

.Recognizing their own sultan as Amir el Mu'minin (" Commander of the Faithful ") and Khalifa of God on earth, they acknowledge no other claimant to that position, and have few dealings with the Turks, whom they consider corrupt.^ Recognizing their own sultan as Amir el Mu'minin (" Commander of the Faithful ") and Khalifa of God on earth, they acknowledge no other claimant to that position, and have few dealings with the Turks , whom they consider corrupt.

^ The King is the Commander in Chief of the military and holds the title of Amir al-Mou’minin, or Commander of the Faithful, the country's religious leader.
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^ In Mogador the principal trade has fallen into their hands; and there is probably no business concern in the country with which they are not connected through some position or other.
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.They have not yet given way extensively to strong drink.^ They have not yet given way extensively to strong drink.

Missions

.The Franciscans for six and a half centuries did brave work in the country, since the founder of their order offered himself for that task in 1214, and many of them, including several British and Irish missionaries, suffered martyrdom; but they have long abandoned attempts to convert the Moors.^ The Franciscans for six and a half centuries did brave work in the country, since the founder of their order offered himself for that task in 1214, and many of them, including several British and Irish missionaries, suffered martyrdom; but they have long abandoned attempts to convert the Moors.

^ In Morocco, business visas are designed for those who wish to visit the country in order to engage in business activities other than working in Morocco.
  • Morocco Visa - Tourist / Travel, Business 16 September 2009 0:23 UTC www.globalvisas.com [Source type: News]

^ Rabbits swarm in the country to the north of the Bu Ragrag, and since 1870 they have crossed this stream, which used to be their southern limit.

.The London Jewish Society was established in Mogador in 1875, and since 1883 various Protestant agencies support a considerable number of missionaries, men and women, including doctors and nurses.^ The London Jewish Society was established in Mogador in 1875, and since 1883 various Protestant agencies support a considerable number of missionaries, men and women, including doctors and nurses.

Education

.The level of education could hardly be lower, although most males have an opportunity of learning to recite or read the Koran, if not to write.^ The level of education could hardly be lower, although most males have an opportunity of learning to recite or read the Koran, if not to write.

^ Literacy (definition--age 15 and over can read and write)--total population 52.3%; male 65.7%; female 39.6% (2004 census).
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.Only traders trouble about arithmetic.^ Only traders trouble about arithmetic .

.Youths who desire to pursue their studies attend colleges in Fez or elsewhere to acquire some knowledge of Mahommedan theology, logic, composition and jurisprudence.^ Youths who desire to pursue their studies attend colleges in Fez or elsewhere to acquire some knowledge of Mahommedan theology , logic , composition and jurisprudence .

^ All Mahommedans within his realm were freed from all taxes, and all the Arabic manuscripts of the country - thirteen loads - were despatched to the college Yakub had built in Fez.

Literature and Travel. - .Journalism is entirely foreign, and was introduced in 1883, at the same time as the printing-press, Spanish, French and English newspapers being established in quick succession.^ Journalism is entirely foreign, and was introduced in 1883, at the same time as the printing -press, Spanish, French and English newspapers being established in quick succession.

^ Finally should be mentioned Jacob ibn 'Aṭṭar, secretary of Mohammed X., and who knew English, French, Spanish, and Italian (Meakin, l.c.
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^ There are also six electronic newspapers: three French-language, two Arabic, and one English.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The sultan el Hasan III. set up a lithographic establishment in Fez, from which a valuable series of Arabic theological, legal and historical works have been issued, but most noteworthy of all is the publication in Cairo in 1895 of an Arabic history of Morocco, in four volumes, by a native of Salli, Ahmad bin Khalid en-Nasiri.^ The sultan el Hasan III. set up a lithographic establishment in Fez, from which a valuable series of Arabic theological, legal and historical works have been issued, but most noteworthy of all is the publication in Cairo in 1895 of an Arabic history of Morocco, in four volumes, by a native of Salli, Ahmad bin Khalid en-Nasiri.

^ In 2007, 197 volunteers served in Morocco, working in four sectors: health, youth development, small business, and the environment.
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^ In this declaration, one of the series of arrangements marking the establishment of the entente cordiale, France declared that she had no intention of changing the political status of Morocco.

.A most practical step was taken by the French, on the conclusion of the agreement with Great Britain in 1904, in the establishment of a state-subventioned Mission scientifique au Maroc, which, in addition to establishing at Tangier the only public library in the empire, engaged a number of able students in research work, the results of which are embodied in the periodical publications Archives marocaines (6 vols., 1904-1906) and L'Afrique francaise. Other forward steps have been taken in the production of several important volumes on the country and in serious attempts to explore the Atlas.^ Other forward steps have been taken in the production of several important volumes on the country and in serious attempts to explore the Atlas.

^ A most practical step was taken by the French, on the conclusion of the agreement with Great Britain in 1904, in the establishment of a state-subventioned Mission scientifique au Maroc, which, in addition to establishing at Tangier the only public library in the empire, engaged a number of able students in research work, the results of which are embodied in the periodical publications Archives marocaines (6 vols., 1904-1906) and L'Afrique francaise.

^ III. of Archives marocaines (Paris, 1904); Leo Africanus, Description of Africa, 1526, trans.

.The vicomte de Foucauld attained the first place by his intrepid journeys as a Jew through the forbidden regions and by his workman-like geographical records; Joseph Thomson did good work in the Great Atlas, though within a limited area; the vicomte de la Martiniere excavated some of the Roman remains; Mr Walter B. Harris made a bold journey to Tafilalt; and the marquis de Segonzac and Louis Gentil added to the knowledge of the Atlas by interesting expeditions.'^ The vicomte de Foucauld attained the first place by his intrepid journeys as a Jew through the forbidden regions and by his workman-like geographical records; Joseph Thomson did good work in the Great Atlas, though within a limited area; the vicomte de la Martiniere excavated some of the Roman remains; Mr Walter B. Harris made a bold journey to Tafilalt; and the marquis de Segonzac and Louis Gentil added to the knowledge of the Atlas by interesting expeditions.'

^ For the next 16 m., between Azila and Laraish (Laraiche), the coast has a tolerably bold background of hills, Jebel Sarsar forming an important landmark for the latter town which, with its Phoenician, Roman and medieval remains, is historically one of the most interesting places in Morocco.

^ Those Jews who do so must needs walk barefoot, even riding being forbidden to them within the walls.
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.A hydrographic mission under A. H. Dye also did valuable work (1905-1909).^ A hydrographic mission under A. H. Dye also did valuable work (1905-1909).

.An equally important service was rendered by the compilation by Sir R. Lambert Playfair and Dr Robert Brown of an invaluable Bibliography of Morocco to the end of 1891 (1893), containing over two thousand entries.^ An equally important service was rendered by the compilation by Sir R. Lambert Playfair and Dr Robert Brown of an invaluable Bibliography of Morocco to the end of 1891 (1893), containing over two thousand entries.

^ Dr Robert Brown, for Hakluyt Society (3 vols., London, 1896; a wonderful work for its period, always of interest, but the source of many oft-repeated errors in books on Morocco).

^ Bibliography.-History: Budgett Meakin, The Moorish Empire, an historical epitome (London, 1899; which contains critical notices of all important books on Morocco to date); Ernest Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (3 vols., Paris, 1888-1891).

History

.The prehistoric antiquities of Morocco are of considerable interest.^ The prehistoric antiquities of Morocco are of considerable interest.

.In the cave at Cape Spartel Tissot found regularly shaped arrow-heads, and in the north of the country he met with dolmens, barrows and cromlechs, just as in Algeria or Tunisia.^ In the cave at Cape Spartel Tissot found regularly shaped arrow-heads, and in the north of the country he met with dolmens, barrows and cromlechs, just as in Algeria or Tunisia .

^ Cape Spartel, the north-west angle of the African continent, known to the ancients as Ampelusia or Cotes Promontorium.

.The dolmens usually form a trapezium, and the body seems to have been buried with the knees drawn up to the chin.^ The dolmens usually form a trapezium, and the body seems to have been buried with the knees drawn up to the chin.

.At M`zorah, a quaint little village of widelyscattered houses built of rough blocks of yellow soft sandstone, about 8 or 10 m.^ At M`zorah, a quaint little village of widelyscattered houses built of rough blocks of yellow soft sandstone , about 8 or 10 m.

south-east from .Azila, stands a group of megalithic monuments of some interest.^ Azila, stands a group of megalithic monuments of some interest.

.They have been visited and described by many travellers, but Watson's account is the most detailed.^ They have been visited and described by many travellers, but Watson's account is the most detailed.

^ Their ritual is substantially Sephardic, although they have many peculiar customs, concerning which Benjamin II. has given a detailed account in his book of travels, "Mass'e Yisrael" (pp.
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.Round the base of a mound (15 ft.^ Round the base of a mound (15 ft.

high) of yellow sandstone lies a circle of sixty-seven large stones, one of which .(at the west side) is more than 20 ft.^ May and more than 460 ft.

^ A famine broke out soon after the fire, during which more than 20,000 Jews died in and around Fez.
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high. .In the vicinity are several other groups, some of still larger blocks.^ In the vicinity are several other groups, some of still larger blocks.

.Roman roads (see Roman Africa) seem to have run from Tangier southwards to the neighbourhood of Mequinez (Miknasa), and from Azila to the south of Rabat; and Roman sites are in several instances marked by considerable remains of masonry.^ Roman roads (see Roman Africa ) seem to have run from Tangier southwards to the neighbourhood of Mequinez (Miknasa), and from Azila to the south of Rabat; and Roman sites are in several instances marked by considerable remains of masonry .

.At Kasar Fara`on (Pharaoh's Castle), on the western slope of J. Zarhon, are the ruins of Volubilis.^ At Kasar Fara`on (Pharaoh's Castle ), on the western slope of J. Zarhon, are the ruins of Volubilis.

.The enceinte, constructed of large stones and flanked by round towers, is 12,000 ft.^ The enceinte , constructed of large stones and flanked by round towers , is 12,000 ft.

^ The Atlas Mountains, which are built up of a series of ridges rising to 12,000 ft.

in extent. .Four gates are still recognizable, and a triumphal arch erected in A.D. 216 in honour of Caracalla and Julia Domna.^ Four gates are still recognizable, and a triumphal arch erected in A.D. 216 in honour of Caracalla and Julia Domna.

.The stones of this site have been used for Mequinez Miknas.^ The stones of this site have been used for Mequinez Miknas.

.Banasa (Colonia Aelia, originally Valentia) is identified with the ruins of Sidi Ali Bu Jenun, and Thamusida with those of Sidi Ali b.^ Banasa (Colonia Aelia, originally Valentia) is identified with the ruins of Sidi Ali Bu Jenun, and Thamusida with those of Sidi Ali b.

Hamed. .At Shammish, up the river from Laraish, the city of Lixus (Trinx of Strabo) has splendid specimens of Punic and Roman stonework, and the similar remains on the headland of Mulai BO. Selham probably belong to the Mudelacha of Polybius.^ At Shammish, up the river from Laraish, the city of Lixus (Trinx of Strabo) has splendid specimens of Punic and Roman stonework, and the similar remains on the headland of Mulai BO. Selham probably belong to the Mudelacha of Polybius .

.Of early Moorish architecture good examples are comparatively few and badly preserved.^ Of early Moorish architecture good examples are comparatively few and badly preserved.

.Besides those in Fas, Miknas, and Marrakesh, it is sufficient to mention the mausoleum of the Beni-Marin (13th to 16th centuries) at Shella, which, with the adjoining mosque, is roofless and ruined, but possesses a number of funeral inscriptions.^ Besides those in Fas, Miknas, and Marrakesh, it is sufficient to mention the mausoleum of the Beni-Marin (13th to 16th centuries) at Shella, which, with the adjoining mosque, is roofless and ruined, but possesses a number of funeral inscriptions.

^ (Marrakesh lost to Beni Marin, 1269.

.The earliest records touching on Morocco are those of Hanno's Periplus, which mentions that Carthaginian colonies were planted along the coast.^ The earliest records touching on Morocco are those of Hanno's Periplus, which mentions that Carthaginian colonies were planted along the coast.

.The savage and inhospitable tribes with whom they came in contact included cave-dwellers; but megalithic remains point to a yet earlier race.^ The savage and inhospitable tribes with whom they came in contact included cave-dwellers; but megalithic remains point to a yet earlier race.

.It is not till the last century B.C. that Moroccan Berbers are found supplying troops to Pompey or Sertorius, and later, under Augustus, becoming themselves incorporated in the Roman province of Mauretania (and also Roman Africa).^ It is not till the last century B.C. that Moroccan Berbers are found supplying troops to Pompey or Sertorius, and later, under Augustus, becoming themselves incorporated in the Roman province of Mauretania (and also Roman Africa ).

^ Under his reign (1795-1822) piracy vas abolished, but the policy, maintained till the end of the century, of having as little as possible to do with foreigners was initiated.

^ Moroccan troops occupied the region vacated by Mauritania and later proclaimed the territory reintegrated into Morocco.
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.But the Roman province reached only to the Bu Ragrag, on which Sala, now Salli, was its outpost; Volubilis, near Mequinez, being its principal, if not its only, inland city.^ But the Roman province reached only to the Bu Ragrag, on which Sala, now Salli, was its outpost; Volubilis, near Mequinez, being its principal, if not its only, inland city.

^ There are only three great inland cities, each of which in turn serves as metropolis : Fez, Mequinez and Marrakesh.

^ The Bu Ragrag, which debouches between Rabat and Salli, is about the same length as the Beht, but of much more importance.

.In the fifth century A.D. the country became subject to the Vandals and, about 618, to the Goths.^ In the fifth century A.D. the country became subject to the Vandals and, about 618, to the Goths .

.1 Gentil, in La Geographie, No.^ Gentil, in La Geographie, No.

.3 (1908), describes the Siroua region, which, N.N.W. of Tikirt, connects the Anti Atlas and the High Atlas.^ Siroua region, which, N.N.W. of Tikirt, connects the Anti Atlas and the High Atlas.

^ The wooded lands of the High Atlas region of Morocco too have their share of unique Morocco wildlife.
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^ They are probably alluvial cones brought down from the High Atlas and mountainous regions.

.The Siroua volcano compares with the finest volcanoes of Europe.^ The Siroua volcano compares with the finest volcanoes of Europe.

.The coming of the Arabs under 'Oqba ('Okba) in 682 was of far greater moment, though it was not till twenty years later that his successor, Musa ibn Nosair, undertook a successful expedition as far as Tafilalt and the Dra`a.^ The coming of the Arabs under 'Oqba ('Okba) in 682 was of far greater moment, though it was not till twenty years later that his successor, Musa ibn Nosair, undertook a successful expedition as far as Tafilalt and the Dra`a.

^ Their kinsmen in Spain followed suit with equal success, and though subdued for a time, they retained their independence in certain parts till the 11th century, when, as masters of Granada , they subjugated their implacable foes, the Arabs; and finally, under the Murabti and Muwahhadi dynasties, conquered all Mahommedan Spain.

^ In 1261, 1275 and 1277-1279, he undertook successful expeditions to Spain, and again in 1284, this time, in alliance with Alphonso of Leon , against his rebel son Sancho.

.The force of ten thousand Arabs and Egyptians with whom Tariq (Tarik) ibn Zaid held the Tangier district in 710 was trebled by the enrolment of the Berbers, who enabled him next year to invade Spain, burning his boats behind him (see Caliphate, § C. Abbasids).^ The force of ten thousand Arabs and Egyptians with whom Tariq (Tarik) ibn Zaid held the Tangier district in 710 was trebled by the enrolment of the Berbers, who enabled him next year to invade Spain, burning his boats behind him (see Caliphate, § C .

.But the Moroccan Berbers chafed beneath the Arab rule, and in 739 successfully revolted, setting up their first independent ruler, Maisara.^ But the Moroccan Berbers chafed beneath the Arab rule, and in 739 successfully revolted, setting up their first independent ruler, Maisara.

^ PEOPLE Moroccans are predominantly Sunni Muslims of Arab, Berber, or mixed Arab-Berber ancestry.
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.Their kinsmen in Spain followed suit with equal success, and though subdued for a time, they retained their independence in certain parts till the 11th century, when, as masters of Granada, they subjugated their implacable foes, the Arabs; and finally, under the Murabti and Muwahhadi dynasties, conquered all Mahommedan Spain.^ Their kinsmen in Spain followed suit with equal success, and though subdued for a time, they retained their independence in certain parts till the 11th century, when, as masters of Granada , they subjugated their implacable foes, the Arabs; and finally, under the Murabti and Muwahhadi dynasties, conquered all Mahommedan Spain.

^ In 1261, 1275 and 1277-1279, he undertook successful expeditions to Spain, and again in 1284, this time, in alliance with Alphonso of Leon , against his rebel son Sancho.

^ The coming of the Arabs under 'Oqba ('Okba) in 682 was of far greater moment, though it was not till twenty years later that his successor, Musa ibn Nosair, undertook a successful expedition as far as Tafilalt and the Dra`a.

.The recorded history of the Moorish Empire commences with the settlement near the Roman ruins of Volubilis in A.D. 788 of Idris the elder (Idris b.^ The recorded history of the Moorish Empire commences with the settlement near the Roman ruins of Volubilis in A.D. 788 of Idris the elder (Idris b.

^ It is a place of apparently 1500 to 2000 inhabitants, compact, and with several large buildings, the principal of which is the shrine of Mulai Idris, the founder of the Moorish Empire, round which the place has grown.

^ But the Roman province reached only to the Bu Ragrag, on which Sala, now Salli, was its outpost; Volubilis, near Mequinez, being its principal, if not its only, inland city.

.Abdallah), one of the fugitive Dynasties. descendants of Mahomet during the struggles be tween rival claimants of the caliphate.^ Abdallah), one of the fugitive Dynasties.

^ Mahomet during the struggles be tween rival claimants of the caliphate .

^ Then, at last, this dynasty provided a beneficent sovereign in the person of his son, Mahomet XVI., during whose reign of 33 years the land prospered.

.Islam had then been established in these parts for eighty years, but Idris and his son, Idris II., the builder of Fez, extended its influence, uniting the Berbers into a kingdom.^ Islam had then been established in these parts for eighty years, but Idris and his son, Idris II., the builder of Fez, extended its influence, uniting the Berbers into a kingdom.

^ Only a small part of the available land is cultivated; and the cultivated portion possessed by each tribe is divided into three parts, one only of which is sown each year.

^ The new dynasty differed from the two which had preceded it in being frankly part of a Berber tribe, the Zenata , who carved out a kingdom for themselves.

.Their line controlled a limited portion of northern Morocco for nearly two centuries, in part supplanted by the Miknasa in 922, until displaced by the Maghrawa in 988. These two dynasties were exterminated in 1061 by Yusef I. (bin Tashfin), founder of the Murabti dynasty of Berbers (Almoravides), who added the remainder of Morocco, most of Spain and Portugal, and Tlemcen.^ These two dynasties were exterminated in 1061 by Yusef I. (bin Tashfin), founder of the Murabti dynasty of Berbers (Almoravides), who added the remainder of Morocco, most of Spain and Portugal, and Tlemcen .

^ Their line controlled a limited portion of northern Morocco for nearly two centuries, in part supplanted by the Miknasa in 922, until displaced by the Maghrawa in 988.

^ Their kinsmen in Spain followed suit with equal success, and though subdued for a time, they retained their independence in certain parts till the 11th century, when, as masters of Granada , they subjugated their implacable foes, the Arabs; and finally, under the Murabti and Muwahhadi dynasties, conquered all Mahommedan Spain.

.Their principal existing monument is the city of Marrakesh.^ Their principal existing monument is the city of Marrakesh.

In 1149 the Murabti power was overthrown by another religious leader, `Abd el Mumin at the head of the Muwahhadi - i.e. " Unitarian " - horde (Almohades), under whom the Moorish Empire reached its zenith at the close of the 12th century. .It then included, in addition to the Murabti realm, what now are Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli, extending to the frontier of Egypt, which they were prevented from occupying by the rise of Saladin.^ It then included, in addition to the Murabti realm , what now are Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli , extending to the frontier of Egypt, which they were prevented from occupying by the rise of Saladin .

.Before the middle of the 13th century they had been driven out of Spain, and had lost all but what is now known as Morocco, whence, between 1217 and 1269, they were ousted by the Beni Malin (Marinides).^ (Fez lost to Beni Malin, 1248.

^ (Marrakesh lost to Beni Marin, 1269.

^ Before the middle of the 13th century they had been driven out of Spain, and had lost all but what is now known as Morocco, whence, between 1217 and 1269, they were ousted by the Beni Malin (Marinides).

.To them we owe the Giralda, Hasan and Kutubiya towers of Seville, Rabat and Marrakesh respectively, the Torre de Oro at Seville, Gibraltar Castle, and the towns of Rabat and Al kasar.^ To them we owe the Giralda, Hasan and Kutubiya towers of Seville , Rabat and Marrakesh respectively, the Torre de Oro at Seville, Gibraltar Castle, and the towns of Rabat and Al kasar.

It was under their rule that Francis of Assisi despatched to Morocco the first Christian missionaries of modern times. .(See Almoravides and Almohades.^ (See Almoravides and Almohades .

) .The new dynasty differed from the two which had preceded it in being frankly part of a Berber tribe, the Zenata, who carved out a kingdom for themselves.^ The new dynasty differed from the two which had preceded it in being frankly part of a Berber tribe, the Zenata , who carved out a kingdom for themselves.

^ These two dynasties were exterminated in 1061 by Yusef I. (bin Tashfin), founder of the Murabti dynasty of Berbers (Almoravides), who added the remainder of Morocco, most of Spain and Portugal, and Tlemcen .

^ Islam had then been established in these parts for eighty years, but Idris and his son, Idris II., the builder of Fez, extended its influence, uniting the Berbers into a kingdom.

.Having assisted the Murabtis and Muwahhadis respectively at the b a ttles of El Arcos 11 1213-1524. ( 95) and Las Navas (1212), the defection of their amir on that occasion offered an opportunity for Abd-el-Halk, the son of their general, to attempt the overthrow of the reigning house.^ Las Navas (1212), the defection of their amir on that occasion offered an opportunity for Abd-el-Halk, the son of their general, to attempt the overthrow of the reigning house.

^ Having assisted the Murabtis and Muwahhadis respectively at the b a ttles of El Arcos 11 1213-1524.

^ El-Hasan's death was kept secret till the coffin reached its destination, so that a peaceful proclamation was secured for ` Abd-el-`Aziz IV ., his son by a Circassian slave who The Reign possessed great influence over him.

.At first the Beni Mann professed allegiance to Tunis, where the Hafsis, a branch of the Muwahhadis, had thrown off the Moorish yoke and secured acknowledgement in northern Morocco and parts of Spain.^ At first the Beni Mann professed allegiance to Tunis , where the Hafsis, a branch of the Muwahhadis, had thrown off the Moorish yoke and secured acknowledgement in northern Morocco and parts of Spain.

^ The bonito and mackerel fishery off the coast of Casablanca and Tangier attracts fishers from Spain, Portugal and other parts of Europe.

^ On the failure of the Beni Mann the amirate was seized by Sa`id III., " El Wallas," head of another branch, founder of the short-lived Wattasi dynasty.

.But they were soon in a position to proclaim complete independence, and by the time that Abu Bakr, the third son of Abd-el-Hakk to succeed him, died, in 1258, they held sway over all that is now known as Morocco, and 1269 saw the death of the last Muwalibadi prince.^ But they were soon in a position to proclaim complete independence, and by the time that Abu Bakr, the third son of Abd-el-Hakk to succeed him, died, in 1258, they held sway over all that is now known as Morocco, and 1269 saw the death of the last Muwalibadi prince.

^ El-Hasan's death was kept secret till the coffin reached its destination, so that a peaceful proclamation was secured for ` Abd-el-`Aziz IV ., his son by a Circassian slave who The Reign possessed great influence over him.

^ One of the survivors, however, Abd-el-Malek I., deposed Abd-Allah's son, Mahomet XI., whose appeal to Sebastian of Portugal for assistance, brought about the celebrated " battle of the three kings," in which they all perished in 1578 near Al Kasar.

.On the death of Abu Bakr there succeeded Yakub II., one of the few amirs of Morocco who have left a name for just administration and for philanthropic undertakings.^ On the death of Abu Bakr there succeeded Yakub II., one of the few amirs of Morocco who have left a name for just administration and for philanthropic undertakings.

^ Arab invasion " of the 7th century, which would have left few traces but for the Moslem missionaries who came after them.

^ The Kingdom of Morocco is a constitutional monarchy and is currently ruled by His Majesty King Muhammad VI, who became king following the death of his father, the late King Hassan II, in July 1999.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although of strict religious habits, he displayed no bigotry, studying philosophy, and entering into friendly intercourse with Europeans, whom he encouraged to trade with Salli.^ Although of strict religious habits, he displayed no bigotry, studying philosophy , and entering into friendly intercourse with Europeans, whom he encouraged to trade with Salli.

^ He entered into friendly relations with Queen Elizabeth and other European potentates, and the oases of That, &c., were added to his dominions, which embraced also Timbuktu , whence came gold and tobacco.

.In 1261, 1275 and 1277-1279, he undertook successful expeditions to Spain, and again in 1284, this time, in alliance with Alphonso of Leon, against his rebel son Sancho.^ In 1261, 1275 and 1277-1279, he undertook successful expeditions to Spain, and again in 1284, this time, in alliance with Alphonso of Leon , against his rebel son Sancho.

.But Alphonso dying during the struggle, Yakub found himself master of his country, and Sancho had to acknowledge his suzerainty.^ But Alphonso dying during the struggle, Yakub found himself master of his country, and Sancho had to acknowledge his suzerainty .

.All Mahommedans within his realm were freed from all taxes, and all the Arabic manuscripts of the country - thirteen loads - were despatched to the college Yakub had built in Fez.^ All Mahommedans within his realm were freed from all taxes, and all the Arabic manuscripts of the country - thirteen loads - were despatched to the college Yakub had built in Fez.

^ Youths who desire to pursue their studies attend colleges in Fez or elsewhere to acquire some knowledge of Mahommedan theology , logic , composition and jurisprudence .

.But Yakub did not live to reap the benefits of his conquest, which were enjoyed by his son, Yusef IV. (1286), who was courted by his father's old foes, entering into amicable relations with Tunis, Egypt, Arabia and the neighbouring European states.^ But Yakub did not live to reap the benefits of his conquest, which were enjoyed by his son, Yusef IV. (1286), who was courted by his father's old foes, entering into amicable relations with Tunis, Egypt, Arabia and the neighbouring European states.

^ Although of strict religious habits, he displayed no bigotry, studying philosophy , and entering into friendly intercourse with Europeans, whom he encouraged to trade with Salli.

^ He entered into friendly relations with Queen Elizabeth and other European potentates, and the oases of That, &c., were added to his dominions, which embraced also Timbuktu , whence came gold and tobacco.

.With the contemporaneous Beni Zeiyan dynasty of Tlemcen, sworn foes of his house, however, he was still at war when stabbed (1307) in the new town of Tlemcen, which he had built while conducting a siege of the old town.^ With the contemporaneous Beni Zeiyan dynasty of Tlemcen, sworn foes of his house, however, he was still at war when stabbed (1307) in the new town of Tlemcen, which he had built while conducting a siege of the old town .

^ A second siege was begun in 1335, and Tlemcen fell in 1337 to the fourth ruler of the dynasty, Ali V., Abu `1 Hasan, better known as " The Black Sultan."

.A second siege was begun in 1335, and Tlemcen fell in 1337 to the fourth ruler of the dynasty, Ali V., Abu `1 Hasan, better known as " The Black Sultan."^ A second siege was begun in 1335, and Tlemcen fell in 1337 to the fourth ruler of the dynasty, Ali V., Abu `1 Hasan, better known as " The Black Sultan."

^ Ali V., " Abu'l Hasan."

.Unsuccessful in his invasion of Spain and Tunisia, Ali had eventually to abdicate in 1351 in favour of his rebel son, the famous " Abu Ainan," Faris I., who during a short reign recovered Algeria and Tunisia.^ Unsuccessful in his invasion of Spain and Tunisia, Ali had eventually to abdicate in 1351 in favour of his rebel son, the famous " Abu Ainan," Faris I., who during a short reign recovered Algeria and Tunisia.

^ In 1261, 1275 and 1277-1279, he undertook successful expeditions to Spain, and again in 1284, this time, in alliance with Alphonso of Leon , against his rebel son Sancho.

^ Then, at last, this dynasty provided a beneficent sovereign in the person of his son, Mahomet XVI., during whose reign of 33 years the land prospered.

.The Beni Mann were soon driven back, till a few years later Tlemcen alone remained to them, and this they held only till 1 359 (see Tlemc C En).^ At year's end they remained in jail.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Beni Mann were soon driven back, till a few years later Tlemcen alone remained to them, and this they held only till 1 359 (see Tlemc C En ).

^ War being declared, the Spaniards marched on the town, which they captured after two months, and held till peace was signed six months later on their own terms.

Thereafter their empire became habitually divided between rival claimants, and the Portuguese began to obtain footholds on the coast, Ceuta being lost to them in 1415, Al Kasar in 1458, and Azila and Tangier in 1471.
.On the failure of the Beni Mann the amirate was seized by Sa`id III., " El Wallas," head of another branch, founder of the short-lived Wattasi dynasty.^ On the failure of the Beni Mann the amirate was seized by Sa`id III., " El Wallas," head of another branch, founder of the short-lived Wattasi dynasty.

^ Abu Sa'id III. .

^ In 1149 the Murabti power was overthrown by another religious leader, `Abd el Mumin at the head of the Muwahhadi - i.e.

.His reign is memor- wattasi able as that in which the " Catholic Princes " Dynasty, expelled his co-religionists from Spain, the last 1471-1548. amir of Granada and many others taking refuge in Morocco, where in 1492 they built for themselves Tetuan.^ His reign is memor- wattasi able as that in which the " Catholic Princes " Dynasty, expelled his co-religionists from Spain, the last 1471-1548.

^ Granada and many others taking refuge in Morocco, where in 1492 they built for themselves Tetuan.

^ These were the people who thrice conquered Spain - once from the Visigoths, and twice from their less stalwart co-religionists.

.His son, Mahomet VIII., surnamed " the Portuguese," because so long a prisoner of that people, had to suffer the loss to Portugal of practically all his Atlantic ports but Salli-Rabat, and of Person de Velez to Spain, which had a few years previously captured Melilla.^ His son, Mahomet VIII., surnamed " the Portuguese," because so long a prisoner of that people, had to suffer the loss to Portugal of practically all his Atlantic ports but Salli-Rabat, and of Person de Velez to Spain, which had a few years previously captured Melilla.

^ Portuguese, but ultimately, on the death of Mahomet VIII., when in possession of the kingdom of Marrakesh, the sharifs defeated his successor and arranged a formal division of the country at the Urn er-Rabi'a.

^ Then, at last, this dynasty provided a beneficent sovereign in the person of his son, Mahomet XVI., during whose reign of 33 years the land prospered.

.Although two more reigns carried the dynasty down to 1550, it has barely left its mark upon the country.^ Although two more reigns carried the dynasty down to 1550, it has barely left its mark upon the country.

.From the beginning of the new century a rising power had been making itself felt in the south, over which the Wattasis never held sway.^ From the beginning of the new century a rising power had been making itself felt in the south, over which the Wattasis never held sway.

.The family of sharifs or " nobles " - that is, descendants of Mahomet - popularly known as the Sa`adi or Hasani (Hosaini), settled in the Dra`a district, but originally came from Sa'adi Yanboa, near Medina.^ The family of sharifs or " nobles " - that is, descendants of Mahomet - popularly known as the Sa`adi or Hasani (Hosaini), settled in the Dra`a district, but originally came from Sa'adi Yanboa, near Medina .

^ Wazzan is the seat of a sharif or noble descended from Mulai Idris, whose family has been greatly reverenced for over two hundred years.

.Their opportune religious Dynasty, leadership rallied the disjointed members of the 1524-1668. empire for a jehad against the Portuguese, but ultimately, on the death of Mahomet VIII., when in possession of the kingdom of Marrakesh, the sharifs defeated his successor and arranged a formal division of the country at the Urn er-Rabi'a.^ Portuguese, but ultimately, on the death of Mahomet VIII., when in possession of the kingdom of Marrakesh, the sharifs defeated his successor and arranged a formal division of the country at the Urn er-Rabi'a.

^ Their opportune religious Dynasty, leadership rallied the disjointed members of the 1524-1668.

^ It and the Urn er-Rabi`a (mother of grass ), although their mouths are widely separated, drain the northern slopes of the central Atlas.

.At the head of the movement were then the two sons of the sharif who had started it, Ahmed III.^ At the head of the movement were then the two sons of the sharif who had started it, Ahmed III .

and .Mahomet IX., between whom rivalry broke out, resulting in the success of the latter, who by 1550 found himself the master of the whole empire on carrying off the last Wattasi amir Mahomet and espousing his daughter.^ Mahomet IX., between whom rivalry broke out, resulting in the success of the latter, who by 1550 found himself the master of the whole empire on carrying off the last Wattasi amir Mahomet and espousing his daughter.

^ But Alphonso dying during the struggle, Yakub found himself master of his country, and Sancho had to acknowledge his suzerainty .

^ On the assassination of Mahomet IX. in 1557, the succession passed by a previous agreement to his brother's son, `Abd-Allah IV., who secured himself against the possible rivalry of his brothers by putting ten of the twelve to death.

.On the assassination of Mahomet IX. in 1557, the succession passed by a previous agreement to his brother's son, `Abd-Allah IV., who secured himself against the possible rivalry of his brothers by putting ten of the twelve to death.^ On the assassination of Mahomet IX. in 1557, the succession passed by a previous agreement to his brother's son, `Abd-Allah IV., who secured himself against the possible rivalry of his brothers by putting ten of the twelve to death.

^ El-Hasan's death was kept secret till the coffin reached its destination, so that a peaceful proclamation was secured for ` Abd-el-`Aziz IV ., his son by a Circassian slave who The Reign possessed great influence over him.

^ Mahomet IX., between whom rivalry broke out, resulting in the success of the latter, who by 1550 found himself the master of the whole empire on carrying off the last Wattasi amir Mahomet and espousing his daughter.

.One of the survivors, however, Abd-el-Malek I., deposed Abd-Allah's son, Mahomet XI., whose appeal to Sebastian of Portugal for assistance, brought about the celebrated " battle of the three kings," in which they all perished in 1578 near Al Kasar.^ One of the survivors, however, Abd-el-Malek I., deposed Abd-Allah's son, Mahomet XI., whose appeal to Sebastian of Portugal for assistance, brought about the celebrated " battle of the three kings," in which they all perished in 1578 near Al Kasar.

^ Three of the suspects died when they detonated explosive belts and one was shot and killed by the police.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Las Navas (1212), the defection of their amir on that occasion offered an opportunity for Abd-el-Halk, the son of their general, to attempt the overthrow of the reigning house.

.This opened the way to the most famous of his line, Ahmed IV., Ed-Dhahebi, or " the Golden," who proclaimed himself caliph, the last (nominal) Abbasid holder of that office having been superseded by the Turks on their conquest of Egypt in 1517. He entered into friendly relations with Queen Elizabeth and other European potentates, and the oases of That, &c., were added to his dominions, which embraced also Timbuktu, whence came gold and tobacco.^ He entered into friendly relations with Queen Elizabeth and other European potentates, and the oases of That, &c., were added to his dominions, which embraced also Timbuktu , whence came gold and tobacco.

^ This opened the way to the most famous of his line, Ahmed IV., Ed-Dhahebi, or " the Golden," who proclaimed himself caliph , the last (nominal) Abbasid holder of that office having been superseded by the Turks on their conquest of Egypt in 1517.

^ Although of strict religious habits, he displayed no bigotry, studying philosophy , and entering into friendly intercourse with Europeans, whom he encouraged to trade with Salli.

.Ahmed fell a victim of the plague in 1603, and the The Arab Invasion, 682-710. succession was disputed by three of his sons.^ Ahmed fell a victim of the plague in 1603, and the The Arab Invasion, 682-710.

.In 1608 one of them, Zidan, became supreme and reigned twenty years.^ In 1608 one of them, Zidan, became supreme and reigned twenty years.

.To subdue rebellions Zidan twice obtained the assistance of English troops from Charles I., and, like his father, employed large numbers of European artificers in the various palaces he built or completed.^ To subdue rebellions Zidan twice obtained the assistance of English troops from Charles I ., and, like his father, employed large numbers of European artificers in the various palaces he built or completed.

.The two sons who succeeded him had both become drunkards from intercourse with these foreigners, but a third, Mahomet XIII., called from prison to reign in 1636, proved himself a wise and beneficent ruler.^ The two sons who succeeded him had both become drunkards from intercourse with these foreigners, but a third, Mahomet XIII., called from prison to reign in 1636, proved himself a wise and beneficent ruler.

^ El-Hasan's death was kept secret till the coffin reached its destination, so that a peaceful proclamation was secured for ` Abd-el-`Aziz IV ., his son by a Circassian slave who The Reign possessed great influence over him.

^ He was followed by the wretch Yazid, his son by an English or Irish woman, whose reign was fortunately cut short while contending with four rival brothers, two of whom in turn succeeded him, the second, Sulaiman II., proving as wise a ruler as his father.

.But his friendship for Europeans displeased the more fanatical among his subjects, and after a futile attempt on the part of a central Moroccan " saint " of great reputation to oust him, and the " Christians " on the coast as well, another family of sharifs was invited from Tafilalt to undertake the task, and by 1649 they were masters of Fez.^ But his friendship for Europeans displeased the more fanatical among his subjects, and after a futile attempt on the part of a central Moroccan " saint " of great reputation to oust him, and the " Christians " on the coast as well, another family of sharifs was invited from Tafilalt to undertake the task, and by 1649 they were masters of Fez.

^ European visitors, which Sheshawan (or Shefshawan), another sacred city of sharifs, founded in 1471, a day's ride into the mountains south of Tetuan, is not.

^ They were principally employed on public works or in galleys under the task-master's lash, both men and women being subjected to every indignity.

.Before tracing the history of the Filali dynasty, which still holds its own, it will be convenient to refer briefly to the relations which subsisted then (17th century) and for many years afterwards, apart from wars with Spain and Portugal, between the Moors and Europeans.^ Before tracing the history of the Filali dynasty, which still holds its own, it will be convenient to refer briefly to the relations which subsisted then (17th century) and for many years afterwards, apart from wars with Spain and Portugal, between the Moors and Europeans.

^ Before the middle of the 13th century they had been driven out of Spain, and had lost all but what is now known as Morocco, whence, between 1217 and 1269, they were ousted by the Beni Malin (Marinides).

.From the early part of the 13th century there are records of Christian mercenaries and others in the Moorish service, while intermittent trading expeditions had already brought the principal European ports of the Mediterranean into touch with Morocco.^ From the early part of the 13th century there are records of Christian mercenaries and others in the Moorish service, while intermittent trading expeditions had already brought the principal European ports of the Mediterranean into touch with Morocco.

^ The only part of the revenue which can be estimated with any degree of accuracy are the customs, which during the early years of the 20th century yielded about £500,000 per annum.

^ Although of strict religious habits, he displayed no bigotry, studying philosophy , and entering into friendly intercourse with Europeans, whom he encouraged to trade with Salli.

.The settlement of European traders in Moorish ports does not appear to have commenced till later; but it soon became an important factor, for the Moors have always appreciated the advantages of foreign commerce, and thus the way was opened up for diplomatic intercourse and treaty privileges.^ The settlement of European traders in Moorish ports does not appear to have commenced till later; but it soon became an important factor, for the Moors have always appreciated the advantages of foreign commerce, and thus the way was opened up for diplomatic intercourse and treaty privileges.

^ A great impetus was given to their raids by the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1610, and their operations were facilitated later by the recovery of most of the Moorish ports from foreign hands.

^ The recorded history of the Moorish Empire commences with the settlement near the Roman ruins of Volubilis in A.D. 788 of Idris the elder (Idris b.

.Even while their rovers were scouring the seas and making slaves of the foreigners captured, foreign merchants were encouraged to trade among them under guarantees -and safe-conducts.^ Even while their rovers were scouring the seas and making slaves of the foreigners captured, foreign merchants were encouraged to trade among them under guarantees -and safe-conducts.

^ In September 1908 the German consul at Casablanca gave safe-conduct to six deserters from the Foreign Legion, of whom three were Germans.

.Thus originated all the rights enjoyed by foreigners in Morocco to-day, as subsequently confirmed by treaties.^ Thus originated all the rights enjoyed by foreigners in Morocco to-day, as subsequently confirmed by treaties .

^ All travelers will need a passport valid for at least 90 days following your departure date from Morocco.
  • Morocco Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Moroccan Visas Online. 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC morocco.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ These latter are the most progressive and flourishing of all the inhabitants of Morocco, and in their hands is much of the foreign trade.

.France was the first to appoint a consul to Morocco, in 1577, Great Britain only doing so a century later.^ France was the first to appoint a consul to Morocco, in 1577, Great Britain only doing so a century later.

^ The external trade of Morocco is mainly with Great Britain, France, Germany and Spain.

.For centuries the treatment of foreign envoys in Morocco was most humiliating, the presents they brought being regarded in the light of tribute.^ For centuries the treatment of foreign envoys in Morocco was most humiliating, the presents they brought being regarded in the light of tribute .

^ These latter are the most progressive and flourishing of all the inhabitants of Morocco, and in their hands is much of the foreign trade.

.It was not till the year 1900 that the custom was abolished of mounted sultans under umbrellas receiving ambassadors on foot and bareheaded.^ It was not till the year 1900 that the custom was abolished of mounted sultans under umbrellas receiving ambassadors on foot and bareheaded.

^ Under his reign (1795-1822) piracy vas abolished, but the policy, maintained till the end of the century, of having as little as possible to do with foreigners was initiated.

.While, from the European point of view, the pirates of the Barbary coast were a bloodthirsty set of robbers, in no way to be distinguished from the sweepings of Western c i v i l i zat i on who scoured the seas farther east, from R the standpoint of the Moors they were the pious religious warriors for the faith, who had volunteered to punish the Nazarenes for rejecting Mahomet, and it is difficult to realize the honour in which their memory is held save by comparison with that of the Crusaders, in which the positions were exactly reversed.^ While, from the European point of view, the pirates of the Barbary coast were a bloodthirsty set of robbers, in no way to be distinguished from the sweepings of Western c i v i l i zat i on who scoured the seas farther east, from R the standpoint of the Moors they were the pious religious warriors for the faith, who had volunteered to punish the Nazarenes for rejecting Mahomet, and it is difficult to realize the honour in which their memory is held save by comparison with that of the Crusaders, in which the positions were exactly reversed.

^ The lot of the European slave was infinitely worse than that of the negro who indifferently embraced Islam, and was at once admitted to equality in all points save freedom.

^ There are no separate family courts for other religious groups, who rely upon the civil system.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The Moorish rovers approached as nearly to an organized navy as anything the country ever possessed, and at times they were fitted out by the state, to whom their prizes therefore belonged.^ The Moorish rovers approached as nearly to an organized navy as anything the country ever possessed, and at times they were fitted out by the state, to whom their prizes therefore belonged.

.They made descents on the opposite coasts, even as far as Devon and Cornwall, carrying off the population of whole hamlets.^ They made descents on the opposite coasts, even as far as Devon and Cornwall , carrying off the population of whole hamlets.

.Salli, Ma`mora (Mehediya), Laraish, Tangier, Ceuta, Tetuan, and Badis were their principal rendezvous in Morocco, and their vessels, an assortment of almost every known build and rig of the day, varied greatly in numbers and size.^ Salli, Ma`mora (Mehediya), Laraish, Tangier, Ceuta, Tetuan, and Badis were their principal rendezvous in Morocco, and their vessels, an assortment of almost every known build and rig of the day, varied greatly in numbers and size.

^ The towns next in importance are the seaports of Tangier, Casablanca (Dar el Baida), Mogador, Mazagan, Saffi, Salli-Rabat, Laraish and Tetuan.

.It is probable, however, that contemporary writers greatly over-estimated their importance.^ It is probable, however, that contemporary writers greatly over-estimated their importance.

.They appear to have flourished chiefly throughout the ,6th, 17th and ,8th centuries, and to have attained the zenith of their power during the latter part of the 17th century.^ They appear to have flourished chiefly throughout the ,6th, 17th and ,8th centuries, and to have attained the zenith of their power during the latter part of the 17th century.

^ The only part of the revenue which can be estimated with any degree of accuracy are the customs, which during the early years of the 20th century yielded about £500,000 per annum.

.A great impetus was given to their raids by the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1610, and their operations were facilitated later by the recovery of most of the Moorish ports from foreign hands.^ A great impetus was given to their raids by the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1610, and their operations were facilitated later by the recovery of most of the Moorish ports from foreign hands.

^ These latter are the most progressive and flourishing of all the inhabitants of Morocco, and in their hands is much of the foreign trade.

^ The settlement of European traders in Moorish ports does not appear to have commenced till later; but it soon became an important factor, for the Moors have always appreciated the advantages of foreign commerce, and thus the way was opened up for diplomatic intercourse and treaty privileges.

.The varying influence of the different European states could be gauged at first by the prices they were compelled to pay to ransom their captive subjects, and later by the annual tribute which they were willing to present to protect their vessels.^ The varying influence of the different European states could be gauged at first by the prices they were compelled to pay to ransom their captive subjects, and later by the annual tribute which they were willing to present to protect their vessels.

^ For centuries the treatment of foreign envoys in Morocco was most humiliating, the presents they brought being regarded in the light of tribute .

Some countries continued the payment well into the 19th century, although the slavery of Christians in Morocco had been abolished by treaty in 1814.
.During the time that piracy flourished hundreds of thousands of foreigners suffered captivity, torture and death in Morocco rather than abjure their faith, the one condition on which a measure of freedom within Morocco was offered to them.^ During the time that piracy flourished hundreds of thousands of foreigners suffered captivity, torture and death in Morocco rather than abjure their faith, the one condition on which a measure of freedom within Morocco was offered to them.

^ These latter are the most progressive and flourishing of all the inhabitants of Morocco, and in their hands is much of the foreign trade.

^ On the death of Abu Bakr there succeeded Yakub II., one of the few amirs of Morocco who have left a name for just administration and for philanthropic undertakings.

.The horrors of that time were keenly felt in Christendom, and collections were constantly made at church doors for the ransom of Moorish captives.^ The horrors of that time were keenly felt in Christendom, and collections were constantly made at church doors for the ransom of Moorish captives.

.Frequent expeditions for that purpose were undertaken by members of religious brotherhoods, not a few of whom themselves became martyrs.^ Frequent expeditions for that purpose were undertaken by members of religious brotherhoods, not a few of whom themselves became martyrs.

.The lot of the European slave was infinitely worse than that of the negro who indifferently embraced Islam, and was at once admitted to equality in all points save freedom.^ The lot of the European slave was infinitely worse than that of the negro who indifferently embraced Islam, and was at once admitted to equality in all points save freedom.

^ Women who earned secondary school diplomas had equal access to university education, and 47 percent of all university students were women.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.They were principally employed on public works or in galleys under the task-master's lash, both men and women being subjected to every indignity.^ They were principally employed on public works or in galleys under the task-master's lash, both men and women being subjected to every indignity.

^ The divisions of the East are unknown, and their tenets include the principal teachings of both Shias and Sunnis, but, as employing the Maleki ritual , they must be classed with the latter.

.The record of the Filali dynasty may now be considered.^ The record of the Filali dynasty may now be considered.

.The first of this line proclaimed in Fez was Mahomet XIV., but the first of European fame was his brother, Rashid II., " The Great Tafilalta," as he was styled - .1 by the English, who then occupied Tangier, sultan from 1664 to 1672. With him opened a terrible epoch of bloodshed and cruelty, only once revived since - during the short reign of El Yazid (1790-1792) - the horrors of which for both natives and Europeans, are often indescribable.^ The first of this line proclaimed in Fez was Mahomet XIV., but the first of European fame was his brother, Rashid II., " The Great Tafilalta," as he was styled - .1 by the English, who then occupied Tangier, sultan from 1664 to 1672.

^ With him opened a terrible epoch of bloodshed and cruelty , only once revived since - during the short reign of El Yazid (1790-1792) - the horrors of which for both natives and Europeans, are often indescribable.

^ El-Hasan's death was kept secret till the coffin reached its destination, so that a peaceful proclamation was secured for ` Abd-el-`Aziz IV ., his son by a Circassian slave who The Reign possessed great influence over him.

.It reached its climax under his brother Isma'il.^ It reached its climax under his brother Isma'il.

.A man of wonderful vitality, his reign lasted 55 years (1672-1727), during which his fierce grasp never relaxed.^ A man of wonderful vitality, his reign lasted 55 years (1672-1727), during which his fierce grasp never relaxed.

^ During the last academic year, nearly 710,000 citizens benefited from nonformal education programs.
  • Morocco 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, at last, this dynasty provided a beneficent sovereign in the person of his son, Mahomet XVI., during whose reign of 33 years the land prospered.

.Many hundreds of sons and countless daughters were born to him in a harem rivalling that of Solomon, for which he even asked a daughter of Louis XIV.^ Many hundreds of sons and countless daughters were born to him in a harem rivalling that of Solomon , for which he even asked a daughter of Louis XIV .

.Having, as he supposed, driven the English from Tangier, he laid unsuccessful siege to Ceuta for 26 years, but otherwise his military measures were confined to subduing internal enemies, in which he was supported by his faithful black troops, the Bokharis, and also by a foreign legion of renegades.^ Having, as he supposed, driven the English from Tangier, he laid unsuccessful siege to Ceuta for 26 years, but otherwise his military measures were confined to subduing internal enemies, in which he was supported by his faithful black troops, the Bokharis, and also by a foreign legion of renegades.

.For 30 years after Isma'il's death one son after another was set up by the Bokharis, seven succeeding - some of them more than once - till one, Abd-Allah V., who partook of his father's bloodthirsty nature, ended his sixth turn of power in 1757. Then, at last, this dynasty provided a beneficent sovereign in the person of his son, Mahomet XVI., during whose reign of 33 years the land prospered.^ For 30 years after Isma'il's death one son after another was set up by the Bokharis, seven succeeding - some of them more than once - till one, Abd-Allah V., who partook of his father's bloodthirsty nature, ended his sixth turn of power in 1757.

^ Then, at last, this dynasty provided a beneficent sovereign in the person of his son, Mahomet XVI., during whose reign of 33 years the land prospered.

^ El-Hasan's death was kept secret till the coffin reached its destination, so that a peaceful proclamation was secured for ` Abd-el-`Aziz IV ., his son by a Circassian slave who The Reign possessed great influence over him.

.By him Mogador was built and Mazagan, the last hold of the Portuguese, recovered.^ By him Mogador was built and Mazagan, the last hold of the Portuguese, recovered.

.He was followed by the wretch Yazid, his son by an English or Irish woman, whose reign was fortunately cut short while contending with four rival brothers, two of whom in turn succeeded him, the second, Sulaiman II., proving as wise a ruler as his father.^ He was followed by the wretch Yazid, his son by an English or Irish woman, whose reign was fortunately cut short while contending with four rival brothers, two of whom in turn succeeded him, the second, Sulaiman II., proving as wise a ruler as his father.

^ With him opened a terrible epoch of bloodshed and cruelty , only once revived since - during the short reign of El Yazid (1790-1792) - the horrors of which for both natives and Europeans, are often indescribable.

^ The two sons who succeeded him had both become drunkards from intercourse with these foreigners, but a third, Mahomet XIII., called from prison to reign in 1636, proved himself a wise and beneficent ruler.

.Under his reign (1795-1822) piracy vas abolished, but the policy, maintained till the end of the century, of having as little as possible to do with foreigners was initiated.^ Under his reign (1795-1822) piracy vas abolished, but the policy, maintained till the end of the century, of having as little as possible to do with foreigners was initiated.

^ The vanquished sultan, Mahomet XVII., reigned till his death in 1873, when his son, El Hasan III., succeeded, having the usual fight to secure the supremacy.

^ It was not till the year 1900 that the custom was abolished of mounted sultans under umbrellas receiving ambassadors on foot and bareheaded.

.By Sulaiman's direction the imperial umbrella passed to his nephew, Abd-er-Rahman II., on whom he could rely to maintain his policy.^ By Sulaiman's direction the imperial umbrella passed to his nephew, Abd-er- Rahman II ., on whom he could rely to maintain his policy.

^ A bombardment of Salli in 1851 secured for the French the settlement of various claims, and when Abd-er-Rahman died, in 1859, the Spaniards were threatening Tetuan.

^ Abd-er-Rahman I. (in Marrakesh).

.Although disposed to promote foreign trade, he made a futile attempt in 1828 to revive piracy, which the Austrians frustrated by reprisals next year.^ Although disposed to promote foreign trade, he made a futile attempt in 1828 to revive piracy, which the Austrians frustrated by reprisals next year.

.Following this was the war of 1830 with France over the partition of Algeria, as a result of which the Moors renounced all claim to Tlemcen and entered into agreements the infraction of which' led to a second war between the two in 1844, during which Tangier and Mogador were bombarded.^ Following this was the war of 1830 with France over the partition of Algeria, as a result of which the Moors renounced all claim to Tlemcen and entered into agreements the infraction of which' led to a second war between the two in 1844, during which Tangier and Mogador were bombarded.

^ The whole of the Cretaceous system is represented by the shales and limestones occurring between the coast and the edge of the plateau above Morocco, but do not enter into the composition of the High Atlas.

.A bombardment of Salli in 1851 secured for the French the settlement of various claims, and when Abd-er-Rahman died, in 1859, the Spaniards were threatening Tetuan.^ A bombardment of Salli in 1851 secured for the French the settlement of various claims, and when Abd-er-Rahman died, in 1859, the Spaniards were threatening Tetuan.

^ In the Beni Madan hills near Tetuan are mines, closed, it is said, by the sultan `Abd er-Rahman; but whether they furnished copper or lead authorities differ.

^ By Sulaiman's direction the imperial umbrella passed to his nephew, Abd-er- Rahman II ., on whom he could rely to maintain his policy.

.War being declared, the Spaniards marched on the town, which they captured after two months, and held till peace was signed six months later on their own terms.^ War being declared, the Spaniards marched on the town, which they captured after two months, and held till peace was signed six months later on their own terms.

^ Tit, a town which proved a thorn in the side of the Portuguese of Mazagan till they destroyed it.

^ On the 30th of July they attacked the European labourers and killed nine of them (three French, three Spaniards, and three Italians), afterwards entering the town and raiding the Jewish quarter.

.The vanquished sultan, Mahomet XVII., reigned till his death in 1873, when his son, El Hasan III., succeeded, having the usual fight to secure the supremacy.^ The vanquished sultan, Mahomet XVII., reigned till his death in 1873, when his son, El Hasan III., succeeded, having the usual fight to secure the supremacy.

^ El-Hasan's death was kept secret till the coffin reached its destination, so that a peaceful proclamation was secured for ` Abd-el-`Aziz IV ., his son by a Circassian slave who The Reign possessed great influence over him.

^ The two sons who succeeded him had both become drunkards from intercourse with these foreigners, but a third, Mahomet XIII., called from prison to reign in 1636, proved himself a wise and beneficent ruler.
  • Morocco - LoveToKnow 19