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The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations
מדינת ישראל
המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים
Mossad seal.png
"Where no stratagem is, the people fall; but in the multitude of counsellors there is salvation." (Proverbs 11:14)
Seal of The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations
Agency overview
Formed December 13, 1949 as the Central Institute for Coordination
Employees 1,200 (est)
Agency executive Meir Dagan, Director
Parent agency Office of the Prime Minister
Website
www.mossad.gov.il

The Mossad (HaMossad leModi'in uleTafkidim Meyuchadim, Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים‎ - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations) is the national intelligence agency of Israel. "Mossad" is the Hebrew word for institute or institution.

The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection and covert operations including paramilitary activities. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community, along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security), but its director reports directly to the Prime Minister.

Contents

Prior to Israel's formation

The "Mossad Le'aliyah Bet" was a small, unorthodox Zionist organization whose mission in 1938 was to bring Jews to the British mandate of Palestine. This was done to subvert the British quotas on Jewish immigration. The Mossad's modes of operation, its ideology, and politics resulted in the creation of the intelligence agency for the Israeli government once it was established in 1948. The agency consisted of several of the existing members who had worked to establish Israel as a Jewish state.

Organization

Executive offices

From its headquarters in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv, the Mossad oversees a staff estimated at 1,200 personnel, although it may have numbered up to 2,000 in the late 1980s.[1] The Mossad does not use military ranks, although most of its staff have served in the Israel Defense Forces as part of Israel's compulsory draft system, and many of them are officers. It is assumed to consist of eight different departments.

The largest is Collections, tasked with many aspects of conducting espionage overseas. Employees in the Collections Department operate under a variety of covers, including diplomatic and unofficial.[1] Their field intelligence officers, called katsas, are similar to case officers of the CIA. Thirty to forty operate at a time, mainly in Europe and the Middle East.[2]

The Political Action and Liaison Department is responsible for working both with allied foreign intelligence services, and with nations that have no normal diplomatic relations with Israel.[1]

Among the departments of the Mossad is the Special Operations Division or '"Metsada" (see Kidon), which is involved in assassination, paramilitary operations, sabotage, and psychological warfare.[1]

Psychological warfare is also a concern of the Lochamah Psichologit Department, which conducts propaganda and deception activities as well.[1]

Additionally, the Mossad has a Research Department, tasked with intelligence production, and a Technology Department concerned with the development of tools for Mossad activities.[3]

Directors of Mossad

Organizational history

The Mossad was formed on December 13, 1949 as the "Central Institute for Coordination", at the recommendation of Reuven Shiloah to Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. Shiloah wanted a central body to coordinate and improve cooperation between the existing security services– the army's intelligence department (AMAN), the General Security Service (GSS or "Shin Bet") and the foreign office's "political department". In March 1951, it was reorganized and made a part of the prime minister's office, reporting directly to the prime minister.

Mossad's former motto: be-tachbūlōt ta`aseh lekhā milchāmāh (Hebrew: בתחבולות תעשה לך מלחמה‎) is a quote from the Bible (Proverbs 24:6): "For by wise guidance you can wage your war, and in abundance of counselors there is victory" (NRSV). (In Hebrew, "tachbūlōt" - "wise guidance" in English - can also be translated as "cunning", "trick", or "deception") The motto was changed recently as part of the Mossad's public 'coming out' to another Proverbs passage: be-'éyn tachbūlōt yippol `ām; ū-teshū`āh be-rov yō'éts (Hebrew: באין תחבולות יפול עם, ותשועה ברוב יועץ‎) (Proverbs 11:14). This is translated by NRSV as: "Where there is no guidance, a nation falls, but in an abundance of counselors there is safety."

Suspected Activities

South America

Argentina

In 1960, the Mossad discovered that Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann was in Argentina and through surveillance, they confirmed that he had been living there under the name of Ricardo Klement. He was captured by a team of Mossad agents on May 11, 1960, and subsequently smuggled to Israel where he was tried and executed. Argentina protested what it considered as the violation of its sovereignty, and the United Nations Security Council noted that "repetition of acts such as [this] would involve a breach of the principles upon which international order is founded, creating an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust incompatible with the preservation of peace" while also acknowledging that "Eichmann should be brought to appropriate justice for the crimes of which he is accused" and that "this resolution should in no way be interpreted as condoning the odious crimes of which Eichmann is accused."[4][5] Mossad abandoned a second operation, intended to capture Josef Mengele.[citation needed]

Europe

Belgium

The Mossad is commonly understood to be responsible for the assassination of Canadian engineer and ballistics expert Gerald Bull outside his Brussels apartment March 22, 1990. He was shot multiple times in the head outside his apartment.[6] Bull was at the time working for Iraq on the Project Babylon supergun expressedly against the wishes of Israel.[7]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Assisted in air and overland evacuations of the Jews from war-torn Sarajevo to Israel in 1992 and 1993.

Cyprus

The assassination of Hussein Al Bashir in Nicosia, Cyprus, in 1973.[8]

France

The alleged assassination of Zuheir Mohsen in 1979.[9]

The alleged assassination of Atef Bseiso in Paris in 1992. French police believe that a team of assassins followed Atef Bseiso from Berlin, where that first team connected with another team to close in on him in front of a Left Bank hotel, where he received three head-shots at point blank range.[10]

The assassination of Yehia El-Mashad in 1980.[11]

The assassination of Dr. Mahmoud Hamshari with an exploding telephone in his Paris apartment in 1972.[8]

The assassination of Dr. Basil Al-Kubaissi in Paris in 1973.[8]

The assassination of Mohammad Boudia in Paris in 1973.[8]

Germany

Operation Plumbat (1968) was an operation by Lekem-Mossad to further Israel's nuclear program. The German freighter "Scheersberg A", disappeared on its way from Antwerp to Genoa along with its cargo of 200 tons of yellowcake, after supposedly being transferred to an Israeli ship.[12]

The sending of letter bombs during the Operation Wrath of God campaign. Some of these attacks were not fatal. Their purpose might not have been to kill the receiver. Some of the more famous examples of the Mossad letter bombs were those sent to Nazi war-criminal Alois Brunner.[13]

The alleged assassination of Dr Wadie Haddad, using poisoned chocolate, in 1978. The PFLP-EO movement dissolved after his assassination.[14]

Greece

The assassination of Zaiad Muchasi by an explosion in his Athens hotel room, 1973.[8]

Italy

The abduction of nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu in 1986 after American-Israeli agent Cheryl Bentov lured him from the United Kingdom.[15]

The assassination of Wael Zwaiter.[16][17]

Malta

The assassination of Fathi Shiqaqi. Shiqaqi a leader of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, was shot multiple times in the head in 1995 in front of the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema, Malta.[18]

Norway

On July 21, 1973, Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer, Norway, was killed by Mossad while walking with his pregnant wife. He had been mistaken for Ali Hassan Salameh, one of the leaders of Black September, the Palestinian group responsible for the Munich massacre, who had been given shelter in Norway. The Mossad agents had used fake Canadian passports, which angered the Canadian government. Six Mossad agents were arrested, and the incident became known as the Lillehammer affair.[19][20][21]

United Kingdom

In 1986, Mossad used an undercover agent to lure nuclear whistleblower Mordechai Vanunu from the United Kingdom to Italy where he was abducted and transported to Israel where he was tried for treason because of his role in exposing Israel's nuclear program.[22]

For its alleged role in the 7/7 bombs in London, according to the 2007 edition of a book about the Mossad entitled “Gideon’s Spies,” shortly after the 7/7 London underground bombings, the British domestic intelligence agency MI5 gathered evidence that a senior al-Qaeda operative known only by the alias Mustafa travelled in and out of England shortly before the 7/7 bombings. For months, the real identity of Mustafa remained unknown, but in early October 2005, Mossad told MI5 that this person was, in fact, Azhari Husin, a bomb-making expert with Jemaah Islamiyah, the main al-Qaeda affiliate in Southeast Asia. Husin studied in Britain and reports claim that he met the main 7/7 bomber, Mohammad Sidique Khan, in late 2001 in a militant training camp in the Philippines (see Late 2001). Meir Dagan, the head of Mossad, apparently also told MI5 that Husin helped plan and recruit volunteers for the bombings. Mossad claimed that Husin may have been in London at the time of the bombings, and then fled to al-Qaeda’s main safe haven in the tribal area of Pakistan, where he sometimes hid after bombings. Husin was killed in a shootout in Indonesia in November 2005. [Thomas, 2007, pp. 520, 522] Later official British government reports about the 7/7 bombings did not mention Husin. http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=israel_institute_for_intelligence_and_special_tasks

Soviet Union/Russia

In February 1956, a friendly member of the Politburo provided the Mossad with a copy of Nikita Khrushchev's speech denouncing Joseph Stalin. The Mossad passed it on to the United States, which published the speech, embarrassing the USSR. This was a major intelligence coup that raised the prestige of the organization.[23]

In the summer of 2009 the Mossad was reported to have been involved in the case of the MV Arctic Sea, allegedly carrying Russian missiles to Iran in the Baltic Sea.[24]

Middle East

Egypt

  • In what was later known as the Lavon affair, Israeli agents attempted to discredit Egypt's government, headed by Nasser, in 1954, by bombing theaters, post offices and U.S. and British institutions in Cairo. The operation failed and the Israeli defence minister was forced to resign as a consequence. [25]
  • Provision of intelligence for the cutting of communications between Port Said and Cairo ,1956
  • Directed missions for Israeli spy Wolfgang Lotz in Egypt 1957-1965.

Iran

Iran 1960s

Prior to the Iranian Revolution of 1978–79 in Iran, SAVAK (Organization of National Security and Information), the Iranian secret police and intelligence service was created under the guidance of United States and Israeli intelligence officers in 1957 to protect the regime of the shah by arresting, torturing, and executing the dissidents (especially Leftists). After security relations between the United States and Iran grew more distant in the early 1960s which led the CIA training team to leave Iran, Mossad became increasingly active in Iran, "training SAVAK personnel and carrying out a broad variety of joint operations with SAVAK."[26][27]

Iran 2007

It was alleged by private intelligence agency Stratfor, based on "sources close to Israeli intelligence", that Dr. Ardeshir Hosseinpour, a scientist involved in the Iranian nuclear program, was killed by the Mossad on January 15, 2007.[28]

A US intelligence official told The Washington Post that Israel orchestrated the defection of Iranian general Ali Reza Askari on February 7, 2007.[29] This has been denied by Israeli spokesman Mark Regev. The Sunday Times reported that Askari had been a Mossad asset since 2003, and left only when his cover was about to be blown.[30]

Iraq

Assistance in the defection and rescuing of the family of Munir Redfa, an Iraqi pilot who defected and flew his MiG 21 to Israel in 1966.

Operation Sphinx[2] - Between 1978 and 1981, obtained highly sensitive information about Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor by recruiting an Iraqi nuclear scientist in France. On April 5, 1979, the Mossad destroyed 60 percent of the Iraqi reactor components being built in France; "[An] environmental organization named Groupe des écologistes français, unheard of before this incident, claimed credit for the blast."[2] The reactor was subsequently destroyed by an Israeli air strike in 1981.[2][31]

The alleged assassination of Canadian scientist Gerald Bull, developer of the Iraqi supergun, in 1990. The most common theory is that the Mossad was responsible, and its representatives have all but claimed responsibility for his assassination. Others, including Bull's son, believe that the Mossad is taking credit for an act they did not commit to scare off others who may try to help enemy regimes. The alternative theory is that Bull was killed by the CIA. Iraq and Iran are also candidates for suspicion.[32]

Jordan

In what is thought to have been a reprisal action for a Hamas suicide-bombing in Jerusalem on July 30th 1997 that killed 16 Israelis, Benjamin Netanyahu authorised an operation against Khaled Mashal, the Hamas representative in Jordan[33]. On the 25th September, 1997, Mr Mashal was injected in the ear with a toxin (thought to have been the synthetic opiate Fentanyl[34]). Jordanian authorities apprehended two Mossad agents posing as Canadian tourists and detained a further six.

The fall out from the failed assassination eventually led to the release of Sheik Ahmed Yassin, the founder and spiritual leader of the Hamas movement, and scores of Hamas prisoners. Mr. Netanyahu flew into Amman on the 29th September to apologize personally to King Hussein, but was met instead by the Kings brother, Crown Prince Hassan[35].

Palestinian territories

  • In 1997, two Mossad agents were caught in Jordan, which had signed a peace treaty with Israel, on a mission to assassinate Sheikh Khaled Mashal, a leader of Hamas, by spraying him with poison at a pro-Hamas rally in Amman. Again, they were using fake Canadian passports. This led to a diplomatic row with Canada and Jordan. Israel was forced to provide the antidote to the poison and to release around 70 Palestinian prisoners, in particular the Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, in exchange for the Mossad agents, who would otherwise have faced the death penalty for attempted murder.

Lebanon

The provision of intelligence and operational assistance in 1973's Operation Spring of Youth special forces raid on Beirut.

The targeted assassination of Ali Hassan Salameh, the leader of Black September, on January 22, 1979 in Beirut by a car bomb.[38][39]

The assassination of Ghassan Kanafani.[40]

The assassination of Abbas Musawi, secretary general of Hezbollah, in Beirut in 1992.[8]

The alleged assassination of Jihad Ahmed Jibril, the leader of the military wing of the PFLP-GC, in Beirut in 2002.[41]

Syria

Eli Cohen, a spy for the Mossad, infiltrated the highest echelons of the Syrian government, was a close friend of the Syrian President, and was considered for the post of Minister of Defense. He was captured and executed in the first half of the 60s.[42]

The assassination of Hamas leader Izz El-Deen Sheikh Khalil in Damascus in 2004.

The alleged assassination of Mohammed Suleiman, the alleged head of Syria's nuclear program, in 2008. Suleiman was killed by an offshore sniper while on a beach near Tartous in Syria.[43]

The alleged assassination of Imad Mughniyah, a senior leader of Hezbollah, with an exploding headrest in Damascus in 2008.[44]

United Arab Emirates

The Mossad is suspected of killing Mahmoud al-Mabhouh, a senior Hamas military commander in January 2010 at Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. The killing was carried out by a team thought to consist of at least 26 agents, travelling on fake passports. They entered al-Mabhouh's hotel room, where Mabhouh was electrocuted and interrogated, and then his veins were probably injected with poison (lab tests have as yet failed to determine the poison's exact chemical composition), then the door to his room was locked from the inside.[45] Burns were found under his ears, on his legs, in his groin, and on his chest.[46][47][48][49] Although Hamas has declared Israel responsible for the assassination, no direct evidence linking Mossad to the activity has been found. The passports used were comprised of: six British passports, cloned from those of real British nationals suspected by Dubai; five Irish passports, apparently using genuine data from living individuals;[50] forged Australian passports that raised fears of reprisals against innocent victims of identity theft;[51] a genuine German passport;[52] and a false French passport. Dubai's police chief said that he was "99 percent" certain that the Mossad was behind al-Mabhouh's killing. Emirati police say they have fingerprint and DNA evidence of some of the attackers, as well as retinal scans of 11 suspects recorded at Dubai airport. [53].However later in March,Dubai police chief said "I am now completely sure that it was Mossad."and furthermore went on to say "I have presented the (Dubai) prosecutor with a request for the arrest of (Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin) Netanyahu and the head of Mossad," for the murder of Mahmoud al-Mabhouh.[54]

South Asia

Pakistan

In a September 2003 news article, it was alleged by Rediff News that General Zia-ul-Haq, the then President of Pakistan, decided to establish a clandestine relationship between Inter-Services Intelligence and Mossad via officers of the two services posted at their embassies in Washington, DC. The article further claimed that the ISI had offered Mossad information about Libyan, Syrian, Jordanian and Saudi Arabian military which it had acquired through officers on official military deputations on those countries.[55]

Africa

Ethiopia

Assistance in Operation Moses, the immigration of Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 1984, and has a relationship with the Ethiopian government.

Morocco

According to Time, the Mossad was involved in what is known as the Ben Barka Affair (see Mehdi Ben Barka).

Tunisia

Tunis Raid - The assassination of Abu Jihad from the Fatah in 1988.

The assassination of Khalil al-Wazir.[56]

The alleged assassination of Salah Khalaf.[57]

Uganda

The provision of intelligence regarding Entebbe International Airport and grant of refueling rights in Kenya for Operation Entebbe in 1976.

Oceania

New Zealand

In July 2004, New Zealand imposed diplomatic sanctions on Israel over an incident in which two Australian based Israelis, Uriel Kelman and Eli Cara, who were allegedly working for Mossad, attempted to fraudulently obtain New Zealand passports by claiming the identity of a severely disabled man. Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom later apologized to New Zealand for their actions. New Zealand cancelled several other passports believed to have been obtained by Israeli agents.[58] Both Kelman and Cara served half of their six month sentences and, upon release, were deported to Israel. Two others, an Israeli, Ze'ev Barkan, and a New Zealander, David Reznick, are believed to have been the third and fourth men involved in the passport affair but they both managed to leave New Zealand before being apprehended.[59]

Criticism

Mossad has often come under criticism for perceived excessive actions against Israel's enemies.[60] It has been criticized for carrying out assassinations, abductions and torture.[61]

Popular Culture

Movies

  • Munich - a film directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Eric Bana as a Mossad agent. An adaptation of the book Vengeance based on the true story of the Black September Munich Massacre aftermath, about the five men chosen to eliminate the ones responsible for that fateful day.
  • Walk on Water portrays a Mossad agent who pursues an aging Nazi war criminal.
  • The Man Who Captured Eichmann is a 1996 movie, starring Robert Duvall, about the capture of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann by Mossad.
  • Swordfish Principal antagonist Gabriel Shear's autopsy dental records check reveals him to be a former Mossad agent, although it becomes apparent that "Gabriel" is simply an alias to mask the identity of John Travolta's character in the film. Gabriel also resembles Mossad in that he conducts sub-national reprisals to terrorist attacks, as Mossad did after Munich.
  • The House on Garibaldi Street is a 1979 TV movie portraying the Mossad operation to capture Adolf Eichman in Argentina and bring him to trial in Israel. This movie is based on the book by the same name written by Isser Harel, the head of Mossad at the time of the operation.
  • Frantic

Television

NCIS features a prominent main character named Ziva David, who is the daughter of Mossad's director (Eli David) and used to work as a Mossad Liaison assigned to NCIS. The character now works as a Probationary Special Agent to NCIS.

Mossad has also been featured several times in the BBC series Spooks

Literature

  • Daniel Silva's popular series is based around characters who work for the Mossad, more specifically the Kidon. The main character, Gabriel Allon, also took part in the famed "Operation Wrath of God" to take down the perpetrators of the Black September attacks during the 1972 Munich Olympics.
  • John le Carré's novel The Little Drummer Girl portrays Mossad's recruitment and use of a British citizen as a double agent against Palestinian terrorists.
  • John Grisham's The Broker is a story about a man (Joel Backman) who is granted a pardon by the President of the United States for the attempted sale of advanced spy satellite software to third countries. The pardon, urged at the behest of the CIA, is really intended to set Backman up for assassination by other countries in an attempt to determine who built the satellite system. Mossad (specifically the Kidon) is one of the secret intelligence agencies out to kill Backman for his courtship of Saudi Arabia as a potential buyer of the software.
  • Matthew Reilly's "Scarecrow" makes several references to the Mossad agency, including having a character from the agency playing a crucial role in unraveling the plot
  • In another of Matthew Reilly's books, the Mossad is made a mention of in the "Seven Ancient Wonders" book with relation to the character of Stretch, who came from the elite Sayaret Matkal sniper unit.
  • Wilbur Smith's novel "Wild Justice" features Mossad Agents.

See also

Books

  • Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin‘s Press. ISBN 0-312-57074-0. 
  • Yuval Aviv - Vengeance: The True Story of an Israeli Counter-Terrorist Team
  • Ari Ben-Menashe
  • Black, Ian and Morris, Benny. Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. 603 pages.
  • Victor Ostrovsky - By Way of Deception and The Other Side of Deception
  • Parsi, Rita. Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran, and the United States, Yale University Press, 2007, ISBN 0300120575.
  • Central Intelligence Agency. "Israel. Foreign Intelligence and Security Services, 1979". Included in the volume "Documents from the US Espionage Den", Tehran, 1982.
  • The Volunteer: A Canadian's Secret Life in the Mossad - by Michael Ross & Jonathan Kay - McClelland & Stewart; (2007) 296 pages

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Mossad profile, Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d Ostrovsky, Victor. By Way of Deception-The making and unmaking of a Mossad Officer. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. ISBN 0-9717595-0-2
  3. ^ the Mossad profile, Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved October 28, 2006
  4. ^ Argentina claimed, quite plausibly, that the "illicit and clandestine transfer of Eichmann from Argentine territory constitutes a flagrant violation of the Argentine State's right of sovereignty[.]" Bass, Gary J. (2004.) The Adolf Eichmann Case: Universal and National Jurisdiction. In Stephen Macedo (ed,) Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the Prosecution of Serious Crimes. (ch.4) Philadelphia: U.Penn. Press. In Eichmann's case, the most salient feature from the perspective of international law was the fact of Israeli law enforcement action in another state's territory without consent; the human element includes the dramatic circumstances of the capture by Mossad agents and the ensuing custody and transfer to Israel[.] Damrosch, Lori F. (2004.) Connecting the Threads in the Fabric of International Law. In Stephen Macedo (ed,) Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the Prosecution of Serious Crimes. (ch.5) Philadelphia: U.Penn. Press. The principle of territorial integrity (in Art. 2(4) UN Charter) At its most obvious level this means that the exercise of enforcement jurisdiction within the territory of another state will be a violation of territorial integrity 32 Note 32: E.g. after Adolf Eichmann [...] was abducted from Argentina by a group of Israelis, now known to be from the Israeli Secret Service (Mossad), the Argentine Government lodged a complaint with the UN Security Council [...] It is however unclear whether as a matter of international law the obligation to make reparation for a violation of territorial sovereignty such as that involved in the Eichmann case includes an obligation to return the offender. Higgins, Rosalyn and Maurice Floy. (1997). Terrorism and International Law. UK: Routledge. (p. 48)
  5. ^ Security Council Resolution 138, "Question Relating to the Case of Adolf Eichmann"
  6. ^ "Murdered by the Mossad?" (asf). Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Feb. 12, 1991. http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/national_security/clips/3361/. Retrieved 30 August 2009. 
  7. ^ Frum, Barbara (1990-04-05). "Who killed Gerald Bull? (Video) - CBC". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/national_security/clips/3359/. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Israeli “Hits” On Terrorists, Jewish Virtual Library, last updated December 18, 2007. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
  9. ^ Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem (HarperCollins Publishers, 1998, 2nd ed.), p. 118
  10. ^ Striking Back: The 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre and Israel's Deadly Response, ISBN 0812974638
  11. ^ Ford, Peter S., Major, USAF, "Israel's Attack on Osiraq: A Model for Future Preventive Strikes?", INSS Occasional Paper 59, USAF Institute for National Security Studies, USAF Academy, Colorado, July 2005, p. 15
  12. ^ ISRAEL The Plumbat Operation (1968) retrieved 10/12/2008
  13. ^ Henley, Jon. "French court strikes blow against fugitive Nazi", The Guardian, March 3, 2001. Retrieved October 27, 2006
  14. ^ "Poisoned Mossad chocolate killed PFLP leader in 1977, says book". Middle East Times. 2006-05-05. Archived from the original on 2006-05-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20060517211510/http://metimes.com/articles/normal.php?StoryID=20060505-102327-8910r. 
  15. ^ Martin, Susan Taylor. "The spy - and the man she busted", St. Petersburg Times, March 21, 2004. Retrieved October 27, 2006
  16. ^ "Material for a Palestinian’s Life and Death", Ken Johnson, New York Times, Feb 12, 2009
  17. ^ "An Eye for an Eye", Bob Simon, CBS News, November 21, 2001
  18. ^ Military.com Resources
  19. ^ Israelis to Compensate Family of Slain Waiter - New York Times
  20. ^ Fatal Error
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=%20417663&contrassID=2&subContrassID=1&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y
  23. ^ Timeline:Israeli intelligence and covert operations From the War of Independence to 1956
  24. ^ Franchetti, Mark; Mahnaimi, Uzi (2009-09-06). "Channel pirate ship carried arms for Iran". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6823300.ece. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  25. ^ - 01/01/2009
  26. ^ CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (CIA) IN PERSIA. In Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved July 03, 2008
  27. ^ SAVAK, Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved July 03, 2008
  28. ^ "Geopolitical Diary: Israeli Covert Operations in Iran". Stratfor. 2007-02-02. http://www.stratfor.com/products/premium/read_article.php?id=283793. Retrieved 2007-02-04.  (requires premium subscription)
  29. ^ Linzer, Dafna. "Former Iranian Defense Official Talks to Western Intelligence", The Washington Post, March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
  30. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi. "Defector spied on Iran for years", The Sunday Times, March 11, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2007.
  31. ^ "FRANCE PROTESTS TO ISRAEL ON RAID", The New York Times, June 10, 1981. Retrieved November 16, 2006
  32. ^ Dr. Gerald Bull: Scientist, Weapons Maker, Dreamer at CBC.ca
  33. ^ [2]Wikipedia entry for Khaled Mashal
  34. ^ [3] NY Times article: The Daring attack that blew up in Israels face
  35. ^ [4] NY Times article: The Daring attack that blew up in Israels face
  36. ^ The Jewish Chronicle
  37. ^ Guerin, Orla. "Arafat: On borrowed time", BBC News, June 29, 2002. Retrieved October 27, 2006
  38. ^ Life and Death of a Terrorist, New York Times, July 10, 1983.
  39. ^ Shalev, Noam 'The hunt for Black September', BBC News Online, 26 January 2006, accessed 14 March 2006.
  40. ^ Barbara Harlow (Winter - Spring, 1986). "Return to Haifa: "Opening the Borders" in Palestinian Literature". Social Text: 3–23. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0164-2472%28198624%2F21%290%3A13%2F14%3C3%3ARTH%22TB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R. 
  41. ^ Blanford, Nicholas (15 June 2006). "Lebanon exposes deadly Israeli spy ring". London: The Times UK. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,251-2227831,00.html. Retrieved 14 August 2006. 
  42. ^ Our Man in Damascus, 1969.
  43. ^ Assassinations: the work of Mossad? From Times, February 16, 2010
  44. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi; Jaber, Hala; Swain, Jon (2008-02-17). "Israel kills terror chief with headrest bomb". The Sunday Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article3382343.ece. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  45. ^ [5]
  46. ^ http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=168786
  47. ^ Katz, Yaakov (2010-01-31). "Analysis: Another blow to the ‘axis of evil’". The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=167344. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  48. ^ Issacharoff, Avi (2010-02-02). "Who killed Mahmoud al-Mabhouh? / Many wanted Hamas man dead". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1146911.html. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  49. ^ Melman, Yossi (2010-02-11). "10 agents including 3 women, took part in Dubai Hamas assassination". Haaretz. Retrieved 2010-02-11
  50. ^ "Dubai suspects had five fake Irish passports". RTE News. 2010-02-18. http://www.rte.ie/news/2010/0218/dubai.html. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  51. ^ "Man in photo on Hamas leader hit squad passport not my son says mum". The Australian. 2010-02-25. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/breaking-news/man-in-photo-on-hamas-leader-hit-squad-passport-not-my-son-says-mum/story-fn3dxity-1225834378569. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  52. ^ "Mord an Hamas-Funktionär / Staatsanwaltschaft leitet Ermittlungen ein". Der Spiegel. 2010-02-20. http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,679223,00.html. Retrieved 2010-02-21. 
  53. ^ 'U.K. police in Israel to probe passports used in Dubai hit'(Haaretz, Feb. 27. 2010
    Interpol adds suspected Dubai assassins to most wanted list (Haaretz, Feb. 22, 2010)
  54. ^ [6]
  55. ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/sep/08spec.htm
  56. ^ Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 203–210. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  57. ^ Aburish, Said K. (1998). From Defender to Dictator. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 1-58234-049-8. 
  58. ^ Israeli government apologises to New Zealand - 26 Jun 2005 - NZ Herald: New Zealand National news
  59. ^ Hallel, Amir, At home with the Mossad men, The New Zealand Herald
  60. ^ Mossd
  61. ^ Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad

Further reading

  • Shimron, Gad 2007, "Mossad Exodus; The Daring Undercover Rescue of the Lost Jewish Tribe", Gefen Publishing House. ISBN 978-9652294036
  • Thomas, Gordon 2007, "Gideon's Spies; The Secret History of the Mossad", Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-36152-5

External links


Simple English

The Mossad (Hebrew: המוסד, Arabic: الموساد) is the national intelligence agency of Israel. Its full name is Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים HaMossad leModi'in uleTafkidim Meyuchadim, Arabic: الموساد للاستخبارات والمهام الخاصة al-Mūssād li'l-Istikhbārāt wa'l-Mahāmm al-Khāṣṣa). "Mossad" is a Hebrew word for institute or institution.

The Mossad gathers intelligence information and performs covert operations, which include paramilitary activities. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community, along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security), but its director reports directly to the Prime Minister.








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