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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Migrant Mother by Dorothea Lange

A mother is a biological and/or social female parent of an offspring.[1] Because of the complexity and differences of a mothers' social, cultural, and religious definitions and roles, it is challenging to define a mother to suit a universally accepted definition.

Contents

Biological mother

In the case of a mammal such as a human, a pregnant woman gestates a fertilized ovum. A fetus develops from the viable fertilised ovum or 'embryo'. Gestation occurs in the woman's uterus from conception until the fetus (assuming it is carried to term) is sufficiently developed to be born. The woman experiences labor and gives birth. Usually, once the baby is born, the mother produces milk via the lactation process. The mother's breast milk is the source of anti-bodies for the infant's immune system and commonly the sole source of nutrition for the first year or more of the child's life.[2][3][4]

Surrogate mother

A surrogate mother is, commonly, a woman who bears the embryo to term for a couple biologically unable to have children.

Title

Monumento a la Madre in Mexico City. The inscription translates as: "To her who loves us before she meets us."

The term mother is often given to a woman other than the biological parent, especially if she who fulfills the main social role in raising the child. This is commonly either an adoptive mother or a stepmother (the biologically unrelated wife of a child's father). In lesbian cultures, a non-biological mother, or so-called "othermother" exists.

Currently, with advances in reproductive technologies, the function of biological motherhood can be split between the genetic mother (who provides the ovum) and the gestational (commonly known as a surrogate) mother (who carries the pregnancy), and it is also poneither will serve as the social mother (the one who rears the child). A healthy connection between a mother and a child form a secure base, from which the child may later venture forth into the world.[5]

Social role

Mothers have historically fulfilled the primary role in raising children, but since the late 20th century, the role of the father in child care has been given greater prominence and social acceptance in some Western countries.[6][7]

The social role and experience of motherhood varies greatly depending upon location. The organization Save the Children has (controversially) ranked the countries of the world, and found that Scandinavian countries are the safest places to give birth, whereas countries in sub-Saharan Africa are the least safest to give birth[8]. This study argues a mother in the bottom ten ranked countries is over 750 times more likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth, compared to a mother in the top ten ranked countries, and a mother in the bottom ten ranked countries is 28 times more likely to see her child die before reaching their first birthday.

Mothers are more likely than fathers to encourage assimilative and communion-enhancing patterns in their children.[9] Mothers are more likely than fathers to acknowledge their children's contributions in conversation.[10][11][12][13] The way mothers speak to their children is better suited to support very young children in their efforts to understand speech (in context of the reference English) than fathers.[10]

Since the 1970s, in vitro fertilization has made pregnancy possible at ages well beyond "natural" limits, generating ethical controversy and forcing significant changes in the social meaning of motherhood.[14][15] This is, however a position highly biased by Western world locality: outside the Western world, in-vitro fertilization has far less prominence, importance or currency compared to primary, basic healthcare, womens' basic health, reducing infant mortality and the prevention of life-threatening diseases such as polio, typhus and malaria.

US Motherhood Statistics

Assorted and non-inclusive statistics on motherhood from the U.S. Census Bureau.[16]

  • 82.5 million women are mothers of all ages in the United States.
  • 68% of women aged 15 to 44 are mothers in Mississippi, considered high in comparison to a national average for same age group of 56%.
  • 82% of women aged 40 to 44 years old are mothers.
  • 4.0 million women give birth annually, approximately 425,000 were teenage mothers (aged 15 to 19) and more than 100,000 were aged 40 or over.
  • 25.1 years of age is the national average age of women for their first births, a record high an increase of 4 years since 1970.
  • 40% of annual births are the mother’s first. Another 32 percent are the second-born; 17 percent, third; and 11 percent, fourth or more.
  • 35,000 of births in 2002 were attended by physicians, midwives or others outside a hospital facility.
  • 55% of mothers with infant children in 2002 were employed, down from the record 59 percent in 1998, the first significant decline since the Census Bureau began collating such data in 1976. In 1976, 31% of mothers with infants were employed.
  • 63% of employed women with infant children are college-educated.
  • 72% of employed women, between ages 15 and 44 are mothers without infants.
  • 687,000 child day-care centers operated in the USA in 2002. Of these, 69,000 centers employed close to 750,000 workers and another 618,000 were self-employed persons or companies without paid employees. Many mothers use such centers to juggle the demands of motherhood and career.

Religious

Nearly all world religions define tasks or roles for mothers through either religious law or through the deification or glorification of mothers who served in substantial religious events. There are many examples of religious law relating to mothers and women.
Major world religions which have specific religious law or scriptural canon regarding mothers include: Christians,[17] Jews,[18] and Muslims.[19] Some examples of glorification or deification include the Madonna or Blessed Virgin Mother Mary for Christians, the Hindu Mother Goddess, or Demeter of ancient Greek pre-Christian belief.
In Islam, the Q'uran dictates the mother occupying an importance and position three times superior to that of the father. However, while the mother is considered the most important member of the family, she is not the head of the family.[citation needed]

Synonyms and translations

The proverbial "first word" of an infant often sounds like "ma" or "mama". This strong association of that sound with "mother" has persisted in nearly every language on earth, countering the natural localization of language.

Familiar or colloquial terms for mother in English are:

The Hindu mother goddess Parvati feeding her son, the elephant-headed wisdom god Ganesha

In many other languages, similar pronunciations apply:

  • mama in Polish, Russian and Slovak
  • māma (妈妈/媽媽) in Chinese and Japanese
  • máma in Czech
  • maman in French and Persian
  • ma, mama or Ibu in Indonesian language
  • mamma in Italian and Icelandic
  • mãe in Portuguese
  • Ami in Punjabi
  • mama in Swahili
  • eema (אמא) in Hebrew
  • or mẹ in Vietnamese
  • mam in Welsh
  • eomma (엄마, pronounced [ʌmma]) in Korean
  • In many south Asian cultures and the Middle East the mother is known as amma or oma or ammi or "ummi", or variations thereof. Many times these terms denote affection or a maternal role in a child's life.

Famous motherhood figures

Charity by Bouguereau 1878

See also

References

  • "The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality", by Randy Thornhill, Steven W. Gangestad [20]
  • "Motherhood - How should we care for our children?", by Anne Manne[21]
  • "Mother nature: maternal instincts and how they shape the human species", by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy[22]

Notes

  1. ^ Wiktionary.org, Mother
  2. ^ Dhushara.com
  3. ^ Growth and Development
  4. ^ Chapter 46 Animal Reproduction
  5. ^ Diane S. Feinberg, M.Ed. The Importance of Mother and Child Attachment
  6. ^ "In most Western countries the family model of a sole male breadwinner is in full retreat." Accessed 19 September 2007.
  7. ^ Why Are Fathers Important? Interview with Dr. Ross Parke, professor of psychology at the University of California at Riverside, author of Fatherhood (1966) and co-author of Throwaway Dads (1999). Accessed 19 September 2007.
  8. ^ Save the Children, State of the World's Mothers Report 2006.
  9. ^ Gendered differences in parents' encouragement of sibling interaction: implications for the construction of a personal premise system
  10. ^ a b Fathers' speech to their children: perfect pitch or tin ear?
  11. ^ Hladik, E., & Edwards, H. (1984). A comparison of mother-father speech in the naturalistic home environment. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 13, 321-332.
  12. ^ Leaper, C., Anderson, K., & Sanders, P. (1998). Moderators of gender effects on parents' talk to their children: A meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 34, 3-27.
  13. ^ Mannle, S., & Tomasello, M. (1987). Fathers, siblings, and the bridge hypothesis. In K.E. Nelson & A. vanKleeck (Eds.), Children's language, Vol. 6, (pp. 23-42). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  14. ^ Motherhood: Is It Ever Too Late?, July 15, 2009
  15. ^ Getting Pregnant After 50: Risks, Rewards July 17, 2009
  16. ^ Census.gov
  17. ^ "What The Bible Says About Mother". http://www.mothersdayworld.com/mothers-day-quotes/bible-verses-on-mother.html. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  18. ^ Katz, Lisa. "Religious Obligations of Jewish women". About.com. http://judaism.about.com/cs/women/f/women_mitzvot.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  19. ^ ‘Ali Al-Hashimi, Muhammad. The Ideal Muslimah: The True Islâmic Personality of the Muslim Woman as Defined in the Qur’ân and Sunnah. http://www.wefound.org/texts/Ideal_Muslims_files/herchildren.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  20. ^ "The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality", by Randy Thornhill, Steven W. Gangestad
  21. ^ "Motherhood - How should we care for our children?", by Anne Manne
  22. ^ "Mother nature: maternal instincts and how they shape the human species", by Sarah Blaffer Hrdy

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Mothers article)

From Wikiquote

The real religion of the world comes from women much more than from men — from mothers most of all, who carry the key of our souls in their bosoms. ~ Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
Mother is the name for God in the lips and hearts of little children. ~ William Makepeace Thackeray

A mother is the biological or social female parent of a child.

Contents

Sourced

  • The real religion of the world comes from women much more than from men — from mothers most of all, who carry the key of our souls in their bosoms.

Unsourced

  • Heaven is under the feet of mother.
  • A mother is a person who seeing there are only four pieces of pie for five people, promptly announces she never did care for pie.
    • Tenneva Jordan
  • A mother is a woman who shows you the light when you just see the dark.
    • Grimaldos Robin
  • All women become like their mothers. That is their tragedy. No man does. That's his.
  • Him whose mother is no more, distress carries off.
  • Mothers, of course, are all right. They pay a chaps bills and don't bother him. But fathers bother a chap and never pay his bills.
  • When mama ain't happy, ain't nobody happy.
  • When your mother asks, "Do you want a piece of advice?" it is a mere formality. It doesn't matter if you answer yes or no. You're going to get it anyway.
  • You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you can't fool mom.
    • Captain Penny - Cleveland Kid Show Host 1950s
  • If women choose to have children into their sixties and seventies, we should make sure that they are informed of any potential health risks entailed. And then we should do what we always do when devoted parents give birth: We should offer them our congratulations and our best wishes. In this regard, the ethics of parenting are surprisingly simple. Mothers should be judged on their love and commitment, not their chronological ages.

See also

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up mother in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Mother's Day Quotes


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Mother article)

From Wikisource

The Mother
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.


The Mother may refer to:


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MOTHER, the term for the female parent of a child. The word, like father, is common to Indo-European languages, cf. in Teutonic languages, Ger. Mutter, Du. moeder, Swed. and Dan. moder; Gothic is the exception in Teutonic languages, the word being aithei, cf. atta, father; from Lat. mater come, in Romanic, Fr. mere, Ital., Span. and Port., madre. Greek has ,u7'7rhp, (Attic and Ionic), µaTfP (Doric). The Russian word is mat. The Sansk. mata points to an original derivation from a stem ma, to measure, or make. Of the many transferred applications of "mother" may be mentioned those to the church, to nature, to the earth, and to a city or nation, as the parent of other cities, nations, colonies, &c. As a title "mother" is particularly applied to the head of a religious community of women. For "mother-of-pearl" see Pearl. There is a particular application of "mother" to the scum which rises to the surface of a liquor during the process of fermentation, and also to a mass of gummy stringy consistency formed in vinegar in the process of acetous fermentation, hence known as "mother of vinegar" (see Vinegar). This is usually, however, taken to be another word altogether, and connected with Du. modder, mud, mire.

XVIII. 29 a


<< Moth

William Motherwell >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also mother

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Mother

  1. One's mother
  2. A title given to a nun or a priestess

Synonyms

See also


Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Mother
Box artwork for Mother.
Developer(s) APE, HAL Laboratory
Publisher(s) Nintendo
Designer(s) Shigesato Itoi
Release date(s)
Genre(s) RPG
System(s) NES
Players 1
Mode(s) Single player
Followed by Mother 2
Series Mother
This is the first game in the Mother series. For other games in the series see the Mother category.

Mother (also called EarthBound Zero) is the predecessor to EarthBound (Mother 2), the first game in the Mother series to be released in English. An English prototype exists but was never released. Mother has since been released on the Game Boy Advance as part of Mother 1+2; this also has not been localized. This guide is written with the English prototype in mind, although most of the time it will fit the Japanese version as well.

Table of Contents

  1. World Map
  2. The Podunk Area
  3. The Magicant Area
  4. The Merrysville Area
  5. The Southeastern Area
  6. Yucca Desert
  7. The Youngtown Area
  8. The Ellay Area
Items
Appendices

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Contents

—Biblical Data:

Although the father was considered the head of the family among the Hebrews of old, and the mother therefore occupied an inferior position legally and ritually, yet in the ethical relation involving the reverence due to her from the children she stood on the same plane as the father; disrespect for her entailed the same punishment as disrespect for the father (comp. Ex. xxi. 15, 17; Lev. xx. 9; Deut. xxvii. 16). In the Decalogue it is commanded to honor the mother as well as the father (Ex. xx. 12; Deut. v. 16); and in Lev. xix. 2 the people are enjoined to fear both parents. In the home life and training the mother is of equal importance with the father (Deut. xxi. 18, 19; I Kings xix. 20; Jer. xvi. 7; Prov. xxx. 17). When a particularly tender relation is pictured by the Biblical writers, a mother's love is often employed to symbolize the thought. Thus Isaac's marriage to Rebekah is said to comfort him for the loss of his mother (Gen. xxiv. 67). When Jeremiah describes the grief into which the calamitous events of his time have cast the people, he employs the figure of a mother weeping for her children: "A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping; Rachel weeping for her children; she refuseth to be comforted for her children, because they are not" (Jer. xxxi. 14 [R. V. 15]); and when the prophet of the Exile wishes to delineate God as the comforter of His people, he says: "As one whom his mother comforteth, so will I comfort you" (Isa. lxvi. 13). In the Book of Lamentations the acme of destitution is presented by the picture of young children and sucklings swooning in the streets, and saying to their mothers, "Where is corn and wine?" (Lam. ii. 11, 12); and when the Psalmist describes his utter wo, he laments: "As one mourning for his mother I was bowed down with grief" (Ps. xxxv. 14, Hebr.).

The Praise of the Good Woman.

It is, however, in the Book of Proverbs that the high place which the mother occupied in the Hebrew's estimation is specially indicated. Her teachings are constantly enjoined as being of equal weight with those of the father. The first verse after the introduction to the book reads: "Hear, O my son, the instruction of thy father; and neglect not the teaching of thy mother" (Prov. i. 8, Hebr.; comp. ib. vi. 20; x. 1; xv. 20; xix. 26; xx. 20; xxiii. 22, 25; xxx. 17). Especial attention may be directed to Prov. xxxi. 1, where the wise words attributed to King Lemuel are said to have been taught him by his mother. The queen mother was a personage of great importance in ancient Israel, as appears from the fact that in the history of the Kings the mother's name receives particular mention in the set phrase "and the name of his mother was . . ." (I Kings xi. 26; xiv. 21, 31; xv. 2, 10; xxii. 42; II Kings viii. 26; xiv. 2; xv. 2, 33; xviii. 2; xxi. 1, 19; xxii. 1; xxiii. 31, 36; xxiv. 8, 18; comp. also I Kings i. 11; ii. 13, 20, 22).

The word "em" has other meanings in the Bible; e.g., "ancestress" (comp. Gen. iii. 20); a "people" (Isa. l. 1; Ezek. xix. 2, 10), the designation of one of the tribes whereof a mixed population was composed; thus Ezekiel (xvi. 3) calls the "mother" of Jerusalem a Hittite.

—In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature:

Ben Sira declares that "he that provoketh his mother is cursed of the Lord" (Sirach [Ecclus.] iii. 16); and reference need only be made to the heroic mother of the seven sons whose martyrdom is described in IV Macc. xv. to indicate the temper of Jewish motherhood in trying days.

Judah ha-Nasi's Injunction to His Sons.

The estimation in which the mother was held in Talmudic times among the Jews is clear from the dying injunction of Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi to his sons:"Be careful of the honor due your mother; let the lamp be lit in its place, the table be set in its place, the couch be spread in its place" (Ket. 103a); and it was the same rabbi who interpreted so ingenuously the two commands, "Honor thy father and thy mother" (Ex. xx. 12), and "Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father" (Lev. xix. 2 [A. V. 3]). In the one command the father is mentioned first; in the other, the mother. Said Rabbi Judah: "God knows that a child honors the mother more than the father because she soothes it with gentle words; therefore in the command to honor the parents the father is mentioned first. God knows likewise that the child fears the father more than the mother because he teaches it the Law; therefore in the injunction to fear the parents the mother is mentioned first" (Ḳid. 30b, 31a; comp., however, Bacher, "Ag. Tan." i. 113, note 1, where it is claimed that Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus should be credited with this explanation, according to Mek., Yitro, 8).

Among the beautiful examples of filial devotion may be mentioned the treatment of his mother by Rabbi Ṭarfon (Yer. Peah 15c; Yer. Ḳid. 61b; Ḳid. 31b). Note also the high praise accorded by the Rabbis to the heathen Dama ben Netina of Ashkelon for his respectful attitude toward his mother under most trying circumstances (Yer. Peah l.c.; Yer. Ḳid. l.c.; Pesiḳ. R. 23, toward end). In the home life of the Jewish people, notably in the rearing and education of young children, the mother's place and influence have been always supreme (see Abrahams, "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," pp. 133, 344, 347).

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Mother

Developer(s) Nintendo
Publisher(s) Nintendo
Designer(s) Shigesato Itoi
Release date July 27, 1989 (JP)
Genre RPG
Mode(s) Single player
Age rating(s) N/A
Platform(s) NES
Media Cartridge
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough

Mother, sometimes known as EarthBound Zero, is the first game in the Mother series/EarthBound series. It is an RPG for the NES starring Ninten, a very similar character to EarthBound's Ness, though it has been understood that they are not the same.

Regardless, Mother shares many similarities to EarthBound/Mother 2, to the point where some believe EarthBound was intended to be a remake of the original. Like it's sequel, it takes place in a more modern, 1950's-like setting, as opposed to the typical swords and sorcery atmosphere of Final Fantasy games.

North American release

The game was intended to be released outside of Japan. In fact, it was even fully translated and ready to go. However, with the release of the SNES, it was decided not to release a new NES game. Fans were still able to play the game many years later, in ROM form, when it was leaked onto the internet.

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This article uses material from the "Mother" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|250px|Painting of a mother putting her child to bed.]] Mother is a female parent. The mother and father are parents. A mother gives birth to the child. nine month in pregnant to birth a child.

Other names for Mother

  • In American English, other common words for mother are "Mom," "Mommy," Momma" and "Ma."
  • In British English, "Mum" and "Mummy" are usually used instead of "Mom" and "Mommy". Another variant, often found in the North of England, particularly Yorkshire and Lancashire, is "Mam".
  • In Australian English, "Mum", "Mother", "Mummy" and "Mother Dearest".
  • In indonesian, "Ibu", "Emak", "Bunda".

Other pages

bjn:Uma








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