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.Multilingualism is the use of two or more languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.^ Complete mastery of two languages is designated as bilingualism ; in many cases—such as upbringing by parents speaking different languages at home or being raised within a multilingual community (a routine experience in Africa and Southeast Asia , for example)—speakers grow up as bilinguals.
  • language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bilinguals or multilinguals are more used to switching thought patterns and have more flexible minds” (UNESCO 1995:179).
  • Welcome to Multilingual Living 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC biculturalfamily.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The view that each language is a resource to the nation carries with it the notion of the instrumental use of languages or functional multilingualism .
  • Pansalb’s Position on the Promotion of Multilingualism In South Africa : 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population.[1]

Contents

Multilingual individuals

.A multilingual person, in a broad definition, is one who can communicate in more than one language, be it actively (through speaking, writing, or signing) or passively (through listening, reading, or perceiving).^ But we communicate with much more than words.
  • Nonverbal Communication Skills: The Power of Body Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

^ A language is more than just a means of communication.
  • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teaches all four language skills — speaking, listening, reading and writing.
  • Welcome to Language Quest - Software, Audio, Books, Video, Translators and More! 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: General]

.More specifically, the terms bilingual and trilingual are used to describe comparable situations in which two or three languages are involved.^ The two books and two sets of three CD recordings take students from the basics of the language through to the level required for higher education.
  • Welcome to Language Quest - Software, Audio, Books, Video, Translators and More! 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: General]

^ "Livemocha is the best online language program I have seen and used—vastly superior to Rosetta Stone in terms of cost and the variety of language functions it offers."
  • Language Learning with Livemocha | Learn a Language Online - Free! 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.livemocha.com [Source type: General]

^ Bilinguals or multilinguals are more used to switching thought patterns and have more flexible minds” (UNESCO 1995:179).
  • Welcome to Multilingual Living 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC biculturalfamily.org [Source type: Academic]

A generic term for multilingual persons is polyglot. Poly (Greek: πολύς) means "many", glot (Greek: γλώττα) means "language".
.Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language (L1).^ The rules of a language, also called grammar, are learned as one acquires a language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Heras , the Dravidian from Spain as he proudly called himself, who first declared that the language of the Indus Valley seal inscriptions was proto-Dravidian.
  • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1999, the Ethnologue (Languages of the World) estimated the number of first language Tamil speakers in the world at 66 million and the number including second language speakers at 74 million.
  • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first language (sometimes also referred to as the mother tongue) is acquired without formal education, by mechanisms heavily disputed.^ "Mother Tongue Education: the key to African language development?
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Boost comprehension rate as well as reading speed when reading a foreign text and soon you'll forget the difference between reading in a foreign language and in your mother tongue .

^ Its national language, Urdu, is the mother tongue of only 7.57 per cent of the population though it is very widely used in the urban areas of the country.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.Children acquiring two languages in this way are called simultaneous bilinguals.^ The solution LOTH offers for what I called the problem of thinking, above, is connected to the argument here because the two phenomena are connected in a deep way.
  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many languages also have vowels called diphthongs, a sequence of two sounds, vowel + glide.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With just 30 minutes of relaxed study each day, you can acquire French in the same way that you learned your own language: by natural assimilation.
  • Welcome to Language Quest - Software, Audio, Books, Video, Translators and More! 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: General]

.Even in the case of simultaneous bilinguals one language usually dominates over the other.^ Why Arabic took over the language of Ottoman empire, but Hebrew, on the other hand, could not even greet the Roman empire?
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In both cases you need to be able to manage the process of requesting and creating the translations, and need to be able to manage the process of moving from text in one language to the equivalent bit of text in another language.
  • Web Internationalization & Multilingualism Symposium 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC xml.coverpages.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But it is, in any case, not an easy proposition, because we have to make sure that that one African language would not also become a foreign language to other Africans.
  • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

.This kind of bilingualism is most likely to occur when a child is raised by bilingual parents in a predominantly monolingual environment.^ Research conducted in this country in the 1930s and 1940s showed that bilingual people demonstrate greater social tolerance and are more likely to have academic success than monolingual people are.
  • Pansalb’s Position on the Promotion of Multilingualism In South Africa : 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] It can also occur when the parents are monolingual but have raised their child or children in two different countries.^ Teaching to Reach Every Child Stephen Haag discovers how recognizing different learning styles can solve an educator’s challenge .
  • Language Magazine 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC languagemagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MARION on 2010 Year Planner Georgianna Teichmann on June 2007 kaylynn on January 2009 admin34 on September 2009 Children's toys on November 2008 .
  • Language Magazine 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC languagemagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In linguistics, first language acquisition is closely related to the concept of a "native speaker". According to a view widely held by linguists, a native speaker of a given language has in some respects a level of skill which a second (or subsequent) language learner can never reliably accomplish.^ Passing for a native speaker: identity and success in second language learning.
  • Language on the Move | Portal about language and communication in multicultural and transnational contexts | Ingrid Piller & Kimie Takahashi 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.languageonthemove.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The role of language context in second language acquisition.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Second language acquisition and second language learning.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Consequently, descriptive empirical studies of languages are usually carried out using only native speakers as informants.^ Passing for a native speaker: identity and success in second language learning.
  • Language on the Move | Portal about language and communication in multicultural and transnational contexts | Ingrid Piller & Kimie Takahashi 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.languageonthemove.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the very least, it has to be a useful exercise to look closely at the core of a language to see if there are any axioms that could be weeded out.
  • The Hundred-Year Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.paulgraham.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its national language, Urdu, is the mother tongue of only 7.57 per cent of the population though it is very widely used in the urban areas of the country.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.This view is, however, slightly problematic, particularly as many non-native speakers demonstrably not only successfully engage with and in their non-native language societies, but in fact may become culturally and even linguistically important contributors (as, for example, writers, politicians and performing artists) in their non-native language.^ Language in culture and society.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, there are exceptions: "Whatever is special, problematic, urgent, or specifically strategic may be marked by divergence from routine formats" (Hopper, 1989).
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And yet there may be only a few widely-used languages in a hundred years.
  • The Hundred-Year Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.paulgraham.com [Source type: Original source]

.In recent years, linguistic research has focused attention on the use of widely known world languages such as English as lingua franca, or the shared common language of professional and commercial communities.^ Over the years I've observed countless common language learning misconceptions which later developed into "mental limitations" such as "Oh I can't do this" or "That's just too hard for me" ...

^ However, as English was the language of the higher domains of power and Bengali was a ‘provincial’ language, the real issue was not linguistic.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its national language, Urdu, is the mother tongue of only 7.57 per cent of the population though it is very widely used in the urban areas of the country.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

.In lingua franca situations, most speakers of the common language are functionally multilingual.^ The view that each language is a resource to the nation carries with it the notion of the instrumental use of languages or functional multilingualism .
  • Pansalb’s Position on the Promotion of Multilingualism In South Africa : 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horvath, John [1997] Die Lingua Franca des Netzes German essay on the fate of English as a world language.
  • SocioSite: LANGUAGE RESOURCES 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Languages used more widely or by larger speech communities tend to be used as link languages or lingua francas .
  • Pansalb’s Position on the Promotion of Multilingualism In South Africa : 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Definition of multilingualism

.One group of academics argues for the maximal definition which means speakers are as proficient in one language as they are in others and have as much knowledge of and control over one language as they have of the others.^ Then, do your best to imitate their accent by speaking (your native language) with the same part of the mouth or muscle group they use .

^ It is the language of employment (Rahman 2000: 41-42), and without employment one cannot possess much power in modern societies.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We also welcome papers on other languages from other nations as well, following the age-old Indian tradition of welcoming knowledge from everywhere and to serve all.

.Another group of academics argues for the minimal definition, based on use.^ Selectors are useful to specify a resource attribute or assign a variable based on a fact or another variable.
  • Language Tutorial – puppet 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC reductivelabs.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tourists, who successfully communicate phrases and ideas while not fluent in a language, may be seen as bilingual according to this group.^ "The 11 million adults who are not literate in English include people who may be fluent in another language, such as Spanish, but are unable to comprehend text in English."
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ Some of the less imaginative ones, who had artifacts of early languages built into their ideas of what a program was, might have had trouble.
  • The Hundred-Year Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.paulgraham.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And not many people are truly bilingual or multilingual, and those who claim to be so often make you underestimate what's needed to master a foreign language.

.However, problems may arise with these definitions as they do not specify how much knowledge of a language is required for a person to be classified as bilingual.^ However, the city varieties of these languages will become much Urdufied.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The latest version of the HTTP specification (HTTP 1.1) allows users requesting data to specify what languages they are able to accept data in, and to qualify this by a factor that indicates the acceptability of this language to them.
  • Web Internationalization & Multilingualism Symposium 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC xml.coverpages.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, Heidegger attaches much importance to the fact that "it is from the technological possibilities of the machine that the instruction is set out as to how language can and shall still be language."
  • 20th WCP: Heidegger On Traditional Language And Technological Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, since most speakers do not achieve the maximal ideal, language learners may come to be seen as deficient and by extension, language teaching may come to be seen as a failure.^ And the following are some "language hurdles" that eventually stop 95% of language learners from achieving proficiency: .

^ Unlike most language software programs, Learn to Speak™ teaches German or Spanish from the ground up.
  • Welcome to Language Quest - Software, Audio, Books, Video, Translators and More! 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: General]

^ By Jason Kottke • May 14, 2008 • books buildingscalablewebsites language The 10 most appropriate weatherperson names...like Ray .
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.Since 1992, Cook has argued that most multilingual speakers fall somewhere between minimal and maximal definitions.^ So, since I'm optimistic, I'm going to predict that despite the huge gap they'll have between acceptable and maximal efficiency, programmers in a hundred years will have languages that can span most of it.
  • The Hundred-Year Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.paulgraham.com [Source type: Original source]

Cook calls these people multi-competent.

Learning language

.One view is that of the United States linguist Noam Chomsky in what he calls the human 'language acquisition device '— a mechanism which enables an individual to recreate correctly the rules (grammar) and certain other characteristics of language used by speakers around the learner.^ Linguistics is the science of language, including the sounds, words, and grammar rules.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rules of a language, also called grammar, are learned as one acquires a language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a language family Chinese language has nearly 1.2 billion speakers; Mandarin Chinese alone has around 850 million native speakers, outnumbering any other languages in the world.
  • Chinese Language | Learn Chinese Language, Learn Mandarin Language Online - eChineseLearning 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC sina.echineselearning.com [Source type: General]

[2] .This device, according to Chomsky, wears out over time, and is not normally available by puberty, which he uses to explain the poor results some adolescents and adults have when learning aspects of a second language (L2).^ Second language acquisition and second language learning.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Strategies in learning and using a second language.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Understanding second language learning difficuties.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.If language learning is a cognitive process, rather than a language acquisition device, as the school led by Stephen Krashen suggests, there would only be relative, not categorical, differences between the two types of language learning.^ Second language acquisition and second language learning.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of them, if not all, learn foreign languages differently than you do.

^ Second language acquisition - foreign language learning.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Despite the differences in theories, most studies agree that the earlier children learn a second language, the better off they are, cognitively speaking at least.^ Second language acquisition and second language learning.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Strategies in learning and using a second language.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Understanding second language learning difficuties.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These studies could be used to make the learning of a second language mandatory in all schools as early as possible, in order to give children every means of increasing their cognitive abilities.^ Understanding second language learning difficuties.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Language, culture and cognition: A collection of studies in first and second language acquisition.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Second language acquisition and second language learning.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Many European schools offer secondary language classes for their students, if for no other reason than the proximity of other countries with different languages.^ How can a language be nobler than the other?
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is extremely old (as old as Latin and older than Arabic); it arose as an entirely independent tradition, with almost no influence from Sanskrit or other languages; and its ancient literature is indescribably vast and rich..."
  • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason I feel so many asians are multilingual is because their native language is so much harder to learn then the Indo-European language, because of the lack of an alphabet and the complexity of its symbols, making it is easier for them to learn Western languages.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

.The United States, however, in spite of its proximity to francophone Quebec and hispanophone Mexico, is the only technologically advanced country that does not require the study of a foreign language in its schools.^ Study foreign languages online.
  • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A foreign employer doing business in the United States is generally covered by Title VII and the other EEO statutes to the same extent as an American employer.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Language Policies in English-Dominant Countries: six case studies.
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Comparing multilingual speakers

.Even if someone is highly proficient in two or more languages, his or her so-called communicative competence or ability may not be as balanced.^ In summary, humans have an innate, built-in, hard-wired ability to acquire and communicate complex language from the moment of their birth.
  • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Ultimate Language Secrets" is currently sold at only $29.97 as a promotion to collect more testimonials , which may end at any time.

^ A business with a diverse clientele may assign work based on foreign language ability.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Linguists have distinguished various types of multilingual competence, which can roughly be put into two categories:
.
  • For compound bilinguals, words and phrases in different languages are the same concepts.^ Searching multilingual or internationalized document sets requires the implementation of "concept searches" so that equivalent terms in other languages can be searched for at the same time.
    • Web Internationalization & Multilingualism Symposium 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC xml.coverpages.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ H ere, of course, the crucial point is language; so it is the language, the words, the concepts of philosophy which you describe as having to be cleansed of colonial burden.
    • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Synonym: words that mean the same but sound different (couch and sofa) .
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .That means that 'chien' and 'dog' are two words for the same concept for a French-English speaker of this type.^ Choose your interface language (English or Spanish) 2) Choose the language you are translating FROM 3) Choose the language you want to translate TO 4) Type or paste your text (up to 2000 characters at once) 5) Your words are translated instantly!
    • Free Language Translation Tool | Verbatim Solutions 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In English and French text, the ampersand may be substituted for the words and and et, and both versions may be used in the same text.
    • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Synonym: words that mean the same but sound different (couch and sofa) .
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These speakers are usually fluent in both languages.
  • For coordinate bilinguals, words and phrases in the speaker's mind are all related to their own unique concepts.^ Using a phrase of Ngugi , one could say that colonising the mind is what has happened, and the objective must now be the project of decolonizing the mind at all different levels.
    • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yet, in his own contrasts he seems to offer a decidedly non-instrumental conception of language.
    • 20th WCP: Heidegger On Traditional Language And Technological Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ H ere, of course, the crucial point is language; so it is the language, the words, the concepts of philosophy which you describe as having to be cleansed of colonial burden.
    • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Thus a bilingual speaker of this type has different associations for 'chien' and for 'dog'. In these individuals, one language, usually the first language, is more dominant than the other, and the first language may be used to think through the second language.^ How can a language be nobler than the other?
    • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These are customs and may differ from one society to another.
    • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thus here we have a difference of structure, but the run of thought itself can be understood by the Akan who bothers to learn Latin, English, French, German or related languages.
    • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

    [citation needed] These speakers are known to use very different intonation and pronunciation features, and sometimes to assert the feeling of having different personalities attached to each of their languages.
    .
  • A sub-group of the latter is the subordinate bilingual, which is typical of beginning second language learners.^ Learners and teachers: The application of psychology to second language acquisition.
    • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [citation needed]
The distinction between compound and coordinate bilingualism has come under scrutiny. .When studies are done of multilinguals, most are found to show behavior intermediate between compound and coordinate bilingualism.^ LPENOR's lessons try to follow the intimate relationship between Greek language and the life incorporated in it, by studying the most significant aspects of this relationship - poetry, philosophy and theology.
  • Learning Greek - 1 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ellopos.net [Source type: Academic]

.Some authors have suggested that the distinction should only be made at the level of grammar rather than vocabulary, others use "coordinate bilingual" as a synonym for one who has learned two languages from birth, and others have proposed dropping the distinction altogether (see Baetens-Beardsmore, 1974 for discussion).^ (Some are faster than the others.

^ "Which language should I learn first ?"

^ Learning Through Two Languages: studies of immersion and bilingual education.
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many theorists are now beginning to view bilingualism as a "spectrum or continuum of bilingualism" that runs from the relatively monolingual language learner to highly proficient bilingual speakers who function at high levels in both languages (Garland, 2007).^ Not many language learners do that.

^ Thus here we have a difference of structure, but the run of thought itself can be understood by the Akan who bothers to learn Latin, English, French, German or related languages.
  • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As English is the official and international language, it too is taught at the higher levels especially to those who seek to study science and technology.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

Cognitive proficiency

There is also a phenomenon known as distractive bilingualism or semilingualism. .When acquisition of the first language is interrupted and insufficient or unstructured language input follows from the second language, as sometimes happens with immigrant children, the speaker can end up with two languages both mastered below the monolingual standard.^ In the programme of decolonization, I envisage two stages: first, to elicit the differences, but second, to use considerations that are independent of the peculiarities of a particular language or culture, to make cross-cultural evaluations.« .
  • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1999, the Ethnologue (Languages of the World) estimated the number of first language Tamil speakers in the world at 66 million and the number including second language speakers at 74 million.
  • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Babbling is now considered the earliest form of language acquisition because infants will produce sounds based on what language input they receive.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Literacy plays an important role in the development of language in these immigrant children.^ Analyzing celebrity photos is the best way to learn because these people are difficult to read (They play roles that appeal to the public and are always "on").
  • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

^ Even the children who received linguistic input after being reintroduced to society were unable to fully develop language skills.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These original ‘proto-languages’—from which all others allegedly have developed—were distinct within themselves, with no previous ancestral language.
  • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those who were literate in their first language before arriving in Japan, and who have support to maintain that literacy, are at the very least able to maintain and master their first language.^ Those who are specially interested in intercultural philosophy, however, would probably want to be able to use other languages in philosophical thought, in particular, languages which are very different from their own.
  • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As English is the official and international language, it too is taught at the higher levels especially to those who seek to study science and technology.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I knew that Chinese is notorious for being a tonal language and the pronunciation is extremely hard according to my friends who lived in China before.

.The neuroscientist Katrin Amunts studied the brain of polyglot Emil Krebs, who mastered 68 languages, and determined that the area of Krebs' brain responsible for language — Broca's area — was organized differently from monolingual men.^ Thus here we have a difference of structure, but the run of thought itself can be understood by the Akan who bothers to learn Latin, English, French, German or related languages.
  • polylog / themes / in dialogue / Language matters! Decolonization, multilingualism, and African languages in the making of African philosophy. Kwasi Wiredu in Dialogue with Kai Kresse 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC them.polylog.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Broca's and Wernicke's area are the two main regions of the cortex of the brain related to language processing.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While patients with damage to Broca’s area can understand language, they generally are unable to produce speech because words are not formed properly, thus slurring their speech.
  • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Receptive bilingualism

.Receptive bilinguals are those who have the ability to understand a second language, but do not speak it.^ English as a second language in bilingual education.
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our ability to speak is what marks us as human being so that language is our very "foundation" of the human being (58) or "the event which disposes of the supreme possibility of human existence."
  • 20th WCP: Heidegger On Traditional Language And Technological Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And by that I don’t only mean “people who speak many languages”, I also mean “people who may only know one language but is super good at it”.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

.Receptive bilingualism may occur when a child realizes that the community language is more prestigious than the language spoken within the household and chooses to speak to their parents in the community language only.^ A language is more than just a means of communication.
  • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Links to more than 200 mini lesson plans based on websites dealing with a number of foreign language topics.
  • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the investigation reveals no evidence of poor employee relations due to communication in languages other than English.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Families who adopt this mode of communication can be highly functional, although they may not be seen as bilingual.^ Although English may be the medium of instruction in the majority of these countries, Asians often converse with their family members and sometimes, their Asian friends in a communal Asian language.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

^ The use of words may indicate a society's attitude toward sex, bodily functions or religious beliefs, and they may also reflect racism or sexism in a society.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Receptive bilinguals may rapidly achieve oral fluency when placed in situations where they are required to speak the heritage language.^ Boy I love to see the look on people's faces when they find out I can speak 6 foreign languages!

^ Then, do your best to imitate their accent by speaking (your native language) with the same part of the mouth or muscle group they use .

^ I suppose that many Asians take advantage of the fact that they live in a place where they have the opportunity to learn different languages.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

.Receptive bilingualism is not the same as mutual intelligibility, which is the case of a native Spanish speaker who is able to understand Portuguese, or vice versa, due to the high lexical and grammatical similarities between Spanish and Portuguese [2].^ Due to the rising prominence of English, many upper-class Asians who can afford a decent education are competent English speakers as well.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

^ French-Italian-German-Portuguese-Spanish to and from English Lexicool A directory of bilingual and mutilingual dictionaries.
  • SocioSite: LANGUAGE RESOURCES 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dialects of a single language are mutually intelligible, but when the speakers can no longer understand each other, the dialects become languages.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Potential multilingual speakers

.
  • Natives under a state in which they do not share the predominant language, such as Welsh people within the United Kingdom.
  • People with a strong interest in a foreign language.
  • People who find it necessary to acquire a second language for practical purposes such as business, information gathering (Internet, mainly English) or entertainment (foreign language films, books or computer games).
  • Language immersion children.
  • Immigrants and their descendants.^ But the main language of the internet has been English.
    • SocioSite: LANGUAGE RESOURCES 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Principles and practice in second language acquisition.
    • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Second language acquisition - foreign language learning.
    • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Although the heritage language may be lost after one or two generations, particularly if the replacing language has greater prestige.
  • Children of expatriates.^ Children follow the same general stages when learning a language, although the linguistic input is widely varied.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The language may be overly dramatic, but the figure is an official one, from the Department of Veterans Affairs.
    • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

    ^ And by that I don’t only mean “people who speak many languages”, I also mean “people who may only know one language but is super good at it”.
    • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

    .However, language loss of the L1 or L2 in younger children may be rapid when removed from a language community.
  • Residents in border areas between two countries with different languages, where each language is seen as of equal prestige: efforts may be made by both language communities to acquire an L2. Yet, in areas where one language is more prestigious than the other, speakers of the less prestigious language may acquire the dominant language as an L2. In time, however, the different language communities may be reduced to one, as one language becomes extinct in that area.
  • Children whose parents each speak a different language, in multilingual communities.^ How can a language be nobler than the other?
    • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The languages that are about to become extinct are: .
    • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A language is more than just a means of communication.
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In monolingual communities, when parents maintain a different-parent/different-language household, younger children may appear to be multilingual; however entering school will overwhelm the child with pressure to conform to the dominant community language.^ However, the investigation reveals no evidence of poor employee relations due to communication in languages other than English.
    • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This quickly was modified by younger children entering school, with the current version taking on a complex and consistent grammar.
    • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What may have distinguished Homo sapiens was the final switch from a mixture of gestural and vocal communication to an autonomous vocal language, embellished by gesture but not dependent on it.’ [ 10 ] The truth however, is that evolutionists can only speculate as to the origin of language.
    • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Younger siblings in these households will almost always be monolingual..September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] On the other hand, in monolingual communities, where parents have different L1s, multilingualism in the child may be achieved when both parents maintain a one-language (not the community language) household.
  • Children in language-rich communities where neither language is seen as more prestigious than the other and where interaction between people occurs in different languages on a frequent basis.^ How can a language be nobler than the other?
    • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ God employed Hebrew language as a medium of communication more frequently than Arabic.
    • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A language is more than just a means of communication.
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .An example of this would be some border towns in Québec, but English is rapidly becoming to be seen as the more "useful" language by some.
  • Children who have one or more parents who have learned a second language, either formally (in classes) or by living in the country.^ Examples in > any language would be appreciated, if any exist.
    • Decoding, resizing, then re-encoding, large JPG with memory straints - comp.compression | Google Groups 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Examples in any language would be appreciated, if any exist.
    • Decoding, resizing, then re-encoding, large JPG with memory straints - comp.compression | Google Groups 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Second language acquisition and second language learning.
    • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The parent chooses to speak only this second language to the child.^ You may know a language, but you may also choose to not speak it.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Speak any foreign language you choose with flawless pronunciation that makes the natives refuse to believe you're a foreigner .

    ^ Part Six: Child Language Acquisition and Second Language Acquisition .
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .One study suggests that during the teaching process, the parent also boosts his or her own language skills, learning to use the second language in new contexts as the child grows and develops linguistically.
  • People who learn a different language for religious reasons.^ Language and culture teaching and learning .
    • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The role of language context in second language acquisition.
    • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Context and culture in language teaching.
    • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (see: Sacred language)

Polyglots

.A person who speaks several languages is called a polyglot.^ Henry Heras , the Dravidian from Spain as he proudly called himself, who first declared that the language of the Indus Valley seal inscriptions was proto-Dravidian.
  • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's for anyone who wants to to master one or several foreign languages in the shortest time possible, regardless of the target language(s) .

^ And children who are unable to speak still learn and understand the language, so that when they overcome their speech impairment they immediately begin speaking the language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The following claimed to speak ten or more languages:
  • José Rizal[4] - "competent" in 22 languages.
  • Rahul Sankrityayan[5] - knew 36 languages and wrote in a number of them.[5]
  • .
  • Abdulaziz Sachedina - speaks Hindi, Urdu, French, Persian, Arabic, Gujarati, Swahili, English, Turkish and German.^ Earlier forms of Germanic languages, such as German, English, and Swedish were dialects of Proto-Germanic, while earlier forms of Romance languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian were dialects of Latin.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ French-Italian-German-Portuguese-Spanish to and from English Lexicool A directory of bilingual and mutilingual dictionaries.
    • SocioSite: LANGUAGE RESOURCES 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Language resources include: Spanish, French, Japanese, Chinese, English, German and Welsh.
    • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [6]
  • .
  • Fuat Sezgin - Speaks 27[7] languages fluently
  • Ali Ufki - mastered 16 languages.
  • Ziad Fazah[8] - claims to speak 59 languages.
  • Andrew Brown  [9] - confident in 22 languages.
  • Shaykh Taqidin Al-Hilali - fluent in 8 languages.
  • Muhammad Hamidullah[10] - fluent in 22 languages.
  • Alexander Arguelles[11] - "systematically studies" 58+ languages.
  • P. V. Narasimha Rao[12][13] - knowledge of 13 languages.
  • Richard Simcott[14] - can communicate orally in 14 languages and use around 20 in their written form.
  • Sir John Bowring[15] - reportedly spoke 100 languages, with knowledge of 200+.
  • Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti[16] - perfect knowledge of 38 languages and about 30 dialects.
  • Heinrich Schliemann[17] - conversant in 13 languages.
  • Harold Williams[18] - fluent in 58 languages.
  • Emil Krebs[19] - mastered 68 languages in speech and writing.
  • Uku Masing[20] - knowledge of 65 languages.
  • Kenneth L. Hale[21] - knowledge of 50+ languages.
  • Mario Pei - spoke 35 languages; acquainted with the structure of at least 100 of the world's languages.
  • Daniel Tammet[22] - speaks 10+ languages.
  • Pope Benedict XVI - knows 10+ languages.
  • Richard Francis Burton[23] - spoke 29 languages.
  • Barry Farber[24] - "student" of 26 languages.
  • Paul Robeson[25] - study of 20+ languages.
  • Kató Lomb - highly proficient in 17 languages.
  • Bjørn Clasen[26] speaks 10 languages on at least conversation level, not counting dialects.
  • Edgardo Donovan[27] - 9 languages and/or 16 dialects - certified by the Defense Language Institute.
  • İlber Ortaylı - can speak 16 languages fluently, knows more than 16 languages.
  • Scott Henry Maxwell[28] - Native English speaker, who spoke Japanese fluently at the age of 14, learned Mandarin, Korean, and several other languages.
  • J. R. R. Tolkien -fluent in 13, yet knew 12 others, not including his self constructed languages.^ Language Learning Journal, 10, 32-38.
    • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Several of the activities are available for languages other than French.
    • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A language is more than just a means of communication.
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [29][30]
  • .
  • Hans Conon von der Gabelentz
  • Maria Gaetana Agnesi
  • Pope John Paul II - Spoke ten languages fluently, and had a grasp of several more.
  • Anthony Burgess
  • Rowan Williams— Brought up bilingually in English and Welsh, also reads or speaks Spanish, French, German, Russian, Biblical Hebrew, Syriac, Latin and both Ancient and Modern Greek.^ Language resources include: Spanish, French, Japanese, Chinese, English, German and Welsh.
    • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Features 37 languages, including Spanish, French, English, Mandarin, Russian and more.
    • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

    ^ English as a second language in bilingual education.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    [31][32]
  • William James Sidis - knew 8 languages and invented his own, Vendergood, by the time he was eight. .It is believed that he knew forty or so languages in his later years and supposedly could learn a language in a day.^ Over the years I've observed countless common language learning misconceptions which later developed into "mental limitations" such as "Oh I can't do this" or "That's just too hard for me" ...

    ^ How much would you pay if you could save, say, at least 200 hours of hard work in language learning and tons of headaches ?

    ^ The single most important principle that any language learner must keep in mind every day when learning a foreign language .

    [33]
  • .
  • Friedrich Engels - knew 12 languages [34]
  • Steve Kaufmann - speaks twelve languages to varying degrees of fluency: Cantonese, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swedish.^ My aunt speaks Spanish, Cantonese, and Mandarin.
    • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Earlier forms of Germanic languages, such as German, English, and Swedish were dialects of Proto-Germanic, while earlier forms of Romance languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian were dialects of Latin.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some of my cousins speak Spanish, English, and Cantonese .
    • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

    [35][36][37]
  • .
  • Damodar Dharmananda Kosambi
  • Matija Čop - able to speak 19 languages.
  • Irika Rositano[14] - Knows 12 Languages
  • Akyol[38] - knowledge of more than 30 languages.
  • Sukarno[39]
  • Alessandro Bausani[40] - Italian orientalist who knew more than 30 languages
  • Jacques Bergier - French chemical engineer, spy, journalist, writer etc.^ The more languages you know the better.
    • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Links to more than 200 mini lesson plans based on websites dealing with a number of foreign language topics.
    • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Activities, the arts, music, visuals, cuisine and more for those learning the French language.
    • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    spoke .14 languages fluently.
  • Jack Halpern (linguist), Linguist, speaks 10 languages, reads four more[41]
  • William Rowan Hamilton - physicist and mathematician known also for his ability with languages
  • Stephen Wurm, polyglot and linguist
  • Mithridates VI of Pontus, ancient king who, according to Pliny, "could speak the languages of all the twenty-two nations he governed"
  • Kenneth Lee Pike, American linguist, famous for analyzing the language of a native speaker in front of a live audience
  • Moses McCormick - Native English speaker who claims to speak 17 languages and who studies or has studied over 22 others.^ Studies on Language Acquisition 14.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Those of you who speak other languages...is this a common behavior outside of English?
    • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Teaches all four language skills — speaking, listening, reading and writing.
    • Welcome to Language Quest - Software, Audio, Books, Video, Translators and More! 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: General]

    [42] .He posts videos of himself speaking and teaching the languages he studies nearly on a daily basis.^ DVD 1 - Live video footage of Kevin Hogan, teaching you the most critical secrets to reading, interpreting and using body language.
    • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Unlike most language software programs, Learn to Speak™ teaches German or Spanish from the ground up.
    • Welcome to Language Quest - Software, Audio, Books, Video, Translators and More! 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: General]

    ^ June 5, 2009 / 1:19 am English language teaching web site for Turkish speaking societies.
    • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

    [43]
  • .
  • Georges Henri Schmidt - In 1975 as chief of the United Nations Language Service he claimed fluency in nineteen languages, including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish, Dutch, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Rumanian, Swedish, Thai, and Turkish.^ "English in Japanese Society: language within language".
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Earlier forms of Germanic languages, such as German, English, and Swedish were dialects of Proto-Germanic, while earlier forms of Romance languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian were dialects of Latin.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ French-Italian-German-Portuguese-Spanish to and from English Lexicool A directory of bilingual and mutilingual dictionaries.
    • SocioSite: LANGUAGE RESOURCES 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    He said that lack of time had caused him to lose fluency in twelve other tongues.

Definition of "language"

.There is no clear definition of what it means to "speak a language". A tourist who can handle a simple conversation with a waiter may be completely lost when it comes to discussing current affairs or even using multiple tenses.^ Restaurant owners and managers who speak little or no Spanish will find this program a quick, easy way to communicate with their Spanish-speaking employees.
  • Welcome to Language Quest - Software, Audio, Books, Video, Translators and More! 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: General]

^ They can learn to respond to commands and signs, and in some instances even can be trained to use minimal portions of human sign language.
  • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has to be condemned, we have to speak out when people use this kind of language," Edwards said.
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

.A diplomat or businessman who can handle complicated negotiations in a foreign language may not be able to write a simple letter correctly.^ Utah: Center for Foreign Language Training: Utah is now a hotbed for training foreign language interpreters, who help intelligence agencies intercept potential terrorist communications.
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ "I'll tell everyone who wants to learn a foreign language about your amazing ultimate language secrets!

^ A business with a diverse clientele may assign work based on foreign language ability.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A four-year-old French child would usually be said to "speak French fluently", but it is possible that it cannot handle the grammar as well as even some mediocre foreign students of the language do and may have a very limited vocabulary despite possibly having perfect pronunciation.^ It's possible the people at Blombos were speaking in some form of click language, Henshilwood said."
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ Even though this cannot be extrapolated to other forms of English expressions for people, such as Canton-ese, Japan-ese, British, Greek, Roman...., it is still very striking that different language can have so similar ways of sound expression.
  • Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.asiawind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our ability to speak is what marks us as human being so that language is our very "foundation" of the human being (58) or "the event which disposes of the supreme possibility of human existence."
  • 20th WCP: Heidegger On Traditional Language And Technological Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, it is quite common that even very highly accomplished linguists may speak the language(s) of which they are experts with a distinct accent and to have gaps in their active vocabulary when it comes to everyday topics and situations.^ Even though this cannot be extrapolated to other forms of English expressions for people, such as Canton-ese, Japan-ese, British, Greek, Roman...., it is still very striking that different language can have so similar ways of sound expression.
  • Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.asiawind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our ability to speak is what marks us as human being so that language is our very "foundation" of the human being (58) or "the event which disposes of the supreme possibility of human existence."
  • 20th WCP: Heidegger On Traditional Language And Technological Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, I've seen so many language learners who, after working so hard on their vocabulary and grammar, can't even make themselves understood due to incorrect pronunciations or heavy accents , and solving this problem would require more effort than if they were to start all over again.

.Because the development of spoken fluency requires prolonged exposure to a given language, claims of extensive polyglottism must generally be understood to refer to the mastery of basic communicative skills along with the grammatical rules and (possibly) an extensive vocabulary in the target languages, rather than a near-native level of spoken fluency.^ The basic complaint is that in each of these cases, either the explanations generate a regress because the same sort of explanations ought to be given for how the LOT is learned, understood or can be meaningful, or else they are gratuitous because if a successful explanation can be given for LOT that does not generate a regress then it could and ought to be given for the natural language phenomena without introducing a LOT (see, e.g.
  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It features an interactive online tutorial, java-based vocabulary games, lots of cultural notes, an extensive directory of language schools, and much more.
  • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the investigation reveals no evidence of poor employee relations due to communication in languages other than English.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In historical times prior to audio and video recordings which can be used to facilitate artificial language exposure, quite unusual circumstances would have been needed for an individual to achieve high-level spoken fluency in several languages.^ "The Iranians have denied using the threatening language and are saying U.S.-released video is fabricated."
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ It's for anyone who wants to to master one or several foreign languages in the shortest time possible, regardless of the target language(s) .

^ Many language entrepreneurs found that constructing artificial languages by using common elements of living languages was more economical.
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although it is possible to learn the grammatical rules and vocabulary of a language from books alone, such an individual might not be able to communicate in the language at all, neither understanding the language as it sounds spoken out loud nor being able to produce the sounds him- or herself.^ Understanding second language learning difficuties.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A pidgin is a rudimentary language of few lexical items and less complex grammatical rules based on another language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Jason Kottke • Feb 19, 2009 • gaytalese language Obama: grammatically sound .
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.In addition there is no clear definition of what "one language" means.^ But the conception of language as a mere means of exchange undergoes a revival and a consolidation to extremes in our modern technological age that is expressed in the definition of language as information.
  • 20th WCP: Heidegger On Traditional Language And Technological Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like this one: "An atheist is a man who has no invisible means of support" [John Buchan].
  • SocioSite: LANGUAGE RESOURCES 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one is taught these rules as they are learned subconsciously when the native language is acquired.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, scholars often disagree whether Scots is a language in its own right or a dialect of English.^ Earlier forms of Germanic languages, such as German, English, and Swedish were dialects of Proto-Germanic, while earlier forms of Romance languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian were dialects of Latin.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether Hakka tongue should be called a dialect or language is still a question.
  • Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.asiawind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will increase the demand for English schooling, which will make parents invest in English at the cost of their own languages.
  • Language policy, multilingualism and language vitality in Pakistan 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.apnaorg.com [Source type: Original source]

[44]. .On the other hand, the differences between variants of Chinese, like Cantonese and Mandarin, are so big that intensive studies are needed for a speaker of one of them to learn and even to understand a different one correctly.^ Why Arabic took over the language of Ottoman empire, but Hebrew, on the other hand, could not even greet the Roman empire?
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 11, 2008 / 12:32 am Hi, I’d like to suggest a Chinese learning site: .
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

^ My friend from Panama, but who has Chinese parents, speaks (most fluently) Spanish, English, Cantonese, Toisan, and Mandarin.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

.A person who knows how to speak five Chinese dialects perfectly would still be said to know only one language but some would argue that the differences between these dialects are greater than the differences between many European Romance languages.^ This is just one example of differences between languages.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And by that I don’t only mean “people who speak many languages”, I also mean “people who may only know one language but is super good at it”.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

^ These languages were once dialects of the same language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As another example, a person who has learned five different languages such as French, Spanish, Catalan, Italian and Portuguese, all belonging to the closely related group of Romance languages, has accomplished something less difficult than a person who has learnt Hebrew, Standard Mandarin, Finnish, Navajo and Welsh, of which none is remotely related to another.^ Learn more math--not another language.
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of them, if not all, learn foreign languages differently than you do.

^ Language Trainers specialize in one-to-one and small group language training for business people and busy individuals who need language skills for work, travel and family needs.
  • LanguageCourses in New York, Chicago and across the USA :: Language Courses ::Language Training for Corporations & Individuals 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.languagetrainers.com [Source type: News]

.Furthermore, what is considered a language can change, often for purely political purposes, such as when Serbo-Croatian was assembled from Serbian and Croatian and later split after Yugoslavia broke up, or when Ukrainian was dismissed as a Russian dialect by the Russian tsars to discourage national feelings.^ Such insulting words may reinforce biased views, and changes in society may be reflected in the changes in language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And most people still firmly believe in traditional language education and refuse to change their mindsets or open up to more possibilities .

^ A "national origin group," often referred to as an "ethnic group," is a group of people sharing a common language, culture, ancestry, and/or other similar social characteristics.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
.Many small independent nations' schoolchildren are today compelled to learn multiple languages because of international interactions.^ "As in many college departments, intellectual independence is a theme at Columbia's Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures."
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ When she goes back to learning, she discovers that she's forgotten so many things she "just" learned, and she "realizes" language learning is so very difficult .

^ The reason I feel so many asians are multilingual is because their native language is so much harder to learn then the Indo-European language, because of the lack of an alphabet and the complexity of its symbols, making it is easier for them to learn Western languages.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

.For example in Finland, all children are required to learn at least two foreign languages: the other national language (Swedish or Finnish) and one alien language (usually English).^ Learn foreign languages for free online.
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

^ Learning a foreign language is hard .

^ Learn a Foreign Language Quickly says .
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

.Many Finnish schoolchildren also select further languages, such as French, German or Russian.^ Arabic Chinese Dutch English French German Greek Latin Japanese Russian Spanish Italian Hebrew Hindi View all languages we translate .
  • Language Translation Company - Quotes Available Online from Leading Translation Agency 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC appliedlanguage.com [Source type: General]

^ Earlier forms of Germanic languages, such as German, English, and Swedish were dialects of Proto-Germanic, while earlier forms of Romance languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian were dialects of Latin.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Language resources include: Spanish, French, Japanese, Chinese, English, German and Welsh.
  • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multilingualism within communities

This is a multilingual sign at the Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Pier in the Macau Special Administrative Region of China. .The two at the top are Portuguese and Chinese, which are the official languages of the region.^ Broca's and Wernicke's area are the two main regions of the cortex of the brain related to language processing.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The site features online newspapers and magazines in a variety of languages including Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.
  • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The two at the bottom are Japanese and English, which are common languages used by tourists (English is also one of Hong Kong's two official languages).
A caution message in English, Kannada and Hindi found in Bangalore, India
The three language (Tamil, English and Hindi) name board at the Tirusulam railway station in South India
.Widespread multilingualism is one form of language contact.^ Widespread multilingualism is one form of language contact .
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multilingualism is understood as the ability of societies, institutions, groups and individuals to engage, on a regular basis, with more than one language in their day-to-day lives.
  • The European Multilingualism Challenge - Babel in Brussels (.en) 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC bruxelles.cafebabel.com [Source type: General]

^ A multilingual person, in the broadest definition, is anyone who can communicate in more than one language, be it active (through speaking and writing) or passive (through listening and reading).
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Multilingualism was more common in the past than is usually supposed: in early times, when most people were members of small language communities, it was necessary to know two or more languages for trade or any other dealings outside one's own town or village, and this holds good today in places of high linguistic diversity such as Sub-Saharan Africa and India.^ Anyone know any other cunning linguists of equal or more talent?
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

^ How can a language be nobler than the other?
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Series, Multilingualism and linguistic diversity.
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

.Linguist Ekkehard Wolff estimates that 50% of the population of Africa is multilingual.^ Linguist Ekkehard Wolff estimates that 50% of the population of Africa is multilingual.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The implementation of multilingualism in South Africa will be a celebration of our linguistic diversity.
  • Ngubane: National Multilingualism Consultative Conference(12/06/2003) 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.polity.org.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
In multilingual societies, not all speakers need to be multilingual. .Some states can have multilingual policies and recognise several official languages, such as Canada (English and French).^ "Language Policy in the United States: a history of cultural genocide".
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Language Policy and Language Rights in the United States: issues in bilingualism".
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Earlier forms of Germanic languages, such as German, English, and Swedish were dialects of Proto-Germanic, while earlier forms of Romance languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian were dialects of Latin.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some states, particular languages may be associated with particular regions in the state (e.g., Canada) or with particular ethnicities (Singapore).^ In some cases, it may be necessary for an employer to provide notice in English and in the other native languages spoken by its workers.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please note that some of the courses may require your browser to have the ability to read the language being learned.
  • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A non-standard dialect is associated with covert prestige and is an ethnic or regional dialect of a language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When all speakers are multilingual, linguists classify the community according to the functional distribution of the languages involved:
.
  • diglossia: if there is a structural functional distribution of the languages involved, the society is termed 'diglossic'. Typical diglossic areas are those areas in Europe where a regional language is used in informal, usually oral, contexts, while the state language is used in more formal situations.^ Broca's and Wernicke's area are the two main regions of the cortex of the brain related to language processing.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Activities, the arts, music, visuals, cuisine and more for those learning the French language.
    • Foreign Language Lesson Plans and Resources for Teachers 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ferguson, Charles A. 1976 The structure and use of politeness formulas, Language in Society, Aug.
    • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Frisia (with Frisian and German or Dutch) and Lusatia (with Sorbian and German) are well-known examples. .Some writers limit diglossia to situations where the languages are closely related, and could be considered dialects of each other.^ Why Arabic took over the language of Ottoman empire, but Hebrew, on the other hand, could not even greet the Roman empire?
    • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In addition, children do not produce sentences that could not be sentences in some human language.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, the investigation reveals no evidence of poor employee relations due to communication in languages other than English.
    • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This can also be observed in Scotland where in formal situations, English is used.^ Slang may also be used in speech, but is not often used in formal situations or writing.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Successful Communicator Body Language Evaluator - Use this guide to observe others or grade yourself in any given situation.
    • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

    .However, in informal situations in many areas, Scots is the preferred language of choice.
  • ambilingualism: a region is called ambilingual if this functional distribution is not observed.^ Broca's and Wernicke's area are the two main regions of the cortex of the brain related to language processing.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A language disorder that follows a brain lesion is called aphasia , and patients with damage to Broca's area have slow and labored speech, loss of function words, and poor word order, yet good comprehension.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, Turkish, (Persian, Malaysian, Indonesian and many other Near Eastern and Far Eastern languages too), were invaded by Arabic, the language of the Quran.
    • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In a typical ambilingual area it is nearly impossible to predict which language will be used in a given setting.^ The long range of whistling is enhanced by the terrain found in areas where whistled languages are used.
    • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This paper, which was a continuation of a 1999 paper titled ‘The Evolution of Language’, [ 43 ] used mathematical calculations in an effort to predict the evolution of grammar and the rules surrounding it.
    • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Successful Communicator Body Language Evaluator - Use this guide to observe others or grade yourself in any given situation.
    • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

    .True ambilingualism is rare.^ True ambilingualism is rare.
    • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Ambilingual tendencies can be found in small states with multiple heritages like Luxembourg, which has a combined Franco-Germanic heritage, or Singapore, which fuses the cultures of Malaysia, China, and India. .Ambilingualism also can manifest in specific regions of larger states that have both a clearly dominant state language (be it de jure or de facto) and a protected minority language that is limited in terms of distribution of speakers within the country.^ Language Policies in English-Dominant Countries: six case studies.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ But it's not really a direct translation because, as she states, her language is not limited to expressing her thoughts to other human beings...it's more about her reacting to every element of her environment.
    • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

    ^ "The Inadequacy of English Immersion Education as an Educational Approach for Language Minority Students in the United States".
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    This tendency is especially pronounced when, even though the local language is widely spoken, there is a reasonable assumption that all citizens speak the predominant state tongue (E.g., English in Quebec vs. Canada; Spanish in Catalonia vs. Spain). This phenomenon can also occur in border regions with many cross-border contacts.
  • bipart-lingualism: if more than one language can be heard in a small area, but the large majority of speakers are monolinguals, who have little contact with speakers from neighbouring ethnic groups, an area is called 'bipart-lingual'. An example of this is the Balkans.

Multilingualism between different language speakers

.Whenever two people meet, negotiations take place.^ Whenever two people meet, negotiations take place.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Editorial Board meetings take place in the two languages.
  • Multilingualism in the EU institutions - The New Federalist, webzine of the Young European Federalist 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.taurillon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I therefore feel a great responsibility and am determined to do everything I can to ensure that my portfolio takes on the importance it deserves and to meet the expectations placed on me.
  • EUROPA-Languages-Multilingualism: less a burden than an opportunity. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC europa.eu [Source type: General]

.If they want to express solidarity and sympathy, they tend to seek common features in their behavior.^ If they want to express solidarity and sympathy, they tend to seek common features in their behavior.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One thing they'll all have in common, however, is that they are written or expressed using one of the world's many functioning languages.
  • language Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

.If speakers wish to express distance towards or even dislike of the person they are speaking to, the reverse is true, and differences are sought.^ If speakers wish to express distance towards or even dislike of the person they are speaking to, the reverse is true, and differences are sought.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Local dialects vary, and a Moroccan might have difficulty understanding an Iraqi, even though they speak the same language.
  • The Arabic language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effect is powerful enough, she says, that "the private mental lives of speakers of different languages may differ dramatically," not only when they are thinking in order to speak, "but in all manner of cognitive tasks," including basic sensory perception.
  • Why Language May Shape Our Thoughts - Sharon Begley - Newsweek.com 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: General]

.This mechanism also extends to language, as has been described by Howard Giles' Accommodation Theory.^ This mechanism also extends to language, as has been described by Howard Giles ' Accommodation Theory.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some multilinguals use code-switching, a term that describes the process of 'swapping' between languages.^ These body language photos will show you some of the basic and advanced techniques used to interpret body language.
  • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

^ Some cultures use whistling languages to communicate when regular speech becomes ineffective over large distances.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ I described it above, can in principle be solved in completely naturalistic terms, thus the mystery surrounding how a physical device can ever have semantically coherent state transitions (processes) can be removed.
  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases, code-switching is motivated by the wish to express loyalty to more than one cultural group[citation needed], as holds for many immigrant communities in the New World.^ Atlantic Language Galway is not only an amazing English school, but also a great place to make new friends from around the world Read More .
  • Atlantic Language Galway - Learn English in the West of Ireland 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.atlanticlanguage.com [Source type: General]

^ Andrew Anker warns against companies having more than one "flashlight" .
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ From an article on a new book written by a woman whose ex-boyfriend has been stalking her for more than a decade, a curious phrase: micro-tampering.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.Code-switching may also function as a strategy where proficiency is lacking.^ Code-switching may also function as a strategy where proficiency is lacking.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If, however, the speaker is reluctant to use code-switching, as in the case of a lack of proficiency, he might knowingly or unknowingly try to camouflage his attempt by converting elements of one language into elements of the other language.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joseph Gafaranga, in his ''Code-switching as a conversational strategy'', provides an overview of research from the diglossia model via identity-related explanations to organizational accounts.
  • LINGUIST List 18.3681: Multilingualism: Auer & Wei (2007) 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC linguistlist.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such strategies are common if the vocabulary of one of the languages is not very elaborated for certain fields, or if the speakers have not developed proficiency in certain lexical domains, as in the case of immigrant languages.^ "Bush favors legislation that would tighten the nation's borders but give illegal immigrants in the United States a chance to gain citizenship if they met certain conditions, such as learning the English language."
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ Jargon refers to the unique vocabulary pertaining to a certain area, such as computers or medicine.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native speakers master the grammar and vocabulary of their language.
  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This code-switching appears in many forms.^ This code-switching appears in many forms.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases, code-switching is motivated by the wish to express loyalty to more than one cultural group, as holds for many immigrant communities in the New World.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a speaker has a positive attitude towards both languages and towards code-switching, many switches can be found, even within the same sentence.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a speaker has a positive attitude towards both languages and towards code-switching, many switches can be found, even within the same sentence.^ Definitions of language - Historical attitudes toward language .
  • language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It offered the ability to switch between languages even in the middle of a sentence.
  • MULTILINGUALISM IN SPEECH RECOGNITION 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.tau.ac.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, Albanian shows no particularly close historical affinity to any other language or language group within the Indo-European family, i.e.
  • Robert Elsie: Albanian Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC albanianlanguage.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .If, however, the speaker is reluctant to use code-switching, as in the case of a lack of proficiency, he might knowingly or unknowingly try to camouflage his attempt by converting elements of one language into elements of the other language.^ Code-switching may also function as a strategy where proficiency is lacking.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This might entail converting one that applies to one language to one that applies to another.

^ If, however, the speaker is reluctant to use code-switching, as in the case of a lack of proficiency, he might knowingly or unknowingly try to camouflage his attempt by converting elements of one language into elements of the other language.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This results in speakers using words like courrier noir (literally mail that is black) in French, instead of the proper word for blackmail, chantage.^ In English and French text, the ampersand may be substituted for the words and and et, and both versions may be used in the same text.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ When confronted with an incomprehensible language, an English speaker might say "it's all Greek to me" while a French or Finnish speaker might say that it sounds like Hebrew.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Instead of the genitive case, English uses the word of or 's after a noun to show possession.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes a pidgin language may develop.^ Within a few years the children began to develop their own basic ‘pidgin’ sign language.
  • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A pidgin language is basically a fusion of two languages, which is mutually understable for both speakers.^ Native speakers of the language regard the two allophones as variations of the same sound.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the world's 7,000 languages, 40 percent are on their way to extinction, with the last fluent speaker of a language dying once every two weeks.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ The dialects of a single language are mutually intelligible, but when the speakers can no longer understand each other, the dialects become languages.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some pidgin languages develop into real languages (such as papiamento at Curaçao) while other remain as slangs or jargons (such as Helsinki slang, which is more or less mutually intelligible both in Finnish and Swedish.^ Over the years I've observed countless common language learning misconceptions which later developed into "mental limitations" such as "Oh I can't do this" or "That's just too hard for me" ...

^ Earlier forms of Germanic languages, such as German, English, and Swedish were dialects of Proto-Germanic, while earlier forms of Romance languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian were dialects of Latin.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some grammatical changes are analogic changes , generalizations that lead to more regularity, such as sweeped instead of swept.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bilingual interaction can even take place without the speakers switching.^ Bilingual interaction can even take place without the speakers switching.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a speaker has a positive attitude towards both languages and towards code-switching, many switches can be found, even within the same sentence.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then anyone, even ordinary people who take a few months to learn Esperanto, would be able to read it without further translation.
  • Multilingualism in the EU institutions - The New Federalist, webzine of the Young European Federalist 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.taurillon.org [Source type: Original source]

.In certain areas, it is not uncommon for speakers each to use a different language within the same conversation.^ Native speakers do not learn the skill areas separately, nor do they use them separately, so they shouldn’t be taught separately.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The long range of whistling is enhanced by the terrain found in areas where whistled languages are used.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ A dialect is a variety of language that is systematically different from other varieties of the same language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This phenomenon is found, amongst other places, in Scandinavia. .Most speakers of Swedish and Norwegian, and Norwegian and Danish, can communicate with each other speaking their respective languages, while few can speak both (people used to these situations often adjust their language, avoiding words that are not found in the other language or that can be misunderstood).^ Are these the 100 most beautiful words in the English language?
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ In English and French text, the ampersand may be substituted for the words and and et, and both versions may be used in the same text.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Both are signs of sloppy writing which might be why people don't often distinguish the two.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.Using different languages is usually called non-convergent discourse, a term introduced by the Dutch linguist Reitze Jonkman.^ Some linguists in the United States traditionally use different symbols than the IPA symbols.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Jason Kottke • Nov 14, 2006 • Global Warming language Alright, anyone using the term Web 3.0 gets .
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Snoop Dogg recently explained the difference between the language used by old, white radio announcers and rappers: .
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

.The phenomenon is also found in Argentina, where Spanish and Italian are both widely spoken, even leading to cases where a child with a Spanish and an Italian parent grows up fully bilingual, with both parents speaking only their own language yet knowing the other.^ Why Arabic took over the language of Ottoman empire, but Hebrew, on the other hand, could not even greet the Roman empire?
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The anglo-saxon languages are not that different from each other, once you know one, you might as well learn the others, right?
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

^ The podcasts will cover all the language you need to know to get by on a visit to a German-speaking country.
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

.Another example is the former state of Czechoslovakia, where two languages (Czech and Slovak) were in common use.^ Many language entrepreneurs found that constructing artificial languages by using common elements of living languages was more economical.
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environmentalists said the language will be used by automakers in their legal challenges to two recent federal court rulings that sided with the states."
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ For example, learn another language or listen to a favorite radio program, such as those from National Public [...
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

.Most Czechs and Slovaks understand both languages, although they would use only one of them (their respective mother tongue) when speaking.^ Of course out of all of these languages, the ones I use the most are only Mandarin and English.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

^ Boy I love to see the look on people's faces when they find out I can speak 6 foreign languages!

^ Boost comprehension rate as well as reading speed when reading a foreign text and soon you'll forget the difference between reading in a foreign language and in your mother tongue .

.For example, in Czechoslovakia it was common to hear two people talking on television each speaking a different language without any difficulty understanding each other.^ We can think of them as a language framework that supports the content of our conversations, or as the 'oil' in conversations that keeps them running smoothly and without technical difficulties" (Wildner-Bassett, 1984).
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boy I love to see the look on people's faces when they find out I can speak 6 foreign languages!

^ Indeed adults who speak a natural language are capable of understanding sentences they have never heard uttered before.
  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another example would be a Slovak having read a book in Czech and afterwards being unsure whether he was reading it in Czech or Slovak. This bilinguality still exists nowadays, although it has started to deteriorate after Czechoslovakia split up[citation needed].

Multilingualism at the linguistic level

Models for native language literacy programs

.Sociopolitical as well as socio-cultural identity arguments may influence native language literacy.^ In some cases, it may be necessary for an employer to provide notice in English and in the other native languages spoken by its workers.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your own body language signals can also influence what other people may think or feel about you.
  • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

^ Literacy Across Languages and Cultures.
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

.While these two camps may occupy much of the debate about which languages children will learn to read, a greater emphasis on the linguistic aspects of the argument is appropriate.^ Children follow the same general stages when learning a language, although the linguistic input is widely varied.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How much would you pay if you could save, say, at least 200 hours of hard work in language learning and tons of headaches ?

^ Not sure how much being Asian has to do with my interest in learning languages, but my domain would be Mandarin, Spanish, German, and of course English.
  • #91 Multilingualism« Stuff Asian People Like - Asian Central 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.asian-central.com [Source type: General]

In spite of the political turmoil precipitated by this debate, researchers continue to espouse a linguistic basis for it. .This rationale is based upon the work of Jim Cummins (1983).^ This rationale is based upon the work of Jim Cummins (1983).
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sequential model

.In this model, learners receive literacy instruction in their native language until they acquire a "threshold" literacy proficiency.^ Then, do your best to imitate their accent by speaking (your native language) with the same part of the mouth or muscle group they use .

^ No one is taught these rules as they are learned subconsciously when the native language is acquired.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Don't listen to how the native speakers pronounce their languages , listen to how they pronounce your language (especially if they have a typical foreign accent).

.Some researchers use age 3 as the age when a child has basic communicative competence in L1 (Kessler, 1984).^ These body language photos will show you some of the basic and advanced techniques used to interpret body language.
  • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

^ Some cultures use whistling languages to communicate when regular speech becomes ineffective over large distances.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Her performance evaluations reflect that she is an excellent cataloguer and researcher and that she can communicate effectively with teachers and older children, but that some of the youngest children have had difficulty understanding her due to her accent.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .Children may go through a process of sequential acquisition if they migrate at a young age to a country where a different language is spoken, or if the child exclusively speaks his or her heritage language at home until he/she is immersed in a school setting where instruction is offered in a different language.^ Language Acquisition of a Bilingual Child: a sociolinguistic perspective (to age 5).
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Boy I love to see the look on people's faces when they find out I can speak 6 foreign languages!

^ Then, do your best to imitate their accent by speaking (your native language) with the same part of the mouth or muscle group they use .

The phases children go through during sequential acquisition are less linear than for simultaneous acquisition and can vary greatly among children. .Sequential acquisition is a more complex and lengthier process, although there is no indication that non language-delayed children end up less proficient than simultaneous bilinguals, so long as they receive adequate input in both languages.^ All children will learn a language, and children will also learn more than one language if they are exposed to it.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children follow the same general stages when learning a language, although the linguistic input is widely varied.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if you could figure out your own tricks and techniques, you'll end up spending more time than necessary, while this book is already presenting you the shortcuts to foreign language mastery.

Bilingual model

.In this model, the native language and the community language are simultaneously taught.^ Obviously if this is a general nomological fact, then learning one's native language cannot be modeled on the phrase book model.
  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one is taught these rules as they are learned subconsciously when the native language is acquired.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These unique abilities of communicating through a native language clearly separate humans from all animals.
  • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The advantage is literacy in two languages as the outcome.^ The advantage is literacy in two languages as the outcome.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tell us about the advantages and possibly any disadvantages you have encountered as a speaker of two languages.
  • BBC - Voices - Your Voice 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Moreover, if you know at least two foreign languages on top of a universal one, it will certainly bring better benefits as it prove to be more advantageous.

.However, the teacher must be well-versed in both languages and also in techniques for teaching a second language.^ Flirting and sexual body language is something you can quickly spot in a woman's body language - as well as a man's - in both business and personal context.
  • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

^ The second verse praises the variations in our languages, and considers this diversity as one of the signs or lessons (ayaat) for the knowledgeable.
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is easy to fall into the trap of teaching about the language, instead of actually teaching the language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Coordinate model

.This model posits that equal time should be spent in separate instruction of the native language and of the community language.^ Obviously if this is a general nomological fact, then learning one's native language cannot be modeled on the phrase book model.
  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These unique abilities of communicating through a native language clearly separate humans from all animals.
  • The Origin of Language and Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.trueorigin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The native language class, however, focuses on basic literacy while the community language class focuses on listening and speaking skills.^ Then, do your best to imitate their accent by speaking (your native language) with the same part of the mouth or muscle group they use .

^ However, the investigation reveals no evidence of poor employee relations due to communication in languages other than English.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Don't listen to how the native speakers pronounce their languages , listen to how they pronounce your language (especially if they have a typical foreign accent).

.Being a bilingual does not necessarily mean that one can speak, for example, English and French.^ "An estimated in one in 20 U.S. adults is not literate in English, which means 11 million people lack the skills to perform everyday tasks, a federal study shows."
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ Jorge, a Dominican national, applies for a sales position with XYZ Appliances, a small retailer of home appliances in a non-bilingual, English-speaking community.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it raises the question: Does being hot guarantee one's being fly?
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

Outcomes

.Cummins' research concluded that the development of competence in the native language serves as a foundation of proficiency that can be transposed to the second language — the common underlying proficiency hypothesis.^ Over the years I've observed countless common language learning misconceptions which later developed into "mental limitations" such as "Oh I can't do this" or "That's just too hard for me" ...

^ Language and Development: a retrospective survey of Ford Foundation language projets, 1952-1974.
  • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CSLPod iTunes Feed Web Site Here, native Mandarin speakers teach you Chinese as a second language.
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

.His work sought to overcome the perception propagated in the 1960s that learning two languages made for two competing aims.^ How much would you pay if you could save, say, at least 200 hours of hard work in language learning and tons of headaches ?

^ The similarity and dissimilarity of natural and artificial languages can be explained by two kinds of wine: Natural languages are like aged wine made from grapes, artificial languages are like yesterday's wine made from concentrate.
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And children who are unable to speak still learn and understand the language, so that when they overcome their speech impairment they immediately begin speaking the language.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The belief was that the two languages were mutually exclusive and that learning a second required unlearning elements and dynamics of the first in order to accommodate the second (Hakuta, 1990).^ Second language acquisition and second language learning.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Which language should I learn first ?"

^ Strategies in learning and using a second language.
  • The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) : Maximizing Study Abroad 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.carla.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The evidence for this perspective relied on the fact that some errors in acquiring the second language were related to the rules of the first language (Hakuta, 1990).^ Pointing to the fact that there may be some rules that are emergent out of the implementation of explicit rules and data-structures does not suffice to undermine LOTH. .
  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the investigation reveals no evidence of poor employee relations due to communication in languages other than English.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise, a policy that prohibits some but not all of the foreign languages spoken in a workplace, such as a no-Navajo rule, would be unlawful.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.How this hypothesis holds under different types of languages such as Romance versus non-Western languages has yet to undergo research.^ By Jason Kottke • Dec 21, 2007 • crime language movies oceanseleven oceanstwelve Wikipedia Non-profit writing organization 826NYC is holding a .
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Earlier forms of Germanic languages, such as German, English, and Swedish were dialects of Proto-Germanic, while earlier forms of Romance languages, such as Spanish, French, and Italian were dialects of Latin.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hindi and Urdu are considered mutually intelligible languages when spoken, yet the writing systems are different.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another new development that has influenced the linguistic argument for bilingual literacy is the length of time necessary to acquire the second language.^ To have another language is to possess a second soul.
  • Welcome to Multilingual Living 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC biculturalfamily.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Benefits of multilingualism - a knol by mbp 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bilingualism in Development: Language, literacy, and cognition .
  • Welcome to Multilingual Living 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC biculturalfamily.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another new development that has influenced the linguistic argument for bilingual literacy is the length of time necessary to acquire the second language.
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While previously children were believed to have the ability to learn a language within a year, today researchers believe that within and across academic settings, the time span is nearer to five years (Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992).^ While previously children were believed to have the ability to learn a language within a year, today researchers believe that within and across academic settings, the time span is nearer to five years (Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992).
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wei mentions that “academic researchers working in the field of bilingualism and multilingualism …make significant contributions to sociopolitical debates about the world we are living in today .” (p.
  • Education Review. Book reviews in education. School Reform. Accountability. Assessment. Educational Policy. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC edrev.asu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Every one of us should follow the example set by this policy, and go out and enjoy our languages, encourage our children to learn their mother tongues, and make the effort to learn some of the languages spoken by our friends and colleagues around us.
  • Ngubane: National Multilingualism Consultative Conference(12/06/2003) 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.polity.org.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An interesting outcome of studies during the early 1990s however confirmed that students who do successfully complete bilingual instruction perform better academically (Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992).^ An interesting outcome of studies during the early 1990s however confirmed that students who do successfully complete bilingual instruction perform better academically (Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992).
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While previously children were believed to have the ability to learn a language within a year, today researchers believe that within and across academic settings, the time span is nearer to five years (Collier, 1992; Ramirez, 1992).
  • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What better way to enjoy your stay in a foreign country than to start off with a period of language instruction, however brief?

These students exhibit more cognitive elasticity including a better ability to analyse abstract visual patterns. .Students who receive bidirectional bilingual instruction where equal proficiency in both languages is required perform at an even higher level.^ Even the children who received linguistic input after being reintroduced to society were unable to fully develop language skills.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, an individual who is sufficiently proficient in spoken English to qualify as a cashier at a fast food restaurant may lack the written language skills to perform a managerial position at the same restaurant requiring the completion of copious paperwork in English.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who knows, I might even consider learning another foreign language in the future, since it's getting more and more fun for me!"

.Examples of such programs include international and multi-national education schools.^ For example, learn another language or listen to a favorite radio program, such as those from National Public [...
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

^ National origin discrimination also includes discrimination against anyone who does not belong to a particular ethnic group, for example, less favorable treatment of anyone who is not Hispanic.
  • Compliance Manual Section 13: National Origin Discrimination 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.eeoc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multilingualism in computing

Multilingualisation (or "m17n") of computer systems can be considered part of a continuum between localisation ("L10n") and internationalisation ("i18n"):
.
  • A localised system has been adapted or converted for a particular locale (other than the one it was originally developed for), including the language of the user interface, input, and display, and features such as time/date display and currency; but each instance of the system only supports a single locale.
  • Multilingualised software supports multiple languages for display and input simultaneously, but generally has a single user interface language.^ How can a language be nobler than the other?
    • Floccinaucinihilipilification 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.yuksel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Over the years I've observed countless common language learning misconceptions which later developed into "mental limitations" such as "Oh I can't do this" or "That's just too hard for me" ...

    ^ Children follow the same general stages when learning a language, although the linguistic input is widely varied.
    • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.ielanguages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Support for other locale features like time, date, number and currency formats may vary as the system tends towards full internationalisation.^ But it is to be kept in mind that a system may employ representations and be computational without necessarily satisfying any or both of the clauses in (B) above in any full-fledged way.
    • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ LOTH is non-committal about the existence of an image-like representational system for many mental tasks other than the ones involving propositional attitudes.
    • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It may seem like a lot work, but if you do this just 5 times , I guarantee that you'll see a lot more improvement that will startle your teachers and friends.

    .Generally a multilingualised system is intended for use in a specific locale, whilst allowing for multilingual content.
  • An internationalised system is equipped for use in a range of locales, allowing for the co-existence of several languages and character sets in user interfaces and displays.^ Having the right knowledge in body language allows you to uncover what your friends, co-workers, spouse, customers or anyone else, may be hiding from you.
    • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The long range of whistling is enhanced by the terrain found in areas where whistled languages are used.
    • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Understanding the meaning and uses of specific body gestures will allow you to change your approach and act only in ways that will result in maximum compliance.
    • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

    In particular, a system may not be considered internationalised in the fullest sense unless the interface language is selectable by the user at runtime.
Translating the user interface is usually part of the software localization process, which also includes adaptations such as units and date conversion. .Many software applications are available in several languages, ranging from a handful (the most spoken languages) to dozens for the most popular applications (such as office suites, web browsers, etc).^ Arabic Language Lessons iTunes Feed Web Site The US Peace Corps serves up 10 lessons that will teach you the Arabic spoken in Jordan.
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

^ Several of the web's most popular sites (Digg, YouTube, MySpace, CNN) are using the mullet strategy (business up front, party in the rear) for content to attract both boisterous users and well-heeled advertisers.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ The French Pod Class iTunes Feed Web Site A very popular collection that teaches students the French language and different facets of French culture.
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

.Due to the status of English in computing, software development nearly always uses it (but see also Non-English-based programming languages), so almost all commercial software is initially available in an English version, and multilingual versions, if any, may be produced as alternative options based on the English original.^ Placeholder names are also used extensively in non-English languages.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ "The memo, originally prepared in March by the Extremist Messaging Branch at the National Counter Terrorism Center, was approved for diplomatic use this week by the State Department, which plans to distribute a version to all U.S. embassies, officials said."
  • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

^ In English and French text, the ampersand may be substituted for the words and and et, and both versions may be used in the same text.
  • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

Internet

See also

Linguistic aspects

Country-level descriptions

Policies and proposals

Education

Other

References

  1. ^ http://www.cal.org/resources/Digest/digestglobal.html A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education (1999), G. Richard Tucker, Carnegie Mellon University
  2. ^ a b Santrock, John W. (2008). Bilingualism and Second-Language Learning. A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development (4Th ed.) (pp. 330-335). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  3. ^ Gift of the Gab, New Scientist, January 8, 2005 (Michael Erard - Stories)
  4. ^ http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig/witmer1.html
  5. ^ a b Sharma, R.S. (2009). Rethinking India's Past. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195697872. 
  6. ^ http://artsandsciences.virginia.edu/religiousstudies/people/aas.html
  7. ^ http://www.timeturk.com/Yitik-Hazinenin-Kaşifi-ne-bir-yolculuk_110084-haberi.html
  8. ^ http://thelinguistblogger.wordpress.com/2008/05/25/the-many-languages-of-ziad-fazah/
  9. ^ http://thegln.org/GLN_National/inner_content.php?id=Mg==&pi=WWA
  10. ^ http://muslim-canada.org/memoriam2.html
  11. ^ http://www.foreignlanguageexpertise.com/about.html#ml
  12. ^ Tribute to Narasimha Rao. The Hindu. Retrieved on March 2, 2007
  13. ^ Narasimha Rao. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on March 2, 2007
  14. ^ a b http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SAtWuQmdexs&feature=channel_page
  15. ^ http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/sirjohnbowring.html
  16. ^ http://how-to-learn-any-language.com/e/mezzofanti/language-table.html
  17. ^ Poole, Lynn and Gray (1966). One Passion, Two Loves
  18. ^ http://www.nzedge.com/heroes/williams.html
  19. ^ http://www.weikopf.de/index.php?article_id=188
  20. ^ http://www.vm.ee/est/kat_29/3909.html
  21. ^ http://www.anu.edu.au/linguistics/nash/aust/hale/sjk.html
  22. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/15/garden/15savant.html?pagewanted=1&ei=5124&en=3d3b2a9871935a79&ex=1329368400&partner=digg&exprod=digg
  23. ^ Lovell (1998), p. xvii.
  24. ^ http://www.meadowparty.com/farber.html
  25. ^ http://www.paulrobesonfoundation.org/biography.html
  26. ^ http://clasen.blogspot.com
  27. ^ http://www.eddiedonovan.com/edgardolife.htm
  28. ^ http://www.clair.or.jp/e/forum/pdf_229/jet.pdf
  29. ^ http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/biography.html
  30. ^ http://www.langmaker.com/ml0108.htm
  31. ^ "The Religion Report: 5 March 2003 - Homosexuality and the churches, pt. 2". Abc.net.au. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/relrpt/stories/s797569.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  32. ^ http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/2065
  33. ^ Wallace, Amy (1986). The prodigy: a biography of William James Sidis, America's greatest child prodigy. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. p. 284 ISBN 0-525-24404-2.
  34. ^ http://www.marxists.org/archive/riazanov/works/1927-ma/ch09.htm
  35. ^ Tatiana Fanti. "Podcast Café Brasil Vira Conteúdo de Site Americano". SEGS. Archived from the original on 2009-08-29. http://www.segs.com.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=24678&Itemid=177. 
  36. ^ Windsor Star. "Language websites are a growing trend". Canada.com. Archived from the original on 2009-08-29. http://www.canada.com/windsorstar/news/business/story.html?id=5fcf1664-2f8d-41a4-9e73-4f045c7f07f5. 
  37. ^ "Steve Kaufmann – Bilingual Interview in Taiwan | Doubting to shuo: Chinese, Investing, EFL and Being a Geek in Taiwan". Toshuo.com. 2007-01-29. http://toshuo.com/2007/steve-kaufmann-bilingual-interview-in-taiwan/. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  38. ^ http://www.volny.cz/akyol/linguistics.htm
  39. ^ Ludwig M., Arnold (2004). King of the Mountain: The Nature of Political Leadership. University Press of Kentucky. p. 150.
  40. ^ http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Bausani
  41. ^ [1]
  42. ^ http://how-to-learn-any-language.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=13143&PN=1&TPN=2
  43. ^ http://www.youtube.com/user/laoshu505000#g/u
  44. ^ A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.894
  45. ^ Ems Ukaz
  46. ^ Wolff, Ekkehard (2000). Language and Society. In: Bernd Heine and Derek Nurse (Eds.) African Languages - An Introduction, 317. Cambridge University Press.
  47. ^ Poplack, Shana (1980) "Sometimes I'll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español": toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18: 7/8: 581-618.
  48. ^ One Language or Two: Answers to Questions about Bilingualism in Language-Delayed Children
  • Bastardas-Boada, Albert (2007). ."Linguistic sustainability for a multilingual humanity", Glossa.^ Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights Bibliography, D-F. .
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. .
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    An Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 2, n. 2.
  • Bhatia, Tej K. and Ritchie, William C. (2006). Handbook of Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Burck, C. (2005) Multilingual Living. Explorations of Language and Subjectivity. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Cenoz, Jasone (2009) Towards Multilingual Education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  • Collier, V.P. (1992). .A synthesis of studies examining long-term language-minority student data on academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, vol.^ By Jason Kottke • Oct 11, 2007 • journalism language politics A glossary of cheese terms.
    • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

    ^ "The Keough institute, established in 1993, allows students to examine everything from the language to Irish history and dance.
    • LANGUAGE NEWS LANGUAGES NEWS | HavenWorks.com/language news ;-) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.havenworks.com [Source type: News]

    ^ What's more, the Ebbinghaus Studies have also found that a stable long-term memory is established only after an average of 7 repetitions .

    16, 187-212.
  • De Bot, K and Kroll, J.K (2002). 'Psycholinguistics'. In N. Schmitt (Ed.) Applied Linguistics. .Oxford University Press: London.
  • Gillespie, M. K. (1993).^ By Jason Kottke • Nov 14, 2006 • language Oxford University Press has announced their word .
    • language (kottke.org) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.kottke.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Profiles of Adult Learners: Revealing the Multiple Faces of Literacy.^ Profiles of Adult Learners: Revealing the Multiple Faces of Literacy.
    • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Tesol Quarterly, 27(3), Fall 529-533.
  • Hakuta, K. (1990). .Bilingualism and bilingual education: A research perspective.^ Bilingual Education: an international sociological perspective.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bilingualism and bilingual education: A research perspective.
    • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Directions in Bilingual Education: Finnish comprehensive schools in perspective".
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education.^ Bilingual Education: festschrift in honor of Joshua A. Fishman on the occasion of his 65th.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bilingual education: festschrift in honor of Joshua A. Fishman on the occasion of his 65th.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Washington, DC: Delta Systems & the Center for Applied Linguistics.
  • Ramirez, J.D. (1992).^ Language Awareness Multilingual Matters, System Mouton De Gruyter, The International Sociology Review of Books (SAGE) ITL International Journal of Applied Linguistics.
    • Dr. Larissa Aronin 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC lang.haifa.ac.il [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Washington, DC: Delta Systems & the Center for Applied Linguistics.
    • Multilingualism at AllExperts 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.
    • Welcome to Multilingual Living 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC biculturalfamily.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Executive summary of the Final Report: Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit and late-exit transitional bilingual education programs for language minority children. Bilingual Research Journal, vol.^ Learning Through Two Languages: studies of immersion and bilingual education.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Longitudinal Study of Three Program Models for Language Minority Students: a critical examination of reported findings".
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Racism and Education: structures and strategies.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., G-I. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    16, 1-62.
  • Baetens Beardsmore, H. (1974). Development of the compound-coordinate distinction in bilingualism. Lingua, 33, 123-127.
  • Garland, Stanley (2007). The Bilingual Spectrum. Guirnalda Publishing, Orlando, Fla., 47-8

External links

.
  • raising-bilingual-children.com - webpage dedicated to educating children in a multilingual environment.^ "The Use of First and Second Languages in Education: a review of international experience".
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There are two levels or stages at which this question can be raised and answered: .
    • The Language of Thought Hypothesis (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bilingual Education: an international sociological perspective.
    • Terralingua -- Bibliography, Multilingualism and Linguistic Human Rights, etc., D-F. 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.terralingua.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Information/Recommendations, Forums, Links etc.
  • my-bilingual.com - a website with free resources dedicated to bilingual education.^ Learn the Lanugage – The Open Culture website rounds up the best free resources for learning a new language.
    • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Also, many resources are listed at Open Culture in an article titled “Free Foreign Language Lessons” ( http://www.openculture.com/2006/10/foreign_languag.html ) linking even to a set of podcasts on [...
    • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

    ^ September 12, 2009 / 1:08 pm I can recommend the site: http://www.effectivelanguagelearning.com/ for free language lessons and language learning tips.
    • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

    Information, Links etc.

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ But we can help you learn a new language.
  • Free Foreign Language Lessons (Download to MP3 Player, iPod or Computer) | Open Culture 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.openculture.com [Source type: General]

^ How to Learn Any Language - wikiHow the how to manual that you can edit .
  • How to Learn Any Language - wikiHow 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ Children also like to help you learn.
  • How to Learn Any Language - wikiHow 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ When others tell you about the problems they face (without realizing they are learning the wrong way), you start to believe them too .

^ If you find the information here useful, please help support this project!
  • Index of Texts by Language (The Lied and Art Song Texts Page: Texts and Translations to Lieder, mélodies, canzoni, and other classical vocal music) 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.recmusic.org [Source type: General]

^ EuroCom helps you to help yourself: you reflect, and think about how you learn languages, which produces a sense of security and familiarity when beginning other new languages.
  • EuroCom: The way to European multilingualism 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC www.eurocomresearch.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Multilingualism" as an educational resource.^ Font embedding will be based on techniques similar to those employed in PDF. A mechanism for font negotiation using HTTP will be developed, as will mechanisms for requesting a subset of a font to reduce the amount of information that needs to be transmitted to a minimum when large fonts, such as those used of ISO 10646, are requested.
  • Web Internationalization & Multilingualism Symposium 23 January 2010 12:21 UTC xml.coverpages.org [Source type: Reference]

^ You'll find word games, study exercises, lesson plans, information about Longman dictionaries and information for linguistic research.
  • SocioSite: LANGUAGE RESOURCES 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I believe you'll find the information in this webpage very helpful and applicable to many aspects of your life.
  • Reading Body Language: Interpret Body Language, Decoding and Reading Nonverbal Communication 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC bodylanguagetalks.com [Source type: General]

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ Defaults can be used for any resource type.
  • Language Tutorial – puppet 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC reductivelabs.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Use audio and video to help you.
  • How to Learn Any Language - wikiHow 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

^ Critical Evaluation of Resources - In the research process you will encounter many types of resources including books, articles and web sites.
  • Language Arts Standards - 5th grade student performance skills 16 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.internet4classrooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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Simple English

Multilingualism is when a person can speak more than one language. People who can speak two languages are called "bilingual", which is a type of multilingualism. Multilingualism is important today in jobs, because different countries buy things from each other more.

There are more multilingual people in the world than monolingual people.[1]

Other pages

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Multilingualism, which are similar to those in the above article.








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