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Multan
مُلتان
—  City District  —
Clockwise from top: Multan Fort, Rukn-e-Alam, Shahi Eid Ghah Mosque, Multan Museum, Multan Clock Tower and State Bank of Pakistan
Multan مُلتان is located in Pakistan
Multan
مُلتان
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°12′0″N 71°25′0″E / 30.2°N 71.416667°E / 30.2; 71.416667
Country  Pakistan
Region Punjab
District Multan District
Autonomous towns 6
Union councils 4
Government [1] [2]
 - Nazim Mian Faisal Mukhtar
 - Naib nazim
Area
 - Total 3,721 km2 (1,436.7 sq mi)
Elevation 122 m (400 ft)
Population (2006)[3]
 - Total 1,423,919
 Density 838/km2 (2,170.4/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC+6)
Area code(s) 022
Website www.multan.gov.pk

About this sound Multan (Punjabi/Urdu: مُلتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province. Multan District has a population of over 3.8 million—according to 1998 census—and the city itself is the sixth largest within the boundaries of Pakistan. It is situated on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about 562 km (349 mi) from Islamabad,356 km (221 mi) from Lahore. & 966 km (600 mi) from Karachi.

Multan is known as the City of Sufis due to the large number of shrines and Sufi saints from the city. The city is full of bazaars, mosques, shrines and ornate tombs. It is located in a bend created by five rivers of the Punjab province. The Sutlej River separates it from Bahawalpur and the Chenab River from Muzaffar Garh. The city has grown to become an influential political and economical center for the country, with a dry port and excellent transport links. Multan is famous for its crops: wheat, cotton and sugar cane as well as mangoes, citrus, guavas and pomegranates.

Contents

History

A map dated from 1669 showing Multan

Multan is one of the oldest cities in the Asian subcontinent.[citation needed] It was the capital of the Trigarta Kingdom at the time of the Mahabharata war, ruled by the Katoch Dynasty. Multan has had various names over the years, originally Kashtpur (Kashyapapura)after the great Hindu sage Kashyapa, which is also the Gotra used by the Katoch dynasty. Other names were Hanspur (Hamsapura), Bagpur (Vegapura), Sanb or Sanahpur (Sambapura)[4][5]. Its current name is derived from the Sanskrit name मूलस्थान Mulasthana (also मित्रस्थन Mitrasthana) named after a sun temple.[6][7] Multan has frequently been a site of conflict due to its location on a major invasion route between South Asia and Central Asia. It is believed to have been visited by Alexander the Great's army. In the mid-5th century, the city was attacked by a group of Huna Hephthalite nomads led by Toramana.

In the 7th century during Amir Muavia's period, his one commander Mohlab in 664 captured Multan but it was not permanent. In the 8th century, Multan was conquered along with Sindh by the Umayyad Caliphate's army of Muhammad bin Qasim, from the local ruler Chach of Alor. Following bin Qasim's conquest, the city was securely under Muslim rule, although it was in effect an independent state and most of the subjects were non-Muslim.

In 1005 CE (396 AH), the ruler of Multan, Abool Futteh Dawood, rebelled against the rule of Mahmud of Ghazni. When Abool heard of the approach of Mahmud from Ghazni, he solicited the aid of his ally Anandpal, the successor of Jaipal; who—true to his alliance—detached the greater part of his army to oppose Mahmud in Peshawar. [8] Multan's location at the entrance to the sub-continent resulted in it being invaded by a long series of conquerors on their way to Delhi. Timur, Babur and many others passed through the city, leaving much destruction in their wake.

Following annexation to Mughal empire in 1557 CE, at the beginning of emperor Akbars rule[9]; Multan enjoyed 200 years of peace, and became known as Dar al-Aman (Abode of Peace). Akbar was known as a wise ruler, setting reasonable taxes, creating effective government and being tolerant of religious differences.

Multan witnessed difficult times as Mughal rule declined in early 1700s, starting after death of emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. Persia was united under Nader Shah, ruling from 1736 as Shah of Iran. After his assassination in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani—who was originally born in Multan—rose to power. This counts as beginning of Durrani Empire. However, after death of Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1772, the influence of Durrani empire declined sharply in mere fifty years. Starting at late in 1700s, Multan was ruled locally by the Pashtun Sadozai and Khakwani chieftains.

In 1817, Maharaja Ranjit Singh sent a body of troops to Multan under the command of Diwan Bhiwani Das to receive from Nawab Muzaffar Khan the tribute he owed to the Sikh Darbar. Bhiwani Das laid siege to the city, but failed to capture Multan. Maharaja Ranjit Singh planned a fresh expedition and sent a strong force under his son Kharak Singh's charge. [10]

In 1818, Kharak Singh's armies lay around Multan without making much initial headway. Maharaja Ranjit Singh sent a large cannon named Zamzama along with Akali Phula Singh's Nihang regiment. The Zamzama was fired with effect and the gates of the city were blown in. Akali Phula Singh made a sudden rush and took the garrison by surprise. The Nawab stood in his way resolved to fight to death. Prince Kharak Singh left Jodh Singh Khalsa with 600 men to guard the fort of Multan.[11] The Sikhs thereafter ruled Punjab until 1849, losing it to the British in the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

The Multan Municipal Corporation Clock Tower, built during the rule of the British Empire.

However, Sikh rule would not last long, as the British were eventually provoked into checking the Sikh strength in Punjab. After a long and bloody battle, Multan was made part of the British Raj. During this time, Sardar Karan Narain's son became an icon during the British Raj and was awarded titles 'Rai Bahadur' and Knighted 'Sir' by Her Majesty. The British built some rail routes to the city, but its industrial capacity was never developed.

Upon Pakistan's independence in 1947, Multan became part of the Punjab province. It initially lacked industry, hospitals and universities. Since then, there has been some industrial growth, and the city's population is continually growing. But the old city continues to be in a dilapidated state, and many monuments wear the effects of the warfare that has visited the city.

Geography and climate

Multan
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
7.2
 
21
5
 
 
9.5
 
23
8
 
 
20
 
29
14
 
 
13
 
36
20
 
 
9.8
 
40
24
 
 
12
 
42
29
 
 
61
 
39
29
 
 
33
 
38
28
 
 
11
 
37
25
 
 
1.7
 
35
18
 
 
2.3
 
29
11
 
 
6.9
 
23
6
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: World Meteorological Organization

The city of Multan is located in southern Punjab province at almost the exact centre of Pakistan. The closest major city is Sahiwal. The area around the city is a flat plain and is ideal for agriculture, with many citrus and mango farms. There are many canals that cut across the Multan District, providing water from nearby farms. This makes the land very fertile. However usually land close to the Chenab are usually flooded in the monsoon season.

Multan features an arid climate with very hot summers and mild winters. The city witnesses some of the most extreme weather in the country. During the summers, temperatures reach approximately 54 °C (129 °F), and in the winter −1 °C (30.2 °F) has been recorded. The average rainfall is roughly 127 millimetres (5.0 in). Dust storms are a common occurrence within the city.

Economy

A local copppersmith displays his wares at the central market in Multan, Pakistan.

Multan is a commercial and industrial centre, as it is connected with the rest of the country through rail and air including the other industrial hubs such as Lahore, Karachi, Quetta and Faisalabad. Industries include fertilizer, cosmetics, glass manufacturing, cotton production and processing, large textile units, flour mills, sugar and oil mills and large-scale power generation projects. It is famous for its handicrafts (carpets & ceramics) and cottage industries. Roughly 1900 acres of the city is still forested in the district. Trees grown in the area are Kikar, Shisham and Mulbury.

Large, irregular suburbs have grown outside the old walled town, and two satellite towns have been set up. The mangoes of Multan district are well-known. Multani khussa (traditional shoes), embroidery on dresses for women and men, furniture and other wooden products, earthenware pottery, painted pottery, camel-skin ware, surgical instruments and carpets are a few of the city's major exports, with a great demand within the country as well.

Mangos form a large portion of Multan's agricultural export market

Multan is an important agricultural, industrial and tourist centre. Wheat, cotton and sugarcane are the main crops grown in the district. Moreover, rice, maize, tobacco, bajra, moong (lentils), mash (lentils), masoor (lentils), oil seed such as rape, mustard and sunflower are also grown in minor quantities in the district. Mangoes, citrus, guavas and pomegranate are the main fruits grown in the Multan district. Additionally, dates, jaman, pears, phalsa and bananas are grown in minor quantities in the district.

The city is also rich in minerals. These include argillaceous clay, coal, dolomite, fire clay, gypsum, limestone, silica and rock salt. Most of these are excavated for commercial activities and transported to other cities within the country. Many industrial factories are being inaugurated to handle the separation and quality control of these minerals. The minerals in the city are used in dolomite processing, fire bricks/refractories, hollow glassware, insulators/capacitors and ceramics.

Since Multan is agriculture-based, there is also plenty of livestock still growing at a positive rate, which has led to milk processing/dairy products units, ice cream manufacturing, animal and poultry feed, dairy farms, cattle/sheep/goat fattening plants, meat/poultry processing units, leather garments manufacturing, leather footwear, cosmetics, tinned goods and pharmaceuticals.

Government

Administrative divisions of Multan District

Since the introduction of the local government system in 2001 the city has been governed by a Nazim (Mayor). Multan is spread over an area of 3,721 square kilometers, comprising four tehsils: Multan Cantonment, Multan Sadar, Shujabad and Jalalpur Pirwala. In 2005 Multan was reorganised as a City District composed of six autonomous towns:

  1. Boson Town
  2. Shah Rukan e Alam Town
  3. Mumtazabad Town
  4. Shershah Town
  5. Shujabad Town
  6. Jalalpur Town
A. Multan Cantonment

Demographics

The Shahi Eid Ghah Mosque, Islam is the major religion in Multan
A Sikh Gurdwara within the city of Multan

The majority of Multan's residents speak Saraiki, while Haryanvi is the second most spoken language. A good portion of the people are conversant in Urdu. English is understood by the educated. The majority of the people are Muslims. However, the city does have significant Sikh and Hindu communities within the district. There are still many temples and Gurdwaras within the city.

Multan has traditionally been a melting pot of several distinct ethnic groups due to its location at the intersection of all four of Pakistan's main provinces and due to its historical significance as a centre of learning and culture. As a result, Multan today consists of Saraiki, Haryanvi, Punjabi, Baloch, Pashtun, Sindhi, and Urdu-speaking Muhajirs who arrived at the time of independence in 1947.

As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, the following are the demographics of the district, by spoken language:

Culture

A fruit vendor in a fruit market in the heart of Multan
The newly constructed Multan Cricket Stadium

Multan is locally known as the 'City of Saints, Sufis and Beggars'. It is one of the main cities in the Southern Punjab province of Pakistan. The city has been a focal point for many religions, in particular becoming a central abode for Sufism, the mystical side of Islam. The city has attracted Sufi saints from far places of the globe. Today, Multan is known as the 'City of Sufis'. It is one of the oldest cities in South Asia, with many tombs, shrines, temples, cathedrals and mausoleums, as well as a historical fort. Today Multan is a combination of old and the new Pakistan culture. There is a big hustle bustle in the old city and comfort of a five star hotel and fine dining in the new. The old city has a various bazaars selling mystical artifacts, perfumes to arts and crafts. There are also elaborately decorated shrines of the Sufi saints, tombs of various travellers and important people within the old city of Multan.

The prime attractions of Multan are its mausoleums of Sufi saints. The Mausoleum of Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakariya, as well as the Mausoleum of Shah Rukn-e-Alam are the prime attractions of the city. Their lofty domes of are visible, from miles and dominate the skyline of Multan. Another popular shrine is the Mausoleum of Shams-ud-Din, commonly known as Shah Shamsuddin Sabzwari is located about half a mile to the east of the Multan Fort, on the high bank of the old bed of the Ravi River.

Another famous and beautiful mausoleum of a warrior sufi saint and poet Hazrat Hafiz Muhammad Jamal Multani (1747-1811 AD) is situated near Aam Khas garden outside Daulat Gate, Multan.

There are also a number of other mausoleums located within the city which gather a great deal of attention. The Nuagaza tombs are shrines to martyrs and warriors who fought in wars centuries ago some dating back 1,300 years ago. The Multan Museum located within the city has a vast collection of coins, medals, postage stamps of the former State of Bahawalpur, manuscripts, documented inscriptions, wood carvings, camel-skin paintings, historical models and stone carvings of the Islamic and Pre-Islamic periods.

Multan also has a number of old mosques which were once considered as the jewels of the city. Some have been dated back to a few thousand years and have been recognised as some of the oldest mosques within South East Asia. The legend goes that the first mosque ever built in Multan was the Jamia Mosque which was constructed on the orders of General Mohammed Qasim, who conquered Multan in 712AD. Ruins of this mosque were visible till 1954 at Qasim Bella however due to repeated floods, the structure was lost. Sawi Mosque is supposed to be the oldest mosque which still exists today though in deteriorating state, there are glazed blue tiles from the era in which it was built which dates the mosque to several centuries ago. The second oldest mosque within Multan is Mohammad Khan Wali Mosque. It is an excellent condition, situated in the busiest Chowck Bazar of the city. It was built by Nawab Ali Mohammad Khan Khakwani, in 1757 when he was the governor of Multan in the time of Alamgir II. The mosque is provided with a reservoir for the ablutions, baths, and a large hall for prayers.

Multan is another Pakistani city that loves cricket. The city government inaugurated a new multi-purpose stadium replacing Ibn-e-Qasim Bagh Stadium which was the lone stadium used for football and cricket matches. The inauguration of the new stadium has allowed the city to offer Test day/night matches as well as other national sports such as hockey, badminton and football. The stadium is home to the Multan Cricket Association. Other sports grounds include Divisional Sports Ground and the Pakistan Cricket Board owned Government College Cricket Ground.

Education

In 1950, then-Governor Abdur Rub Nishtar founded Nishter Medical College. Doctor graduates of this institution have spread across the world, and many have become established names in the field of medicine. Bahauddin Zakariya University (formerly known as Multan University) and University of the Punjab are the main sources of higher education for this region. Multan Public School and College (MPS&C) is a leading residential institution of Southern Punjab, where Montessori classes to O Levels, FSc. and F.A. are offered. Jinnah High School and Bloomfield Hall School are among the top institutions preparing students for O and A Level exams.

Transportation

Local billboards in a busy street in Multan
A newly built fly-over at a busy section in Multan

Multan has connections with other cities by a variety of means of transportation. The district has concrete road reaching up to 983.69 km. The district is linked with Khanewal, Lodhran and Muzaffargarh districts through concrete roads. Buses to Bahawalpur leave frequently, since it is located closely to the city. There are a variety of buses travelling farther from the city. Many of them are now air-conditioned with a fairly good safety record. The N-5 National Highway connects the city to connect to all parts of Pakistan. The road otherwise, known as GT Road, allows connections to Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore as well as Bahawalpur. Coach services such as Daewoo Express, Faisal Movers Express, Niazi Express,Khan brothers transport, Nadir flying coach, Punjab Tourism Department, Skyways and New Khan Bus Service are some of the most reliable coach companies operating out of Multan.

Multan is connected by rail with all parts of the country and lies on the main track between Karachi, Peshawar, Lahore and Quetta. The main Peshawar-Karachi railway line passes through Multan district. The district then links trains to nearby districts of Khanewal, Lodhran and Muzafargarh districts through the railway network.[12]

Multan International Airport is an airport situated 10 km away from the city centre of Multan. It is not as large as the other airports in Pakistan, as it operates to cater mainly to the population of Multan, Vehari, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Rajanpur, Sahiwal, and Pakpattan to mainly to other points within Pakistan as well as the Middle East. Flight are currently operated by the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. However, since the growth of air travel within the region, there has been speculated interest from other private carriers. The rise in air-travel has also lead to the expansion of the current airport with a new runway and terminal.

Notable people from Multan

Twin cities

Multan has a friendship agreement with two cities in the world as of 2009:

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Area reference
    Density reference
  3. ^ Helders, Stefan. ""Hyderabad"". World Gazetteer. http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gpro&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-2944&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&pt=c&va=&geo=415392837. Retrieved 2007-10-08. 
  4. ^ Singh, Fauja. "History of the Punjab: Pre-historic times to age of Asoka". Pg.41. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=7E1XAAAAMAAJ&q=Kasyapapura&dq=Kasyapapura&ei=jlQlSu28IJOUzATm_b33Bg&pgis=1. Retrieved 02-06-2009. 
  5. ^ Sircar, D.C.. "Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India". Pg.52. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=AqKw1Mn8WcwC&pg=PA52&dq=Hamsapura&ei=B1clSum5Ap2EyASgnJSEBw. Retrieved 02-06-2009. 
  6. ^ Multān City - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 18, p. 35.
  7. ^ Hindu History BY Akshoy K Majumdar Published by Rupa and CO PAGE 54
  8. ^ Ferishta translated by John Briggs Vol 1 Page 21
  9. ^ [|Beck, Sanderson]. "Mughal Conquest of India 1526-56". INDIA & Southeast Asia to 1800. http://www.san.beck.org/2-9-MughalEmpire1526-1707.html. Retrieved 11-06-2009. 
  10. ^ p 80-81 Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Last to Lay Arms: The Last to Lay Arms (2001) By Kartar Singh Duggal Published by Abhinav publications, ISBN 8170174104, 9788170174103
  11. ^ Harbans Singh "The Heritage of the Sikhs"
  12. ^ Transport in Multan Lonely Planet Travel Information. Accessed 2009-08-15.
  13. ^ http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=145013
  14. ^ http://www.mofa.gov.pk/Press_Releases/2008/Oct/statement_31.html

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Multan is a city in the Punjab in Pakistan. Famous for its numerous Sufi dargahs (tombs) and mosques, it's long been one of the country's religious and pilgrimage centers and is an interesting stop for travelers.

Get in

By Plane

Multan has its own airport which can be called international as it is connected with Dubai. PIA has three weekly flights to Dubai from Multan. Moreover, it has direct flights to/from Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. Currently only two airlines serve Multan PIA and shaheen airlines. Shaheen Airlines also started the flights from Karachi AirBlue is planing to start flights from Multan. Recently PIA has announced twice weekly flights to Quetta.

By Train

Multan lies on the main railway line (Peshawar to Karachi) of Pakistan Railways (PR)[1]. Therefore, it is well connected with every major city of Pakistan. The major trains stops at Multan Cantt Station are Shah Shamas Express, Khyber Mail, Tezgam, Awam Express, Jaffar Express and Quetta Express.

  • Multan Fort ruins -the huge sprawling ancient complex had seen kings and empires fall or rise before its huge walls. Its initial origins are disputed, but the site was destroyed by the British garrison stationed here during the raj.
  • Shrines - Multan is world famous for its association with saints and fakirs. Many saints have beautiful tombs maintained by there countless followers. Some of the major ones are:
    • Shrine- Jamal-ud-Din Syed "Shah Yousaf Gardez"
    • Shrine-Bahauddin Zakria
    • Shrine-Bibi Pak Daman
    • Shrine-Shah Rukn-e-Alam
    • Shrine-Syed Shams-ud-din "Shah Shams Sabzwari"
  • Clock Tower which is called as "Ghanta Ghar" in the seraiki language is the land mark of old city.
  • Cricket - you may be able to catch a game at the Multan Cricket Stadium, which is a traditional venue for a test match and a one day international every cricket season, which runs from September to Feburary in Pakistan. Cricket has a huge following here, as anywhere in Pakistan. The national captain and star batsmen Inzamam-Ul-Haq is a local boy, and any game sets the town into a frenzy of excitement.

ODI's are well attended, sell out crowds. For an "at ease" experience, go to a day at the test. Moderate crowds will make it a much more enjoyable experience. The Multan pitch is one of the flatest in the world, so batting feasts are the norm. Good viewing!

  • Blue Tiles Multan is very famous for its beautiful blue tiles, used in bathrooms and other areas of house /building for decoration.
  • Pottery Multani pottery is very famous all over Pakistan, used as decoration, especially vases.
  • Quality handicrafts There are also good local tailors who can wrestle up a fine tunic-trouser combo in fair time. Nice prices.
  • Multani Jewllery is very well known all over Pakistan due to its uniqueness of designs, colours and sizes, especially "Multani Har"
  • Multani Mitti 'Multani clay' is used as Mass.
  • Retail Stores HTH stores having grocery and daily use households commodities along with fast food and they are leading store in district. HTH stores located in diffrent parts of the city.e.g shah ruknealam colony and garden town.
  • Multani Shoes Very famous and traditional shoes, worn during weddings and festivals usually, some few people wear them daily
  • Multan is known as the city of saints, tombs and mangoes for a reason. Mango season, whilst stifflingly hot for non regional visitors, affords an amazing treat-the juciest, thicket most succulent mangoes in the world. Worth an international flight alone...almost!
  • Multani Sohan Halwa is a special dessert of Multan, which is also called as "Habshi Halwa"and is a must for forigners .
  • Many street stalls sell the regional standard fare, kebabs, naan breads, chicken in a range of styles etc
  • The city has a variety of hotels, but not too much of an international cuisine scene.

Drink

All type of soft drinks and bottled waters are available. Also try the wonderful shaved ice from the street vendors,but becareful, buy from the vendors that have the most customers. In summer you can try FALSA COLA. Which is a speciality of Multan. You can give a try to a Goli Wali Bottle (Soft Drink Bottle with Marble in it)

  • dahi bally ( curd with mix vegetables) and gool gapay, 03009630077. dahi bally (sour curd with mix vegetables) and gool gapay are also popular deserts of multan   edit
  • Ramada Multan, [2]. Decent 3 star hotel in the city center. Fair prices, nice rooms. Staff is friendly.
  • Sinabad Hotel Nishtar Chowk. Good hotel, clean rooms. A/C. Minibar. Cable TV. This is probably the best hotel in the city. USD 60-90 pppn.
  • Fiesta Inn Hotel & Resorts
  • Comfort Inn Guest House
  • Royal Continental Guest House
  • Regent Villa Guest House
  • Fortalice
  • Noman, mumtazabad multan, 03009630077, [3].  edit
  • Sheza Inn.  edit
  • Noman, mumtazabad multan, 03009630077, [4]. sugarcane juice and lemon soda of multan is popular  edit
  • Bahawalpur is famous for its Palaces, Library, Museum, Zoo, Historical gates and Lal Sohanra National Park. Also see Derawar Fort and Cholistan Desert
  • Uch Shariff is located 75km from Bahawalpur: Visit shrines of Hazrat Bahawal Haleem, Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari, Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht, Bibi Jiwandi, Shaikh Saifuddin Ghazrooni etc

PIA makes flights from Multan to Karachi,Lahore,Faisalabad,Rawalpindi,Quetta and islamabad.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MULTAN, or Mooltan, a city, district and division of British India, in the Punjab. The city is 4 m. from the left bank of the Chenab, near the ancient confluence of the Ravi with that river. It has a station on the North-Western railway. Pop. (1901), 87,394. The city is enclosed on three sides by a wall, but open towards the south, where the dry bed of the old Ravi intervenes between the houses and citadel. Large and irregular suburbs have grown up outside the wall since the annexation in 1849. Within the city proper, narrow and tortuous streets, often ending in cols de sac, fill almost the whole space; but one broad bazaar runs from end to end. The principal buildings include the shrines of two Mahommedan saints and the remains of an ancient Hindu temple. The cantonments form the headquarters of a brigade in the 3rd division of the northern army. Multan has manufactures of carpets, silk and cotton goods, shoes, glazed pottery and enamel work, and an annual horse fair. It is moreover one of the most important trade-centres in the Punjab. Itt is a station of the Church Missionary Society.

The District Of Multan occupies the lower angle of the Bari Doab, or tract between the Sutlej and the Chenab, with an extension across the Ravi. Area, 6107 sq. m. The population in 1901 was 710,626, showing an increase of 11. 7% in the preceding decade, due to the extension of irrigation. The principal crops are wheat, millets, pulse, oil-seeds, cotton and indigo. There are factories for ginning and pressing cotton. Indigo is made only by native processes. Irrigation is largely conducted by inundation channels from the boundary rivers, but the centre of the district is barren. The district is traversed by the main line of the North-Western railway from Lahore, 2 "Considerable diversion was created in the city to-day [May i, 1840] by the appearance of the new penny-post devices for envelopes, half-sheet letters, and bits of sticking-plaster for dabbing on to letters. [The elephants on the Mulready cover] are symbolic of the lightness and rapidity with which Mr Rowland Hill's penny-post is to be carried on.. .. Withal the citizens are rude enough to believe that these graphic embellishments will not go down at the price of Is. 3d. per dozen for the envelopes,.. and of is. id. per dozen for the.. sticking-plaster." This banter is from the money article of an eminent daily paper.

which crosses the Sutlej by the Empress Bridge opposite Bahawalpur. It is also entered by the branch from Lyallpur to Khanewal junction, crossing the Ravi.

The early Arab geographers mention Multan as forming part of the kingdom of Sind, which was conquered for the caliphate by Mahommed bin Kasim in the middle of the 8th century. On the dismemberment of the Mogul Empire in the middle of the 18th century, Multan fell to the Afghans, who held it with difficulty against the Sikhs. At length, in 1818, Ranjit Singh after a long siege carried the capital by storm; and in 1821 he made over the administration of Multan with five neighbouring districts to Sawan Mal, who raised the province to a state of prosperity by excavating canals and inducing new inhabitants to settle. After the establishment of the council of regency of Lahore, difficulties arose between Mulraj, son and successor of Sawan Mal, and the British officials, which led to his rebellion, and culminated in the second war and the annexation of the whole of the Punjab. The city of Multan, after a stubborn defence, was carried by storm in January 1849. The district at once passed under direct British rule, and order was not disturbed even during the Mutiny.

The Division Of Multan is the south-western division of the Punjab. It was abolished in 1884, but reconstituted in 1901. Its area is 29,516 sq. m. and its population in 1901 was 3,014,675. It includes the six districts of Mianwali, Jhang, Lyallpur, Multan, Muzaffargarh, and Dera Ghazi Khan.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Proper noun

Multan

  1. A city located in the South of the Punjab Province of Pakistan.

Simple English

Multan is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is the capital of the Multan District. Called the "City of the Saints", the history of the city goes back more than 5,000 years.[1]

File:Shahrukne
Side view of the Shah Rukn-I-Alam mausoleum

History

The old city of Multan is a walled city which is built on an ancient mound. Archaeologists believe the mound is made up of earlier cities going back to the Bronze Age.[1] There were six gates into the old city but these have been destroyed over time. Three gates were rebuilt by the British when they governed the country.[1] Inside the wall is a circular road, called the alang.[1] The old city has narrow and winding streets, with houses crowded close together.Syd Yousaf Raza Gillani,Prime Minister of Pakistan is also belong to Multan. And Shah Mehmood Qureshi, Foreign Minister of Pakistan is the well known leader of Multan.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Historic Multan". National Fund for Cultural Heritage. http://www.heritage.gov.pk/html_Pages/historic_multan.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 







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