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.Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-oriented behavior.^ Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed").
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The basic idea of motivation theory (be it hierarchy of needs, expectancy, equity, or path-goal) is a leader is to manipulate the psychological states of subordinates, manipulating leader behavior to increase the motivation of subordinates.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic.^ Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation .
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term is generally used for humans but, theoretically, it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well.^ Check out eHow's privacy policy , general terms of use and the supplemental terms of use that apply to the Writer's Compensation Program .
  • FAQ | eHow.com 25 September 2009 13:27 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

This article refers to human motivation. .According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality.^ This proven instrument is based on the classic motivation theories of Maslow and Herzberg which identify motivating factors in terms of an individual's security, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs.

^ According to what is called internalism about reasons or reasons internalism , it is necessarily the case that if an individual has a reason to do an action, he must be able to be motivated to do that action.
  • Moral Motivation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Psychological needs (Need to breathe, eat, take rests, get drink of water) Sex was not a Maslow need.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism.[1]

Contents

Motivation concepts

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation

.Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself - the enjoyment of a puzzle or the love of playing.^ This could come in the form of positive reinforcement, or a reward, for performing the desired activity.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, extrinsic motivation occurs when learners engage in activities for the purpose of attaining rewards, such as praise or high grades (Alderman, 1999).
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] This form of motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. .Intrinsic motivation has been explained by Fritz Heider's attribution theory, Bandura's work on self-efficacy, [3] and Ryan and Deci's cognitive evaluation theory.^ The future of work motivation theory.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Albert Bandura, author of nine books and numerous scholarly journal articles, past-president of the American Psychological Association, and one of the leading psychologist, presents a complete explanation of self-efficacy as well as extensive applications of this theory as it relates to motivation in a variety of areas.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Taken to the ultimate, the logic of motivation theory is to extend the working day to 24 hours.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:
.
  • attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g.^ In a teaching/learning environment, it is important to assist the learner to develop a self-attribution explanation of effort (internal, control).
    • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If the person has an attribution of ability (internal, no control) as soon as the individual experiences some difficulties in the learning process, he or she will decrease appropriate learning behavior.
    • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Controllability: controllable-uncontrollable Controllability refers to those factors that can be controlled to influence results.
    • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

    the amount of effort they put in),
  • believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck),
  • are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.
see also Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theory below.

Extrinsic motivation

.Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the performer.^ Extrinsic or Intrinsic Motivation, depending on whether the stimulus for the behavior originated outside or inside the individual.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Money is the most obvious example, but coercion and threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations.^ How to Defeat a Lack of Motivation -- TJ Philpott One of the most common factors keeping people from succeeding is a lack of motivation.

^ Engaging in behavior to avoid punishment is also regarded as an extrinsic motivation.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They cite motivation rhetoric common to most modernist management and organizational behavior texts, the ones our MBA students learn to recite.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While competing, the crowd may cheer on the performer, which may motivate him or her to do well.^ If you are successful at something, you are motivated to continue doing it--of course, you may need feedback to know whether or not you are doing well.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Internalists allow that moral motivation need not be overriding; competing desires may be stronger and so may win out.
  • Moral Motivation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Trophies are also extrinsic incentives. .Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity.^ On the other hand, extrinsic motivation occurs when learners engage in activities for the purpose of attaining rewards, such as praise or high grades (Alderman, 1999).
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, these fall into the two categories discussed above: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation.^ Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation .
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, extrinsic motivation occurs when learners engage in activities for the purpose of attaining rewards, such as praise or high grades (Alderman, 1999).
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition and to children who received no extrinsic reward[4]

Self-control

.The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by many intelligence tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks.^ How to Feel Even More Self-Motivated -- Alan Fairweather I have a confession to make; I, on occasion, have felt a little de-motivated.

^ Increase Efficiency, Yet Slim Down An intelligent machine might try to achieve measurable goals using less resources.
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ Negative emotions are extremely powerful, and according to Rock, we move away from threats much more quickly and vigorously than we move toward rewards.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

.Yale School of Management professor Victor Vroom's "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people will decide whether to exert self control to pursue a particular goal.^ Motivation Theory is Apollonian, the self-sacrifice, self-control, and denial of life.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B- Cognitive Theories Expectancy-value/VIE theory: (Vroom, 1964) it proposes the following equation: Motivation = Perceived Probability of Success (Expectancy) Connection of Success and Reward-- material benefit (Instrumentality) Value of Obtaining Goal (Valence, Value) (VIE = Valence, Instrumentality, Expectancy) .
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Path-goal theory teaches 4 behavioral styles that leaders can use to manipulate the five expectancy variables.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behaviour that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behaviour.^ Within the deficiency needs, each lower need must be met before moving to the next higher level.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We aim to achieve mutual satisfaction, organizations or companies and individuals within more...
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the why or the reason that drives a person towards a desired goal.

.Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food; whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others.^ We could drive each other crazy.
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ Roughly speaking, then, if a consideration does not motivate a person given her current desires or “motivational set,” it cannot be a reason for her to act.
  • Moral Motivation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the why or the reason that drives a person towards a desired goal.

.By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly.^ As an example of expectancy, assume that training is a reward being offered by your employer.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, classical theories give the impression that people are simply tiny cogs in a large machine--they do their jobs, are easily replaceable, and perform obediently.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Humans are too complex to say that, if the right reinforcer is found, they can be trained to do exactly what is desired, and that, if it is administered correctly, they will eventually do it for NO reinforcement.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process.^ He might even say motivation theory is an anti-life set of principles and practices producing sacrifice at the expense of the animal within us.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Motivational theories

The incentive theory of motivation

A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. .Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect would be greater, and decreases as duration lengthens.^ Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect would be greater, and decreases as duration lengthens.
  • Motivation encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A related series of studies shows that intrinsic interest in a task — the sense that something is worth doing for its own sake — typically declines when someone is rewarded for doing it.
  • Studies Find Reward Often No Motivator - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s just that the external reward lengthens the duration of the anticipated reward even if interest is long gone.
  • Extrinsic Motivation is it Effective? | What is Extrinsic Motivation? 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.selfmademiracle.com [Source type: General]

Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. .Motivation comes from two sources: oneself, and other people.^ Motivating Others -- Antonio Marsocci Motivation often comes down to individuals and circumstances and what works today may not work tomorrow, which is why it can feel difficult and time-consuming.

^ Since this presentation is only related to Motivation, it will not cover the two other variables: self-confidence and anxiety.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next 5 aspects P E D A L corresponds to the behaviour and modality of the individual with reference to the environments and others whom they motivate and all others with whom they come across .
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.These two sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively.^ Any plausible account of moral motivation will, and must, acknowledge these sources of motivational failure; and any plausible analysis of moral properties must allow for them.
  • Moral Motivation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hunter believes that there are intrinsic, or internal, motivation and extrinsic, or external, motivation.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Unless another of these extrinsic factors applied (or you possessed intrinsic motivation), you would not be motivated to learn that material.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it seems.^ Is every task you try to do harder than you thought it would be, and do you seem to encounter problem after problem along the way?

.Steven Kerr notes that when creating a reward system, it can be easy to reward A, while hoping for B, and in the process, reap harmful effects that can jeopardize your goals.^ Through careful consideration of the following ideas, I hope you gain a more profound understanding of and appreciation for your beliefs, your goals, and most importantly, yourself.

^ Once you know, you can formulate a plan of action, and then create your daily motivation to achieve all your goals.

^ When your goals are not similar to the company's, there is no motivational effect.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.A reinforcer is different from reward, in that reinforcement is intended to create a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment.^ A reinforcer is different from reward, in that reinforcement is intended to create a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment.
  • Motivation encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Positive Reinforcement - the addition of stimulus to the environment that increases the occurence of a behavior in the future.
  • Methods for Changing Behavior and Thoughts - Online Self-Help Book for Mental Health, Mental Illness 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Has there ever been a greater need for managers to create a desirable, hospitable, productive work environment in which employees can find challenges and be rewarded financially, emotionally, and psychically?
  • Great Motivation Secrets of Great Leaders - Excerpt from Book by John Baldoni 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC govleaders.org [Source type: Original source]

Drive-reduction theories

.There are a number of drive theories.^ By now it should be apparent by the number of theories that exist that there is no consensus as to what works.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that we have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive the drive's strength is reduced. .The theory is based on diverse ideas from the theories of Freud to the ideas of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat.^ The addictive system is preoccupied with control and the illusion of control Motivation and leadership theory is preoccupied with how to control one another, and how to control the work who is busy trying not to be controlled.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance when preparing food, the drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared, and, after the food has been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger. .There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of drive reduction open for debate.^ There are several techniques that you can use to summon the drive that you must posses in order to get the things that you want.

The first problem is that it does not explain how secondary reinforcers reduce drive. .For example, money satisfies no biological or psychological needs, but a pay check appears to reduce drive through second-order conditioning.^ HIGHER ORDER NEEDS 1.Self-Actualization (growth, challenge, creative work); Leaders and workers self-actualize through work .
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People work to satisfy a number of needs, not just the need for money.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The human climbs this level and the second level of needs, safety and security, appears.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Secondly, a drive, such as hunger, is viewed as having a "desire" to eat, making the drive a homuncular being - a feature criticized as simply moving the fundamental problem behind this "small man" and his desires.^ Is the point that drives people to do the points that they do, say the points that they say and generate the problems they make.

^ If such "external" driving of the central nervous system processes is minimal or absent, the processes do not simply cease.
  • Motivation and Emotion: An Interactive Process Model - Title 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, it is clear that drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behavior, or a hungry human could not prepare a meal without eating the food before he finished cooking it.^ McGregor chose to call his outline of classical ideas Theory X; he called behavioral concepts Theory Y. McGregor believed that people could be motivated by things other than money.
  • Understanding Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a clear indication that robots are gradually increasing in intelligence, and could one day do the work which is done by human scientists.
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ As learners become more proficient, able to complete tasks on their own that they could not initially do without assistance, the guidance can be withdrawn.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ability of drive theory to cope with all kinds of behavior, from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint), or adding additional drives for "tasty" food, which combine with drives for "food" in order to explain cooking render it hard to test.^ In the company family there are (rigid) rules of behavior, dress codes, and all kinds of control that many of us growing up in dysfunctional families never experienced.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the perspective of this theory, all three variables must be high in order for motivation and the resulting behavior to be high.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these theories combine in the Path-Goal theory of leadership and motivation (House, 1971; House & Mitchell, 1974).
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cognitive dissonance theory

.Suggested by Leon Festinger, this occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an incompatibility between two cognitions.^ It may seem strange, that the same letters, the B.A. or B.S., the college degree, is rewarded to individuals no matter what experiences they had leading up to this reward.

^ Locus of control refers to the degree to which results are due to factors inside (internal locus of control) or outside (external locus of control) an individual.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For example, a consumer may seek to reassure himself regarding a purchase, feeling, in retrospect, that another decision may have been preferable.^ Motivating Others -- Antonio Marsocci Motivation often comes down to individuals and circumstances and what works today may not work tomorrow, which is why it can feel difficult and time-consuming.

.Another example of cognitive dissonance is when a belief and a behavior are in conflict.^ Cognitive dissonance theory: it was developed by Leon Festinger (1957) and states that when there is a discrepancy between two beliefs, two actions, or between a belief and an action, we will act to resolve conflict and discrepancies .
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Webster's, cognitive dissonance is a psychological conflict resulting from incongruous beliefs and attitudes held simultaneously.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A person may wish to be healthy, believes smoking is bad for one's health, and yet continues to smoke.^ Additionally, it may not be wise to set one person’s performance as the bar for another as they may have very different skill-sets.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also seeks to offer an understanding of the characteristics that humans take on when needs fail to be met, and how such offering affect one’s personality and the perceptions that others may have of you.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One morning you will awake to find that you are the person you dreamed of doing what you wanted to do simply because you had the courage to believe in your potential and to hold on to your dream.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Key Experiences and Motivation

Prof. Gad Yair from The Hebrew University has developed a line of research on Key Experiences, especially relating to educational events. .His approach to motivation follows his longstanding interest in outstanding motivating events - either short term and contextual or long-term.^ Long and short-term goals .
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a distinction between the natural and immediate short-term suffering following a catastrophic event in our life and unnecessary long-term suffering.
  • Motivation Articles, Essays, Tips and Advice 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.getmotivation.com [Source type: General]

^ We help in creating personal long-term goals such as becoming a top producer or a more short-term goal like mastering the calling script.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He first published a series of papers using the Experience Sampling Method (all three in 2000).^ We often fail to use them since pseudo-random series are easier to recreate, while random series need to be recorded if you wish to rerun an experiment precisely, with revisions to the algorithms.
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

.This has led to his major study of key experiences, motivation and long-term outcomes.^ In expectancy-value theory, "effort" is identified as the major measurable motivational outcome.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The key elements to long-term success is an undying passion for your work and a positive attitude.

.His papers on Key experiences in higher education and on the role of those experiences in educational turning points are readily available over the net.^ I absolutely love higher education and couldnt see myself pursuing any other goal at this point in my life outside of academia.

^ To this day, I feel like if I put in enough time consuming all the information available, particularly with the net making it so readily available, I can get an advantage in any technology business.
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ Three Golden Rules for a Personally Rewarding Higher Education Experience .

The concept of key educational experiences refers to singular, short and intense educational encounters that proved to have strong and long-lasting effects on adults. These encounters are at times associated with a specific person who led them [e.g. teacher, parent, youth leader], at others with the structure of the episode itself [e.g. progress toward a peak event which is then associated with insight and hindsight]. .Indeed, many respondents speak of their key educational experiences in terms of sight: Exceptional activities cause prior blinders to be suddenly lifted off, producing clear vision and insight, notably about students’ own selves.^ Out of about 5000 students, only 20 decided to purse their own field of study.

^ Do not forget...your professors were all students at one time or may still be working on their own education.

Need theories

Need hierarchy theory

.Abraham Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation.^ How to Defeat a Lack of Motivation -- TJ Philpott One of the most common factors keeping people from succeeding is a lack of motivation.

^ The organization as Addict - Organizations are systems of addictive processes (motivation theories, ideologies, and schemata) in which you can take this person out, put another one in, and the system keeps on ticking.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, motivation is one of the most important factors of success.

The theory can be summarized as follows:
  • Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not.
  • Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex.
  • The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied.
  • The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.
The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows:

Herzberg’s two-factor theory

.Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, AKA intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they dont lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction.^ Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation .
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^ Motivation at the Learning Situation Level is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic motives that are course specific (interest, relevance, expectancy, satisfaction), teacher specific (affiliative motive --please teacher, authority type --controlling vs. J- Wen (1997): He incorporated expectancy-value theories and identified four motivational factors: motivation of instrumentality intrinsic motivation expected learning strategies and efforts passivity towards requirements.
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^ This contingency theory of motivation and leadership predicts the situational factors that can be manipulated by changes in leader behavior to motivate subordinate behavior.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life.^ How to Defeat a Lack of Motivation -- TJ Philpott One of the most common factors keeping people from succeeding is a lack of motivation.

^ Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of a person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life.
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^ This contingency theory of motivation and leadership predicts the situational factors that can be manipulated by changes in leader behavior to motivate subordinate behavior.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He distinguished between:
  • Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and
  • Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation.
.The name Hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not make you healthier, but absence can cause health deterioration.^ Because studying requires so much sitting, reading and computer work it is important that you include exercise and healthy eating in your life.
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^ My suggestion is that you use your power of focus to stay anchored in the present moment and to choose your reactions wisely – they make all the difference.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use the "How healthy am I?" questionnaire to assess your level of health.
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The theory is sometimes called the "Motivator-Hygiene Theory" and/or "The Dual Structure Theory."
.Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction (see Computer user satisfaction).^ As educators, we both had explored all the underpinning theories of coaching, running classes that covered change theory, systems theory, learning theory, positive psychology, philosophy and other fields.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ With the assistance of control systems, in conjunction with applications of information technology, to control industrial machinery and processes, automation reduces the need for human intervention.
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

Alderfer’s ERG theory

.Clayton Alderfer, expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory (existence, relatedness and growth).^ Maslow's Hierarchy of needs stresses personal growth and development.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Growth, relatedness, existence needs.
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^ This is the deconstructed hierarchy of Maslow needs.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Physiological and safety, the lower order needs, are placed in the existence category, while love and self esteem needs are placed in the relatedness category.^ Growth, relatedness, existence needs.
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^ HIGHER ORDER NEEDS 1.Self-Actualization (growth, challenge, creative work); Leaders and workers self-actualize through work .
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He identified 5 levels of need, physical needs, safety/security needs, belongingness/love needs, esteem needs, and self actualization.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The growth category contains our self-actualization and self-esteem needs.^ Our radical notion is that motivation theory represses death and then circuitously finding that needs are never fulfilled, expectancies never enough, and the self never quite actualized, motivation theory feeds on our addictions.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dan Watson One of the interesting qualities of humans is the fact that our self-esteem is influenced by words.

^ Six Practical Steps to Greater Self-Confidence -- Dan Watson Every day, we face challenges that rattle our self-esteem and our confidence.

Self-determination theory

.Self-determination theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior.^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
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^ The publication by Deci and Ryan highlights the theories of intrinsic motivation and self-determination as well as the history of both theories and the impact of both of child development.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]
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.Like Maslow's hierarchical theory and others that built on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development.^ As educators, we both had explored all the underpinning theories of coaching, running classes that covered change theory, systems theory, learning theory, positive psychology, philosophy and other fields.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ "An integratively oriented learner would likely have a stronger desire to learn the language, have more positive attitudes towards the learning situation, and be more likely to expend more effort in learning the language (Gardner, 1985).
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^ Maslow's Hierarchy of needs stresses personal growth and development.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

Unlike these other theories, however, SDT does not include any sort of "autopilot" for achievement, but instead requires active encouragement from the environment. .The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy, competence feedback, and relatedness.^ Verbal persuasion Learners can be motivated by using verbal feedback to convince or encourage them to accomplish their tasks.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Deci identifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as the three criteria necessary for the self-determination theory of motivation.
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[7]

Broad theories

.The latest approach in Achievement Motivation is an integrative perspective as lined out in the "Onion-Ring-Model of Achievement Motivation" by Heinz Schuler, George C. Thornton III, Andreas Frintrup and Rose Mueller-Hanson.^ Instrumental Motivational Integrative Motivational Need for Achievement Attribution about past failures.
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^ F- Dornyei (1990): He postulated a motivational construct consisting of: an Instrumental Motivational Subsystem an Integrative Motivational Subsystem Need for Achievement Attribution about past failures.
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.It is based on the premise that performance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance.^ Inspired Motivation A Personal Path -- Scott Allen Barker Inspired Motivation A Personal Path To be "inspired" to move towards a goal, or a dream is a wonderful and magical experience.

^ Self-motivation is a process wherein a person develop ways on how to keep his or her self motivated at all times despite challenging times and without direct help from other people.

^ By looking at our attempts from a positive perspective, this allows a person to have a realistic sense of achievement and be able to direct their attitudes, feelings, thoughts and behaviors toward ever increasing levels of personal achievement.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation.^ Success and Motivation, almost Part 2 .
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ I tend to be inner-directed, so when I need motivation I reconnect with the love of doing the job and the joy of being on the path to success.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in motivation theory, the personality dies, we become trapped in self-sacrifice to work, perfection, and performativity.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Especially it integrates formerly separated approaches as Need for Achievement with e.g. social motives like Dominance. .The Achievement Motivation Inventory (AMI) (Schuler, Thornton, Frintrup & Mueller-Hanson, 2003) is based on this theory and assesses three factors (17 separated scales) relevant to vocational and professional success.^ This contingency theory of motivation and leadership predicts the situational factors that can be manipulated by changes in leader behavior to motivate subordinate behavior.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The publication by Carole Ames describes the learning environment in relation to the theory of motivation and achievement.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ First, Fast Focused Using the three F s for your business success factor will take you to the top.

Cognitive theories

Goal-setting theory

.Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state.^ A theory of goal setting and task performance.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It drives us towards achievement our goals, give us a reason to do things that is required to reach our ...

^ It could be that black holes are AI's that continuously consume everything nearby, based on a believe that there is an answer at the end that will justify the means of reaching it.
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal's efficiency is affected by three features: proximity, difficulty and specificity. .An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close.^ Hansbrough should be handling the ball between his elbows more (refer to Billups from the Nuggets who does it well) to initiate a move.
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ The basic idea of motivation theory (be it hierarchy of needs, expectancy, equity, or path-goal) is a leader is to manipulate the psychological states of subordinates, manipulating leader behavior to increase the motivation of subordinates.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gardner explored four other motivational orientations: (a) reason for learning, (b) desire to attain the learning goal, (c) positive attitude toward the learning situation, and (d) effortful behavior.
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.This explains why some children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than mastering algebra.^ How to Feel Even More Self-Motivated -- Alan Fairweather I have a confession to make; I, on occasion, have felt a little de-motivated.

^ We help you learn rather than give you the answers more...
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed").
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A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. .In both cases, most people are not optimally motivated, as many want a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success).^ Most people are able to motivate themselves when it is important to them.

^ How to Defeat a Lack of Motivation -- TJ Philpott One of the most common factors keeping people from succeeding is a lack of motivation.

^ Joy Can be Found in Every Moment -- Paula Owen Many people set aside perhaps at most, several days of the year to celebrate.

.At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed.^ At the same time they need to be knowledgeable.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ Why Do You Never Succeed -- Duncan Kelly You read all the stories of people who have succeeded, who are happy in their work and making megabucks at the same time, and you wonder, why am I not able to succeed like that?

^ Reduce Your Emotional Intensity - Handle Your Negative Emotions As They Happen -- Linda Pucci, Ph.D. Many people feel emotions so intensely that the negative emotions disrupt their lives.

Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highest possible grade. .Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal.^ How much they can pay themselves?
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ They attempt to capture the specifications of content in a strictly externalist manner, with little or no attention to how content, especially its normative character, could be dynamically realized.
  • Motivation and Emotion: An Interactive Process Model - Title 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is amazing how few people know what you need to do to reach goals.

[8]

Models of behavior change

.Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and volition.^ If this is Positive , then the individual is a Constructive Social-motivator.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This contingency theory of motivation and leadership predicts the situational factors that can be manipulated by changes in leader behavior to motivate subordinate behavior.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People could motivate a society in both Constructive and Destructive d irections.Always be a Constructive Social-Motivator.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral intentions. Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behavior. .In other words, motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively.^ In other words, what is their Goal?
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed").
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some word inspire and motivate, others stifle.

Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals. .An example of such a motivational and volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy.^ Examples of Self-motivation.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If this is Positive , then the individual is a Constructive Self-motivator.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not the purpose of this site to go further into the examples and analysis of this type of Self- motivation.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of action.^ G- Social Cognition Self-efficacy: ( Bandura, 1986, 1997) it highlights the belief that a particular action is possible and that the individual can accomplish it.
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^ Self-regulation: ( Bandura, 1986, 1997) it highlights the establishment of goals, the development of a plan to attain those goals, the commitment to implement that plan, the actual implementation of the plan, and subsequent actions of reflection and modification or redirection.
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It can support the translation of intentions into action.
See also:

Unconscious motivation

.Some psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and directed by unconscious motives.^ Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior.
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^ Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed").
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^ Learned motives Classical conditioning: (Pavlov) it states that biological responses to associated stimuli energize and direct behavior.
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.According to Maslow, "Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct.^ Why You Can't Have What You Want -- yoursgoogleincome.com - freeearningtip.com The three steps to manifesting all the things you desire are simple steps most of us will not be able to accomplish consciously.

[9]" .In other words, stated motives do not always match those inferred by skilled observers.^ If you want to make things happen the ability to motivate yourself and others is a crucial skill.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those skills, and other associated ones, can be improved through training.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ Some word inspire and motivate, others stifle.

.For example, it is possible that a person can be accident-prone because he has an unconscious desire to hurt himself and not because he is careless or ignorant of the safety rules.^ Let us analyse it with reference to the rule of B E S T P E D A L He B elieved that freedom movement is not possible by an individual, and it needs the effort of a large group of persons.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Let us analyse it with reference to the rule of B E S T P E D A L He B elieved that creation of a school is not possible by an individual, and it needs the effort of a group of persons the village.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Similarly, some overweight people are not hungry at all for food but for fighting and kissing.^ He had just left his city job, the 9 to 5 grind where ne "needed" to buy food in the supermarket, needed to get a car, and needed an apartment with all the utilities.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many pull all-nighters at studio consistently, and most people I know (including myself) keep food, toothbrushes, even a change of clothes, at their desk.

Eating is merely a defensive reaction to lack of attention..January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Some workers damage more equipment than others do because they harbor unconscious feelings of aggression toward authority figures.^ For some people, the more they try to get rid of the thoughts, the more difficult they become to manage.

^ Negative emotions are extremely powerful, and according to Rock, we move away from threats much more quickly and vigorously than we move toward rewards.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ And don't make it as simple as "well, they just like vanilla better" , because what simpleton would like vanilla better than Rocky Road?
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.Psychotherapists point out that some behavior is so automatic that the reasons for it are not available in the individual's conscious mind.^ Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).
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^ If the person has an attribution of ability (internal, no control) as soon as the individual experiences some difficulties in the learning process, he or she will decrease appropriate learning behavior.
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^ It can be defined as the main reason or reasons that individuals partake in a certain behavior, ...

Compulsive cigarette smoking is an example. .Sometimes maintaining self-esteem is so important and the motive for an activity is so threatening that it is simply not recognized and, in fact, may be disguised or repressed.^ Sleep Better to Improve Your Motivation -- Joan Sharp Whether you have fitness goals or financial goals and whether you seek to improve your self-esteem or your weight, the foundation of any self-improvement is motivation.

^ Dan Watson One of the interesting qualities of humans is the fact that our self-esteem is influenced by words.

^ Motivation, The Heart Of Self Improvement -- Deanna Mascle Pain may sometimes be the reason why people change.

Rationalization, or "explaining away", is one such disguise, or defense mechanism, as it is called. .Another is projecting or attributing one's own faults to others.^ On one hand one-fourth people of the world sleep hungry and on the other hand another one-fourth ...

."I feel I am to blame", becomes "It is her fault; she is selfish". Repression of powerful but socially unacceptable motives may result in outward behavior that is the opposite of the repressed tendencies.^ Motivating Others -- Antonio Marsocci Motivation often comes down to individuals and circumstances and what works today may not work tomorrow, which is why it can feel difficult and time-consuming.

^ The result of the Social-Motivation could be, either constructive or destructive to the individual, who initiated it.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You may be motivated by your culture, your social environment, your health and well being, your thoughts or your beliefs and values If you are stuck and not ...

.An example of this would be the employee who hates his boss but overworks himself on the job to show that he holds him in high regard.^ He had just gone through the drive through and one of the tellers who he would see every day dropping of our deposits asked him to wait a second.
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.Unconscious motives add to the hazards of interpreting human behavior and, to the extent that they are present, complicate the life of the administrator.^ However, they will add hours of enjoyment to your life.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motivate Yourself Better -- Hassan J Sheikh Life is too complex and complicated already to be given added burdens and negative circumstances.

^ They cite motivation rhetoric common to most modernist management and organizational behavior texts, the ones our MBA students learn to recite.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, knowledge that unconscious motives exist can lead to a more careful assessment of behavioral problems.^ Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed").
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I found that many of the same cognitive and behavioral techniques that helped [my patients] overcome their other problems could also help them lose weight--and keep it off.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ We also provide other motivational programmes primarily with the intention of inspiring people to think big and achieve more...
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

.Although few contemporary psychologists deny the existence of unconscious factors, many do believe that these are activated only in times of anxiety and stress, and that in the ordinary course of events, human behavior — from the subject's point of view — is rationally purposeful.^ The point is, many people do give up when faced with difficult subjects, attributing the success of others purely to inborn skill, something they can never replicate.

^ No matter what, stress is going to plague the lives of humans at some point or another.

^ It generally only takes a few seconds of your time to do these things.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theory

.Starting from studies involving more than 6,000 people, Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a theory that find 16 basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior.^ If you do not already know the power of positive thinking, it is high time you find out more about it and start applying it to your life.

^ Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed").
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] [11]
The desires are:
  • Acceptance, the need for approval
  • Curiosity, the need to think
  • Eating, the need for food
  • Family, the need to raise children
  • Honor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group
  • Idealism, the need for social justice
  • Independence, the need for individuality
  • Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments
  • Physical Activity, the need for exercise
  • Power, the need for influence of will
  • Romance, the need for sex
  • Saving, the need to collect
  • Social Contact, the need for friends (peer relationships)
  • Status, the need for social standing/importance
  • Tranquility, the need to be safe
  • Vengeance, the need to strike back
In this model, people differ in these basic desires. .These basic desires represent intrinsic desires that directly motivate a person's behavior, and not aimed at indirectly satisfying other desires.^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extrinsic or Intrinsic Motivation, depending on whether the stimulus for the behavior originated outside or inside the individual.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People may also be motivated by non-basic desires, but in this case this does not relate to deep motivation, or only as a means to achieve other basic desires.^ Self-motivation is a process wherein a person develop ways on how to keep his or her self motivated at all times despite challenging times and without direct help from other people.

^ You must be motivated by a deep inner desire to be all you can be in this life.

^ Motivation - How to Stay Fired Up -- Anthony D Carter Have you ever noticed yourself being excited at the mere thought of obtaining or achieving something that you desire?

Other theories

Controlling motivation

The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. .There are many different approaches of motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics.^ These powerful and highly motivational training sessions with Bob are life changing.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ Motivational Interviewing I am a one person company providing face to face workshops and on-site training in the evidence based counseling approach called Motivational Interviewing (MI).
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ This model’s beings have all the motivation, values, randomness, and many more critical attributes beyond those that the comments to this article described.
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

.To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation.^ How many people they can hire?
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ How to Defeat a Lack of Motivation -- TJ Philpott One of the most common factors keeping people from succeeding is a lack of motivation.

^ In reality, how many people actually follow through?

Employee Motivation

.Workers in any organization need something to keep them working.^ HIGHER ORDER NEEDS 1.Self-Actualization (growth, challenge, creative work); Leaders and workers self-actualize through work .
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The addicted organization contrives ways to involve workers and leaders more deeply in the excitement of work.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People working in addictive organizations are socialized to do what pleases others, to pretend their sacrifices are voluntary, to do whatever it takes to keep control.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most times the salary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization.^ However, throughout these times I have found a source of motivation to keep me working as hard as possible.

^ We can make the machines do most of the work, so we have more time to work our destiny out, play, make love, or war.
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ Signs It's Time to Work on Becoming Your Best Self -- Louise Kaelin For most people, we don't begin life focused on becoming our best self.

.However, sometimes just working for salary is not enough for employees to stay at an organization.^ Dealing With Disappointment -- Duncan Kelly Sometimes things just don't work out the way we hoped.

.An employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization.^ Courses which have been specially designed to meet the professional needs of companies whose employees need to use3 English in their work environment WHAT COURSES ARE OFFERED? General Business English .
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ Personal Peak Performance Unlimited ...motivational speaker, Della Menechella helps organizations develop effective leaders and improve employee performance.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ Also working with the members of companies and organizations to awaken their potential and discover the matter of implementing it successfully in their working environment.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

.If no motivation is present in an employee, then that employee’s quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate.^ There is all kinds of gossip, but no efforts to sit down, engage in straight talk, and work through the problems.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Strategies to Define Motivation -- Victor Ghebre We've all heard a lot of discussion about the importance of motivation both in ourselves and in our employees.

^ Therefore, all three must be present in order for motivation to occur.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Keeping an employee working at full potential is the ultimate goal of employee motivation.^ However, throughout these times I have found a source of motivation to keep me working as hard as possible.

^ Trevor Johnson Have you ever considered using daily inspirational sayings as a way of keeping up your motivation to reach your goals?

^ Motivation Strengtheners That Keep You Going -- Anthony D Carter In order to hit your goals you need to sustain your motivation.

.There are many methods to help keep employees motivated.^ Self-motivation is a process wherein a person develop ways on how to keep his or her self motivated at all times despite challenging times and without direct help from other people.

^ At weekly intervals, you can use the Keeping up the search for motivation checklist The checklist will help you build on your knowledge about yourself in searching for, and maintaining, your motivation to study.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many people who have created and pursued a fulfilling career training people the significance to motivate oneself.

.Some traditional ways of motivating workers are placing them in competition with each other.^ See above--in some ways I think I've been a pretty good older brother; in other ways I know I could do better.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ Some word inspire and motivate, others stifle.

^ In some ways I was a really easy kid to raise; in other ways I know I was unbelievably difficult.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Drugs

.Some authors, especially in the transhumanist movement, have suggested the use of "smart drugs", also known as nootropics, as "motivation-enhancers". The effects of many of these drugs on the brain are emphatically not well understood, and their legal status often makes open experimentation difficult.^ I suggest you use these 5 steps for sustaining motivation.

^ Not many people fully understand its meaning, but every one of us is either guided or dictated by some motivational influence.

^ The ARCS Model of Motivational Design is a well-known and widely applied model of instructional design.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Applications

Education

.Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning.^ What is Motivation -- Glen Peebles Motivation is of particular interest to Educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning.

^ Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and ...

^ One of the factors that influence the choice of strategies used among students learning a second/foreign language is Motivation.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields.^ The Guide, published earlier this year, is a great overview of current neuroscience research, with nearly 20 interviews with scientists, physicians, educators and others working in the field.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, anyone with a college degree has taken courses, and gained knowledge about a specific field, however, the true gain of the college experience is something different, not reflected in our degree title after graduation.

^ As educators, we both had explored all the underpinning theories of coaching, running classes that covered change theory, systems theory, learning theory, positive psychology, philosophy and other fields.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

.Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards subject matter.^ Can we motivate our students if they are not "Ready" for motivation?
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and ...

^ No matter which profession you ultimately choose, that passion, that drive, that intense love for a subject should be the rightful dictator of your educational future.

[12] It can:
  1. Direct behavior toward particular goals
  2. Lead to increased effort and energy
  3. Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities
  4. Enhance cognitive processing
  5. Determine what consequences are reinforcing
  6. Lead to improved performance.
.Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates.^ Motive Matching: match objectives to student needs and motives.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can we motivate our students if they are not "Ready" for motivation?
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After all, we, as teachers, need to find the student's motives so that we can accommodate them.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are two kinds of motivation:[citation needed]
  • Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant.
  • Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).
.Note also that there is already questioning and expansion about this dichotomy on motivation, e.g., Self-Determination Theory.^ Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in motivation theory, the personality dies, we become trapped in self-sacrifice to work, perfection, and performativity.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Motivation has been found to be a pivotal area in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, as in Pivotal Response Therapy.
.Motivation is also an important element in the concept of Andragogy (what motivates the adult learner).^ "Instrumental motivation might be more important than integrative motivation for foreign language learners."
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sudbury Model schools' approach to motivation

.Sudbury Model schools adduce that the cure to the problem of procrastination, of learning in general, and particularly of scientific illiteracy is to remove once and for all what they call the underlying disease: compulsion in schools.^ The teacher presents a scenario of a problem situation and asks the class to brainstorm possible solutions based on what they have learned in the lesson.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is the point that drives people to do the points that they do, say the points that they say and generate the problems they make.

^ Once people heard of this, they often rescinded their question; after all, who could refuse two years of school free, complemented with a trip abroad?

.They contend that human nature in a free society recoils from every attempt to force it into a mold; that the more requirements we pile onto children at school, the surer we are to drive them away from the material we are trying to force down their throats; that after all the drive and motivation of infants to master the world around them is legendary.^ It all comes down to motivation.

^ Some people thrive on chaos; they have to be under pressure in order to be motivated to do anything at all.

^ Different Kinds of Motivation -- Austin Murphy Motivation makes the world go around, not love.

.They assert that schools must keep that drive alive by doing what some of them do: nurturing it on the freedom it needs to thrive.^ Once I became more aware of the professors at school, I began doing research on some of the professors.

^ "Your mind is not getting the dopamine or the hugs that it needs to keep you focused on what you're doing.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ Some people I like a great deal would rather work alone, some are distracting, others dont care as much about doing well in school.

[13]
.Sudbury Model schools do not perform and do not offer evaluations, assessments, transcripts, or recommendations, asserting that they do not rate people, and that school is not a judge; comparing students to each other, or to some standard that has been set is for them a violation of the student's right to privacy and to self-determination.^ I want to discuss something that all students will deal with at some point in their academic career, self-doubt.

^ It requires students to rate 36 ARCS-related statements in relation to the instructional materials they have just used.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teachers can urge students to develop their own intrinsic rewards through positive self-talk, guided self-evaluation, and mastery of specific goals, rather than comparison with other students.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Students decide for themselves how to measure their progress as self-starting learners as a process of self-evaluation: real life-long learning and the proper educational evaluation for the 21st Century, they adduce.^ How much they can pay themselves?
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and ...

^ They maintain that learners need to be empowered and to have control over the learning process.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .According to Sudbury Model schools, this policy does not cause harm to their students as they move on to life outside the school.^ For one thing, as a grad student, I dont have much of a life outside studio.

.However, they admit it makes the process more difficult, but that such hardship is part of the students learning to make their own way, set their own standards and meet their own goals.^ Students can learn to have realistic but challenging goals.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some people, the more they try to get rid of the thoughts, the more difficult they become to manage.

^ Also, being a motivation student, will rub off on your teachers and class mates and this will make your college experience much better and more enjoyable.

.The no-grading and no-rating policy helps to create an atmosphere free of competition among students or battles for adult approval, and encourages a positive co-operative environment amongst the student body.^ Create an atmosphere in which students are not afraid to make mistakes and are encouraged to take risks.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It leads to a more positive brand value and committment to the Mavs, which helps us create new products that leverage the live nature of our product.
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

^ In order for the students to be motivated, the learning environment needs to be free from axiety; the student should not feel threatened or intimidated.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

Business

.At lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, such as physiological needs, money is a motivator, however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation).^ This is the deconstructed hierarchy of Maslow needs.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overcoming obstacles and diligence are two factors that are important for academic success at any level.

^ In order for the child to be motivated, parents and teachers need to challenge his/her abilities, but NOT present material or information that is too far beyond the child's level.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor's theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theory of leadership) demonstrate.^ This contingency theory of motivation and leadership predicts the situational factors that can be manipulated by changes in leader behavior to motivate subordinate behavior.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Negative emotions are extremely powerful, and according to Rock, we move away from threats much more quickly and vigorously than we move toward rewards.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

^ You could enjoy carefully researched articles on Performance Appraisals , Motivation , Presentation tips, Conflict Management , Leadership Styles , Leadership Traits , and many more.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

.Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are better motivators to staff.^ This is the deconstructed hierarchy of Maslow needs.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order for the child to be motivated, parents and teachers need to challenge his/her abilities, but NOT present material or information that is too far beyond the child's level.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hierarchy of Human Needs: (Abraham Maslow, 1954).
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator. .Praise and recognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are considered stronger motivators than money.^ The managerialist perspective on motivation theory considers the elements in Table 1 and 2 the situation to manipulate.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We contend that motivation theory fails to consider addictions (sex, alcohol, work, consumption, domination, etc.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spectacle (Guy Debord, 1967) fosters addictive patterns, without which our motivation theories would be even less effective than they already are.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job.
  • Motivated employees are more quality oriented.
  • Motivated workers are more productive.
The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. .Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side.^ Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed").
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More motivated students tend to use more strategies than less motivated students, hence, they tend to be more successful.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Instrumental motivation might be more important than integrative motivation for foreign language learners."
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production.^ Life is the motivational tool I use the most.

^ Most people have stress levels off the charts due to family, work, social problems, and worst of all, financial and debt issues.

^ The program focuses on fitness level, healthy and active living, appropriate exercises, emotions, productivity and cost control, team work, more...
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

[16]
.Nonetheless, Steinmertz also discusses three common character types of subordinates: ascendant, indifferent, and ambivalent whom all react and interact uniquely, and must be treated, managed, and motivated accordingly.^ Therefore, all three must be present in order for motivation to occur.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You must be motivated by a deep inner desire to be all you can be in this life.

^ However, in life success, it seems critical that individuals have all three types of goals in order to be very successful.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An effective leader must understand how to manage all characters, and more importantly the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow, and find answers independently.^ Use the Make study a priority questionnaire to work out your study commitments a pattern for studying and how to incorporate rewards When you have answered the questionnaire you will have completed a study plan for yourself which includes goals, time management and self rewards.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through careful consideration of the following ideas, I hope you gain a more profound understanding of and appreciation for your beliefs, your goals, and most importantly, yourself.

^ Rock believes that it's more sustainable and ultimately more effective for leaders to rely on social rewards rather than threats.
  • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

[17]
The assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were challenged by a classic study[18] at Vauxhall Motors' UK manufacturing plant. .This introduced the concept of orientation to work and distinguished three main orientations: instrumental (where work is a means to an end), bureaucratic (where work is a source of status, security and immediate reward) and solidaristic (which prioritises group loyalty).^ Manipulation means performing an action and turning a lever to make more valences, move an instrumentality, make a path accurate, make a reward more in amount.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if subordinates have a high need for esteem and affiliation, supportive leader behavior may server as an immediate source of reward satisfaction.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being determined means to be ready to study and work toward the goal(s) set to see a fruitful end.

.Other theories which expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg included Kurt Lewin's Force Field Theory, Edwin Locke's Goal Theory and Victor Vroom's Expectancy theory.^ Motivation theory, be it need theory (McClelland, Maslow, Alderfer, or Herzberg) or process theory (Skinner's reinforcement theory, Vroom's expectancy theory and House's path-goal theory) is blindly embedded in a world addicted by spectacle to work and consumption.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Path-goal theory teaches 4 behavioral styles that leaders can use to manipulate the five expectancy variables.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of Maslow, Alderfer or Herzberg, I think Motivation Theory is just spectacularity.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These tend to stress cultural differences and the fact that individuals tend to be motivated by different factors at different times.^ A Constructive Self-Motivation, some times motivates the individual toward a Social-Motivation of another Individual or a Group.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Motivating Others -- Antonio Marsocci Motivation often comes down to individuals and circumstances and what works today may not work tomorrow, which is why it can feel difficult and time-consuming.

^ But the type of motivation expressed here are dominant and persist within the interest of an individual continuously, and throughout his / her life time .
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

[19]
.According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, a worker's motivation is solely determined by pay, and therefore management need not consider psychological or social aspects of work.^ She considered every aspect of Success with each human being, as a stepping stone and guide-line for further development, improvement and expansion of her mission.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are a one-stop shop for elearning courses on health, safety and injury prevention training, ergonomic evaluations and injury management systems to assist in returning injured workers back to work safely and quickly.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

.In essence, scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards.^ Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation .
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere need for money — in fact, extrinsic motivation (e.g., money) could extinguish intrinsic motivation such as achievement motivation, though money could be used as an indicator of success for various motives, e.g., keeping score.^ Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation .
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ARCS Model identifies four essential strategy components for motivating instruction: [A]ttention strategies for stimulating and sustaining curiosity and interest; [R]elevance strategies that link to learners' needs, interests, and motives; [C]onfidence strategies that help students develop a positive expectation for successful achievement; and [S]atisfaction strategies that provide extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement for effort (Keller, 1983).
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In keeping with this view, his consulting firm, McBer & Company, had as its first motto "To make everyone productive, happy, and free."^ By understanding this you’ll be able to keep people happy and productive.
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a multi-disciplined consultancy group, based in dubai, UAE , seminars are targeted to companies and professional individuals who strive to keep themselves ahead of the competition.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ BE HAPPY C. CONCEPTS D. DETAILS E. I NDIRA GANDHI F. NOBEL G. POLI-FINANCE H. SLIDE SHOW I. SUMMARY J. SUPPORTS K. VIEWER'S VIEWS MANAGEMENT PRODUCTIVITY .
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.For McClelland, satisfaction lay in aligning a person's life with their fundamental motivations.^ Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of a person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EXAMPLES OF SELF MOTIVATION. All Self-motivated persons are always an achievers of something in their life.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staying Motivated - One Simple Solution to Staying Motivated and Living an Full Life -- Denise Hart Have you ever thought about what it means to be a motivated person?

.Elton Mayo found out that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very important and that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation.^ Extensions & Leads for Social-motivation 05.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Being able to motivate yourself is a very hard thing to attempt, however, it's so important to ...

^ Ways To Reduce Stress -- Sharon Reid Finding ways to reduce stress is important as most of us lead busy lives that tend to get busier as we get older.

.Mayo believed that workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important.^ How to Feel Even More Self-Motivated -- Alan Fairweather I have a confession to make; I, on occasion, have felt a little de-motivated.

^ People could motivate a society in both Constructive and Destructive d irections.Always be a Constructive Social-Motivator.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Social Needs (group/team feeling with lots of love and acceptance) .
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, employees were given freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention was paid to informal work groups.^ I worked jobs that barely paid the rent.
  • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

Mayo named the model the Hawthorne effect. .His model has been judged as placing undue reliance on social contacts at work situations for motivating employees.^ I think motivation theory leads us into addiction, making work our increasingly a compulsion, manipulating the situation to make us powerless to resist work addiction.
  • Death, Terror and Addiction in Motivation Theory by Boje andRosile 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cbae.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visualization: Encouraging your mind to work for you You might find that visualizing a situation, and a context in which you have successfully achieved your goals, is an effective motivational force.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How To Be Happy At Work:Employee Motivation How To Increase Your Will Power .
  • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
In Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs as motivators, and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive program:[21]
  • Recognition of employees' individual differences, and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition
  • Allowing employees to participate
  • Linking rewards to performance
  • Rewarding of nominators
  • Visibility of the recognition process

Online communities

.Motivation to participate and contribute represents one of the most important element in the success of online communities (and virtual communities).^ Most people are able to motivate themselves when it is important to them.

^ Next, motivation is one of the most important factors of success.

^ One of the most important things that we can control is the level of success we have in education.

See also

References

  1. ^ Seligman, Martin E.P. (1990). Learned Optimism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.. p. 101. ISBN 0-394-57915-1. 
  2. ^ Deci, E. (1972), "Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Reinforcement, and Inequity", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 22 (1): 113–120 
  3. ^ Bandura, A. (1997), Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: Freeman, pp. 604, ISBN 9780716726265, http://books.google.com/books?id=mXoYHAAACAAJ 
  4. ^ Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. & Nisbett, R. E. (1973) Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the overjustification hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28(1), pp. 129-137.
  5. ^ Kerr, Steven (1995) On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~wstarbuc/mob/kerrab.html
  6. ^ Knghts and Willmott 2007, organizational behaviour and management
  7. ^ Deci, Edward L.; & Ryan, Richard M. (1985). .Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior.^ Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective.

    ^ Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior.
    • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavio r.

    New York: Plenum. ISBN 0-30-642022-8.
     
  8. ^ Locke and Latham (2002)
  9. ^ Maslow, Motivation and Personality, p. 66.
  10. ^ Reiss, Steven (2000), Who am I: The 16 basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities, New York: Tarcher/Putnam, pp. 288, ISBN 1-58542-045-X, http://books.google.fr/books?id=EbOjA5oAsEUC 
  11. ^ Reiss, Steven (2004), "Multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation: The theory of 16 basic desires", Review of General Psychology 8 (3): 179–193, doi:10.1037/1089-2680.8.3.179, http://nisonger.osu.edu/papers/Multifaceted%20nature%20of%20intrinsic%20motivation.pdf 
  12. ^ Ormrod, 2003
  13. ^ Greenberg D. (1992) Freedom Nurtures Culture and Learning, Education in America: A View From Sudbury Valley.
  14. ^ Greenberg, D. (2000). 21st Century Schools, edited transcript of a talk delivered at the April 2000 International Conference on Learning in the 21st Century.
  15. ^ Greenberg, D. (1987). Chapter 20, Evaluation, Free at Last — The Sudbury Valley School.
  16. ^ Steinmetz, L. (1983) Nice Guys Finish Last: Management Myths and Reality. Boulder, Colorado: Horizon Publications Inc.
  17. ^ Steinmetz, L.L. (1983) Nice Guys Finish Last: Management Myths and Reality. Boulder, Colorado: Horizon Publications Inc. (pp. 43–44)
  18. ^ Goldthorpe, J.H., Lockwood, D., Bechhofer, F. and Platt, J. (1968) The Affluent Worker: Attitudes and Behaviour Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  19. ^ Weightman, J. (2008) The Employee Motivation Audit: Cambridge Strategy Publications
  20. ^ Human Resources Management, HT Graham and R Bennett M+E Handbooks(1993) ISBN 0-7121-0844-0
  21. ^ Robbins, Stephen P.; Judge, Timothy A. (2007), Essentials of Organizational Behavior (9 ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, http://wps.prenhall.com/bp_robbins_eob_9/64/16396/4197506.cw/index.html 

Further reading

.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior.^ Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed").
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motivation refers to the dynamics of our behavior, which involves our needs, desires, and ambitions in life.

^ Franken (1994) provides an additional component in his definition: the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior.
  • Educational Psychology Interactive: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edpsycinteractive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Motivation, a temporal and dynamic state, consists of the desire and willingness to do something.^ Motivation - How to Stay Fired Up -- Anthony D Carter Have you ever noticed yourself being excited at the mere thought of obtaining or achieving something that you desire?

^ According to the Humean view, belief is insufficient for motivation, which always requires, in addition to belief, the presence of a desire or conative state.
  • Moral Motivation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Motivation refers to the dynamics of our behavior, which involves our needs, desires, and ambitions in life.

Sourced

.
  • Motivation is a battle for the heart, not just an appeal to the mind.^ Motivation - The Importance of Momentum -- Anthony D Carter When attempting to get motivated half of the battle is won by just getting started.

    Passion is always an expression of the soul.
  • Small opportunities are often the beginning of great enterprises. .
  • He that riseth late must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night; while laziness travels so slowly that poverty soon overtakes him.^ In academics, just as in athletics, one must put in consistent effort each day; one must keep a consistent schedule including 7-9 hours of sleep each night; and one must make sacrifices.

    ^ To this day, I feel like if I put in enough time consuming all the information available, particularly with the net making it so readily available, I can get an advantage in any technology business.
    • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But we must learn to do all things to glorify God, and it takes deeply respecting Him to do this.
    • The Elements of Motivation (Part One): Fear 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cgg.org [Source type: Original source]

    He that lives on hope will die fasting.
  • A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty. .
  • Who does the best his circumstances allow Does well, acts nobly; angels could no more.^ No matter how well you perform in high school, college will be significantly more difficult.

    ^ If you know people who could benefit from the seminar, or would like to act as a host, please contact us.

    ^ I hope that adversity doesn’t strike you this week, but if it does I hope that someday you’ll be able to look back and say that it was the best thing that every could have happened.
    • Motivation Articles, Essays, Tips and Advice 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.getmotivation.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Become a 'possibilitarian'. No matter how dark things seem to be or actually are, raise your sights and see the possibilities- Always see them, for they are always there.^ No matter how good things are, the media will always have something bad to report.
    • Motivation Articles, Essays, Tips and Advice 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.getmotivation.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Positive Beliefs Can Shape Your Future -- farewell-anxiety.com Before people embark on any journey in their lives, they often think about where they are going or how they are going to get there.

    ^ If It's On Your Plate -- James Leer Does it ever seem like things aren't going you way?

    .
  • When it is obvious that the goals cannot be reached, don't adjust the goals, adjust the action steps.^ Finally, using the experiences of life as a stepping stone to keep me on a path to reach my goal (s).

    ^ When you don’t take action towards your goals, your motivation will die off fast.
    • Motivation Articles, Essays, Tips and Advice 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.getmotivation.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You should have the sincere determination, dedication and a crave towards everything you do which will help you to reach that level where you will be able to achieve those goals of yours step by step.

    .
  • Prepare your mind to receive the best that life has to offer.^ Like Confucius once said “find a job that you love to do and you would never have to work a day in your life” So build your team with that in mind, make it fun and enjoy!
    • Motivation - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Our life skills offer takes the best of personal more...
    • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Just take 2 mins from your life and jot down 10 things that first come to your mind, things that you are fascinated with, always ...

    .
    • Ernest Holmes
  • Well, then, we must cut our way out.^ However, sometimes we’re working towards something we’re genuinely excited about, but we hit a little plateau & find it hard to scrabble our way out of it.
    • Motivation - iCiNG - galadarling.com 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC galadarling.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In this way, fearing God is not like our reaction to a lion suddenly jumping out of the jungle and confronting us on the path.
    • The Elements of Motivation (Part One): Fear 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC cgg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • General Grant
  • If you wish to succeed in life, make perseverance your bosom friend, experience your wise counselor, caution your elder brother, and hope your guardian genius.^ Can you change your life?

    ^ Change your modes of behavior and you will make friends.

    ^ Are you living the life of your dreams?

  • A man without a purpose is like a mad dog roaming the streets, chasing after everything in sight.
    • RobertShumake

Unsourced

  • I will act now. I will act now. I will act now. .Henceforth, I will repeat these words each hour, each day, everyday, until the words become as much a habit as my breathing, and the action which follows becomes as instinctive as the blinking of my eyelids.^ I enjoy learning, but I have found that by giving my brain a much needed break during the day, I am even more successful in the classroom.

    ^ As I half heartedly shoveled down the last bit of my lucky charms, I read the following words: KEYS TO A GREATER CROSS COUNTRY DISTANCE RUNNER 1.

    ^ These days, my mind knows what to do, but my body just laughs at me.
    • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

    .With these words I can condition my mind to perform every action necessary for my success….^ These questions have been on my mind today.
    • Ed Batista: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edbatista.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Are my actions likely to lead to success?
    • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These days, my mind knows what to do, but my body just laughs at me.
    • Success & Motivation « blog maverick 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC blogmaverick.com [Source type: General]

    I will act now for now is all I have. Tomorrow is the day reserved for the labor of the lazy. I am not lazy. Tomorrow is the day when the failure will succeed. I am not a failure. I will act now. Success will not wait. If I delay, success will become wed to another and lost to me forever. This is the time. This is the place. I am the person. .
  • Motivation is a fire from within.^ But how can we re-kindle the motivational fire within us so we can have true success?

    ^ (Small, 1997) "Motivation is a fire from within.
    • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W. (1991) http://www.deil.uiuc.edu/nppm/texts/crookes/crookesschmidt.html "Motivation is a fire from within.
    • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If someone else tries to light that fire under you, chances are it will burn very briefly
    • Stephen R. Covey, Author of 'The seven habits of highly effective people'
  • I know what to do when I have something to do..^ If someone else tries to light that fire under you, chances are it will burn very briefly."
    • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You will also get to know more people.

    ^ Ask yourself, "How many people do you know that have everything they want?

    I do what I have to do, but I never have anything to do, so I never know what to do.
    • Nate Mazzara, Teleporting to Stockholm (band)

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary
BestMotivationalQuotes.com had a collection of motivational quotes.

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

25%.svg Completion status: this resource is ~25% complete.

Contents

What motivates people's behaviour? Why is this person so keen on mountain bike riding?
.The study of motivation is concerned with understanding processes that drive and direct behaviour.^ The motivation drives, that concerned Boyden, are so well developed too: multi-tiered depending on the level of accomplished satisfaction.
  • Technology Review: The Singularity and the Fixed Point 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ Self Motivation - Your Key To Success -- Jennifer Lim Motivation is defined as the intention of achieving a goal, leading to goal-directed behaviour.

^ Motivation is pedal that drives the feelings and actions in a positive direction in the best possible way.
  • MOTIVATION 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.drvsrs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Psychologists study motivational forces to help explain observed patterns and changes in individual human behaviour.^ He used it to explain human motivation.
  • Motivation - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At weekly intervals, you can use the Keeping up the search for motivation checklist The checklist will help you build on your knowledge about yourself in searching for, and maintaining, your motivation to study.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MI works by helping tap into clients' own intrinsic motivation to change more...
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

.According to motivational theorists, motivation and emotion govern human behaviour.^ We provide human performance, training, motivation, organizational development, and strategic planning services to business and government clients.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

^ Human Resources Services ...Emotional Intelligence enhancement, personal development, motivation, stress management, and mind/ intuition enhancement.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

.Much empirical attention has been given to determining different aspects, or factors, of motivation.^ By that I mean your motivation levels are determined the thoughts that you place your attention on.

^ At the micro level learner motivation is evidenced by the amount of attention given to the input.
  • Affect in Language Learning: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.nadasisland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social cognition theory proposes reciprocal determination as a primary factor in both learning and motivation.
  • Educational Psychology Interactive: Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.edpsycinteractive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

What is motivation?

Motivation is a theoretical psychological construct which describes:
.
  1. that which moves one into action (Deckers, 2005)
  2. the force within individuals that energises, maintains and controls their behaviour (Westen, Burton, & Kowalski, 2006)
  3. that which arouses, directs, and causes persistence of behaviour
  4. “the driving force behind behaviour that leads us to pursue some things and avoid others” (Westen et al., 2006, p.^ There are some things that we can control and then there are some things that we cannot.

    ^ The drive to do things cause they matter.
    • Dan Pink on the surprising science of motivation | Video on TED.com 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To care non-derivatively only about doing what one believes right, to be motivated in that way, and not by these other things, is “a fetish or moral vice” (75).
    • Moral Motivation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    370).
  5. goal-directed behaviour (desire to achieve an objective, combined with the energy to work towards that goal)

Example questions

Here are some of the kinds of scenarios or questions which motivational theory and research seek to understand and explain:
.
  1. Why do some people try to climb Mount Everest or cross the Atlantic in a balloon?
  2. Why are some people obsessed with gambling while others rarely if every place a bet?
  3. Why do most of us (or all of us?^ Climbing Mount Everest blind is ...impossible.
    • Motivational Training Videos & DVDs 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.media-partners.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Climbing Mount Everest is hard.
    • Motivational Training Videos & DVDs 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.media-partners.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some of the most motivational pieces on the web are from people who struggle with their own weight and work on a daily basis to keep it off and stay healthy.

    ) fall in love?
  4. Why are some people heterosexual, some bisexual, and some homosexual?
  5. Why do some people attend university?
  6. Why do some strive so hard at work whilst others seem to be motivated to work as little as possible?
  7. Why do some people volunteer to help others, seemingly without reward?

Functions of motivational concepts

Gerrig et al. (2008, pp. 370-371) suggest five functions of motivational concepts:
  1. relate biology to behaviour
  2. account for behavioural variability
  3. infer private states from public acts
  4. assign responsibility for actions
  5. explain perseverance despite adversity

Motivational theories

Historical perspectives

Learning theories

Cognitive theories

Positive theories

References

  1. Deckers, L. (2005). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.
  2. Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia.
  3. Westen, D., Burton, L., & Kowalski, R. (2006). Psychology (Australian and New Zealand Edition). Milton, Queensland: John Wiley & Sons.

See also


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

German

Noun

Motivation f.
.
  1. motivation (willingness of action esp.^ Motivation_(band) Willingness of action esp.
    • "motivation" in English - Google Dictionary 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Motivation can be defined as willingness or aspiration in term of action to achieve and accomplish desired outcome.
    • I Love Motivation - Inspire You To Move Forward 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.ilovemotivation.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I often find dogs very similar, a correction, or a motivating pressure followed immediately by a recognizable reward will increase the willingness of the dog to do that action again in the improved way.
    • Motivation 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC martindeeley.com [Source type: Original source]

    in behavior)
.This German entry was created from the translations listed at motivation.^ The viewing of the list of completed tasks may also be considered motivating, as it can create a satisfying sense of accomplishment.

.It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses.^ Yet motivation for the path may also be rooted in factors other than life difficulties or the questions they force upon us.
  • Motivation: Our Need To Walk The Path 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.innerfrontier.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Compound questions are confusing because one part may be true and the other part false.
  • Motivation | "Maximize Your Life Possibilities & Awaken to Your Purpose" 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.pattencoaching.com [Source type: General]

^ I think I’ll work hard because I’m less likely to lose my job here than if I were some other company).

.Please also see
Motivation in the German Wiktionary.^ Please click on any of the following links to see many of the sales motivation and employee motiavtion quotes that were posted on the Motivation University.com blog.
  • motivation, sales motivation, goal setting, employee motivation, self motivation, motivational quotes, team motivation, achieving your goals 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC motivationuniversity.com [Source type: General]

^ For information on “Attitude” and “Incentive” motivation please see previous article – “Two Types Of Motivation”, Jan 2008.
  • Employee Motivation Techniques 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.hrmotivation.com [Source type: General]

^ Please let us know your motivation and objective for learning German and we can customize the contents to suit your learning needs.
  • Motivation - Training Seminars, Resources and Workshops 17 January 2010 7:32 UTC www.training-classes.com [Source type: General]

This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) November 2009

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Motivation, which are similar to those in the above article.








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