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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Murmansk (English)
Мурманск (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
Murmansk Port
Map of Russia - Murmansk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Murmansk Oblast on the map of Russia
Murmansk is located in Murmansk Oblast
Location of Murmansk on the map of Murmansk Oblast
Coordinates: 68°58′N 033°05′E / 68.967°N 33.083°E / 68.967; 33.083Coordinates: 68°58′N 033°05′E / 68.967°N 33.083°E / 68.967; 33.083
RUS Murmansk COA.svg
Coat of arms
Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg
Holiday October 4
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Murmansk Oblast
In administrative jurisdiction of Murmansk Oblast
Administrative center of Murmansk Oblast
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Head Sergey Subbotin[1]
Representative body Council of Deputies
Area 150.55 km2 (58.1 sq mi)
Population (2002 Census) 336,137 inhabitants[2]
Rank 52nd
- Density 2,233 /km2 (5,800/sq mi)[3]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded October 4, 1916
Postal code(s) 183000..183099
Dialing code(s) +7 8152
Official website
Central Murmansk

Murmansk (Russian: Му́рманск; Northern Sami: Murmanska; Skolt Sami: Muurman) is a city and seaport in the extreme north-west part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, 12 kilometres (7 mi) from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia's borders with Norway and Finland.

Murmansk is the administrative centre of Murmansk Oblast. The port remains ice-free year round due to the warm North Atlantic drift ocean current and is an important fishing and shipping port. Its satellite, Severomorsk, is an important navy base for the Russian Navy. It is home port to Atomflot, the world's only fleet of nuclear powered icebreakers.[4][5]

Despite its rapidly declining population, Murmansk remains the largest city north of the Arctic Circle. Population: 336,137 (2002 Census);[6] 468,039 (1989 Census).[7]



Murmansk was the last town founded in the Russian Empire. Murman is a traditional Pomor name for the Barents Sea and derives from the Old Russian word for Norwegians, "Murmane", cognate to the English "Normans".[8]

The city, first known as Romanov-on-the-Murman (Рома́нов-на-Му́рмане), was founded on October 4, 1916 and named after the royal Russian dynasty of Romanovs. The city, the only ice-free port in the Russian Arctic, was built as a terminus for the railway line to Kola designed to open the North Atlantic supply route to Russia in support of the Eastern Front during the First World War. The city was renamed Murmansk after the February Revolution in 1917.

From 1918 to 1920, the city was occupied by the Western powers who had been allied in the First World War and "White" forces during the Civil War in Russia.[9]

During World War II, Murmansk was a link with the Western world for Russia, with large quantites of goods important to the respective military efforts traded with the Allies: primarily manufactured goods and raw materials into the Soviet Union. The supplies were brought to the city in the Arctic Convoys.

German forces in Finnish territory launched an offensive against the city in 1941 as part of Operation Silver Fox, and Murmansk suffered extensive destruction, second only to Leningrad and Stalingrad of all Soviet cities.[10][11] However, fierce Soviet resistance and harsh geography prevented the Germans from capturing the city and cutting off the vital Karelian railway line and trhe ice-free harbour. For the rest of the war, it served as transit point for weapons and other supplies entering the Soviet Union from other Allied nations. This unyielding resistance was commemorated at the 40-year anniversary of the victory over the Germans in the formal designation of Murmansk as a Hero City on May 6, 1985.[12] During the Cold War Murmansk was a centre of Soviet submarine and icebreaker activity and, past the breakup of the Soviet Union, the nearby city and naval base of Severomorsk remains the headquarters of the Russian Northern Fleet.

In 1974, a massive 35.5-metre-tall statue Alyosha, depicting a Russian World War II soldier, on a 7-metre-high foundation, was erected overlooking the city harbour.[13]

To commemorate the 85th anniversary of the city's foundation, the snow-white church of the Saviour-on-the-Waters was modeled after the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal and built on the shore for the sailors of Murmansk (photograph).

Murmansk's evening newspaper is Vecherny Murmansk, published since 1991.

The city is home to the world's northernmost Jewish synagogue at 68°58' N latitude.[14]


The port of Murmansk is the headquarters of Sevmorput the administration of Russian Arctic maritime transport and is also home port to most Russian Nuclear icebreakers.

Murmansk is linked by the Murmansk Railway to St Petersburg and is also linked to the rest of Russia by the M18 Kola Motorway. Murmansk Airport provides air links to Moscow and St Petersburg.

Local public transport consists of buses and trolleybuses.


Arctic Bridge


Murmansk is set to be the Russian terminus of the Arctic Bridge (or Arctic Sea Bridge), a sea route linking it to the Canadian port of Churchill, Manitoba. The passage has not been fully tested for commercial shipping yet but Russia has shown interest in it. It is believed that, once developed (along with the Northwest Passage), the bridge will serve as major trade route between Europe and Asia.

The international seminar devoted to “Cooperation between Russia and Canada on offshore gas and oil fields” took place in the framework of International Forum SEVTEK - 2008 (Northern energy complex). More detaled information you can read here [1]


Murmansk is home to the Murmansk State Technical University, the Murmansk State Pedagogical University and the Murmansk Institute of Humanities

Murmansk also has 86 primary schools and 56 secondary schools, 2 boarding schools and 3 reform schools.


The city football team, FC Sever Murmansk plays in the Russian Second Division.

The Murman Hockey club is the most northerly field hockey club in the world.

Murman plays in the highest division of the Russian Bandy League. And the city is one of only three places with representation in the female league, through the team Arktika


Murmansk has two museums: The Murmansk Oblast Museum and the Murmansk Oblast Art Museum. There are also three professional theatres in Murmansk.

People from Murmansk

Twin Towns/Sister Cities

Murmansk is twinned or has sister city relationships with:


Weather data for Murmansk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
Average high °C (°F) -7.2
Average low °C (°F) −13.8
Record low °C (°F) −39.4
Precipitation mm (inches) 30
Source:[17] 8.09.2007


  1. ^ "New face of the city of Murmansk". Retrieved 2009-03-17.  
  2. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2009-08-19.  
  3. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  4. ^ MSCO: Fleet: Icebreaking fleet
  5. ^ "Atomflot – Bellona". Bellona<!. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  
  7. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. (All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1989. Retrieved 2007-12-13.  
  8. ^ Max Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary, trans. by Oleg Trubachev, vol. 3, p. 13.
  9. ^ "Bolshevik, North Russian, Royal Navy, Expeditionary Force, Archangel, Dvina River". Retrieved 2009-05-05.  
  10. ^ Мурманску исполняется 90 летTemplate:Ref-ru
  11. ^ Газета «Вечерний Мурманск» Выпуск № 93 от 28 мая 2005 Template:Ref-ru
  12. ^ "Nature » Administrative-territorial system". 1916-10-04. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  
  13. ^ "Известия.Ру: 7 чудес России". Retrieved 2009-05-05.  
  14. ^ "Synagogues at extreme latitudes". 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  
  15. ^ "Kaliningrad -Partner Cities". © 2000-2006 Kaliningrad City Hall. Retrieved 2008-12-08.  
  16. ^ "Groningen — Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Retrieved 2008-12-08.  
  17. ^ "" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.  

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The Alesha Statue
The Alesha Statue

Murmansk (Му́рманск) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia and the world's largest city north of the Arctic Circle.


With a population of over 300,000, Murmansk is the largest city in the Arctic and an important Russian naval base and commercial port. In World War II (known to Russias as the Great Patriotic War), Murmansk served as a port for the arctic convoys, and after the war became the Soviet Union's most important submarine base.

Get in

By plane

Murmansk Airport (MMK, [1]) has multiple daily flights to Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and limited services to other Russian cities including Sochi and Rostov-on-Don. There are also several flights per week to Tromsø and Kirkenes, Norway.

The airport is located about 40km south of Murmansk, near the town of Murmashi. Taxis cost 420-500 Rubles from the city center and make the trip in about 40 minutes. The 106 bus from the train station (stopping at Detsky Mir near the Poliarnie Zori Hotel) is less expensive but much more sluggish than a taxi.

By boat

There are also occasional boats to Barentsburg, Svalbard.

The Railway Station
The Railway Station

By train, Murmansk is 35-40 hours from Moscow and 27-30 hours from St. Petersburg, depending on the train. The train station is located in the city center, one block downhill from Five Corners Square.

By bus

Murmansk can be reached by bus from Finland (Rovaniemi and Ivalo) and Norway (Kirkenes).

Get around

Although Murmansk is long and thin, most sites of interest to visitors are within a fairly compact area in the city center. Buses and taxis are available on the major streets, and Prospekt Lenina is the main north-south thoroughfare through the city center. Avid walkers could cover the entire stretch of the central area from the Poliarnie Zori Hotel (on the south end of the city center) to the Alyosha Statue (on a plateau on the north side of the city) in less than two hours.

  • Regional History Museum, Prospekt Lenina 90, 42 26 17, [2]. 11am to 5:45pm, daily except Thursday. Contains displays on various themes, including ethnography of local peoples, a taxidermy display of local flora and fauna (including polar bear and moose), arctic explorations, and an extensive display on Murmansk's role in World War II. All displays in Russian only, cashier closes at 5:00pm. 25 Rubles.  edit
  • Alyosha Statue, (on the hill near Lake Semyonovskaya). 30-meter-tall statue of a soldier overlooking the city. It is common for wedding parties in Murmansk to visit the statue and drink a bottle of champagne there. To reach the statue, follow the road that curves around the north of the lake (Buses 3 and 10 go at least part of the way, then one must walk), or, in good weather, hikers can cut through the hills and across the south side of the lake on the dirt footpath that begins across the street from the Savior-on-the-Water Cathedral and the lighthouse.  edit
  • Regional Arts Museum, Ul. Kominterna 13, 45 03 85, [3]. 11am to 6pm, Wed-Sun.  edit
  • Northern Navy Museum, Ul. Tortseva 15, 22 14 45.  edit
  • Shipping History Museum, Ul Volodarskovo 6, 48 13 56. 9am to 5pm, daily except Saturday.  edit
  • Arctic Research Institute Exposition, Ul. Knipovicha 6, 47 23 97. 9am to 4pm, Mon-Fri. Viewing apparently by appointment only; call and ask for Tatiana at least a few days in advance.  edit
  • Take a ferry across the inlet to see Murmansk from the water.   edit
  • Oceanarium, Ul. Geroev-severomortsev 4 (On Lake Semyonovskaya), 31 58 84. See trained seals perform in the white domed building.  edit
  • Cafe Leto, Prospekt Lenina 61 (Entrance off Ul. Yegorova), 45-96-06, [4]. A fasionable, clean cafe with a variety of international and Russian dishes and tempting desserts. Good service, menu in English. Entrees 300-500 rubles.  edit
  • Torro Steak House, Prospekt Lenina 80 (Next to the Meridian Hotel), 45-17-00. Menu in English Entrees 600-1000 rubles.  edit
  • Cafe Yunost, Prospekt Lenina (Next to the Anatoliy Bredov Statue). Coffees and desserts in a relaxing environment.And jolly good chicken and chips.  edit
  • Panorama Restaurant, (On the hill east of Lake Semyonovskaya). As of July 2008, is closed for "renovation".  edit
  • Hotel Poliarnie Zori, Ul. Knipovicha 17 (A short walk up the hill from the Detskiy Mir bus stop), (8152) 28 95 00 (, fax: (8152) 28 95 04), [5]. A clean, well-located hotel with helpful front desk staff. Beginning at 1300 rubles for a basic single.  edit
Five Corners Square, with the Meridian Hotel on the left
Five Corners Square, with the Meridian Hotel on the left
  • Meridian Hotel, Ul. Vorovskovo 5 (On Five Corners Square). Not related to the international chain of a similar name. The lobby displays photos of notable former guests, including President Medvedev, which gives both an indicator of class of service and price. Beginning at 3500 rubles for a single.  edit
  • Arktika Hotel, Prospekt Lenina 82 (On Five Corners Square). Closed for renovation, which is expected to finish in 2012.sleep> ==Get out== * Icebreaker cruises to the North Pole [6].
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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Proper noun




  1. A city in the far north of Russia, centre of Murmansk oblast.



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