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Trumpet mouthpiece from the side

On brass instruments the mouthpiece is the part of the instrument which is placed upon the player's lips. The purpose of the mouthpiece is a resonator, which passes vibration from the lips to the column of air contained within the instrument, giving rise to the standing wave pattern of vibration in the air column. Mouthpieces consist of a simple circular opening which leads, via a semi-spherical or conical cavity, to the main body of the instrument.

Mouthpieces vary to instrument to suit the tone of the instrument. Lower instruments also have larger mouthpieces, to maximize resonance (see pitch of brass instruments). Also, mouthpieces are selected to suit the embouchure of the player, to produce certain timbre, or to optimize the instrument for certain playing styles. For example, trumpet and trombone mouthpieces are semi-spherical whereas horn mouthpieces are conic.

Contents

Mouthpiece design

Cut-away view of trumpet mouthpiece:
1. Inner rim diameter
2. Rim width
3. Rim contour
4. Rim Edge
5. Cup
6. Throat
7. Backbore
8. Shank

The mouthpiece has a large effect on the sound of the instrument. The major effects are due to the shape of the cup, shape of the throat, and the inner rim diameter. In addition players often choose a mouthpiece which complements their favored playing styles; a mouthpiece with a narrow bore is generally preferred by brass players who concentrate on the upper range of their instrument, and a wider bore by those who emphasize the lower range of their instrument in their playing.

The effects of different aspects of mouthpiece design
Mouthpiece element Effect on playing Typical size/nature
(Trumpet)
Typical size/nature
(Tuba)
Inner rim diameter Larger inner rim diameters are optimized for lower ranges, giving a richer tone. Smaller diameters assist high range playing. ~16.0mm ~32mm
Rim width Wider rim widths reduce the pressure on the lips, allowing greater stamina. It does, however, reduce flexibility. ~5, 6, or 7mm ~6mm
Rim contour Flatter rim contours tend to be found on rims with sharper rim edges (see below). Varied Varied
Rim edge (or bite) Sharper rim edges reduce stamina but increase control. More smoothed rims are commonly found on deeper cups. Varied varied
Cup depth Shallower cups greatly assist playing in high ranges but do so at the cost of fullness of tone. Deeper cups assist low range flexibility and rich tone. Around half the inner rim diameter. 3/4 to 2 times the inner rim diameter.
Cup shape Semi-spherical cups have brighter, more projected tones, while conical cups have less tone definition (see throat contour, below). Semi-spherical Both
Throat contour In semi-spherical cups, a sharper throat contour gives a more harsh, projected tone and a rounded contour gives a deeper, richer tone. Conical cups with a smooth throat have less definition. Relatively sharp Usually rounded
Throat diameter Larger throat diameters give more volume but less control. Smaller diameters have much more control but significant volume limitations. ~3.6mm ~7.6mm
Backbore More conical backbores give a richer tone, while more cylindrical ones give a brighter, more projected tone. Fairly cylindrical Varied
Note: in this table:
  • "flexibility" refers to the 'agility' possibility; greater flexibility assists in playing music with fast passages and large intervals.
  • "control" refers to the ease of control over harmonic and tone.
  • "rich tone" refers to notes possessing few high harmonics, while "bright tone" refers to notes possessing many high harmonics.

Material

There are 5 types of material available for brass players, each with different costs, properties, and features. Note that some of the following assertions, especially those regarding the effect of plating on tone color, are considered by the majority of players and specialists to be very questionable.

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Gold plating

For a small percentage of the population and the more luxurious brass player, there is an option available to gold-plate your brass mouthpieces. Some believe this creates a fuller, richer tone that can also be somewhat darker in a sense of tone colour. For some people who are allergic to silver, this is the best (but not cheapest) way to keep playing on a brass instrument without discomfort. Gold does not tarnish by nature and subsequently requires little maintenance apart from washing regularly with soap and water.

Silver plating

Silver plating is standard on all brass mouthpieces because it is the most cost-effective, and is a good material in terms of tone quality. Silver plating is not as comfortable or as expensive as gold, but still has properties and qualities that are sometimes necessary for some styles of playing. Silver-plate gives a clearer, brighter sound than gold and is good for styles of playing that need clarity and projection. In addition, silver-plate is less valuable than gold but requires more maintenance as a result of its tendency to tarnish easily. Slightly tarnished silver-plate can be polished back to its brightness with some forms of silver polish.

Plastic

A third option is a plastic mouthpiece made out of Lexan plastic. Some of the positive features of these mouthpieces are that they are very durable and will not chip nor dent as is the case with metal mouthpieces, they are very affordable compared to metal mouthpieces, and they are commonly used when playing in outdoor conditions as a result of their short "warm-up" time. They are widely referred to marching brass players because of these features listed above. The negative aspect of this type of mouthpiece is that it may not have the same tone quality and feel as metal mouthpieces do.

Other

Two more recent additions to the mouthpiece world are stainless steel and titanium. They are relatively rare, being produced by very few manufacturers. Stainless steel and titanium mouthpieces hold many advantages to the classic brass mouthpiece, including, anecdotally, a much more centered feel and sound, as stainless steel and titanium do not absorb as many vibrations as brass; they require much less care; etc., but they are much more expensive (titanium mouthpieces run up to about $400 each).

Sizes

Each mouthpiece company has different labeling system. A larger number might mean a larger or smaller mouthpiece depending on the company. Likewise, the letters mean different things depending on the company.

See also


Simple English

mouthpiece]]

A brass mouthpiece is the part of a brass instrument that a player blows into to make a sound. The purpose of a mouthpiece is to send vibrations down the instrument to make a musical note.

Larger mouthpieces are used on larger instruments, and smaller ones are used on smaller instruments. This is because a larger mouthpiece makes a lower sound, and a smaller mouthpiece makes a higher sound, and bigger instruments make lower sounds and smaller instruments make higher sounds.

Contents

Different parts of a brass mouthpiece

mouthpiece.
Part 1: Inner rim
Part 2: Rim
Part 3: The contour, or shape, of the rim
Part 4: Rim edge
Part 5: Cup
Part 6: Throat
Part 7: Backbore
Part 8: Shank]]

A mouthpiece has many different parts, and all its parts have different names.

  • Rim - The rim of a trumpet mouthpiece is the part that makes a circle at the top of the mouthpiece, and is the part that is in physical contact with you when playing.[1]
  • Cup - The cup of a mouthpiece is the part inbetween the rim and the back bore. This is where the air coming from the players mouth enters the mouthpiece and due to the concave shape forces the air into the backbore.[2]
  • Throat, backbore, and shank - The backbore is where the air escapes through into the throat and shank, the shank is the long piece of hollow metal coming from the cup of the mouthpiece, it should be the only part of the mouthpiece in contact with the instrument.[3]

Different ways to make a brass mouthpiece

Some very small changes in how a mouthpiece is made can change the sound of an instrument a lot.

Part of mouthpiece How it can change the instrument's sound
Inner rim diameter Larger inner rim diameters, or the inside part of rims that are wider, are good for playing low notes and improve tonal quality, and smaller diameters help a player play notes that are higher, with a sacrifice of the lower range and tone.
Rim width Wider rim widths, or rims that are wider, are good for letting a player play for a longer time, but they do not let a player play as many notes.[4]
Rim contour Flatter "rim contours", or the shape of the top of the rim, are usually on trumpets with sharper "rim edges" (see below)[5]
Rim edge (also called bite) Sharper rim edges, or rim edges that are less curvy, do not let a player play for a long time, but they let them make a better sound.[5]
Cup depth Shallower cups, or cups that are not as thick, help out a player to play very high notes, but the notes that they play do not sound as good. Deeper cups, or thinker, wider cups, make a very good sound, but do not allow a player to play very high notes.[6]
Cup shape Semi-spherical cups, or cups shaped like a half-circle, make notes that are easy to tell apart, and conical cups, or cups shaped like cones, play notes that are harder to tell apart.[4]
Throat diameter Larger throat diameters, or wider throats, help a player to play louder, but they do not make the instrument sound as good. Smaller throat diameters sound very good, but do not let a player play as loud.[7]
Backbore More conical backbores, or backbores that are shaped like cones, sound more "full", but more cylindrical ones, or backbores that are shaped like cylinders, give a sound that is clear and "choppy".[7]

Substances that mouthpieces for brass instruments can be made out of

Gold plating

Some players gold plate their brass mouthpieces, or cover them with a thin layer of gold. This makes the sound of the instrument better than with any other mouthpiece.[8] For some people that are allergic to silver, this is the best (but not cheapest) way to play a brass instrument without getting sick. Gold does not smudge, so it only has to be cleaned with soap and water once in a while.

Silver plating

mouthpieces.]]

Silver plating is almost always used on brass mouthpieces because it does not cost too much money and a silver-plated mouthpiece helps a player make a pretty good sound. Silver plating is not as expensive as gold, but it is sometimes very important to have if a player plays a certain way. Silver-plate gives a clearer sound than gold and is good for styles of playing that need a lot of volume. Also, silver needs to be cleaned more often because it smudges easily.

Plastic

Another type of mouthpiece is a plastic mouthpiece. These mouthpieces are good because they never break or dent, they do not cost as much as silver or gold mouthpieces, and they are good for playing outdoors. They are very often given to players in marching bands. They do not make as good sounds as silver or gold mouthpieces, though.

Steel and titanium

Two of the newest things mouthpieces can be made out of are stainless steel and titanium. They are very rare, and are only made by a few companies. Steel and titanium mouthpieces do not vibrate as much, so they make a very clear sound, require much less cleaning, and they do not need to be silver plated.[9] However, they are much more expensive than mouthpieces that are silver or gold plated.

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References

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