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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Multiculturalism is the acceptance or promotion of multiple ethnic cultures, for practical reasons and/or for the sake of diversity and applied to the demographic make-up of a specific place, usually at the organizational level, e.g. schools, businesses, neighborhoods, cities or nations. In this context, multiculturalists advocate extending equitable status to distinct ethnic and religious groups without promoting any specific ethnic, religious, and/or cultural community values as central.

The policy of multiculturalism is often contrasted with the concepts assimilationism and social integration.

Contents

Support for multiculturalism

Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer system that allows people to truly express who they are within a society, that is more tolerant and that adapts better to social issues. they argue, culture is not one definable thing based on one race or religion, but is the result of multiple factors that change as the world changes.

Opposition to multiculturalism

Criticism of multiculturalism often debates whether the multicultural ideal of benignly co-existing cultures that interrelate and influence one another, and yet remain distinct, is sustainable, paradoxical or even desirable. Nation states that, in the case of many European nations, would previously have been synonymous with a distinctive cultural identity of their own, lose out to enforced multiculturalism and that this ultimately erodes the host nations distinct culture[1][2][3].

Other critics argue that multiculturalism leads directly to restrictions in the rights and freedoms for certain groups and that as such, it is bad for democracy, undemocratic and against universal human rights. For instance, Susan Moller Okin wrote about this question in her essay "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?" (1999).[4]

Harvard professor of political science Robert D. Putnam conducted a nearly decade long study how multiculturalism affects social trust.[5] He surveyed 26,200 people in 40 American communities, finding that when the data were adjusted for class, income and other factors, the more racially diverse a community is, the greater the loss of trust. People in diverse communities "don’t trust the local mayor, they don’t trust the local paper, they don’t trust other people and they don’t trust institutions," writes Putnam.[6] In the presence of such ethnic diversity, Putnam maintains that

[W]e hunker down. We act like turtles. The effect of diversity is worse than had been imagined. And it’s not just that we don’t trust people who are not like us. In diverse communities, we don’t trust people who do look like us.[5]

Ethologist Frank Salter writes:

Relatively homogeneous societies invest more in public goods, indicating a higher level of public altruism. For example, the degree of ethnic homogeneity correlates with the government's share of gross domestic product as well as the average wealth of citizens. Case studies of the United States, Africa and South-East Asia find that multi-ethnic societies are less charitable and less able to cooperate to develop public infrastructure. Moscow beggars receive more gifts from fellow ethnics than from other ethnies. A recent multi-city study of municipal spending on public goods in the United States found that ethnically or racially diverse cities spend a smaller portion of their budgets and less per capita on public services than do the more homogenous cities.[7]

Multiculturalism in contemporary Western society

Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Pirelli in Toronto, Canada. Four identical sculptures are located in Buffalo City, South Africa; Changchun, China; Sarajevo, Bosnia and Sydney, Australia.

Multiculturalism was adopted as official policy, in several Western nations from the 1970s onward, for reasons that varied from country to country.[8][9][10] The great cities of the Western world are increasingly made of a mosaic of cultures.[11]

Government multicultural policies may include:[citation needed]

  • recognition of multiple citizenship (the multiple citizenship itself usually results from the nationality laws of another country)
  • government support for newspapers, television, and radio in minority languages
  • support for minority festivals, holidays, and celebrations
  • acceptance of traditional and religious dress in schools, the military, and society in general
  • support for music and arts from minority cultures
  • programs to encourage minority representation in politics, Science, Engineering, Technology, Mathematics, education, and the work force in general.
  • enforcement of different codes of law on members of each ethnic group (e.g. Malaysia enforces Shari'a law, but only for a particular ethnic group)

Multiculturalism as introductory to monoculturalism

An anti-discrimination poster in a Hong Kong subway station. Circa. 2005

Multiculturalism, as generally understood, refers to a theoretical approach and a number of policies adopted in Western nation-states, which had seemingly achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries. Many nation-states in Africa, Asia, and the Americas are culturally diverse, and are 'multi-cultural' in a descriptive sense. In some, communalism is a major political issue. The policies adopted by these states often have parallels with multicultural-ist policies in the Western world, but the historical background is different, and the goal may be a mono-cultural or mono-ethnic nation-building - for instance in the Malaysian governments attempt to create a 'Malaysian race' by 2020.[12]

Origins in Canada

German immigrants in Quebec City in 1911

Canada has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world,[13] driven by economic policy and family reunification. In 2001, approximately 250,640 people immigrated to Canada. The newcomers settle mostly in the major urban areas of Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal.[14] By the 1990s and 2000s, the largest component of Canada’s immigrants came from Asia, including the Middle East, South Asia, South-East Asia and East Asia.[15] Canadian society is often depicted as being very progressive, diverse, and multicultural. Accusing a person of racism in Canada is usually considered a serious slur.[16] Canadian political parties are now cautious about criticizing their country's high level of immigration, because, as noted by the Globe and Mail, "in the early 1990s, the old Reform Party was branded 'racist' for suggesting that immigration levels be lowered from 250,000 to 150,000."[17]

Political cartoon on Canada's multicultural identity, from 1911

Argentina

Though not called Multiculturalism as such, the preamble of Argentina's constitution explicitly promotes immigration, and recognizes the individual's multiple citizenship from other countries. Though 86% of Argentina's population self-identify as of European descent[18][19] to this day a high level of multiculturalism remains a feature of the Argentine's culture,[20] allowing foreign festivals and holidays (e.g. Saint Patrick's Day), supporting all kinds of art or cultural expression from minorities, as well as their diffusion through an important multicultural presence in the media; for instance it is not uncommon to find newspapers[21] or radios program in English, German, Italian or Guarani language in Argentina.

Australia

The other country to have most fully adopted Canadian-style multiculturalism is Australia, with many similar policies, for example the formation of the Special Broadcasting Service.[22]

According to the 2006 census more than one fifth of the population were born overseas.[22] Furthermore, almost 50% of the population were either:

1. born overseas; or

2. had one or both parents born overseas.[22]

In terms of net migration per capita, Australia is ranked 18th (2008 Data) ahead of Canada, the USA and most of Europe.[23]

Prior to 1973 a set of policies often called the White Australia Policy limited the degree of multiculturalism through immigration. Those policies were revised post World War II by various changes to immigration policy, the full political introduction of official policies of multiculturalism was not until 1973. The idea of multiculturalism especially became popular in Australia during the 1980s. It replaced the notion of assimilation where non-British migrants were expected to change their way of life and abandon their cultural traditions to fit in with existing Australian traditions. Organizations were formed to encourage immigrants to keep aspects of their original culture, and to share them with other Australians.

United States

In the United States, multiculturalism is not clearly established in policy at the federal level.

Mulberry Street, along which Manhattan's Little Italy is centered. Lower East Side, circa 1900.

In the United States, continuous mass immigration had been a feature of economy and society since the first half of the 19th century.[24] The absorption of the stream of immigrants became, in itself, a prominent feature of America's national myth. The idea of the Melting pot is a metaphor that implies that all the immigrant cultures are mixed and amalgamated without state intervention.[25] The Melting Pot implied that each individual immigrant, and each group of immigrants, assimilated into American society at their own pace. An Americanized (and often stereotypical) version of the original nation's cuisine, and its holidays, survived. Note that the Melting Pot tradition co-exists with a belief in national unity, dating from the American founding fathers:

"Providence has been pleased to give this one connected country to one united people — a people descended from the same ancestors, speaking the same language, professing the same religion, attached to the same principles of government, very similar in their manners and customs... This country and this people seem to have been made for each other, and it appears as if it was the design of Providence, that an inheritance so proper and convenient for a band of brethren, united to each other by the strongest ties, should never be split into a number of unsocial, jealous, and alien sovereignties."[26]

As a philosophy, multiculturalism began as part of the pragmatism movement at the end of the nineteenth century in Europe and the United States, then as political and cultural pluralism at the turn of the twentieth. It was partly in response to a new wave of European imperialism in sub-Saharan Africa and the massive immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans to the United States and Latin America. Philosophers, psychologists and historians and early sociologists such as Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, George Santayana, Horace Kallen, John Dewey, W. E. B. Du Bois and Alain Locke developed concepts of cultural pluralism, from which emerged what we understand today as multiculturalism. In Pluralistic Universe (1909), William James espoused the idea of a "plural society." James saw pluralism as "crucial to the formation of philosophical and social humanism to help build a better, more egalitarian society.[27]

United Kingdom

Multicultural policies were adopted by local administrations from the 1970s and 1980s onwards, in particular, by the Labour government of Tony Blair [3] In national policy, legislation includes Race Relations Act and the British Nationality Act of 1948. Most of the immigrants of the last decades came from the Indian subcontinent or the Caribbean, i.e. from former British colonies. In 2004 the number of people who became British citizens rose to a record 140,795 — a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen dramatically since 2000. The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Africa (32%) and Asia (40%), the largest three groups being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia.[28]

In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973.[29] It was quickly adopted as official policy by most member-states of the European Union. Recently, right-of-center governments in several European states—notably the Netherlands and Denmark— have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism.[29] A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over "home-grown" terrorism.[30]

Continental Europe

Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910.
Ethno-linguistic map of the Second Polish Republic, 1937.

Historically, Europe has always been polycultural—a mixture of Latin, Slavic, Germanic and Celtic cultures influenced by the importation of Hebraic, Hellenic and even Muslim belief systems; although the continent was supposedly unified by the super-position of Roman Catholic Christianity, it is accepted that geographic and cultural differences continued from antiquity into the modern age.

Especially in the 19th century, the ideology of nationalism transformed the way Europeans thought about the state.[citation needed] Existing states were broken up and new ones created; the new nation-states were founded on the principle that each nation is entitled to its own sovereign state and to engender, protect, and preserve its own unique culture and history. Unity, under this ideology, is seen as an essential feature of the nation and the nation-state - unity of descent, unity of culture, unity of language, and often unity of religion. The nation-state constitutes a culturally homogeneous society, although some national movements recognized regional differences.

Where cultural unity was insufficient, it was encouraged and enforced by the state. The 19th-century nation-states developed an array of policies - the most important was compulsory primary education in the national language. The language itself was often standardized by a linguistic academy, and regional languages were ignored or suppressed. Some nation-states pursued violent policies of cultural assimilation and even ethnic cleansing.

Some European Union countries have introduced policies for "social cohesion", "integration", and (sometimes) "assimilation". They are sometimes a direct reversal of earlier multiculturalist policies, and seek to assimilate immigrant minorities and restore a de facto mono-cultural society.[citation needed] The policies include:

Netherlands

In the 1950s, the Netherlands was generally a mono-ethnic and monocultural society: it was not explicitly monolingual, but almost everyone could speak standard Dutch; Frisian and Dutch Low Saxon were the only indigenous minority languages. Its inhabitants shared a classic national identity, with a national mythos emphasizing the Dutch Golden Age, and national heroes such as Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. Dutch society was segmented along religious and ideological lines, sometimes coinciding with differences in social class and lifestyle. This segmentation had developed since the late 19th century into a uniquely Dutch version, called pillarization, enabling peaceful cooperation between the leaders of the various "pillars", while their constituencies remained largely segregated.

Russia

Because of colonialism and the gradual accretion of land over several centuries, Russia has over 150 different ethnic groups. Tensions between ethnic groups, particularly in the Caucasus region, have occasionally escalated into armed conflicts.

Belgium

In this field, Belgium shows the huge differences between multiculturalism and interculturalism. In the Flemish part, Flanders, the official policy (which is supported by all main political parties except for one extreme-right party) is clearly inter-culturalist. The French-speaking parties however are very much multiculturalist.

In contemporary Eastern societies

India

India is a duocultural country with two dominant religions accounting for some 93.4% of the population. The respective proportion of population by belief system are Hindu (80.5%) , Muslim (13.4%), Christian (2.3%), Sikh (2.1%), Buddhist, Bahá'í, Ahmadi, Jain and Parsi populations.[34] Despite being a duoculture the country is fragmented by the lack of a common language. State boundaries in India are mostly drawn on linguistic lines. Hindi, despite being constitutionally recognised as the official language has not been adopted by the country as a whole.[35] Less than 1.3% of the population were born overseas.[36]

Indonesia

There are more than 700 living languages spoken in Indonesia[37] and although predominantly Muslim the country also has large Christian and Hindu populations. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka tunggal ika" ("Unity in Diversity" lit. "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Due to migration within Indonesia (as part of government transmigration programs or otherwise), there are significant populations of ethnic groups who reside outside of their traditional regions. Soon after Abdurrahman Wahid came into power in 1999, he quickly abolished some of the discriminatory laws in efforts to improve race relationships. Chinese Indonesians are now in the era of rediscovery. Many younger generations, who cannot speak Mandarin due to the ban decades earlier, choose to learn Mandarin, as many learning centers open throughout the country. The Ambon, Maluku was the site of some of the worst violence between Christian and Muslim groups that gripped the Maluku Islands between 1999 and 2002.[38]

Malaysia

Malaysia is a multiethnic country, with Malays making up the majority, close to 52% of the population. About 30% of the population are Malaysians of Chinese descent. Malaysians of Indian descent comprise about 8% of the population. The remaining 10% comprises:

The Malaysian New Economic Policy or NEP serves as a form of affirmative action (see Bumiputera).[39] It promotes structural changes in various aspects of life from education to economic to social integration. Established after the May 13 racial riots of 1969, it sought to address the significant imbalance in the economic sphere where the minority Chinese population had substantial control over commercial activity in the country.

The Malay Peninsula has a long history of international trade contacts, influencing its ethnic and religious composition. Predominantly Malays before the 18th century, the ethnic composition changed dramatically when the British introduced new industries, and imported Chinese and Indian labor. Several regions in the then British Malaya such as Penang, Malacca and Singapore became Chinese dominated. Co-existence between the three ethnicities (and other minor groups) was largely peaceful, despite the fact the immigration affected the demographic and cultural position of the Malays.

Preceding independence of the Federation of Malaya, a social contract was negotiated as the basis of a new society. The contract as reflected in the 1957 Malayan Constitution and the 1963 Malaysian Constitution states that the immigrant groups are granted citizenship, and Malays' special rights are guaranteed. This is often referred to the Bumiputra policy.

These pluralist policies have come under pressure from orthodox Muslims and Islamist parties, who oppose secular and non-Islamic religious influences. The issue is related to the controversial status of religious freedom in Malaysia.

Mauritius

Multiculturalism is a characteristic feature of the island of Mauritius. Mauritian society includes people from many different ethnic and religious groups: Hindu, Muslim and Sikh Indo-Mauritians, Mauritian Creoles (of African and Malagasy descent), Buddhist and Roman Catholic Sino-Mauritians and Franco-Mauritians (descendants of the original French colonists).[40]

The Philippines

The Philippines is the 8th most multiethnic nation in the world.[41] It has 10 distinct major indigenous ethnic groups mainly the Bicolano, Ibanag, Ilocano, Ivatan, Kapampangan, Moro, Pangasinense, Sambal, Tagalog and Visayan. The Philippines also has several aboriginal races such as the Badjao, Igorot, Lumad, Mangyan and Negritos. The country also has considerable communities of American, Arabic, Chinese, Indian and Hispanic descent and many more. The Philippine government has various programs supporting and preserving the nation's ethnic diversity.[42]

Singapore

Singapore recognizes three other languages, namely, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil and Malay as its official languages, with English being the national language. Besides being a multilingual country, Singapore also acknowledges festivals celebrated by these three ethnic communities.

Areas which are enclaves containing a large population of certain ethnic groups exist in areas such as Chinatown, Geylang and Little India in Singapore.

See also

References

  1. ^ spiked-culture | Article | Backlash against multiculturalism?
  2. ^ spiked-politics | Article | The trouble with multiculturalism
  3. ^ Report attacks multiculturalism
  4. ^ Okin, "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?", Boston Review 1999.
  5. ^ a b Putnam, Robert D., "E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century -- The 2006 Johan Skytte Prize," Scandinavian Political Studies 30 (2), June 2007.
  6. ^ Sailer, Steve, "Fragmented Future," American Conservative, Jan. 15, 2007.
  7. ^ Salter, Frank, On Genetic Interests, pg.146.
  8. ^ Policy Paper no. 4 - Multiculturalism: New Policy Responses to Diversity
  9. ^ Multiculturalism in Canada
  10. ^ Immigration and Multiculturalism
  11. ^ Multiculturalism and the Dynamics of Modern Civilizations
  12. ^ The Economist: The changing of the guard, April 3rd 2003.
  13. ^ Benjamin Dolin and Margaret Young, Law and Government Division (2004-10-31). "Canada's Immigration Program". Library of Parliament. http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/bp190-e.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  14. ^ Canadian People - Learn About Canada's People, CanadaStatistics.info
  15. ^ Inflow of foreign-born population by country of birth, by year
  16. ^ Fontaine, Phil (April 24, 1998) (PDF), Modern Racism in Canada by Phil Fontaine, Queen's University, http://www.queensu.ca/sps/conferences_events/lectures/donald_gow/98lecture.pdf 
  17. ^ Is the current model of immigration the best one for Canada?, Globe and Mail, 12 December 2005, URL accessed 16 August 2006
  18. ^ Argentina
  19. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Argentina
  20. ^ , Argentine Culture Rich and Diverse
  21. ^ *Buenos Aires Herald, Argentine-English language newspaper
  22. ^ a b c http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/research/_pdf/poa-2008.pdf
  23. ^ http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/imm_net_mig_rat-immigration-net-migration-rate#definition
  24. ^ Hasia Diner, "Immigration and U.S. History", eJournal USA, February 2008
  25. ^ Zangwil, Israel. The Melting Pot, 1908.
  26. ^ John Jay, First American Supreme Court Chief Justice,Federalist Paper No. 2
  27. ^ Boening, Astrid B. (May 2007). "Euro-Islam – A Constructivist Idea or a Concept of the English School?" (pdf). European Union Miami Analysis (EUMA) (Miami-Florida European Union Center of Excellence) 4 (12): pp. 3–10. http://www.miami.edu/eucenter/Boening_EuroIslam_EUMA2007edi.pdf. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  28. ^ BBC Thousands in UK citizenship queue
  29. ^ a b Bissoondath, Neil. 2002. Selling Illusions: The Myth of Multiculturalism. Toronto: Penguin. ISBN 9780141006765.
  30. ^ Fact or fiction in the great UK immigration debate. workpermit.com. News. April 26, 2005. Retrieved on: October 21, 2007.
  31. ^ Official Web site
  32. ^ BBC report at [1], full list of questions in German at taz, [2]
  33. ^ Netherlands moves toward total ban on Muslim veils, Guardian, November 11, 2006.
  34. ^ Indian Census
  35. ^ States Reorganization Act 1956
  36. ^ Hindustan Times, Bangalore Edition, Page 17, Dec 8 2008
  37. ^ Ethnologue report for Indonesia
  38. ^ Religious violence erupts in Moluccas, BBC News
  39. ^ Malaysia fury at EU envoy remarks, BBC News
  40. ^ Some facts about Mauritius
  41. ^ The Philippines ranks 8th among 240 countries in terms of ethnic diversity. YEOH Kok Kheng, Towards an Index of Ethnic Fractionalization, Table 1.
  42. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2794.htm

Further reading

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