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Coordinates: 36°22′0″N 43°07′0″E / 36.366667°N 43.116667°E / 36.366667; 43.116667

Mosul
الموصل
Tigris River and bridge in Mosul
Mosul is located in Iraq
Mosul
Coordinates: 36°02′N 43°07′E / 36.033°N 43.117°E / 36.033; 43.117
Country  Iraq
Governorate Ninawa
District Mosul
Population
 Urban 1,800,000 (2,008)
Time zone GMT +4
Twin Cities
 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania United States

Mosul (Arabic: الموصلal-Mawṣil, Maṣlawī Arabic: al-Mōṣul, Assyrian: ܢܝܢܘܐ or Ninaweh, Kurdish: Mosul/Ninawa, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate, some 400 km (250 miles) northwest of Baghdad. The original city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient city of Nineveh on the east bank, but the metropolitan area has now grown to encompass substantial areas on both banks, with five bridges linking the two sides. Although originally an Assyrian city (Nineveh), it has in more recent times been considered by some to have become a Kurdish city, the majority of its population is now Arab (although it is a multi ethnic city) and it does not form part of the area controlled by the Kurdistan Regional Government. It is Iraq's second largest city after Baghdad.[1]

The fabric Muslin, long manufactured here, is named after this city. [2] Another historically important product of the area is Mosul marble.

In 1987, the city's population was 664,221 people; the 2002 population estimate was 1,740,000, and by 2008 was estimated to be 1,800,000[3]

The city's mayor is now Zuhair Mohsin Mohammed Abdulazeez [4].

The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul, one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East.[5]

The city is also a historic center for the Church of the East Christianity of the Assyrians, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah and Nahum.

Contents

Etymology

The name of the city has many meanings, one of which is "The Linking Point"--or loosely, 'Junction City'. Another name for the city is Ummu r-Rabi'ayn "The Mother of Two Springs" because fall and spring are alike there. The Assyrians call the city by its ancient name, Nineveh, the last capital of the Assyrian Empire.

It is also named al-Faiha "the Paradise", al-Khaḍrah "the Green" and aal-Hadbah "the Humped" and sometimes described as "The Pearl of the North".[6]

History

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Ancient era and early Middle Ages

St. Elijah's Monastery south of Mosul, Iraq's oldest Christian monastery, dating from the 6th Century

It is mentioned in Biblical references that Nineveh was founded by Asshur; son of Shem[7], It was originally an Assyrian city and was a major centre for the worship of the goddess Ishtar[1].

In approximately 850 BC, King Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria chose the city of Nimrud to build his capital city where present day Mosul is located. In approximately 700 BC, King Sennacherib made Nineveh the new capital of Assyria. The mound of Kuyunjik in Mosul is the site of the palaces of King Sennacherib and his grandson Ashurbanipal, who established the Library of Ashurbanipal.

Mosul later succeeded Nineveh as the Tigris bridgehead of the road that linked Syria and Anatolia with the Median Empire. In 612 BC, the Mede emperor Cyaxares, together with the alliance of Nabopolassar king of Babylon, conquered Nineveh.

Mosul became an important commercial center of the Median Empire and Persian Empire in the 6th century BC. Identification with the ancient Μέπσιλα (Mepsila) mentioned by Xenophon is disputed, while more likely is that with the Persian center of Budh-Ardhashīr. It was part of the Persian province of Athura, the Persian term for Assyria[2] from 539 BCE to 332 BCE. During this period, the entire province of Assyria was a source of wealth for the Persians, and also of soldiers, the Assyrian troops being prized by the Persian army for their fighting qualities[3].

It became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire after Alexander's conquests in 332 BC and was later captured by the Parthian Empire in 224 BC. The Parthian capital of Ctesiphon was sacked and conquered by the Roman Empire under Emperor Trajan in 116 AD [4] being incorporated into the Roman Province of Assyria. The area was fought over by the Romans and Parthians until 226 AD.

The city changed hands once again with the rise of Sassanid Persia in 226 AD. Christianity (Assyrian Church of the East) was present in Mosul as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries, the native Aramaic speaking Assyrian inhabitants being among the earliest converts to Christianity. It became an episcopal seat of the Nestorian branch of Christianity in the 6th century. In 637 (other sources say 641), during the period of the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab, the city was annexed to the Islamic empire by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami.

Mosul was promoted to the status of capital of Mesopotamia under the Umayyads in the 8th century, during which it reached a peak of prosperity. During the Abbassid era it was an important trading centre because of its strategic location astride the trade routes to India, Persia, and the Mediterranean. The Muslim general and conqueror of Sindh, Muhammad bin Qasim, is said to have died here in the eighth century A.D.

9th to 15th centuries

In the late 9th century control over the city was seized by the Hamdanid Arab dynasty, who, for several decades, made it their main stronghold, first as governors of the Abbassid and later as de facto independent rulers. A century later they were supplanted by the Uqaylids.

Mosul was conquered by the Turkish Seljuks in the 11th century. After a period under semi-independent atabeg such as Mawdud, in 1127 it became the centre of power of the Zengid dynasty. Saladin besieged the city unsuccessfully in 1182. In the 13th century it was captured by the Mongols led by Hulegu, but was spared the usual destruction since its governor, Badr al-Din Luʾluʾ, helped the Khan in his following campaigns in Syria. After the Mongol defeat in the Battle of Ain Jalut against the Mamluks, Badr al-Din's son sided with the latter; this led to the destruction of the city, which later regained some importance but never recovered its original splendor. Mosul was thenceforth ruled by the Mongol Ilkhanid and Jalayrid dynasties, and escaped Tamerlan's destructions.

16th to 19th centuries

In the early 16th century Mosul was under the Turkmen federation of the Ak Koyunlu, but in 1508 it was conquered by the Safawids. Finally, in 1535, Ottoman sultan Suleyman the Magnificent added it to his empire. Thenceforth Mosul was governed by a pasha. Mosul was celebrated for its line of walls, comprising seven gates with large towers, a renowned hospital (maristan) and a covered market (qaysariyya), and was also famous for its fabrics and flourishing trades.

The Dominican fathers arrived in Mosul in 1750, sent by Pope Benedict XIV. [8] They were followed by the Dominican nuns in 1873. They established a number of schools, health clinics, a printing press and an orphanage. The nuns also established workshops to teach girls sewing and embroidery. [9] A congregations of Dominican sisters, founded in the nineteenth century, still has its motherhouse in Mosul. Over 120 Assyrian Iraqi Sisters belong to the this congregation. [8]

It remained under Ottoman control until 1918, with a brief break in 1623 when Persia seized the city, and was the capital of Mosul Vilayet one of the three vilayets (provinces) of Ottoman Iraq.

20th century

A coffee house in Mosul, 1914.

Mosul's importance as a strategic trading centre declined after the opening of the Suez Canal, which enabled goods to travel to and from India by sea rather than by land across Iraq and through Mosul. However, the city's fortunes revived greatly with the discovery of oil in the area, from the late 1920s onwards. It became a nexus for the movement of oil via truck and pipeline to both Turkey and Syria. Qyuarrah Refinery was built within about an hour's drive from the city and was used to process oil for road-building projects. It was damaged but not destroyed during the Iran–Iraq War. Mosul provides a key portion of the country's electrical needs via Mosul Dam and several neighboring thermal turbine facilities.

The opening of the University of Mosul in 1967 enabled the education of many in the city and surrounding areas, and it includes prestigious engineering and linguistics departments among its many other academic departments.

The region had been part of the Ottoman Empire from 1534 until the end of World War I in 1918.[10] Mosul and the surrounding area was the scene of much fighting in World War 1 involving the Ottoman Turks and some Kurds loyal to the Ottomans on one side, with the British, Assyrians and Arabs on the other. The possibility of dissolving this Empire became real with the Great War, since Germany was the ally of the Ottoman Empire. Secret agreements between the French and the British government (known as the Sykes-Picot Agreement) decided in 1916 to draw a straight line from the Jordan heights to Iran: where the northern zone (Syria, and later the upcoming Lebanon) would be under French influence, and the southern zone (Iraq, and later, after renegotiations in 1917, Palestine which included modern Jordan) would be under British influence. Mosul was in the northern zone, and would have become a Syrian city; but early discoveries of oil in the region just before the end of the war (1918), pushed the British government to yet another negotiation with the French; to include the region of Mosul into the southern zone (or the British zone). The border line that divides the two sides has not changed since 1918, but it has helped determine the boundaries of the modern Middle East for the coming century with the creation of different countries from the Ottoman Empire.

At the end of World War I in October 1918, after the signature of the Armistice of Mudros, British forces occupied Mosul. After the war, the city and the surrounding area became part of the British mandate of Iraq. However, this mandate was contested by Turkey which continued to claim the area based on the fact that it was under Ottoman control during the signature of the Armistice. In the Treaty of Lausanne, the dispute over Mosul was left for future resolution by the League of Nations. Iraq's possession of Mosul was confirmed by the League of Nations brokered agreement between Turkey and Great Britain in 1926.

Some of the villages and towns around Mosul with its large Kurdish population were significantly affected by the 1991 rebellion suppression by the deposed former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, during the 1991 Kurdish-mounted, unsuccessful revolt against the regime. In the wake of the revolt's failure, a swathe of Kurdish-populated territory in the north and northeast of Iraq fell under the control of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and Kurdistan Democratic Party, which established autonomous (and de facto independent) rule in the region. Mosul did not fall within the Kurdish-ruled area, but it was included in the no-fly zones imposed and patrolled by the United States and Britain between 1991 and 2003.

Although this prevented Saddam's forces from mounting large-scale military operations again in the region, it did not stop the regime from implementing a steady policy of "Arabisation" by which the demography of some areas of Ninawa Governorate were gradually changed. Despite the program Mosul and its surrounding villages remained home to a mixture of Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, a few Jews, Yazidis, Armenians, Shabaks and Mandeans. Saddam was however able to garrison portions of the 5th Army within the Mosul city, had the international flight capable airport under military control, and recruited heavily from the city for his military's officer corps; this may be due to the fact that most of the officers and generals of the Iraqi Army were from Mosul long before the Saddam regime era.

After Saddam's fall

When the 2003 invasion of Iraq was being planned, the United States had originally intended to base troops in Turkey and mount a thrust into northern Iraq to capture Mosul and the strategically vital oilfields there. However, the Turkish parliament refused to grant permission for the operation. When the war did break out in March 2003, US military activity in the area was confined to strategic bombing with airdropped special forces operating in the vicinity. Mosul fell on April 11, 2003, when the Iraqi Army 5th Corps, loyal to Saddam, abandoned the city and eventually surrendered, two days after the fall of Baghdad. Kurdish fighters took civil control of the city, and started what eventually became a widespread looting before agreeing to cede control to US forces.

On July 22, 2003, Saddam Hussein's sons, Uday Hussein and Qusay Hussein, were attacked and killed by Coalition forces in Mosul. The brothers were killed in a gunbattle that ensued after a failed attempt at their apprehension.[11] The city also served as the operational base for the US Army's 101st Airborne Division during the occupational phase of the Operation Iraqi Freedom. During its tenure, the 101st Airborne Division was able to extensively survey the city and, advised by the 431st Civil Affairs Battalion, non-governmental organizations, and the people of Mosul, began reconstruction work by employing the people of Mosul in the arenas of security, electricity, local governance, drinking water, wastewater, trash disposal, roads, bridges, and environmental concerns[12]. Other US Army units to have occupied the city have been the 172nd Stryker Brigade, the 3rd Brigade-2nd Infantry Division,18th Engineer Brigade(Combat), the 1st Brigade-25th Infantry Division, the 511th Military Police Company, the 812th Military Police Company and company-size units from Reserve components, including an element of the 364th Civil Affairs Brigade.

On June 24, 2004, a coordinated series of car-bombs killed 62 people, many of them policemen.

In November 2004, concurrently with the US and Iraqi attack on the city of Fallujah, the Battle of Mosul (2004) began. On November 10, insurgents conducted coordinated attacks on the police stations. The policemen who were not killed in the fighting fled the city, leaving Mosul without any civil police force for about a month. However, soon after the insurgents' campaign to overrun the city had begun, elements from the 25th Infantry Division and components from the Multinational force comprised mainly of Albanian forces, took the offensive and began to maneuver into the most dangerous parts of the city. Fighting continued well into the 11th with the insurgents on the defensive and US forces scouring neighborhoods for any resistance.

The memorial that stands outside the entrance to the Dining Hall on FOB Marez where the December 21, 2004 suicide attack occurred.

On December 21, 2004, fourteen US soldiers, four American employees of Halliburton, and four Iraqi soldiers were killed in a suicide attack on a dining hall at the Forward Operating Base (FOB) Marez next to the main US military airfield at Mosul. The Pentagon reported that 72 other personnel were injured in the attack carried out by a suicide bomber wearing an explosive vest and the uniform of the Iraqi security services. The Islamic terrorist group Army of Ansar al-Sunna (partly evolved from Ansar al-Islam) declared responsibility for the attack in an Internet statement.

In early 2005, the head of Mosul's anti-corruption unit, Gen. Waleed Kashmoula, was killed by a bomb which exploded outside his office. In October 2005, the Iraq Interior Department attempted to fire the police chief of Mosul. Mosul Sunni leaders saw it as a Kurdish attempt to seize control over the police. In the end the police chief was replaced by a Sunni Arab, MG Wathiq Al Hamdani, who is a city resident.

In December 2007, Iraq reopened the airport in Mosul. An Iraqi Airways flight carried 152 Hajj pilgrims to Baghdad, the first commercial flight since US forces declared a no-fly zone in 1993, although further commercial flight remained prohibited.[13] On January 23, 2008, an explosion in an apartment building killed 36 people. The following day, a suicide bomber dressed as a police officer assassinated the local police chief, Brig. Gen. Salah Mohammed al-Jubouri, the director of police for Ninevah province, as he toured the site of the blast.[14]

After November 2004, the city of Mosul suffered tremendously due to deteriorated security conditions (including military actions as well as threats and killing of innocent civilians by terrorists and criminals), unprecedented violence levels (especially on ethnic bases), continuous destruction of the main infrastructures of the city, and neglect and mismanagement by the occupation forces, by the Nineveh Governerate Council, by multiple political parties as well as by the central Iraqi Government in Baghdad.

All these factors deprived the city of its historical, scientific, and intellectual foundations in the last 4 years, when a great lot of scientists, professors, academics, doctors, health professionals, engineers, lawyers, journalists, religious clergy (both Muslims and Assyrian Christians), historians, as well as the professionals and artists in all walks of life, were either killed or forced to leave the city under the threat of being shot, exactly as it happened elsewhere in Iraq in the years following 2003.[15] [16] [17] [18]

On May 10, 2008 a military offensive was launched by US-backed Iraqi Army Forces led by Maj. Gen. Riyadh Jalal Tawfiq, the commander of military operations in Mosul, in the hope of bringing back stability and security to the city [5]. Though the representatives of Mosul in the Iraqi Parliament, the intellectuals of the city, and other concerned humanitarian groups agreed on the pressing need for a solution to the unbearable conditions of the city, they still believe that the solution is merely political and administrative. They are also questioning whether such a large scale military offensive will spare the lives of innocent people.[19]

In 2008, many Assyrian Christians (about 12,000) fled the city following a wave of murders and threats against their community. The murder of a dozen Assyrian Christians, threats that others would be murdered unless they converted to Islam and the destruction of their houses sparked a rapid exodus of the Assyrian Christian population. Some families crossed the borders to Syria and Turkey while others were given shelter in churches and monasteries. Accusations and blames were exchanged between Sunni fundamentalists and some Kurdish groups for being behind this new exodus. For the time being the motivation of these acts is unclear, but some claims linked it to the imminent provincial elections which took place in January 2009, and the related Assyrian demands for broader representation in the provincial councils.[6][20]

A investigation in 2009 pointed out that more than 2,500 Kurds had been killed and more than 40 families displaced in Mosul since 2003. The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan blames Al-Qaeda and former Ba'ath Party's [21]. Despite all the odds, the citizens of Mosul have vowed to bring stability and prosperity to Mosul, to rebuild the city, and to regain its historical and cultural roles as one of the three major cities in Iraq and one of the first historic metropolitan areas in the world.[citation needed]

Demographics

A souk (traditional market) in Mosul city northern Iraq, 1932

This city is indicative of the mingling ethnic and religious cultures of Iraq . There is a clear Muslim Arab majority in urban areas, such as downtown Mosul on the Tigris. Across the Tigris and further north in the suburban areas, thousands of Kurds, Assyrians, and Turkmens make up most of the rest of Mosul's population.[22]. Sunni Arabs consist more than 50% (900,000) of the city population. Sunni Kurds make up 30% of the population (540,000), Assyrians make up around 10% (200,000), Turcoman 3% (60,000) There are smaller communities of Yezidi, Shabaks, Armenians, Mandeans, Iranians and Roma.

Despite genocidical efforts by the Arab political parties, resulting in the death of over 2500 kurds during the last five years,[citation needed] and the displacement of over 100.000 kurds from the city,[citation needed] political opppression of the minority Assyrian, Turcoman, Shabak and Yezidis by cutting their seats in the council and forcing the election of political puppets , a massive intimidation campaign, falsification of the population distribution[citation needed] and the blocking of an independent census, the kurds still managed to receive one third of the votes,[citation needed] indicating that kurds make much more than the 8%.

The population of Mosul has progressively become a mixture of Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Armenians, Shabaks, Turkmens, Yazidis and Mandeans, since 1958 when Iraqi Prime minister Abd al-Karim Qasim encouraged Kurds and other minorities to resettle inside Mosul as part of a plan to integrate other ethnic groups into the major cosmopolitan areas of Iraq. These plans were counteracted in the 1980s by former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein and his Baath party, which forced some of those minorities to move outside the city, back into Kurdish regions.

The city is close to the Kurdistan region of Iraq and is considered by some Kurdish officials to be traditionally Kurdish, and situated in what was historically the Kurdistan region, although historically the area was actually part of ancient Assyria first. There have been some demands from Kurdish parties that some parts od Mosul should be included in the Kurdistan Regional Government. Kurdish fighters have been moving into the city since the fall of the Ba'ath government for making security, but the Arabs caused tensions with them. Clashes erupted in recent months, between Sunni Arabs in Mosul and Kurdish fighters entering the city from the Kurdish regional governorates.[23]

The majority of people in Mosul are Muslims, though Mosul is both ethnically and religiously very mixed, and does have the highest proportion of Assyrian Christians of all Iraqi cities. Other religions, such as Yazidi, Shabaki, Yarsan, Mandean Gnostics, and a few Zoroastrians and Jews also call Mosul home.[24][25]

Long before the Muslim conquest of the 7th century, the old Assyrian city Nineveh Christianized when the Assyrians converted to Christianity during the 1st and 2nd centuries. Christianity remained the largest religion until a few centuries after the Arab-Islamic conquest.

Despite institutional ethnic persecution by various political powers, including the Ba'ath Party regime, Mosul has maintained a multicultural and multi-religious mosaic. The difficult history of Mosul, however, still contributes to tensions among its modern inhabitants.

It is well known among locals that Mosul has a significant Jewish population estimated between 500 and 1000. Most do not practice their religion outside of their home for obvious reasons. A larger number may have converted to islam in the past century but some traditions have been retained. It is very difficult to give a reliable estimate of the Jewish population in Iraq's cities and towns because of the remaining Jews have adapted well to the Islamic reality. Most Iraqi Jews have relatives in Israel and the United States. A rabbi in the American army found an abandoned, dilapidated synagogue in Mosul dating back to the 13th century. http://www.almosul.org/Contents/History/MosulJews_HuertaCC.htm

Language

Mosul dialect of Arabic is a slick, much softer in its pronunciation. In this, it resembles the dialect of Aleppo and the Levantine Arabic. Iraqis sometimes described it as the feminine version of the Iraqi dialect.

The Arabic of Mosul carries the influence of the languages of all the various ethnic groups who have lived in the city: Kurds, Turkmens, Turks, Armenians, Assyrians, and others. For example, under the influence from the Aramaic language, Mosul Arabic often replaces "r" with a "gh". One finds many Turkmeni and Turkish words in Mosul Arabic due to the long presence of Turkmen people in and around the city. For example, like Turkic languages, a vowel is inserted between two consonants as well as negation of a sentence by placing mu or ma at the end. The melody of sentences and expressions are also influenced by Turkic languages. Iraqi Arabic in general has been influenced by the Assyrian Aramaic language which was the majority language of Iraq until the early Middle Ages.

The Kurds of Mosul speak the Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish, known as Bahdini or Badinani in the region. Other languages are also common such as Assyrian (Aramaic), Armenian, Turcoman, Yazidi and Shabaki. There may also be a small number of Persian, Roma and Mandean (Aramaic) speakers.

Assyrians write in the Syriac script, and Armenians also have their own script.

Arabic is the primary language of communication, education, business, and official work to the majority of the city's residents.

Main sights

Al-Hadba Minaret of the Umayyad Mosque in downtown Mosul

Mosul is rich in old historical places and ancient buildings: mosques, castles, churches, monasteries, and schools, many of which have architectural features and decorative work of significance. The town center is dominated by a maze of streets and attractive 19th century houses. There are old houses here of beauty. The markets are particularly interesting not simply for themselves alone but for the mixture of races who jostle there: Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Yazidis, Armenians, Shabaks and Mandeans.

The Mosul Museum contains many interesting finds from the ancient sites of the old Assyrian capital cities Nineveh and Calah. The Mosul Museum is a fair, olden building, around a courtyard and with an impressive facade of Mosul marble containing displays of Mosul life depicted in tableau form.

The famous English writer, Agatha Christie, lived in Mosul whilst her second husband, an archaeologist, was involved in the excavation in Nimrud.

Mosques and shrines

  • Umayyad Mosque: The first ever in the city, built in 640 AD by Utba bin Farqad Al-Salami after he conquered Mosul in the reign of Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. The only original part still extant is the remarkably elaborate brickwork 52m high minaret that leans like the Tower of Pisa, called Al-Hadba (The Humped).
  • The Great (Nuriddin) Mosque: Built by Nuriddin Zangi in 1172 AD next door to the Umayyad Mosque. Ibn Battuta (the great Moroccan traveller) found a marble fountain there and a mihrab (the niche that indicates the direction of Mecca) with a Kufic inscription.
Nabi Yunus (Prophet Jonah) Mosque on Al-Tawba Mountain in Mosul City
  • Mosque of the Prophet Yunus or Younis (Jonah): On one of the two most prominent mounds of Nineveh ruins, rises the Mosque (a Nestorian-Assyrian Church ear) of Prophet Younis "Biblical Jonah". Jonah the son of Amittai, from the 8th century BC, is believed to be buried here, where King Esarhaddon had once built a palace. It is one of the most important mosques in Mosul and one of the few historic mosques that are found on the east side of the city.
  • Mujahidi Mosque: The mosque dates back to 12th century AD, and is distinguished for its shen dome and elaborately wrought mihrab.
  • Mosque of the Prophet Jerjis (Georges): The mosque is believed to be the burial place of Prophet Jerjis. Built of marble with shen reliefs and renovated last in 1393 AD. It was mentioned by the explorer Ibn Jubair in the 12th century AD, and is believed also to embrace the tomb of Al-Hur bin Yousif.
  • Mashad Yahya Abul Kassem: On the right bank of the Tigris, known for its conical dome, decorative brickwork and calligraphy engraved in Mosul blue marble, 13th century.
  • Bash Tapia Castle: Mosul's old walls have disappeared, with the exception of these imposing ruins a'rising high over the Tigris.
  • Qara Serai (The Black Palace): The remnants of the 13th century palace of Sultan Badruddin Lu'lu'.

Churches and monasteries

Mosul has the highest proportion of Assyrian Christians of all the Iraqi cities, and contains several interesting old churches, some of which originally date back to the early centuries of Christianity. Its ancient churches are often hidden and their entrances in thick walls are not easy to find. Some of them have suffered from attacks and overmuch restoration.

  • Shamoun Al-Safa (St. Peter): The oldest church in Mosul, it dates from the 13th century and named after Shamoun Al-Safa or St. Peter. Early, it had the name of the two Apostles, Peter and Paul, and had early been inhabited by the nuns of the Sacred Hearts.
  • Church of St. Thomas: One of the oldest historical churches, named after St. Thomas the Apostle who preached the Gospel in the East, including India. The exact time of its foundation is unknown, but it can be assumed that it dates yester 770 AD, since Al-Mahdi, the Abbasid Caliph, is mentioned as listening to a grievance concerning this church on his trip to Mosul.
  • Mar Petion Church: Mar Petion, educated by his cousin in a monastery, was martyred in 446 AD. It is the first Chaldean Catholic church in Mosul, after the union of the Assyro-Nestorians with Rome. It dates back yester the 10th century, and lies 3 m below street level. This church suffered destruction, and it has been reconstructed many times. A hall has been built on one of its three parts in 1942. As a result, most of artistic features have been confused.
  • Ancient Tahira Church (The Immaculate): Near Bash Tapia, considered one of the most ancient churches in Mosul. No evidence helps to determine its exact area. It could be either the remnants of the church of the Upper Monastery or the ruined Mar Zena Church. Al-Tahira Church dates back to the 7th century, and it lies 3 m below street. Reconstructed last in 1743.
  • Mar Hudeni Church: It was named after Mar Ahudemmeh (Hudeni) Maphrian of Tikrit who martyred in 575 AD. Mar Hudeni is an old church of the Tikritans in Mosul. It dates back to the 10th century, lies 7 m below street and was first reconstructed in 1970. People can get mineral water from the well in its yard. The chain, fixed in the wall, is thought to cure epileptics.
  • St. George's Monastery (Mar Gurguis): One of the oldest churches in Mosul, named after St. George, located to the north of Mosul, was probably built late in the 17th century. Pilgrims from different parts of the North visit it yearly in the spring, when many people also go out to its whereabouts on holiday. It is about 6 m below street. A modern church was built over the old one in 1931, abolishing much of its archeological significance. The only monuments left are a marble door-frame decorated with a carved Estrangelo (Syriac) inscription, and two niches, which date back to the 13th or 14th century.
  • Mar Matte: This famous monastery is situated about 20 km east of Mosul on the top of a high mountain (Mount Maqloub). It was built by Mar Matte, a monk who fled with several other monks in 362 AD from the Monastery of Zuknin near the City of Amid (Diyarbakir) in the southern part of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the north of Iraq during the reign of Emperor Julian the Apostate (361–363 AD). It has a precious library containing Syrianic scriptures.
  • Monastery of Mar Behnam: Also called Deir Al-Jubb (The Cistern Monastery) and built in the 12th or 13th century, it lies in the Nineveh Plain near Nimrud about 32 km southwest of Mosul. The monastery, a great fort-like building, rises next to the tomb of Mar Behnam, a prince who was killed by the Sassanians, perhaps during the 4th century AD. A legend made him a son of an Assyrian king.
  • St. Elijah's Monastery (Dair Mar Elia): The oldest Christian Monastery in Iraq, it dates from the 6th century.[26]

Other Christian historical buildings:

  • The Roman Catholic Church (built by the Dominican Fathers in Nineveh Street in 1893)
  • Mar Michael
  • Mar Elias
  • Mar Oraha
  • Rabban Hormizd Monastery, the monastery of Notre-Dame des Semences, near the Assyrian town of Alqosh

Arts

Painting

The so-called Mosul School of Painting refers to a style of miniature painting that developed in northern Iraq in the late 12th to early 13th century under the patronage of the Zangid dynasty (1127–1222). In technique and style the Mosul school was similar to the painting of the Seljuq Turks, who controlled Iraq at that time, but the Mosul artists had a sharper sense of realism based on the subject matter and degree of detail in the painting rather than on representation in three dimensions, which did not occur. Most of the Mosul iconography was Seljuq - for example, the use of figures seated cross-legged in a frontal position. Certain symbolic elements however, such as the crescent and serpents, were derived from the classical Mesopotamian repertory.

Most Mosul paintings were illustrations of manuscripts—mainly scientific works, animal books, and lyric poetry. A frontispiece painting, now held in the Bibliothèque National, Paris, dating from a late 12th century copy of Galen’s medical treatise, the Kitab al-diriyak (“Book of Antidotes”), is a good example of the earlier work of the Mosul school. It depicts four figures surrounding a central, seated figure who holds a crescent-shaped halo. The painting is in a variety of whole hues; reds, blues, greens, and gold. The Küfic lettering is blue. The total effect is best described as majestic. Another mid-13th century frontispiece held in the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, to another copy of the same text suggests the quality of later Mosul painting. There is realism in its depiction of the preparation of a ruler’s meal and of horsemen engaged in various activities, and the painting is as hueredful as that of the early Mosul school, yet it is somehow less spirited. The composition is more elaborate but less successful. By this time the Baghdad school, which combined the styles of the Syrian and early Mosul schools, had begun to dominate. With the invasion of the Mongols in the mid-13th century, the Mosul school came to an end, but its achievements were influential in both the Mamluk and the Mongol schools of miniature painting.

Metalwork

Starting from the 13th-century, metal craftsmen centred in Mosul influenced the metalwork of the Islamic world from North Africa to eastern Iran. Under the active patronage of the Zangid dynasty, the Mosul School developed an extraordinarily refined technique of inlay—particularly in silver—far overshadowing the earlier work of the Sāmānids in Persia and the Būyids in Iraq.

Mosul craftsmen used both gold and silver for inlay on bronze and brass. After delicate engraving had prepared the surface of the piece, strips of gold and silver were worked so carefully that not the slightest irregularity appeared in the whole of the elaborate design. The technique was carried by Mosul metalworkers to Aleppo, Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, and Persia; a class of similar metalwork from these centres is called Mosul bronzes.

Among the most famous surviving Mosul pieces is a brass ewer inlaid with silver from 1232, and now in the British Museum, by the artist Shujā’ ibn Mana. The ewer features representational as well as abstract design, depicting battle scenes, animals and musicians within medallions. Mosul metalworkers also created pieces for Eastern Christians. A candlestick of this variety from 1238 and housed in the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, attributed to Dà’ūd ibn Salamah of Mosul, is bronze with silver inlay. It displays the familiar medallions but is also engraved with scenes showing Christ as a child. Rows of standing figures, probably saints, decorate the base. The background is decorated with typically Islamic vine scrolls and intricate arabesques, giving the piece a unique look.

Notable births

See also

References

  1. ^ "Largest Cities in Iraq". mongabay.com. January 26-2009. http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/Iraq.htm. Retrieved 2002-01-01. 
  2. ^ "Musin". Online encyclopedia. http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/MOS_NAN/MUSLIN_through_Fr_mousseline_fr.html. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  3. ^ "Mosul, the next major test for the U.S. military in Iraq". mcclatchydc.com. -01-26-2009. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/103/story/26032.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "From Mosul to Market Street". philly.com. January 26-2009. http://www.philly.com/philly/blogs/heardinthehall/From_Mosul_to_Market_Street.html. Retrieved 05-08-2009. 
  5. ^ http://www.mosuluniversity.org/
  6. ^ Mosul, Iraq from AtlasTours.net
  7. ^ http://bible.cc/genesis/10-11.htm
  8. ^ a b Woods, Richard (2006). "Iraq Perspectives: Catholics and Dominicans in Iraq". Dominican Life. http://www.domlife.org/Justice/Iraq/PerspectivesJanuary06.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  9. ^ Rasam, Suha (2005). "Christianity in Iraq: its origins and development to the present day". Gracewing. http://books.google.fr/books?id=GYC93sfHXAEC&pg=PA138. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  10. ^ Mosul from britannica.com
  11. ^ CNN.com - Pentagon: Saddam's sons killed in raid - July 22, 2003
  12. ^ Mosul
  13. ^ Forbes.com
  14. ^ Gamel, Kim: Provincial Police Chief Killed in Mosul, Associated Press, January 25, 2008.
  15. ^ http://www.iraqis.org.uk/Contents/HR/pia_ppp_605.pdf
  16. ^ Human Rights in Iraq
  17. ^ France 24 | Iraq's deadly brain drain | France 24
  18. ^ Losing Mosul? - TIME
  19. ^ http://almosul.org/Action4Mosul/Almosul_Dirk.pdf
  20. ^ "Christians flee Iraqi city after killings, threats, officials say." CNN. 11 October 2008.
  21. ^ "More than 2500 Kurds were killed since 2003". Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. 2009-01-27. http://pukmedia.com/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9000&Itemid=52. Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  22. ^ Mosul â€" FREE Mosul Information | Encyclopedia.com: Facts, Pictures, Information!
  23. ^ Seattle Times
  24. ^ ArabNet Mosul Entry ArabNet
  25. ^ 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica Originally appearing in Volume V18, Page 904
  26. ^ NPR's Morning Edition, November 21, 2007

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Middle East : Iraq : Ninawa : Mosul
Travel Warning

WARNING: Mosul remains extremely dangerous and is not safe for travel. Check government advisories and warnings prior to travel. Do not travel without a local guide to any parts of the city.

Mosul is a city in Ninawa, Iraq and is the country's second largest city by population. Its religious makeup is one of the most diverse in the country.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MOSUL, a town of Mesopotamia, capital of a Turkish vilayet and sanjak of the same name, on the right bank of the Tigris, in 36° 35' N., 43° 3' E. Pop. 40,000 (Moslems 31,500, Christians 7000, Jews 150o). In Mosul, as in Bagdad, only part of the space within the walls is covered with buildings and the rest is occupied by cemeteries; even the solid limestone walls of the ancient town are half in ruins, being serviceable only in the direction of the river, where they check inundations. Of the town gates at present in use, five are on the south, two on the west, two on the north, and the great bridge gate on the east. Leaving Mosul by the last named, the traveller first crosses a stone bridge, 157 ft. long; then a kind of island (140 ft.), which is overflowed only in spring and summer by the Tigris; next a stretch of the river which, at such times as it is not fordable, is spanned by a bridge of boats, the bridge proper covering only one-sixth of the full width of the stream. During the season of low water excellent vegetables, particularly water-melons, are grown upon the islands and dry portions of the river-bed.

The interior of Mosul has an insignificant appearance, only a few of the older buildings being left, among which may be mentioned the Great Mosque, with its leaning minaret, formerly a church dedicated to St Paul. The streets are for the most part badly paved and very narrow, a small square in the marketplace, overlooked by airy coffee-booths, being almost the only open space. The shops are few and poor. The industry in comparison with former times, when the town had so considerable a manufacture in muslin as to give its name to that fabric, is very unimportant; trade also, which is almost exclusively in the hands of native merchants, has fallen off greatly, although the town remains the collecting and distributing centre for the north Mesopotamian desert and Kurdistan. The exports and most of the imports pass through Bagdad. Mosul is the meetingpoint of roads from Aleppo, Diarbekr, Bitlis, north and west Persia and Bagdad; and it is on the projected line of railway from Constantinople to the Persian Gulf. Gall nuts, gathered on the neighbouring Kurdish mountain slopes, are mostly exported, but are also made use of by native dyers; and hides, wax, cotton and gum are sold. Christians and Moslems have lived together on better terms here than elsewhere. Both are animated by an active local patriotism, and both honour the same patron saints, Jirjis (St George) and Jonah; the grave of the latter is pointed out on an artificial mound on the left bank of the Tigris.

The language of the people of Mosul is a dialect of Arabic, partly influenced by Kurdish and Syriac. The Moslems call themselves either Arabs or Kurds, but the prevalent type, very different from the true Arabian of Bagdad, proves the Aramaean origin of many of their number. Of the Christians the community of the Chaldaeans, i.e. those who have gone over from Nestorianism to Catholicism, seems to be the most important; there are also Syrian Catholics and Jacobites. Mosul has for several centuries been a centre of Catholic missionary activity, the Dominicans especially, by the foundation of schools and printing-offices, having made a marked impression upon an intelligent and teachable population. There are very few Protestants. The town is the seat of British, French and Russian consulates.

Mosul shares the severe alternations of temperature experienced by upper Mesopotamia. The summer heat is extreme, and in winter frost is not unknown. Nevertheless the climate is considered healthy and agreeable; copious rains fall in general in winter. The drinking water is got from the muddy Tigris. At the north-east corner of the town is a sulphur spring, and 4 leagues to the south there is a hot sulphur spring (Hammam `Ali), much frequented by invalids.

Mosul probably occupies the site of a southern suburb of ancient Nineveh but it is very doubtful whether the older name of Mespila can be traced in the modern Al-Mausil (Arab., "the place of connexion"); it is, however, certain that a town with the Arabic name Al-Mausil stood here at the time of the Moslem conquest (636 A.D.). The town reached its greatest prosperity towards the beginning of the decline of the caliphate, when it was for a time an independent capital. The dynasty of the Hamdanids reigned in Mosul from 934, but the town was conquered by the Syrian Okailids in 990. In the 11th century it belonged to the Seljuks, and in the 12th, under the sway of the Atabegs, particularly of Zenki, it had a short period of splendour. Saladin besieged it unsuccessfully in 1182. The Persians occupied Mosul for a short time in 1623, until it was, soon afterwards, recovered by sultan Murad IV. The governorship of the pashalik was long hereditary in the originally Christian family of the `Abd-al-Jalil, until the Porte, during the course of the 19th century, succeeded after a long and severe contest in establishing a more centralized system of government.

The Vilayet Of Mosul lies mainly east of the Tigris. It is divided into three sanjaks, Mosul, Shehrizor and Suleimanieh, and has an area of 29,000 sq. m. Pop. 295,000 (Moslems 245,000, Yezidis 15,000, Christians 30,000 and Jews 5000).

See Karl Ritter, "Asien," vol. vii. in Die Erdkunde (Berlin, 1844). A map of the town accompanies J. Cernik's paper, "Studienexpedition durch die Gebiete des Euphrat and Tigris," in Erganzungsheft No. 45 of Petermanns Mitteilungen (Gotha, 1876); Parry, Six Months in a Syrian Monastery (1895); E. Sachau, Am Euphrat and Tigris (Berlin, 1899); Baron von Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf (Berlin, 1900).


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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


Town of Asiatic Turkey; situated 220 miles northwest of Bagdad, on the right bank of the Tigris; capital of the province of the same name. Jews settled at Mosul, or rather in the ancient Nineveh (a suburb of which probably stood on the site of the present Mosul), on the left bank of the Tigris, when Shalmaneser, King of Assyria (730-712 B.C.), conquered Samaria. In 1165 Benjamin of Tudela found 7,000 Jews at Mosul, living under the protection of the house of Attabek. The head of the community was R. Zakkai ha-Nasi, who claimed to be a descendant of David. About 1171, David, chief rabbi of Mosul, obtained from the calif a firman permitting him to visit all the holy places (Luncz, "Jerusalem," 1899, p. 25). In 1289 the head of the flourishing community was the exilarch R. David ben Daniel, who also claimed to be a descendant of David. He, together with eleven members of the local rabbinical college, signed a letter threatening with excommunication Solomon Petit of Acre, the opponent of Maimonides (Grätz, "Gesch." 3d ed., vii. 166).

Little is known of the Jews at Mosul after 1289. In 1848 the traveler Benjamin II. found 450 Jewish families there (Benjamin II., "Mas'e Yisrael," p. 34).

In 1903 there were 1,100 Jews in a total population of 45,000. The affairs of the community are directed by the chief rabbi, Ḥakam Jacob, assisted by a court composed of three members. The community is not organized as such, levying no taxes; nor are there any benevolent societies. Although Benjamin II. says that in 1848 the Jews of Mosul were engaged in commerce and were in comfortable circumstances, they have since then been reduced by persecution and forced to live by peddling. At the instance of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, since 1875 the Ottoman government has consented to allow a Jew to have a seat in the municipal council of Mosul (Solomon Sasson in 1903), an arrangement adopted also in the other large cities of Kurdistan. Another Jew, 'Abd al-'Aziz, is a member of the supreme court.

There are two synagogues: the Large Synagogue, which is very ancient, and the Bet ha-Midrash, founded in 1875, which serves also as a school (250 pupils). Benjamin of Tudela says that in his time the tombs of the prophets Obadiah, Nahum, and Jonah existed at Mosul; and the natives say that beside the tomb of the last-named a bush springs up every year, recalling the "ḳiḳayon" of Jonah.

Thirty hours by horse to the north of Mosul is the village of Bar Tanura, inhabited exclusively by Jews, who claim that their ancestors have lived there since the return from Babylon, and who support themselves by manual labor. In 1893 this peaceable community was pillaged by Kurds from the mountains, who killed two Jews and wounded others. The remainder fled to the neighboring villages, and did not dare return to their homes until assured of the protection of the Vali of Mosul, which they secured through a letter from Moses ha-Levi, chief rabbi of Turkey.

In 1884 Siouffi, the French vice-consul at Mosul, sent to the Alliance Israélite Universelle the following statistical table in regard to the Jewish population in the province of Mosul, excepting that at Kerkuk, Koi-Sanjak, Ravenduz, and Sulaimaniye:

see table

Bibliography: Dezobry and Bachelet, Dict. d'Histoire et de Géographie; Benjamin of Tudela, Mas'ot Binyamin; Benjamin II., Mas'e Yisrael; Luncz, Jerusalem, 1899; M. Franco, Histoire des Israélites Ottomans, p. 211; Bulletin d'Alliance Israélite Universelle, 1893, 1894.

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Simple English

near Mosul]]

Mosul (Arabic:الموصل) is a city in north of Iraq. 1,739,800 people live there.



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