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Mount Damavand, Iran
.A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak.^ For example, the Himalayan Mountains where India meets the Eurasian Plate were formed by a collision between plates that caused extreme compressional folding and the uplifting of large areas.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In certain areas, blocks or isolated masses of rock have been elevated relative to adjacent areas to form block-fault mountains or ranges.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The highest peaks rises out of the Central and Southeastern branches, a stretch of mountains which are rugged, magnificent and arduous to climb.
  • Moutaineering in Turkey - All About Turkey 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.allaboutturkey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A mountain is generally steeper than a hill.^ Mountains are considered larger than hills, but the term has no standardized geologic meaning.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The adjective montane is used to describe mountainous areas and things associated with them. The study of mountains is Orography.
Exogeology deals with planetary mountains, which in that branch of science are usually called montes (singular - mons). .The highest mountain on earth is the Mount Everest (elevation 8,848 m).^ With a 9,700 foot base elevation, Copper Mountain is one of the highest resorts in Colorado--that's why the snow's so light and the views so great.
  • Copper Mountain ski vacations – Copper Mountain lodging packages condo rentals - Colorado 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC coppermountain.ski.com [Source type: General]

The highest known mountain in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on the planet Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft).

Contents

Definition

.There is no universally-accepted definition of a mountain.^ The Hansons are founding members of the missions in Haiti and accept no salary for the work they are doing there.

.Elevation, volume, relief, steepness, spacing and continuity has been used as criteria for defining a mountain.^ A large area of steep , elevated ground with a well defined peak , generally required to be at least 4,000 feet above sea level.

^ Most residual chains and individual mountains are characterized by low elevations; however, both gentle and precipitous relief can exist, depending on the degree of recent erosion.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ That's ok; you'll check current targets using the criteria you're given as a Crowd Mountain member).

[1] In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which, relatively to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."[1]
In the United States, the following points of measurement have been used and taught in geography classes:[citation needed]
  • Flat to 500 feet, base to highest point - Rolling Plain
  • Highest point 501 to 999 feet above base - Hill
  • Highest point 1000 feet or more above base - Mountain
Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on usage among the local people. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 990 feet, which makes it ten feet short of the minimum for a mountain in American appellation. Similarly, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 824 feet from its base to its highest point.
Other definitions of "mountain" include:[2]
  • Height over base of at least 2,500m
  • Height over base of 1500-2500m with a slope greater than 2 degrees
  • Height over base of 1000-1500m with a slope greater than 5 degrees
  • Local (radius 7 km) elevation greater than 300m, or 300-1000m if local (radius 7 km) elevation is greater than 300m
By this definition, mountains cover 64% of Asia, 25% of Europe, 22% of South America, 17% of Australia, and 3% of Africa. .As a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous and 10% of people live in mountainous regions.^ A large mass of earth and rock, rising above the common level of the earth or adjacent land; earth and rock forming an isolated peak or a ridge; an eminence higher than a hill; a mount.

^ Temp: : 30°F High : 24° / Low: 13° Wind : South / 7 mph Visibility : 10.0 miles Mountain Stats .
  • Copper Mountain ski vacations – Copper Mountain lodging packages condo rentals - Colorado 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC coppermountain.ski.com [Source type: General]

[3] .Most of the world's rivers are fed from mountain sources, and more than half of humanity depends on mountains for water.^ July, August, and September are the months when most world mountain climbers come to the area.
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[4][5]

Characteristics

.High mountains, as well as those located close to the Earth's poles, reach into the colder layers of the atmosphere.^ The mountain's steep slopes and snow blanket combine to make it a good location for "Heli- skiing ", using helicopters to drop you off on the slopes for an adventure of high mountain skiing .
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They are consequently subject to glaciation, and erosion through frost action. Such processes produce the peak shape. .Some of these mountains have glacial lakes, created by melting glaciers; for example, there are an estimated 3,000 glacial lakes in Bhutan.^ The limestone geological formation of these mountains creates a rugged profile.
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^ Mountain glaciers and swiftly running rivers alive with fish and beautiful glacier lakes are a few of the area's natural wonders.
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^ Bearhat Mountain above Hidden Lake on a crest of the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, …[Credits : Ray Atkeson/EB Inc.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Mountains can be eroded and weathered, altering their characteristics over time.^ However, despite the usual sunny and clear weather at that time of year, high altitude mountain weather swirls around above 3000 meters.
  • Moutaineering in Turkey - All About Turkey 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.allaboutturkey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Alps mountain view in Switzerland
.Tall mountains have different climatic conditions at the top than at the base, and will thus have different life zones at different altitudes.^ With the tools inside Crowd Mountain, you pinpoint those top 10 (or 20, or 30) sites in less than a minute.

At the highest elevations, trees cannot grow, and whatever life may be present will be of the alpine type, resembling tundra[6]. Just below the tree line, one may find subalpine forests of needleleaf trees, which can withstand cold, dry conditions.[7] .In regions with dry climates, the tendency of mountains to have higher precipitation as well as lower temperatures also provides for varying conditions, which in turn lead to differing flora and fauna.^ The region enjoys an almost sub-tropical climate of temperate yet rainy weather with an average temperature of 14 Celcius.
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^ Turkey 's magnificent mountains and forests are mostly undeveloped, existing as wonderful natural preserves for an extraordinary variety of wild life, flora and fauna .
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[6][8] Some plants and animals found in these zones tend to become isolated since the conditions above and below a particular zone will be inhospitable and thus constrain their movements or dispersal. On the other hand, birds, being capable of flight, may take advantage of montane habitats and migrate into a region which would otherwise not provide appropriate habitat.[9] These isolated ecological systems, or microclimates, are known as sky islands.[10]
.The reason mountains are colder than lowlands has to do with how the sun heats the surface of the earth.^ Mountains are formed by the folding, faulting, or upwarping of the Earth’s surface due to the movement of plates ( see plate tectonics ) or by the emplacement of volcanic rock onto the surface.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The sun's radiation is absorbed by land and sea, whence the heat then radiates into the air.^ Antalya , of course, can be reached from Izmir , Istanbul and Ankara by land, air and sea routes.
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The density of air decreases at higher altitudes, and with the thinning of the atmosphere, the insulating effect of the air decreases, resulting in less heat retention. Thus, air temperature decreases with an increase in altitude at a general rate, called the lapse rate, of 5.5°C per 1,000 m (3°F per 3,000 ft).[11][12]
.Mountains are generally less preferable for human habitation than lowlands; the weather is often harsher, and there is little level ground suitable for agriculture.^ With the tools inside Crowd Mountain, you pinpoint those top 10 (or 20, or 30) sites in less than a minute.

At very high altitudes, there is less oxygen in the air and less protection against solar radiation (UV). Acute mountain sickness (caused by hypoxia - a lack of oxygen in the blood) affects over half of lowlanders who spend more than a few hours above 3,500 meters (11,483 ft).
.Many mountains and mountain ranges throughout the world have been left in their natural state, and are today primarily used for recreation, while others are used for logging, mining, grazing, or see little use.^ See, I want you to actually USE Crowd Mountain – and if the training materials were so overwhelming few would have the time to complete them, I’d be failing you.

^ With altitudes ranging between 600 and 3086 meters, these mountains offer geologists and geographers many peculiar morphological characteristics.
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.Some mountains offer spectacular views from their summits, while others are densely wooded.^ The easily accessible southern and eastern flanks of Suphan are the preferred faces for ascending the mountain; they both offer spectacular views.
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^ Hikers who climb to the crater and summit from the southeast or eastern face of the mountain are rewarded with wonderful views of Lake Van .
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^ The final ascent is carried out on the flank facing the coast and offers a spectacular and ever-changing view.
  • Moutaineering in Turkey - All About Turkey 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.allaboutturkey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Summit accessibility is affected by height, steepness, latitude, terrain, weather. Roads, lifts, or tramways affect accessibility. Hiking, backpacking, mountaineering, rock climbing, ice climbing, downhill skiing, and snowboarding are recreational activities enjoyed on mountains. .Mountains that support heavy recreational use (especially downhill skiing) are often the locations of mountain resorts.^ The mountain's steep slopes and snow blanket combine to make it a good location for "Heli- skiing ", using helicopters to drop you off on the slopes for an adventure of high mountain skiing .
  • Moutaineering in Turkey - All About Turkey 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.allaboutturkey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mountains are made up of earth and rock materials.^ Made of sedimentary material such as limestone and dolomites, the range reveals excellent examples of nappies, or folds in the layers of rocks.
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^ The Turkish section of this massive mountain range follows the southern border of Anatolia and it is made up of four major sections, the Western, Central, Southern and Southeastern Toros ranges.
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The outermost layer of the Earth or the Earth's crust is composed of six plates. .When two plates move or collide each other, vast land areas are uplifted, resulting in the formation of mountains.^ The other mount Nemrut in in eastern Anatolia , the more interesting of the two peaks, is well known for its geological formation and for mountaineering purposes.
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^ The northern side of the mountain enjoys a more temperate climate encouraging the cultivation of vast areas of vine and fruit orchards between 1100 and 1600 meters.
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^ Approximately 18 kilometers in diameter and covering an area of 1000 square kilometers, the mountain's stratification and geology make it a fascinating geographical formation.
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.Depending upon the geological process, as to how the mountains are formed and the mountain characteristics, there are five major types of mountains.^ Major types of mountain belts - Mountain belts associated with volcan...
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These mountains exhibit interesting geological characteristics.
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^ Tectonic processes that destroy elevated terrains Major types of mountain belts .
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Fold Mountains: Fold mountains are the most common type of mountains. .Examples of fold mountains are the Himalayas (Asia), the Alps (Europe).^ For example, the Himalayan Mountains where India meets the Eurasian Plate were formed by a collision between plates that caused extreme compressional folding and the uplifting of large areas.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.They are formed due to collision of two plates, causing folding of the Earth's crust.^ For example, the Himalayan Mountains where India meets the Eurasian Plate were formed by a collision between plates that caused extreme compressional folding and the uplifting of large areas.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mountains are formed by the folding, faulting, or upwarping of the Earth’s surface due to the movement of plates ( see plate tectonics ) or by the emplacement of volcanic rock onto the surface.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The fold that descends on both sides is called anticline; whereas, the fold that ascends from a common low point (on both sides) is called syncline.
.Fault-Block Mountains: As the name suggests, fault mountains or fault-block mountains are formed when blocks of rock materials slide along faults in the Earth's crust.^ In some places, block-fault ranges with an overall common orientation coalesce to define a mountain belt or chain, but in others the ranges may be isolated.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In certain areas, blocks or isolated masses of rock have been elevated relative to adjacent areas to form block-fault mountains or ranges.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mountains are formed by the folding, faulting, or upwarping of the Earth’s surface due to the movement of plates ( see plate tectonics ) or by the emplacement of volcanic rock onto the surface.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

There are two types of block mountains, namely the lifted and tilted. .In the former type, the mountain has two steep sides; whereas, the tilted type has one steep side and gentle sloping side.^ Mountains with steep inward slopes and gentle outward slopes often form on the margins of rift valleys.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Less commonly, large areas that are pulled apart and subside leave between them an elevated block with steep slopes on both sides.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The basins eventually fill with sediment, and the ranges—typically tens of kilometres long and from a few to 20–30 kilometres wide—often tilt, with steep relief on one side and a gentle slope on the other.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Example of fault-block mountain is the Sierra Nevada mountains (North America).^ In some places, block-fault ranges with an overall common orientation coalesce to define a mountain belt or chain, but in others the ranges may be isolated.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In certain areas, blocks or isolated masses of rock have been elevated relative to adjacent areas to form block-fault mountains or ranges.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Volcanic Mountains: Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic eruptions, for e.g.^ Mountains are formed by the folding, faulting, or upwarping of the Earth’s surface due to the movement of plates ( see plate tectonics ) or by the emplacement of volcanic rock onto the surface.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Mount Fuji (Japan). They are formed when volcanic magma erupts and piles up on the surface of the Earth.
Dome Mountains: Dome mountains are formed when the hot magma rises from the mantle and uplifts the overlying sedimentary layer of the Earth's crust. In the process, the magma is not erupted, but it cools down and forms the core of the mountain. Example of dome mountain is the Navajo Mountain in Utah. They are called dome mountains due to their appearance that resembles dome shape.
.Plateau Mountains: Plateau mountains are pseudo mountains that are formed because of erosion.^ Finally, in certain areas, including those that once were plateaus or broad uplifted regions, erosion has left what are known as residual mountains.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

An example of plateau mountain is the Catskill Mountains (New York). They usually occur near the fold mountain ranges.
.There are also some mountains that are formed as a result of many forces of the Earth.^ Mountains are formed by the folding, faulting, or upwarping of the Earth’s surface due to the movement of plates ( see plate tectonics ) or by the emplacement of volcanic rock onto the surface.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Though the Rockies in North America is formed due to folding, there are mountains in the same range that are formed by faulting and doming.^ In some places, block-fault ranges with an overall common orientation coalesce to define a mountain belt or chain, but in others the ranges may be isolated.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the Himalayan Mountains where India meets the Eurasian Plate were formed by a collision between plates that caused extreme compressional folding and the uplifting of large areas.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some entire chains ( e.g., the Appalachians in North America or the Urals in Russia), which were formed hundreds of millions of years ago, remain in spite of a long history of erosion.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In nature, there is a continuous process of glaciation, soil erosion, and mechanical and chemical weathering, which altogether play a major role in altering the shape and characteristics of mountains.^ On a large scale, there is a clear orientation of such ranges, but within them the landforms are controlled more by the variations in erosion than by tectonic processes.
  • mountain (landform) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Geology

Chomo Lonzo Makalu Mount Everest Tibetan Plateau Rong River Changtse Rongbuk Glacier North Face East Rongbuk Glacier North Col north ridge route Lhotse Nuptse South Col route Gyachung Kang Cho Oyu Press hyperlinks (or button to enlarge image)
The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everest.
A mountain is usually produced by the movement of lithospheric plates, either orogenic movement or epeirogenic movement. The compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, a mountain. The absolute heights of features termed mountains and hills vary greatly according to an area's terrain. The major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Two types of mountain are formed depending on how the rock reacts to the tectonic forces – block mountains or fold mountains.
Compressional forces in continental collisions may cause the compressed region to thicken, so the upper surface is forced upward. In order to balance the weight of the earth surface, much of the compressed rock is forced downward, producing deep "mountain roots" [see the Book of "Earth", Press and Siever page.413]. Mountains therefore form downward as well as upward (see isostasy). However, in some continental collisions part of one continent may simply override part of the others, crumpling in the process.
Some isolated mountains were produced by volcanoes, including many apparently small islands that reach a great height above the ocean floor.
Block mountains are created when large areas are widely broken up by faults creating large vertical displacements. This occurrence is fairly common. The uplifted blocks are block mountains or horsts. The intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range province of Western North America and the Rhine valley. These areas often occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned.
The mid-ocean ridges are often referred to as undersea mountain ranges due to their bathymetric prominence.
Rock that does not fault may fold, either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may also be recumbent and overturned folds. The Jura Mountains are an example of folding. .Over time, erosion can bring about an inversion of relief: the soft upthrust rock is worn away so the anticlines are actually lower than the tougher, more compressed rock of the synclines.^ Having been collecting data for about a year now, the Snooper knows if YouTube is more popular than Wikipedia, or if Hubpages is falling in rank.

Gallery

See also

Further reading

  • Fraknoi, A., Morrison, D., & Wolff, S. (2004). Voyages to the Planets. 3rd Ed. Belmont: Thomson Books/Cole.

References

  1. ^ a b Gerrard, A. J. 1990. Mountain Environments
  2. ^ Blyth, S., Groombridge, B., Lysenko, I., Miles, L. & Newton, A. (2002). "Mountain Watch". UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK. http://www.unep-wcmc.org/mountains/mountain_watch/pdfs/WholeReport.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 
  3. ^ Panos (2002). "High Stakes". http://www.panos.org.uk/?lid=278. Retrieved 2009-02-17. 
  4. ^ "International Year of Freshwater 2003". http://www.wateryear2003.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3903&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  5. ^ "The Mountain Institute". http://www.mountain.org/mountains/whymtns.cfm?slidepage=water. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  6. ^ a b "Biotic Communities of the Colorado Plateau: C. Hart Merriam and the Life Zones Concept". http://cpluhna.nau.edu/Biota/merriam.htm. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  7. ^ "Tree". Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003. Microsoft Corporation. 1993-2002. 60210-442-1635445-74407. 
  8. ^ "Mountain Environments". United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. http://www.cityofseattle.net/parks/Environment/DiscoveryParkBirds.pdf. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  9. ^ Taylor, Richard Cachor (2005). A Birder's Guide to Southeastern Arizona. American Birding Association. pp. 2–4. ISBN 1-878788-22-1. 
  10. ^ Tweit, Susan J. (1992). The Great Southwest Nature Factbook. Alaska Northwest Books. pp. 138–141. ISBN 0-88240-434-2. 
  11. ^ "Temperature". Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003. Microsoft Corporation. 1993-2002. 60210-442-1635445-74407. 
  12. ^ "Atmosphere". Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003. Microsoft Corporation. 1993-2002. 60210-442-1635445-74407. 

External links


Source material

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From Wikisource

The Mountain
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The Mountain may refer to:

See also

  • Wikisource:Mountains

Simple English

A mountain is a natural rise of the Earth's surface that usually has a "summit" (or "top"). It is usually steeper and taller than a hill. Mountains are often thought of as being a hill of over 600 metres (about 2,000 feet), but this thought is not the same in every country.

Mountains are important to life on Earth, because most rivers begin in mountains and carry water from the mountains down to the sea.

Contents

What is a mountain?

  • The highest point of a mountain is called the peak. A mountain's summit is the highest area on the mountain a mountain climber may reach, but a climber cannot reach the peak.
  • Britannica Student Encyclopedia says that the term "mountain' usually means a rise of over 2,000 feet (610 m)".[1].
  • The usual height for a mountain in England is 600 metres. In England, it is important to have a legal height because people have the "Right to Roam" in mountains, but they do not have the right to walk on other people's land. Even though mountains are defined by law, many people in England use the word "hill" even when they talk about very large mountains.
  • In the USA, even though there are many very tall mountains, the name mountain is often given to hills that may be only 100 feet high.
  • In Scotland, a mountain that is over 3,000 feet (914.4 m) is sometimes called a "Munro".
  • In Australia and some other places, the word "mountains" is also used to describe high land that is really a plateau and is flat on top, rather than having peaks.

Mountains can symbolize hard things to overcome or an obstacle. It may also symbolize loneliness, being brave, and more.

Form

The forming of a mountain is called orogeny. Mountains are formed when rock layers are pushed from opposite sides, and they push the crust up. A mountain range is a large group of mountains beside each other. There are four ways a mountain may be made:

  • fault
  • fold
  • plutonic
  • volcanic

Height

The height of a mountain is measured as distance above sea level. The tallness of a mountain is from the center.

Tallest mountains

The highest mountain in the solar system is the Olympus Mons (27 km) on Mars. The highest mountain in the world is Mount Everest (8,848m)which is in Nepal/Tibet in Asia. (The "tallest" mountain in the world is Mauna Kea, in Hawaii. The "height" of a mountain is measured from sea level, but the "tallness" of a mountain is measured from its base, even if under water.) The highest mountain in North America is Mount McKinley (6,194m) in Alaska in the USA. The highest in South America is Aconcagua (6,962m) in Argentina. For Africa, it is Kilimanjaro (5,963m) of Tanzania. In Europe, the highest mountain is in Russia called Elbrus (5,633m). Antarctica's highest mountain is Vinsin Massiff (5,140m). In Oceania, a mountain called Puncak Jaya (5,030m) is the highest there. This particular mountain is in Papua New Guinea / Indonesia.

Mountain types

There are five main types of mountains:

  • volcanic
  • dome
  • folded
  • plateau
  • fault-block

Some people say there are six types, as domed mountains can be a plutonic dome or a tectonic dome.

Volcanic mountains

Volcanic mountains are mountains that form when molten rock erupts onto the Earth's surface. They can either form on land or in the ocean. The Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon and northern California is made of volcanoes. Some of the largest volcanoes are on divergent boundaries, which form the mid-ocean ridges. The mid-ocean ridges have big volcanic mountain chains that run through the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The mountains in the mid-ocean ridges can actually grow tall enough to create islands such as Iceland or the Azores.

Other volcanic mountains can form over hot spots, which are pockets of magma beneath the crust that erupt onto Earth's surface. The Hawaiian Islands are actually the tops of really high volcanic islands that have formed over a hot spot on the sea floor. The main Hawaiian island is actually a volcano that is about 9 km above the ocean floor, with a base that is about 160 km wide. Almost 4 km of this island is above sea level.

Dome mountains

Dome mountains, like those in the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Adirondack Mountains of New York, are an unusual domish type of mountain that is formed when molten rock rises through the crust and push up the rock layers above it. This creates a circular dome on the Earth's surface. The molten rock later cools off and forms hardened rock. When the pushed up rocks are worn away, the hardened rock is shown. This hardened rock then wears away in places. When it wears away, it leaves mountains, and they are called dome mountains.

Folded mountains

Folded mountains make up some of the highest mountains in the world. Folded mountains commonly form along boundaries, where 2 continents meet. Some really complex folds can be found in parts of the Andes, Alps, Himalayas, Appalachians, and Russia's Ural Mountains. These long mountain chains also show lots of signs of folding.

Plateau mountains

Plateau mountains are formed a bit like folded mountains. They are large areas of flat topped rocks that have been lifted high above the crust by continental plates. Most plateaus are found near folded mountains.

Fault-block mountains

Fault-block mountains are formed when parts of the Earth's crust has been broken off into large block mountains. They are also formed when two blocks of land rise above or fall down leaving its middle part behind, and when magma pushes up by the lava and forces top layers of rock up with it. Domed mountains, although have broken and move up as a 'chunk'. A fault block mountain is a mountain or range formed as a horst when it was elevated between parallel normal faults. A horst is the raised fault block bound by normal faults.

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