Mount Hood: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mount Hood

Mount Hood reflected in Trillium Lake
Elevation 11,249 ft (3,429 m) NAVD 88[1]
Prominence 7,706 ft (2,349 m) [2]
Listing Ultra
U.S. state high point
Location
Map showing Clackamas / Hood River counties, Oregon, USA
Mount Hood
Range Cascade Range
Coordinates 45°22′24.65″N 121°41′45.31″W / 45.3735139°N 121.6959194°W / 45.3735139; -121.6959194Coordinates: 45°22′24.65″N 121°41′45.31″W / 45.3735139°N 121.6959194°W / 45.3735139; -121.6959194[1]
Topo map USGS Mount Hood South 45121-C6
Geology
Type Stratovolcano
Age of rock Less than 500,000 years [3]
Volcanic arc/belt Cascade Volcanic Arc
Last eruption 1866 [4]
Climbing
First ascent 1857-07-11 by Henry Pittock, W. Lymen Chittenden, Wilbur Cornell, and the Rev. T.A. Wood [5]
Easiest route Rock and glacier climb

Mount Hood, called Wy'east by the Multnomah tribe, is a stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc of northern Oregon. It was formed by a subduction zone and rests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located about 50 miles (80 km) east-southeast of Portland, on the border between Clackamas and Hood River counties.

The exact height assigned to Mount Hood's snow-covered peak has varied over its history. Modern sources point to three different heights: 11,249 feet (3,429 m) based on the 1991 U.S. National Geodetic Survey[1] 11,240 feet (3,426 m) based on a 1993 scientific expedition[6] and 11,239 feet (3,426 m)[7] of slightly older origin. The peak is home to twelve glaciers.[8] It is the highest mountain in Oregon and the fourth-highest in the Cascade Range.[9] Mount Hood is considered the Oregon volcano most likely to erupt,[10] though based on its history, an explosive eruption is unlikely. Still, the odds of an eruption in the next 30 years are estimated at between 3 and 7 percent,[11] so the USGS characterizes it as "potentially active", but the mountain is informally considered dormant.[11]

Contents

Facilities

Timberline Lodge is a National Historic Landmark located on the southern flank of Mount Hood just below Palmer Glacier.[12]

The mountain has six ski areas: Timberline, Mount Hood Meadows, Ski Bowl, Cooper Spur, Snow Bunny and Summit. They total over 4,600 acres (7.2 sq mi; 18.6 km2) of skiable terrain; Timberline offers the only year-round lift-served skiing in North America.[13]

Mount Hood is part of the Mount Hood National Forest, which has 1.067 million acres (1667 sq mi/4318 km²), four designated wilderness areas which total 189,200 acres (295.6 sq mi; 766 km2) acres and more than 1,200 miles (1,900 km) of hiking trails.[14]

Eruption history

Satellite image of Mount Hood.

The glacially eroded summit area consists of several andesitic or dacitic lava domes; Pleistocene collapses produced avalanches and lahars (rapidly moving mudflows) that traveled across the Columbia River to the north. The eroded volcano has had at least four major eruptive periods during the past 15,000 years.

The last three at Mount Hood occurred within the past 1,800 years from vents high on the southwest flank and produced deposits that were distributed primarily to the south and west along the Sandy and Zigzag Rivers. The last eruptive period took place around 170 to 220 years ago, when dacitic lava domes, pyroclastic flows and mudflows were produced without major explosive eruptions. The prominent Crater Rock just below the summit is hypothesized to be the remains of one of these now-eroded domes. This period includes the last major eruption of 1781–82 with a slightly more recent episode ending shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. The latest minor eruptive event occurred in August 1907.[15]

The glaciers on the mountain's upper slopes may be a source of potentially dangerous lahars when the mountain next erupts. There are vents near the summit that are known for emitting noxious gases such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Prior to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, the only known fatality related to volcanic activity in the Cascades occurred in 1934 when a climber suffocated in oxygen-poor air while exploring ice caves melted by fumaroles in Coalman Glacier.

Since 1950, there have been several earthquake swarms each year at Mount Hood, most notably in July 1980 and June 2002.[16] [17] Seismic activity is monitored by the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory located in Vancouver, Washington, which issues daily updates.[18]

The most recent evidence of volcanic activity at Mount Hood consists of fumaroles near Crater Rock and hot springs on the flanks of the volcano.[19]

Elevation

Date Elevation By
1854 18,361 ft (5,596 m) Thomas J. Dryer [20]
1854 19,400 ft (5,900 m) Belden [20]
1857 14,000 ft (4,300 m) Mitchell's School Atlas [21]
1866 17,600 ft (5,400 m) Rev. Atkinson [20]
1867 11,225 ft (3,421 m) Col. Williamson [20]
1916 11,253 ft (3,430 m) Adm. Colbert [20]
1939 11,245 ft (3,427 m) Adm. Colbert [20]
1980 11,239 ft (3,426 m) USGS using NGVD 29 [15]
2008 11,235 ft (3,424 m) Encyclopædia Britannica [22]
 ? 11,249 ft (3,429 m) NGS using NAVD 88 [1]

Since first seen by European explorers in 1792, Mount Hood is believed to have maintained a consistent summit elevation, varying by no more than a few feet due to mild seismic activity. Elevation changes since the 1950s are predominantly due to improved survey methods and model refinements of the shape of the Earth (see vertical reference datum). Despite the physical consistency, the estimated elevation of Mount Hood has varied substantially over the years.

Early explorers on the Columbia River estimated the elevation to be 10,000 to 12,000 feet (3,000 to 3,700 m). Two persons in Thomas J. Dryer's 1854 expedition calculated the elevation to be 18,361 feet (5,596 m) and that the tree line was at about 11,250 feet (3,430 m). Two months later, a Mr. Belden claimed to have climbed the mountain during a hunting trip and determined it to be 19,400 feet (5,900 m) upon which "pores oozed blood, eyes bled, and blood rushed from their ears." Sometime by 1866, Reverend G. H. Atkinson determined it to be 17,600 feet (5,400 m). A Portland engineer used surveying methods from a Portland baseline and calculated a height of between 18,000 and 19,000 feet (5,500 and 5,800 m). Many maps distributed in the late 1800s cited 18,361 feet (5,596 m), though Mitchell's School Atlas gave 14,000 feet (4,300 m) as the correct value. For some time, many references assumed Mount Hood to be the highest point in North America.[20]

Modern height surveys also vary but not by the huge margins seen in the past. A 1993 survey by a scientific party who arrived at the peaks summit carrying 16 pounds of electronic equipment reported a height of 11,240 feet (3425.952 m), claimed to be accurate to within 1.25 inches.[6] Many modern sources likewise list 11,240 feet as the height.[23][24][25] However, numerous others place the peak's height one foot lower, at 11,239 feet.[7][26][27] Finally, a height of 11,249 feet has also been reported.[1][28][29][30]

Mount Hood's treeline varies from about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), mostly on the western faces, to about 7,000 feet (2,100 m), mostly on the eastern side.[citation needed]

Glaciers

Mount Hood glaciers

Mount Hood is host to twelve[31][32] named glaciers or snow fields, the most visited of which is Palmer Glacier, partially within the Timberline Lodge ski area and on the most popular climbing route. The glaciers are almost exclusively above the 6,000-foot (1,800 m) level, which also is about the average tree line elevation on Mount Hood. More than 80% of the glacial surface area is above 7,000 feet (2,100 m).[33]

The glacial surface area totals about 145 million square feet (5.2 square miles) and contains a volume of about 12.3 billion cubic feet (0.084 cubic miles). Eliot Glacier is the largest by volume at 3.2 billion cubic feet (91,000,000 m3), and has the thickest depth measured by ice radar at 361 feet (110 m). The largest surface area is the Coe-Ladd Glacier system at 23,100,000 square feet (2,150,000 m2).

Glaciers and snowfields cover about 80 percent of the mountain above the 6,900-foot (2,100 m) level. The glaciers have lost an average of 34% over the twentieth century (1907–2004). Glaciers on Mount Hood retreated through the first half of the 1900s, advanced or at least slowed their retreat in the 1960s and 1970s, and have since returned to a pattern of retreat.[34] The neo-glacial maximum extents formed in the early 1700s.[9]

During the last major glacial event between 10,000 and 29,000 years ago, glaciers reached down to the 2,300-foot (700 m) to 2,600-foot (790 m) level: a distance of 9.3 miles (15.0 km) from the summit. The retreat released considerable outwash, some of which filled and flattened the upper Hood River Valley near Parkdale and also formed Dee Flat.[9]

Older glaciation produced moraines near Brightwood and distinctive cuts on the southeast side; they may date to 140,000 years ago.[9]

Glacier name Area[33]
millions of ft²
Volume[33]
billions of ft³
notes GNIS location[35]
Palmer 1.4 0.07 headwaters of the Salmon River 45°21′10″N 121°42′23″W / 45.35278°N 121.70639°W / 45.35278; -121.70639 (Palmer Glacier)
Coalman (or "Coleman") 0.9 0.04 located between Crater Rock and the summit 45°22′20″N 121°41′50″W / 45.37222°N 121.69722°W / 45.37222; -121.69722 (Coalman Glacier)
White River 5.8 0.3 feeds the White River 45°21′27″N 121°41′51″W / 45.3575°N 121.6975°W / 45.3575; -121.6975 (White River Glacier)
Newton Clark 21.4 1.4 source of the East Fork Hood River 45°22′01″N 121°41′08″W / 45.36694°N 121.68556°W / 45.36694; -121.68556 (Newton Clark Glacier)
Eliot 18.1 3.2 source of Tilly Jane Creek and Eliot Branch, tributaries of
Middle Fork Hood River; named for Thomas Lamb Eliot‎
45°22′53″N 121°40′45″W / 45.38139°N 121.67917°W / 45.38139; -121.67917 (Eliot Glacier)
Langille 4.3 0.3 in Hood River watershed 45°23′33″N 121°40′44″W / 45.3925°N 121.67889°W / 45.3925; -121.67889 (Langille Glacier)
Coe 13.4 1.9 source of Coe Branch, a tributary of Middle Fork Hood River 45°23′01″N 121°41′36″W / 45.38361°N 121.69333°W / 45.38361; -121.69333 (Coe Glacier)
Ladd 9.7 0.9 source of McGee Creek, a tributary of West Fork Hood River 45°23′33″N 121°42′18″W / 45.3925°N 121.705°W / 45.3925; -121.705 (Ladd Glacier)
Glisan 45°23′28″N 121°43′06″W / 45.39111°N 121.71833°W / 45.39111; -121.71833 (Glisan Glacier)
Sandy 12.8 0.08 feeds Muddy Fork, a tributary of the Sandy River 45°22′48″N 121°42′56″W / 45.38°N 121.71556°W / 45.38; -121.71556 (Sandy Glacier)
Reid 8.1 0.6 feeds the Sandy River 45°22′16″N 121°43′04″W / 45.37111°N 121.71778°W / 45.37111; -121.71778 (Reid Glacier)
Zigzag 8.3 0.6 feeds the Zigzag River 45°21′49″N 121°42′40″W / 45.36361°N 121.71111°W / 45.36361; -121.71111 (Zigzag Glacier)
(total) 145.1 12.3

Name

North side of Mount Hood as seen from the Mount Hood Scenic Byway.

The Multnomah name for Mount Hood is Wy'east. In one version of the legend the two sons of the Great Spirit Sahale fell in love with the beautiful maiden Loowit who could not decide which to choose. The two braves, Wy'east and Klickitat, burned forests and villages in their battle over her. Sahale became enraged and smote the three lovers. Seeing what he had done he erected three mountain peaks to mark where each fell. He made beautiful Mount St. Helens for Loowit, proud and erect Mount Hood for Wy'east, and the somber Mount Adams for the mourning Klickitat. [36]

There are other versions of the legend. In another telling Wy'east (Hood) battles Pahto (Adams) for the fair La-wa-la-clough (St. Helens). Or again Wy'east, the chief of the Multnomah tribe, competed with the chief of the Klickitat tribe. Their great anger led to their transformation into volcanoes. Their battle is said to have destroyed the Bridge of the Gods and thus created the great Cascades Rapids of the Columbia River.[37]

The mountain was given its present name on October 29, 1792 by Lt. William Broughton, a member of Captain George Vancouver's discovery expedition. Lt. Broughton observed its peak while at Belle Vue Point of what is now called Sauvie Island during his travels up the Columbia River, writing "A very high, snowy mountain now appeared rising beautifully conspicuous in the midst of an extensive tract of low or moderately elevated land (location of today's Vancouver, Washington) lying S 67 E., and seemed to announce a termination to the river." Lt. Broughton named the mountain after a British admiral, Samuel Hood.[9]

Early summer panorama of aerial photos of the mountain's crater.

Lewis and Clark were the first Americans to see the mountain, on October 18, 1805. A few days later at what would become The Dalles, Clark wrote "The pinnacle of the round topped mountain, which we saw a short distance below the banks of the river, is South 43-degrees West of us and about 37 miles (60 km). It is at this time topped with snow. We called this the Falls Mountain, or Timm Mountain." Timm was the native name for Celilo Falls. Clark later noted that it was also Vancouver's Mount Hood.[38][39]

Two French explorers from Hudson's Bay Company may have traveled into the Dog River area east of Mount Hood in 1818. They reported climbing to a glacier on "Montagne de Neige" (Mountain of Snow), probably Eliot Glacier.[38]

Climbing

Landmarks along the south side climbing route of Mount Hood
Mount Hood seen from the south. Crater Rock, the remnants of a 200-year-old lava dome, is visible just below the summit.
Mount Hood seen from Portland

Mount Hood is Oregon's highest point and a prominent landmark visible up to a hundred miles away. It has convenient access and minimum of technical climbing challenges. About 10,000 people attempt to climb Mount Hood each year.[40]

The most popular route, dubbed the south route, begins at Timberline Lodge and proceeds up Palmer glacier to Crater Rock, the large prominence at the head of the glacier. Climbers then proceed around Crater Rock and cross Coalman glacier on the Hogsback, a ridge spanning from Crater Rock to the approach to the summit. The Hogsback terminates at a bergschrund where Coalman glacier separates from the summit rock headwall, and then to the Pearly Gates, a gap in the summit rock formation. Once through the Pearly Gates, climbers proceed to the right onto the summit plateau and then to the summit proper.[41]

Technical ice axes, fall protection, and experience are now recommended in order to attempt the left chute variation or Pearly Gates ice chute. The Forest Service is recommending several other route options due to these changes in conditions (e.g. "Old Chute", West Crater Rim, etc).[42]

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Climbing accidents

As of May 2002, more than 130 people had died in climbing-related accidents since records have been kept on Mount Hood, the first in 1896.[43] Incidents in April 1986, December 2006, and December 2009 attracted intense national and international media interest. Though avalanches are a common hazard on other glaciated mountains, most Mount Hood climbing deaths are the result of falls and hypothermia.[44] Despite a quadrupling of forest visitors since 1990, fewer than 50 people require rescue per year.[45] Only 3.4 percent of search and rescue missions in 2006 were for mountain climbers.[46]

Hiking

The Timberline Trail, which circumnavigates the entire mountain, was built in the 1930s by the Civilian Conservation Corps. Typically, the 40.7-mile (65.5 km) hike is snow-free from late July until the autumn snows begin. A portion of the Pacific Crest Trail is coincident with the Timberline Trail on the west side of Mount Hood.[47]

Ship names

There have been two US Navy ammunition ships named for the mountain. USS Mount Hood (AE-11) was commissioned in July 1944 and was destroyed in November 1944 while at anchor in Manus Naval Base, Admiralty Islands. Her explosive cargo ignited resulting in 45 confirmed dead, 327 missing and 371 injured.[48] A second ammunition ship, AE-29, was commissioned in May 1971 and decommissioned in August 1999.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Mount Hood Highest Point". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/ds_mark.prl?PidBox=RC2244. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  2. ^ "Mount Hood, Oregon". Peakbagger.com. http://www.peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=2382. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  3. ^ "Mount Hood–History and Hazards of Oregon's Most Recently Active Volcano". U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 060-00. USGS and USFS. 2005-06-13. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2000/fs060-00/. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  4. ^ "Hood". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1202-01-. Retrieved 2009-06-01. 
  5. ^ "Glaciers of Oregon". Departments of Geology and Geography at Portland State University. http://glaciers.research.pdx.edu/states/oregon.php#fun_facts. Retrieved 2007-02-24.  quoting McNeil, Fred H. (1937). Wy'east the Mountain, A Chronicle of Mount Hood. Metropolitan Press. OCLC 191334118. 
  6. ^ a b Staff writer(s) (September 14, 1993). "How High is Hood?". Eugene Register-Guard. p. A8. http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1310&dat=19930914&id=bm4VAAAAIBAJ&sjid=duoDAAAAIBAJ&pg=1592,2999111. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b Helman, Adam (2005). "Table of United States Peaks by Spire Measure". The Finest Peaks: Prominence and Other Mountain Measures. Trafford Publishing. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-4120-5995-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=Dl9tJFsvYvYC&pg=PA114. 
  8. ^ "Mount Hood Glaciers and Glaciations". USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Hood/Glaciers/description_hood_glaciers.html. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Swanson,, D.A.; et al. (1989). "Cenozoic Volcanism in the Cascade Range and Columbia Plateau, Southern Washington and Northernmost Oregon". AGU Field Trip Guidebook T106. USGS. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/PacificNW/AGU-T106/hood.html. 
  10. ^ Most likely to erupt based on history, see James S. Aber. "Volcanism of the Cascade Mountains". GO 326/ES 767. Emporia State University. http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/tectonic/cascade/cascade.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  11. ^ a b W.E. Scott, T.C. Pierson, S.P. Schilling, J.E. Costa, C.A. Gardner, J.W. Vallance, and J.J. Major. "Volcano Hazards in the Mount Hood Region, Oregon". USGS. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Hood/Hazards/OFR97-89/framework.html. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  12. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program—Timberline Lodge". National Historic Register. US National Parks Service. December 22, 1977. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceID=1364&resourceType=Building. Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  13. ^ "Beat the Heat: Summer Skiing on Oregon's Mount Hood". FastTracks Online Ski Magazine. July 17, 2006. http://www.firsttracksonline.com/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=4. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  14. ^ "USDA Forest Service Mount Hood Facts". US Forest Service. 23 August 2005. http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mthood/about/. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  15. ^ a b "Mount Hood Volcano, Oregon". USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Hood/description_hood.html. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  16. ^ "Hood - Monthly Reports". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1202-01-&volpage=var. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  17. ^ "Cascade Range Current Update for June 29, 2002". USGS. June 29, 2002. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Cascades/CurrentActivity/2002/current_updates_20020629.html. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  18. ^ "Cascade Range Current Update". USGS. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Cascades/CurrentActivity/current_updates.html. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  19. ^ "Oregon Volcanoes - Mt. Hood Volcano". Deschutes & Ochoco National Forests - Crooked River National Grassland. United States Forest Service. 2003-12-24. http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/centraloregon/geology/info/volcanoes/hood.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Jack Grauer (July 1975). Mount Hood: A Complete History. self published. pp. 199, 291–292. ISBN 0-930584-01-5. 
  21. ^ Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1857). "Mitchell's School atlas: comprising the maps and tables designed to accompany Mitchell's School and family geography". Philadelphia: H. Cowperthwait & Company. p. 8 (pdf). http://www.archive.org/download/mitchellsschoola00mitcrich/mitchellsschoola00mitcrich.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  22. ^ "Mount Hood National Forest". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/394655/Mount-Hood-National-Forest. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  23. ^ Morris, Mark (2007). "Columbia River Gorge and Mount Hood". Moon Oregon (7th ed.). Avalon Travel. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-56691-930-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=-xEA_1nkxcAC&pg=PA107. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  24. ^ Gutman, Bill; Shawn Frederick (2003). Being extreme: thrills and dangers in the world of high-risk sports (Illustrated ed.). Citadel Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-8065-2354-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=YGKfVxFDXOUC&pg=PA234. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  25. ^ Palmerlee, Danny (2009). Pacific Northwest Trips (Illustrated ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-74179-732-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=P1a2muAWtPIC&pg=PA262. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  26. ^ Marbech, Peter; Janet Cook (2005). Mount Hood: The Heart of Oregon (Illustrated ed.). Graphic Arts Center Publishing. pp. 18. ISBN 978-1-55868-923-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=MdB0mpVvktAC&pg=PA18. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  27. ^ DeBenedetti, Christian (March 2005). "Cliff Hanger". Popular Mechanics (Hearst Magazines) 182 (3): 136. ISSN 0032-4558. http://books.google.com/books?id=Vc8DAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA136. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  28. ^ Bernstein, Art (2003). Oregon byways: 75 scenic drives in the Cascades and Siskiyous, canyons and coast. Wilderness Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-89997-277-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=sFfMNik1cC0C&pg=PA12. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  29. ^ Let's Go (2009). Roadtripping USA: The Complete Coast-to-Coast Guide to America (3rd ed.). Macmillan. pp. 340. ISBN 978-0-312-38583-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=69z1qsLK_qkC&pg=PA340. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  30. ^ Pluth, Tanya (2009). "Climbers Stranded on Mount Hood". climbing.com (Skram Media). http://www.climbing.com/news/hotflashes/mounthoodrescue1206/. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Mount Hood Glaciers and Glaciations". USGS. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Hood/Glaciers/description_hood_glaciers.html. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  32. ^ "USGS Mount Hood North (OR) Topo". TopoQuest. http://www.topoquest.com/map.php?lat=45.37345&lon=-121.69661&datum=nad27&zoom=16. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  33. ^ a b c Carolyn L. Driedger and Paul M. Kennard (1986). "Ice Volumes on Cascade Volcanoes: Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Three Sisters and Mount Shasta". Geological Survey Professional Paper 1365. USGS. http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/geology/publications/pp/1365/sec3a.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  34. ^ Jackson, K.A. and Fountain, A.G. 2007. Spatial and morphologic change on Eliot Glacier, Mount Hood, Oregon, USA. Annals of Glaciology, 46, 222-226.
  35. ^ "Northwest GeoData Clearinghouse". Portland State University. http://nwdata.geol.pdx.edu/OR-GIS/PlaceNames/M.html. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  36. ^ "Volcanoes in Historical and Popular Culture: Legends and Mythology". http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/LivingWith/PopCulture/mythology.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  37. ^ Ella E. Clark (1953). Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest. University of California Press. ISBN 0520239261. OCLC 51779712. 
  38. ^ a b Grauer, p. 9
  39. ^ "Volcanoes of Lewis and Clark". USGS. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/LivingWith/Historical/LewisClark/volcanoes_lewis_clark.html. 
  40. ^ Green, Aimee; Mark Larabee and Katy Muldoon (2007-02-19). "Everything goes right in Mount Hood search". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on 2007-12-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20071223093250/http://blog.oregonlive.com/breakingnews/2007/02/everything_goes_right_in_mount.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  41. ^ "Climbing Mount Hood". United States Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mthood/recreation/climbing/index.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  42. ^ "Mount Hood Climbing Report, May 17th". United States Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mthood/recreation/climbing/conditions.shtml. Retrieved 2007-05-17. 
  43. ^ "Last Body Recovered From Mount Hood". CBS. May 31, 2002. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/05/30/national/main510637.shtml. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  44. ^ "Mount Hood National Forest Technical Climbing". GORP.com. http://gorp.away.com/gorp/resource/us_national_forest/or/cli_moun.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  45. ^ Nigel Jaquiss (October 13, 1999). "Without A Trace". Willamette Week. http://www.wweek.com/html/leada101399.html. Retrieved 2006-12-19. 
  46. ^ Kristi Keck (2007-02-20). "Weighing the risks of climbing on Mount Hood". CNN. Archived from the original on 2007-03-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20070302124925/http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/02/19/hood.rescue/index.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  47. ^ Ron C. Judd and Dan A. Nelson (1995). The Complete Guide Pacific Northwest Hiking. Foghorn Press. ISBN 0-935701-04-4. OCLC 32879305. 
  48. ^ "USS Mount Hood (AE-11), 1944-1944". Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-m/ae11.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 

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Contents
Mount Hood
Mount Hood

Mount Hood (height 11,239 feet) is the highest mountain in the state of Oregon and a major outdoor recreation site in the Pacific Northwest. Located about 50 miles (80 km) east-southeast of Portland, the mountain is visible from the city on clear days and usually forms the backdrop for the Portland skyline in postcards and photographs of the city.

Get in

The main route into the Mount Hood area is U.S. 26. The quickest way to get to U.S. 26 from Portland is to follow Interstate 84 east, take any of the Gresham exits, then follow the road south to U.S. 26 (Powell Street). Follow U.S. 26 east to the Mount Hood area; this will take you through the town of Sandy and the Mount Hood National Forest. To get to Timberline Lodge, turn left onto Timberline Road at Government Camp.

Do

There are many things to do including downhill skiing and snowboarding, hiking, and cross country skiing.

  • Skiing and Snowboarding: Mt. Hood is home to three skiing and snowboarding resorts: Mt. Hood Meadows, Timberline Lodge, and Ski Bowl, as well as the two lesser known Summit Ski Area and Cooper Spur. Mount Hood has the only ski area in North America that is open 12 months of the year and Ski Bowl has the largest night skiing area in America. There are a number of ski and snowboard camps offered. It is best to contact each resort to find out the details.
    • Mount Hood Meadows (operates November through April or May) offers four high speed quad lifts (and 5 other lifts), including the Cascade Express, which climbs to an elevation of 7,300 feet. The lifts are open daily 9AM-4PM, with night skiing until 9PM on Fridays and Saturdays. For those with limited skiing and snowboarding abilities, Meadows also offers the "Groove Tube" tubing hill on certain days for $5 and includes tube rental. As a side note, Meadows also the hosts local High School Snowboard Club/Team competitions.
    • Timberline (year round, except maintenance closure 2 weeks following Labor Day) offers four express quad chairlifts (and two other lifts), including the Palmer Chairlift, which reaches an elevation of 8,540 feet. Timberline is able to offer skiing and snowboarding 12 months out of the year, boasting the longest season in North America. Lift hours are 9AM-10PM Winter weekends, 9AM-4PM weekdays and after Spring break; 8AM-3PM late Spring; 7AM-1:30PM Summer. Timberline Lodge is a registered National Historic Landmark. It offers four star dining (come as you are) as well as casual and fast food, and the south deck from the second floor provides a panoramic view for over 50 miles.
    • Skibowl (November through March) offers 4 chairlifts, with a peak elevation just over 5,000 feet. Boasting the largest night skiing area in America, Skibowl's lifts are open 3PM-10PM M-Tu, 1PM-10PM W-Th, 9AM-11PM F, 8AM-11PM Sa, 8AM-10PM Su. They also offer a Snow Tube and Adventure Park on Saturday and Sunday.
  • Summer Activities: During the summer months Ski Bowl offers its infamous Alpine Slide, a 1/2 mile, grooved, sledding course down the face of Mt. Hood. Hiking, Biking, Horseback Riding, and Ice-Climbing are also popular summer activities on the mountain. Also check out Timberline Lodge's Magic Mile Sky Ride, a roundtrip chairlift ride to an elevation of 7,000 feet.
    • The Pacific Crest Trail is a 2,650 mile footpath which follows the Cascades and Sierra Nevada mountains from Canada to Mexico and passes around the west side of Mount Hood. It traverses one-tenth mile above Timberline Lodge and descends between Timberline Lodge and Mount Hood Meadows to continue southward toward Timothy Lake.
    • Timberline Trail is a 40+ mile loop hiking and equestrian path around Mount Hood mostly in protected wilderness, with a variety of magnificent vistas, primitive river crossings, alpine meadows, wildflowers, and dense forest. 17 miles of the Timberline Trail coincides with the Pacific Crest Trail.
    • Trillium Lake is an easy two mile detour off the Mount Hood Scenic Loop and provides a great view of Mount Hood, as well as camping, fishing, and paddling.
    • Little Crater Lake is a narrow but deep spring-fed lake beside the Little Crater Lake Campground near Timothy Lake.

The Shining

Timberline Lodge[1] is the infamous lodge used in the 1980 Stephen King horror classic, The Shining, directed by Stanley Kubrick and starring Jack Nicholson. However, only a few exterior shots in the movie are actually from the hotel - on the inside it looks completely different. Room 227 doesn't exist, nor does the ballroom. Room rates start at $90, not including tax or creepy old ladies in the bathroom.

Stay safe

Always check the local weather before heading up to the mountain. It is not uncommon for chains or snow tires to be advised or required. While there are snow plows as well as other precautions, it never hurts to be on the safe side. If you are planning a hike or skiing adventure into areas less traveled it is advised to take a Personal Location Transponder. If you should become lost, injured, or trapped this device will help emergency crews to locate you quickly via a GPS signal. The technology can now locate you to within 10 feet of your actual placement, a great accessory for snow enthusiasts in avalanche zones.

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Simple English

Mount Hood is a mountain in the U.S. state of Oregon, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) southeast of Portland. The mountain is 11,249 feet high.[1] It is the highest point in Oregon. There several ski resorts on Mount Hood.


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