|Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument|
|Location||Skamania / Cowlitz / Lewis counties, Washington, USA|
|Nearest city||Castle Rock, WashingtonNearest city: Castle Rock, Washington|
|Area||110,000 acres (445 km²)|
|Established||1982-08-26 Established: 1982-08-26|
|Governing body||U.S. Forest Service|
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument is a U.S. National Monument that includes the area around Mount St. Helens in Washington. It was established on August 27, 1982 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The 110,000 acre (445 km²) National Volcanic Monument was set-aside for research, recreation, and education. Inside the Monument, the environment is left to respond naturally to the disturbance.
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument was the United States' first such monument managed by the United States Forest Service. At dedication ceremonies on May 18, 1983, Max Peterson, head of the USFS, said,"we can take pride in having preserved the unique episode of natural history for future generations." Since then, many trails, viewpoints, information stations, campgrounds, and picnic areas have been established to accommodate the increasing number of visitors each year.
Beginning in the summer of 1983, visitors have been able to drive to Windy Ridge, only 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of the crater. From this vantage point overlooking Spirit Lake, people see firsthand not only the evidence of a volcano's destruction, but also the remarkable, gradual (but faster than originally predicted) recovery of the land as revegetation proceeds and wildlife returns.
Mountain climbing to the summit of the volcano has been allowed since 1986.
A visitor center was completed in December 1986 at Silver Lake, about 30 miles (48 km) west of Mount St. Helens and five miles (8 km) east of Interstate Highway 5. By the end of 1989, the Center had hosted more than 1.5 million visitors.
The Mount St. Helens Visitor Center at Silver Lake opened in 1987, and is now operated by the Washington State Park System. Exhibits include the area's culture and history, and the natural history and geology of the volcano and the eruption, including the recovery of the area's vegetation and animal life. The Center includes a theater, a gift shop and outdoor trails. A small admission fee is charged.
The Forest Learning Center is located inside the blast zone of Mount St. Helens on Highway 504. The center is operated as a partnership between Weyerhaeuser Company, Washington State Department of Transportation and the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation. Exhibits focus on the geology and natural history of the park and forests, including forest recovery, reforestation and conservation of forest resources.
The center is open to the public from May to October, and admission is free.
The Johnston Ridge Observatory is located at the end of State Highway 504, 52 miles east of Castle Rock, Washington. Exhibits focus on the geologic history of the volcano, eyewitness accounts of the explosion, and the science of monitoring volcanic activity. A movie is available and a bookstore. A half-mile trail provides views of the lava dome, crater, pumice plain, and landslide deposit.
Opening in 1993 was an interpretation complex in the Coldwater Lake area.
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument  is a United States National Monument in southwest Washington State that was the site of a massive volcanic eruption on May 18, 1980. It can be visited as a longish day trip from Seattle or Portland, or more conveniently as a side-trip while traveling between the two cities.
On March 20, 1980, Mount St. Helens awakened from over 100 years of dormancy with a magnitude 4.1 earthquake which began a series of events leading to eruption. Steam and ash eruption started on March 27, and over the next two months the north side of the mountain started bulging at the rate of about 5 to 6 feet a day.
Then on May 18, 1980, at 8:32 a.m., a magnitude 5.1 earthquake caused the bulging north face to collapse in one of the largest landslides in recorded history. The highly pressurized magma burst forth in an explosive eruption, sending super-heated volcanic gas and ash across a large portion of the United States, destroying hundreds of square miles of forest, and killing 57 people in what was the most destructive volcanic eruption in the United States.
Today, over a quarter century later, life is starting to return to the barren landscape surrounding the mountain. However, as the recent steam eruptions starting in October 2004 have illustrated, the danger of another catastrophic eruption is ever present. Visiting Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument is to simultaneously witness the result of catastrophic destruction and see the result of rebirth.
Mount St. Helens is a typical "stratovolcano," the volcanic form most familiar from photographs of their typically conical profiles. The great 1980 eruption destroyed most of the volcanic cone, leaving a huge amphitheater on the north side that is well seen from the Johnston Ridge observatory/visitor center. Current (2004-5) volcanic activity is building a new lava dome within this amphitheater, visible from the "VolcanoCam" at the observatory but not yet large enough to replace the destroyed cone.
St. Helens is still glaciated to some extent, despite its reduced altitude. One unexpected and remarkable bit of landscape on the mountain is the astonishing Loowit Falls, a waterfall that emerges directly from the amphitheater bearing meltwater from a glacier within the crater. This falls can be seen (use binoculars) from the observatory, but to get the best feeling for the incongruity of the falls -- it seems to emerge as though from the surface of the moon -- requires a hike on a trail that is closed as of 2005 owing to the volcanic activity.
Most viewpoints on the Monument's north, east, and south sides can be reached from Memorial Day until snow closes the roads, usually in late October. Trails are generally open from June through October, although some lower elevation trails can be hiked all year. The Mount St. Helens Visitor Center (Highway 504 milepost 5) now operated by Washington State Parks is open during the winter, except winter holidays.
The most popular tourist route into the Mount St. Helens area is via Washington state route 504. It can be reached at Castle Rock, off exit 49 off Interstate 5 in Washington, about one hour and 15 minutes north of Portland and two hours south of Seattle.
Monument passes are sold for single-day admission to the visitor centers along Washington 504.
Golden Passports are honored at Mount St. Helens.
Golden Passports are available only to U.S. citizens or permanent residents online at www.natlforests.org, or at any U.S. Forest Service or National Park Service office.
Along Washington 504 are three visitor centers. All except the first are closed from November to April. All three include video presentations, exhibits, and information desks:
Monument passes can be purchased at any of the three visitor centers.
Once of the most popular souvenir gift stores in the area is located at the Mount St. Helens Forest Learning Center at milepost 33.5. They carry ash products, souvenirs, jewelry and artglass made from the ash along with a selection of apparel, toys, lodge decor and other gifts relating to Mount St. Helens and the local region.
Dining options are very limited in the Mount St. Helens area once you leave I-5 at exit 49. Options on the upper highway 504 include the 19 Mile Cafe at milepost 19, the Backwoods Cafe at milepost 25, and the snackbar at the Forest Learning Center at milepost 33.5.
You can get drinks at the cafes listed above.
Exit 49 off I-5 features several privately-operated motels, including:
There are plenty of hotels near the park to stay at(family oriented as well). they also have cabins to rent, and RV's to rent too.
Volcano safety is, to put it mildly, a controversial subject; see the article on Volcanoes (and, particularly, its discussion page) for some of the issues. Compared to many other active volcanoes, Mount St. Helens has been studied extensively, and therefore has a relatively well-defined "safety envelope" that allows informed decision making as regards trail closures, etc. Even St. Helens, however, is prone to bouts of unexpectedly violent behavior, as for example on 8 March 2005 when an explosive event sent ash and steam to elevations above 35,000 feet (10 km) essentially without warning. The monument, therefore, has established a policy regarding road and trail closures that at first glance appears unnecessarily conservative -- but it is not. Believe it. The closures aren't there simply to inconvenience and irritate you. If a trail is closed due to eruptive hazard, stay off the trail.
Other than the volcanic activity, St. Helens poses basically the usual set of hazards associated with mountainous country -- changeable weather, potential for road closures due to snow in the winter, etc. One extra thing to be aware of is that much of the area on the north side of the mountain, particularly the northeast, does not yet have many travel services, even things as basic as gas stations. When leaving the main roads to head for the observatory, or particularly the Windy Ridge viewpoint and trailhead, it's wise to have a full gas tank.
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