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Mosin–Nagant
Mosin Nagant series of rifles.jpg
Mosin Nagant series of rifles
Type Bolt-action rifle
Place of origin Russia Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1891 - present
Used by See Users
Wars Russo-Japanese War
World War I
Russian revolution of 1917
Russian Civil War
Chinese Civil War
World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
Spanish Civil War
Winter War
Continuation War
others
Production history
Designer Captain Sergei Mosin, Léon Nagant
Designed 1891
Manufacturer Tula, Izhevsk, Sestroryetsk, Manufacture Nationale d'Armes de Châtellerault, Remington, New England Westinghouse, many others
Produced 1891 - 1965
Number built approx 37,000,000 (Russia/Soviet Union)
Variants see Variants
Specifications
Weight kg (8.8 lb) (M91/30)
3.4 kg (7.5 lb) (M38)
4.1 kg (9 lb) (M44)
Length 1,287 mm (50.7 in) (M91/30)
1,013 mm (39.9 in) (carbines)
Barrel length 730 mm (28.7 in) (M91/30)
514 mm (20.2 in) (carbines)

Cartridge 7.62x54mmR
7.62x53mmR (Finnish variants only)
Action bolt-action
Muzzle velocity Light ball, ~ 1,100 m/s (3,609 ft/s) rifle
~ 800 m/s (2,625 ft/s) carbine.
Effective range 500 m (550 yards), 750+ m (with optics)
Feed system 5-round non-detachable magazine, loaded individually or with five-round stripper clips.
Sights Rear: ladder, graduated from 100 m to 2500 m (M91/30) and from 100 m to 1500 m (M38 and M44); Front: hooded fixed post (drift adjustable)

The Mosin–Nagant (Russian: Винтовка Мосина, ISO 9: Vintovka Mosina) is a bolt-action, internal magazine fed, military rifle that was used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations, most of them from Eastern bloc. It gets its name from the Russian Artillery Colonel Sergei Ivanovich Mosin who designed the bolt and receiver, and the Belgian Emile Nagant, who designed the magazine system. His brother, Leon Nagant, was a rifle designer.[1] Also known as the Three-Line Rifle (Трёхлинейная винтовка, ISO 9: Trëhlinejnaâ vintovka), in reference to the 7.62 mm calibre, it was the first to use the 7.62x54mmR cartridge.

As a front-line rifle, the Mosin–Nagant served in various forms from 1891 until the 1960s in many Eastern European nations, when the sniper rifle variant was replaced by the SVD (Снайперская винтовка Драгунова, ISO 9: Snajperskaâ vintovka Dragunova). The Mosin–Nagant is still used in many conflicts due to its ruggedness and the vast number produced.

Contents

History

Initial design and trials

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, Russian troops armed with mostly Berdan single-shot rifles engaged Turks with Winchester repeating rifles resulting in heavy casualties. This emphasized to commanders a need to modernize the Imperial army. The Russian Main Artillery Administration undertook the task of producing a magazine-fed, multi-round weapon in 1882. After failing to adequately modify the Berdan system to meet the requirements, a "Special Commission for the testing of Magazine fed Rifles" was formed to test new designs.

Sergei Ivanovich Mosin, a captain in the Imperial army, submitted his "3-line" calibre (.30 cal, 7.62 mm) rifle in 1889 alongside a 3.5-line design by Léon Nagant (a Belgian) and a 3-line design by captain Zinoviev. When trials concluded in 1891, the units which tested the rifles were split in their decision. The main disadvantages of Nagant's rifle were the following: more complicated mechanism, long and tiresome procedure of disassembling (which required special instruments - it was necessary to unscrew two screws). Mosin's rifle was mainly criticised for lower quality of manufacture and of materials used which resulted in a slightly larger number of stoppages. The Commission voted 14 to 10 to approve Nagant's rifle. However, the head of the commission, General Chagin, insisted on subsequent trials held under the Commission's supervision during which Mosin's rifle showed its advantages, leading to its selection over the Nagant.[2]

Refinement and production

Schematic of Model 1891 (top left)

The 3-line rifle, Model 1891 (its official designation at the time) was adopted. Some details were borrowed from Nagant's design: the form of the fixed box magazine, the principle that the magazine spring is attached to the magazine base plate (in Mosin's original design, the spring was not attached to the base plate and according to the Commission could therefore be lost during cleaning) and the form of the "interrupter" - a detail in the feeding mechanism preventing stoppages due to feeding two cartridges at the same time.

The initial rifle proposed did not contain an interrupter at all, which caused numerous failures to feed. This detail as well as the new configuration of the feed mechanism was introduced in the rifle during the trial and was borrowed from Mosin's rifle (although the form of the interrupter was slightly changed - this changed form was subsequently borrowed back by the Commission for the Model 1891 Mosin Nagant). During the modernisation of 1930 the form of the interrupter was further changed as the part had turned out to be one of the least reliable parts of the action. Thereafter, only the magazine of the Model 91/30 Mosin Nagant rifle and subsequent models was designed by Nagant.

Production of the Model 1891 began in 1892 at the ordnance factories of Tula Arsenal, Izhevsk Arsenal, and Sestroryetsk Arsenal. An order for 500,000 rifles was placed with the French arms factory, Manufacture Nationale d'Armes de Châtellerault.[3]

By the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, approximately 3.8 million rifles had been delivered to the Russian army. Initial reactions by units equipped with the rifle were mixed, but any adverse reports were likely due to poor maintenance of the Mosins by infantrymen more familiar with the Berdan who were not properly trained on the Mosin Nagant.

Between the adoption of the final design in 1891 and the year 1910, several variants and modifications to the existing rifles were made.

World War I

Russian infantry of World War I armed with Mosin-Nagant rifles

With the start of World War I, production was restricted to the M1891 dragoon and infantry models for the sake of simplicity. Due to the desperate shortage of arms and the shortcomings of a still-developing domestic industry, the Russian government ordered 1.5 million M1891 infantry rifles from Remington Arms and another 1.8 million from New England Westinghouse in the United States.[3] Some of these rifles were not delivered before the outbreak of the 1917 October Revolution and the subsequent signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended hostilities between the Central Powers and Russia. Mosin–Nagant rifles in Great Britain were used to arm American and British expeditionary forces sent to North Russia in 1918 and 1919. The rifles still in the United States were primarily used for the training of U.S. Army troops. Some were used to equip U.S. National Guard, SATC, and ROTC units. Designated "U.S. Rifle, 7.62mm, Model of 1916", these are among the rarest of American service arms. In 1917, 50,000 rifles were sent via Vladivostok to the Czechoslovak Legions in Siberia to aid in their attempt to secure passage to France.

Many of the New England Westinghouse and Remington Mosin Nagants were sold to private citizens in the United States before World War II through the office of the director of Civilian Marksmanship, the predecessor to the federal government's current Civilian Marksmanship Program.

Large numbers of Mosin–Nagants were captured by German and Austro-Hungarian forces and saw service with the rear-echelon forces of both armies, and also with the German navy. Many of these weapons were sold to Finland in the 1920s.

Civil War, modernization, and wars with Finland

During the Russian Civil War infantry and dragoon versions were still in production, though in dramatically reduced numbers. The rifle was widely used by Bolsheviks and their enemies, the Whites. In 1924, following the victory of the Red Army, a committee was established to modernize the rifle, which had by then been in service for over three decades. This effort led to the development of the Model 91/30 rifle, which was based on the design of the original dragoon version. The barrel length was shortened by 3 1/2 inches. The sight measurements were converted from arshins to meters; and the front sight blade was replaced by a hooded post front sight less susceptible to being knocked out of alignment. There were also minor modifications to the bolt, but not enough to prevent interchangeability with the earlier Model 1891 and the so-called "Cossack dragoon" rifles.

Finland, a Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until 1917, had long used the Mosin–Nagant in its military. The rifle was used in the short civil war there and adopted as the service rifle of the new republic's army. Finland produced several variants of the Mosin–Nagant, all of them manufactured using the receivers of Russian-made or (later) Soviet-made rifles. Finland also utilized a number of captured M91 and M91/30 rifles with minimal modifications. As a result, the rifle was used on both sides of the Winter War and the Continuation War during World War II. Finnish Mosin–Nagants were produced by SAKO, Tikkakoski, and VKT, with some using barrels imported from Switzerland and Belgium. In assembling M39 rifles, Finnish armorers re-used hexagonal receivers that dated back as far as 1895. Finnish rifles are characterized by Russian, French or American-made receivers stamped with a boxed SA, as well as many other parts produced in those countries and barrels produced in Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium and Germany. The Finns also manufactured two-piece stocks for their Mosin–Nagant rifles.[4]

In addition, the rifle was distributed as aid to anti-Franco forces in the Spanish Civil War.[5]

World War II

Female Soviet soldiers with sniper Mosin-Nagant rifles after the Battle of Konigsberg

When the Soviet Union was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941 the Mosin–Nagant was the standard issue weapon of Soviet troops. As a result, millions of the rifles were produced and used in World War II by the largest mobilized army in history.

The Mosin–Nagant was adapted as a sniper rifle in 1932 and was issued to Soviet snipers. It served quite prominently in the brutal urban battles on the Eastern Front, such as the Battle of Stalingrad, which made heroes of snipers like Vasily Grigoryevich Zaitsev and Ivan Sidorenko. The sniper rifles were very much respected for being very rugged, reliable, accurate, and easy to maintain. Finland also employed the Mosin–Nagant as a sniper rifle, with similar success. For example, Simo Häyhä is credited with killing 505 Soviet soldiers using his M28 Mosin–Nagant.[6]

In 1936, the 91/30 was again modified, this time to speed production. The receiver was changed from its octagonal shape (colloquially referred to as a "hex receiver" for reasons that are not clear) to an easier to make round receiver. When war with Germany broke out, the need to produce Mosin Nagants in vast quantities led to a falling-off in finish of the rifles. The wartime Mosins are easily identified by the presence of tool marks and rough finishing that never would have passed the inspectors in peacetime. However, the basic functionality of the Mosins was unimpaired.

By the end of the war, approximately 17.4 million M91/30 rifles had been produced.

Increased world-wide use

In the years after World War II, the Soviet Union ceased production of all Mosin–Nagants and withdrew them from service in favor of the SKS series carbines and eventually the AK series rifles. Despite its growing obsolescence, the Mosin–Nagant saw continued service throughout the Eastern bloc and the rest of the world for many decades to come. Mosin–Nagant rifles and carbines saw service on many fronts of the Cold War, from Korea and Vietnam to Afghanistan and along the Iron Curtain in Europe. They were kept not only as reserve stockpiles, but front-line infantry weapons as well.

Virtually every country that received military aid from the Soviet Union, China, and Eastern Europe during the Cold War used Mosin–Nagants at various times. Middle Eastern countries within the sphere of Soviet influence—Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and Palestinian-Arab fighters—have received them in addition to other more modern arms. Mosin–Nagants have also seen action in the hands of the Mujahadeen in Afghanistan during the Soviet Union's occupation of the country during the 1970s and the 1980s. Their use in Afghanistan continued on well into the 1990s and the early 21st century by Northern Alliance forces.

Even after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Mosin–Nagants are still commonly found on modern battlefields around the world. They are being used by insurgent forces in the Iraq War and the current war in Afghanistan. Separatists have also used the rifles alongside more modern Russian firearms in the Second war in Chechnya.[7]

Variants

Russia/USSR

Mosin Nagant Model 1891
  • Model 1891 Infantry Rifle (Russian: пехотная винтовка образца 1891-гo года) — The primary weapon of Russian and Red Army infantry from 1891 to 1930. Between 1891 and 1910 the following modifications were made to the design of the rifle:
    • Changed sights.
    • Inclusion of a reinforcing bolt through the finger groove (due to the adoption of a 147-grain pointed ('spitzer') round).
    • Elimination of the steel finger rest behind the trigger guard.
    • New barrel bands.
    • Installation of slot-type sling mounts to replace the more traditional swivels.[8]
Mosin Nagant Model 1891 "Dragoon"
  • Dragoon Rifle (драгунская) — Intended for use by Dragoons (mounted infantry). 64 mm (2.5 in) shorter and 0.4 kg (0.9 lb) lighter than the M1891. The Dragoon rifle's dimensions are identical to the later M1891/30 rifle, and most Dragoon rifles were eventually reworked into M1891/30s. Most such rifles, known to collectors as "ex-Dragoons", can be identified by their pre-1930 date stampings, but small numbers of Dragoon rifles were produced from 1930 to 1932 and after reworking became impossible to distinguish from purpose-built M1891/30s.[9]
  • Cossack Rifle (казачья) — Introduced for Cossack horsemen, it is almost identical to the Dragoon rifle but is sighted for use without a bayonet.
  • Model 1907 Carbine — At 289 mm (11.4 in) shorter and 0.95 kg (2.1 lb) lighter than the M1891, this model was excellent for cavalry, engineers, signalers, and artillerymen. It was stocked nearly to the front sight and therefore did not take a bayonet. It was produced until at least 1917 in small numbers.[9]
Mosin Nagant Model 1891/30
  • Model 1891/30 (винтовка образца 1891/30-го года, винтовка Мосина) – The most prolific version of the Mosin–Nagant. It was produced for standard issue to all Soviet infantry from 1930 to 1945. Most Dragoon rifles were also converted to the M1891/30 standard. It was commonly used as a sniper rifle in World War II. Early sniper versions had a 4x PE or PEM scope, a Soviet-made copy of a Zeiss design, while later rifles used smaller, simpler, and easier-to-produce 3.5x PU scopes. Because the scope was mounted above the chamber, the bolt handle was replaced with a longer, bent version on sniper rifles so the shooter could work the bolt without the scope interfering with it. Its design was based on the Dragoon rifle with the following modifications:
    • Flat rear sights and restamping of sights in metres, instead of arshinii.
    • A cylindrical receiver, replacing the octagonal (commonly called "hex") one. Early production rifles (from 1930 to 1936) and converted Dragoon rifles retain the "hex" receiver.
    • A hooded post front sight, replacing the blade on previous weapons.[10]
Mosin Nagant M38 Carbine
  • Model 1938 Carbine — A carbine based on the M1891/30 design that was produced from 1939 to 1945 at the Izhevsk arsenal and in 1940 and 1944 at Tula. Very few M38 carbines were made in 1945 and are highly sought after by collectors. Essentially a M1891/30 with a shortened barrel and shortened stock, this carbine did not accept a bayonet, however many M38 carbines were fitted into M44 stocks by the Soviets as a wartime expedient. The M38 was replaced by the M44 carbine in 1944.[2]
Mosin Nagant M44 Carbine
  • Model 1944 Carbine — This carbine was introduced into service in late 1944 and remained in production until 1955. Its specifications are very similar to the M1938, with the major exception of having a permanently affixed, folding cruciform-spike bayonet. These were in use not only by the USSR, but also its various satellite nations.[2]
Mosin Nagant M59 Carbine
  • Model 1891/59 Carbine — M1891/59s were created by shortening M1891/30 rifles to carbine length, with rear sight numbers partially ground off to reflect reduced range. These rifles are almost clones of the M38 except for the ground off M91/30 rear sight.[11] The "1891/59" marking on the receiver suggests the carbines were created in or after 1959. It was initially thought that Bulgaria or another Soviet satellite country performed the conversions in preparation for a western invasion that never came. Recent evidence suggests that the M91/59 was indeed produced in Bulgaria from Soviet supplied M91/30's.

Finland

  • M24 — Also known as the "Lotta rifle", it was made for the Civil Guard and was patterned after the original Russian M91, but with a heavier barrel for increased accuracy.
  • M27 — The first original design adopted by the Finnish Army.
  • M27Rv — A cavalry carbine version of the M27. 2217 were made, less than 300 still exist, making it the rarest of all Mosin–Nagant models.[12] Some sub-variants of other models, however, are rarer still.
  • M28 — A variant designed by the Civil Guard. This model was used by Simo Häyhä, a well-known Finnish sniper.
  • M28/30 — An upgraded version of the M28.
  • M91/35 — A model proposed by the Finnish Army to replace both its M27 and the Civil Guard's M28 and M28-30 rifles. The Civil Guard strongly objected to this plan, considering the M91/35 to have poor accuracy and excessive muzzle flash. It was never adopted, instead being supplanted by the M39.
M39 rifle
  • M39 — A compromise between the Army and Civil Guard, adopted so as to standardize Mosin–Nagant production. The M39 was derived largely from the M28-30, but included some alterations proposed by the Army. The M39 also incorporated a semi- pistol grip into the stock, though some early examples used typical Mosin–Nagant straight stocks. Only 10 rifles were completed by the end of the Winter War, but 96,800 were produced and used in the Continuation War. Small numbers were assembled from leftover parts in the late 1960s through 1970, bringing the total production to approximately 102,000.
  • M56 — An experimental 7.62x39 version.
  • M28/57 — A biathlon 7.62x54R version.
  • 7.62 Tkiv 85 — A modern designated marksman/sniper rifle designed around original Mosin–Nagant receivers modified and assembled by Valmet and Finnish Defence Forces (FDF) Asevarikko 1 (Arsenal 1) in Kuopio.

Czechoslovakia

  • VZ91/38 Carbine — Very similar to the M91/59, it is an M38-style carbine produced by cutting down Model 1891 Infantry, Dragoon, and Cossack rifles. Few of these carbines exist, and the reason for their creation remains unclear. Like the M91/59, they have a bayonet groove cut into the right side of the stock, despite there being no evidence that the VZ91/38 design ever included a bayonet.
  • VZ54 Sniper Rifle — Based on the M1891/30, although it has the appearance of a modern sporting firearm. The VZ54 utilizes a Czech-made 2.5x magnification scope, as well as a unique rear sight. It also borrows some features from the Mauser design, such as locking screws and a K98k-style front sight hood.

China

  • Type 53 — A license-built version of the post war Soviet M1944 carbine. Many of the carbines imported to the USA are constructed of both local Chinese parts and surplus Soviet parts, there is much debate as to when this mixture occurred. Type 53s are found both with and without the permanently attached folding bayonet, though the former is far more common.

Hungary

Hungarian M/52 rifle with PU 3.5x optics
  • M/52— a direct copy of the original Soviet Model 1891/30 sniper rifle. Identifying features include:
    • Darkly blued steel and high quality machining.
    • An "02" stamp on every component of the rifle, identifying it as manufactured in Hungary.
  • M44 Pattern— Domestically produced version of post war pattern Soviet M44 Carbine marked "02".

Romania

  • Triangular shaped markings, some with an arrow inside, on many components of the rifle. Normally three "R"'s surrounded by crossed stalks with leaves pointing outwards are on the top of the breech. Year stamps are quite visible.
  • M44 Pattern— Domestically produced version of post war pattern Soviet M44 Carbine during the years 1953 to 1955. Variances to the Soviet pattern produced minor differences.
  • M91/30 Pattern— Domestically produced version Soviet pattern M91 during the year 1955. Some of the guns are marked "INSTRUCTIE" and held in reserve for a secondary line of defense in case of invasion. The Instructie mark is typically, but not always, accompanied by a broad red band on the buttstock. Some collectors don't consider these safe to fire, but most appear to be in good working order although well worn and somewhat neglected. The "EXERCITIU" mark is found on rifles that seem to have been used specifically for training purposes only. The "EXERCITIU" rifles are easily recognized by the black paint on the entire butt of the stock. They are not intended to be fired since the firing pin is clipped and many times parts critical to their proper function are missing.

Poland

  • wz. 91/98/23— conversion to the 7.92mmx57 Mauser cartridge, with a magazine modified to feed rimless cartridges. Utilized original Russian spike bayonet.
  • wz. 91/98/25— a conversion to the 7.92mmx57 Mauser cartridge, with a magazine modified to feed rimless cartridges and a bayonet mounting bar to allow the use of Mauser 1898 bayonets.
  • wz. 91/98/26— conversion to the 7.92mmx57 Mauser cartridge, with a magazine modified to feed rimless cartridges and a bayonet mounting bar to allow the use of Mauser 1898 bayonets. Modified 2 piece ejector/interrupter similar to Mauser pattern rifles.
  • M44 Pattern— Domestically produced version of post war pattern Soviet M44 Carbine, Marked with the Polish "circle 11."

United States

  • U.S. Rifle, 7.62 mm, Model of 1916
    • Due to the desperate shortage of arms and the shortcomings of a still-developing domestic industry, the Russian government ordered 1.5 million M1891 infantry rifles from Remington Arms and another 1.8 million from New England Westinghouse in the United States. Some of these rifles were not delivered before the outbreak of the October Revolution and the subsequent signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which ended hostilities between the Central Powers and Russia. When the Bolsheviks took over the Russian government, they defaulted on the Imperial Russian contracts with the American arsenals, with the result that New England Westinghouse and Remington were stuck with hundreds of thousands of Mosin Nagants. The US government bought up the remaining stocks, saving Remington and Westinghouse from bankruptcy.
    • The rifles in Great Britain armed the US and British expeditionary forces sent to North Russia in 1918 and 1919. The rifles still in the US ended up being primarily used as training firearms for the US Army. Some were used to equip US National Guard, SATC and ROTC units. Designated "U.S. Rifle, 7.62mm, Model of 1916," these are among the most obscure U.S. service arms. In 1917, 50,000 of these rifles were sent via Vladivostok to equip the Czechoslovak Legions in Siberia to aid in their attempt to secure passage to France.
    • During the interwar period, the rifles which had been taken over by the US military were sold to private citizens in the United States by the Director of Civilian Marksmanship, the predecessor agency to the current Civilian Marksmanship Program. They were sold for the sum of $7.00 each. If unaltered to chamber the US standard.30-06 Springfield rimless cartridge, these rifles are prized by collectors because they do not have the import marks required by law to be stamped or engraved on military surplus firearms brought into the United States from other countries.

Civilian use

Vostok brand Target rifle based on a Mosin Nagant action from a 1965 Italian gun catalog

Mosin–Nagants have been exported from Finland since the 1960s as its military modernized and decommissioned the rifles. Most of these ended up in the hands of private collectors in the West.

In Russia the Mosin Nagant action has been used to produce a limited number of commercial rifles, the most famous are the Vostok brand target rifles exported in Europe in the 1960s and 70's chambered in the standard 7.62x54mmR round and in 6.5x54mmR, a necked down version of the original cartridge designed for long range target shooting.

A number of the Model 1891s produced by New England Westinghouse and Remington were sold to private citizens in the United States by the U.S. government through the Director of Civilian Marksmanship program between the two World Wars. Rifles from this program are valuable collectibles. Many of these American-made Mosin–Nagants were rechambered by wholesalers to the ubiquitous American .30-06 Springfield cartridge; these were crudely altered, and are considered dangerous to fire, with severe injury or death a distinct possibility. Despite this, the .30-06 conversions are considered desirable to some collectors for their relative rarity.

With the fall of the Iron Curtain, a large quantity of Mosin–Nagants have found their way onto markets outside of Russia as collectibles and hunting rifles. Due to the large surplus created by the Soviet small arms industry during World War II, these rifles (mostly M1891/30 rifles and M1944 carbines) are inexpensive compared to similar surplus arms, and possibly the cheapest firearm of the day, often found at under $US100. There is serious collector interest in the Mosin–Nagant family of rifles, and they are popular with target shooters and hunters.

Users

References

  1. ^ Kokalis, Peter G. (2003). "White Death". The Shotgun News Treasury Issue Volume 4. Primedia Publishing.
  2. ^ a b c http://www.russian-mosin-nagant.com/russian.html
  3. ^ a b http://7.62x54r.net/MosinID/Mosinprimer.htm
  4. ^ The Pre-1899 Antique Guns FAQ
  5. ^ http://7.62x54r.net/MosinID/MosinRareSCWM9130s.htm
  6. ^ http://www.mosinnagant.net/finland/simohayha.asp
  7. ^ http://ww2db.com/weapon.php?q=58
  8. ^ Mosin_Nagant_1891.jpg
  9. ^ a b Mosin_Nagant_Model_1891_%22Dragoon%22_(Sketch).jpg
  10. ^ http://7.62x54r.net/MosinID/MosinM9130S.htm
  11. ^ http://7.62x54r.net/MosinID/MosinM9159.htm
  12. ^ http://www.mosinnagant.net/finland/The-Finnish-M27.asp
  13. ^ http://www.mosinnagant.net/global%20mosin%20nagants/Captured-Mosin-Nagants1.asp
  14. ^ http://www.mosinnagant.net/global%20mosin%20nagants/Captured-Mosin-Nagants1.asp
  15. ^ Turnbull, Patrick (1977). The Spanish Civil War 1936-39. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0850452821. 
  • Military Heritage did a feature about the collectible Finnish version of the Mosin–Nagant rifle—supplies are limited due to the limited production runs for the Finnish version (Chuck Lewis, Military Heritage, October 2005, Volume 7, No. 2, p. 26, p. 27, .p 70, p. 71), ISSN 1524-8666.
  • Lapin, T.W. (2003). The Mosin–Nagant Rifle 3rd Edition. Tustin, California: North Cape Publications. ISBN 1-882391-21-7
  • Doug Bowser. Rifles of the White Death.
  • Markku Palokangas. Sotilaskäsiaseet Suomessa 1918-1988. (Reportedly out of print)
  • Kokalis, Peter G. (2003). "White Death." The Shotgun News Treasury Issue Volume 4. Primedia Publishing.

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