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Rabbi Moses ben Jacob Cordovero or Moshe Cordevero (1522–1570) (Hebrew: משה קורדובירו‎) was a leading Jewish mystic in 16th-century Safed in Ottoman Palestine. He is known by the acronym the Ramak (רמ"ק standing for "Rabbi Moshe Cordovero").

After the Medieval circles of Kabbalah, centered around the Zohar, attempts were made to give a complete intellectual system to its theology. Influenced by the earlier success of Jewish philosophy in articulating a rational study of Jewish thought, Moshe Cordovero produced the first accepted, complete systemisation of the profound ideas of Kabbalah. His rational school of Cordoveran Kabbalah represents one of the pivotal developments in the historical evolution of Kabbalah. Immediately after him in Safed, Isaac Luria articulated a subsequent, successive paradigm for Kabbalistic theology, with new revealed doctrines and organisation of previous Kabbalistic thought. Lurianic Kabbalah was seen by its followes as harmonious with, and a deeper interpretation of the Zohar and the system of the Ramak. Lurianic Kabbalah mostly superseded Cordoveran, but some schools continue to follow the system of Moshe Cordovero. Both articulations gave Kabbalah an intellectual completion to rival Jewish philosophy ("Hakira"), and under the influence of the esoteric development of mystical thought in 16th-century Safed, Kabbalah replaced Hakira as the fundamental theology of Judaism, both in scholarly circles and in the popular imagination.

Contents

Biography

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Chronological history
The Zohar
Early: Sefer Yetzirah · Tannaim · Heichalot Medieval: Bahir · Toledano tradition · Chassidei Ashkenaz · Prophetic Kabbalah · Zohar · Kabbalistic commentaries on the Bible · Mainstream replacement of Philosophy with Kabbalah Rennaisance: Selective influence on Western thought · Mysticism after Spanish expulsion · Mystics of 16th century Safed · Cordoveran Kabbalah · Lurianic Kabbalah · Philosophy of the Maharal · Shnei Luchos HaBris Early Modern: Baal Shem-Nistarim · Sabbatean mystical heresies · Emden-Eybeschutz Controversy · Immigration to the Land of Israel · Traditional Oriental Kabbalists · Beit El Synagogue · Eastern European Judaism · Hasidic Judaism · Hasidic philosophy · Lithuanian Jews · Hasidic-Mitnagdic schism Modern: Hasidic dynasties · HaSulam · Academic interest in Jewish mysticism · Non-Orthodox interest in Jewish mysticism
Practices
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Torah study · Mitzvot · Minhag · Customery immersion in Mikveh · Jewish meditation · Deveikut · Jewish prayer · Nusach · Kavanot · Names of God in Judaism · Tikkun Chatzot · Tikkun Leil Shavuot · Teshuvah · Asceticism in Judaism · Pilgrimage to Tzadik · Pilgrimage to holy grave · Lag BaOmer at Meron · Practical Kabbalah
People
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100s: The Four Who Entered the Pardes · Shimon bar Yochai

1100s: Isaac the Blind · Azriel 1200s: Nahmanides · Abraham Abulafia · Joseph ben Abraham Gikatilla · Moses de Leon · Menahem Recanati 1300s: Bahya ben Asher 1400s: 1500s: Meir ibn Gabbai · Joseph Karo · Shlomo Alkabetz · Moshe Alshich · Moshe Cordovero · Isaac Luria · Chaim Vital · Judah Loew ben Bezalel 1600s: Isaiah Horowitz · Abraham Azulai 1700s: Chaim ibn Attar · Baal Shem Tov · Dov Ber of Mezeritch · Moshe Chaim Luzzatto · Shalom Sharabi · Vilna Gaon · Chaim Joseph David Azulai · Nathan Adler · Schneur Zalman of Liadi · Chaim Volozhin 1800s: Nachman of Breslov · Ben Ish Chai · Shlomo Eliyashiv 1900s: Abraham Isaac Kook · Yehuda Ashlag · Baba Sali · Menachem Mendel Schneerson

Position in Jewish thought
Ark of the Ari Ashkenazi Synagogue, Safed
History:
Torah · Tanakh · Prophecy · Ruach HaKodesh · Pardes exegesis · Talmudical hermeneutics · Midrash · Jewish commentaries on the Bible · Oral Torah · Eras of Rabbinic Judaism · Generational descent in Halacha · Generational ascent in Kabbalah · Rabbinic literature · Talmudic theology · Halakha · Aggadah · Hakira (Medieval Jewish Philosophy) · Classic Mussar literature · Ashkenazi Judaism · Sephardi Judaism · Modern Jewish Philosophies · Jewish studies
Topics:
God in Judaism · Divine transcendence · Divine immanence · Free Will in Judaism · Divine Providence in Judaism · Kabbalistic reasons for the 613 Mitzvot · Jewish principles of faith · Jewish eschatology

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Early life

His birthplace is unknown, but the name Cordovero indicates that his family originated in Córdoba, Spain and perhaps fled from there during the expulsion of 1492 during the Spanish Inquisition. His Hebrew signature, however, [Cordoeiro] strongly suggests a long-lasting residence in Portugal.

The Ramak was either born in, or moved to Safed in the Land of Israel, the city that was soon to become famed as a center of Kabbalah and mystical creativity. Albeit not involved in mystical studies until his twentieth year, RaMaK soon after gained a reputation of an extraordinary genius and a prolific writer. Besides his knowledge in Kabbalah, he was a Talmudic scholar and a man of commanding mastery in Jewish philosophical thought who was respected in these fields. Contrary to popular belief, however, Ramak was not one of the Rabbis who received the special semicha ("ordination") from Rabbi Jacob Berab in 1538, alongside Rabbi Yosef Karo (Cordovero's teacher in Halakha), Rabbi Moshe of Trani, Rabbi Yosef Sagis, and Rabbi Moshe Alshich. As a whole, Ramak's future posterity was in speculative and performative Kabballah, but during his own lifetime he was the renowned head of the Yeshiva for Portugese immigrants in Safed.

Scholarship

According to his own testimony in the introduction to "Pardes Rimonim", in 1542, at the age of twenty, Ramak heard a "Heavenly voice" urging him to study Kabbalah with his brother-in-law, Rabbi Shlomo Alkabetz, composer of the mystical song Lecha Dodi. He was thus initiated into the mysteries of the Zohar. The young Ramak not only mastered the text, but decided to organize the Kabbalistic themes leading to his day and present them in an organized fashion. This led to the composition of his first book, Pardes Rimonim ("Orchard of Pomegranates"), which was completed in 1548 and secured Ramak's reputation as a brilliant Kabbalist and a lucid thinker. The Pardes, as it is known, was a systemization of all Kabbalistic thought up to that time and featured the author's attempt at a reconciliation of various early schools with the conceptual teachings of the Zohar in order to demonstrate an essential unity and self-consistent philosophical basis of Kabbalah[1].

His second work - a magnum opus titled Ohr Yakar ("Precious Light") - was a 16 volume commentary on the Zoharic literature in its entirety and a work to which Ramak had devoted most of his life (the modern publication of this great work has started during the mid 1960's and reached partial fruition in 2004 Jerusalem, though the 23-volume set left out about two-thirds of the Tikkunei Zohar; additional volumes are still being published). Some parts of Ohr Yakar have been published under separate titles, such as Shiur Qomah, Tefilah le-Moshe etc.

Some other books for which the Ramak is known are Tomer Devorah ("Palm Tree of Deborah"), in which he utilizes the Kabbalistic concepts of the Sephirot ("Divine attributes") to illuminate a system of morals and ethics; Ohr Neerav, a justification of and insistence upon the importance of Kabbalah study and an introduction to the methods explicated in Pardes Rimonim[2]; Elimah Rabbati, a highly abstract treatise on kabbalistic concerns revolving around the Godhead and His relationship to the Sefirot; and Sefer Gerushin, a short and intimate composition which features the highly devotional slant of Ramak, as well as his asceticism and religious piety. Certain parts of Ramak's works are still in form of manuscripts, whereas his existing writings suggest many other compositions which he either intended to write or had actually written - but were lost.

Disciples

Around 1550, the Ramak founded a Kabbalah academy in Safed, which he led for twenty or so years, until his death. According to Jewish legend, it was reported that the prophet Elijah revealed himself to him. Among his disciples were many of the luminaries of Safed, including Rabbi Eliyahu de Vidas, author of Reshit Chochmah ("Beginning of Wisdom"), and Rabbi Chaim Vital, who later became the official recorder and disseminator of the teachings of Rabbi Isaac Luria.

Ramak was survived by a wife whose name remains unknown (it is known that she was Solomon Alkabetz' sister) and by a son named Gedaliah (1562–1625). Gedaliah was the impetus behind the publication of some of Ramak's books in Venice, Italy circa 1584-7. Gedaliah was buried in Jerusalem, where he had spent most of his adult life after returning from Venice.

Succession of Kabbalistic interpretation after the Ramak

According to tradition, Isaac Luria (the "Arizal") arrived in Safed on the exact day of the funeral of Moshe Cordovero in 1570. When he joined in the funeral procession, he realised that only he saw a pillar of fire following the Ramak's presence[3]. The Zohar describes this spiritual revelation as a sign to the individual who sees it, that he is meant to inherit the succession of leadership from the departed person. However, as Isaac Luria had been instructed to find his chosen disciple in Safed, Haim Vital, to reveal his new teachings to, he avoided accepting Kabbalistic leadership until six months later, when Rabbi Haim Vital approached him. The Ari only lived for two years after this, until 1572, but in those few months he revolutionised the conceptual system of Kabbalah, with his new doctrines and philosophical system.

The two schools of Cordoveran and Lurianic Kabbalah give two alternative accounts and synthesis of the complete theology of Kabbalah until then, based on their interpretation of the Zohar. After the public dissemination of the Zohar in Medieval times, various attempts were made to give a complete intellectual system of theology to its different schools and interpretations. Influenced by the earlier rational success of Jewish philosophy, especially the work of Maimonides, in producing a systematic intellectual articulation of Judaism, the Ramak achieved the first accepted systemisation of Kabbalah, based on its rational cattegorisation and study. Subsequent followers of the Ari saw their teachings as harmonious with, and a deeper interpretation of the Zohar and the Ramak's system, but the new system of Isaac Luria revealed completely new doctrines, as well as new descriptions of the earlier ideas of Kabbalah. In general, Lurianic Kabbalah mostly superseded Cordoveran in Hasidic communities, relegating Cordoveran Kabbalah to Sephardim. Since 80% of world Jewry are Ashkenazim, Lurianic Kabbalah remains the mystical dimension of most Orthodox theology, with both the later Hasidic and Mitnagdic movements differing in their interptetation of it.

Among the Ramak's most visible books

  1. "Pardes Rimonim" ("An Orchard of Pomegranates") - Ramak's first book, which secured his reputation as a mystical genius.
  2. Ohr Yakar ("A Precious Light") - A Magnum opus of some 16 volumes in its extant manuscript form, which had occupied Ramak throughout his adult life - a classic commentary on the Zohar, Sefer Yetzirah and the Zoharic literary offshoots. Its publication ended around 2005 in Jerusalem (some 22 volumes). Certain parts of it - such as Tefilah le-Moshe and Shiur Qomah - were also published independently.
  3. Tomer Devorah ("Palm tree [of] Deborah") which exists in an English translation by Rabbi Moshe Miller (1993).
  4. "Eilima Rabbati" - of which 2/3 are still unpublished!
  5. Ohr Neerav ("A Pleasant Light" - can also mean "a mixed light" and "a darkened light")- exists in an Annotated English translation by Ira Robinson (1994).
  6. " Sefer Gerushin" ("The Book of Banishments") - a disclosure of Ramak's fellowship and their devotional piety in the Galilean outskirts of Safed. A highly informative texts in regard to RaMaK's devotional piety and the use of landscape as the negotiator between heaven and earth.

Notes

  1. ^ Cordovero,M., "Pardes Rimonim", Parts 1-4, trans., Getz, E., Providence University, 2007, p.ix
  2. ^ Cordovero, M., "Or Ne'erav", in Moses Cordovero's Introduction to Kabbalah: An Annotated Version of his "Or Ne'erav", trans. Robinson, I., Michael Scharf: Yeshiva University Press, 1994
  3. ^ [1] Article: "The Development of Kabbalah in Three Stages" Section: "The Historical Evolution of Kabbalistic Thought" from www.inner.org

External links


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