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Murmansk Oblast (English)
Мурманская область (Russian)
-  Oblast  -
Map of Russia - Murmansk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Coordinates: 67°48′N 34°40′E / 67.8°N 34.667°E / 67.8; 34.667Coordinates: 67°48′N 34°40′E / 67.8°N 34.667°E / 67.8; 34.667
Coat of Arms of Murmansk oblast (2004).png
Coat of arms of Murmansk Oblast
Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg
Flag of Murmansk Oblast
Oblast Day May 28[1]
Political status
Country Russia
Political status Oblast
Federal district Northwestern[2]
Economic region Northern[3]
Administrative center Murmansk[4]
Official language Russian[5]
Statistics
Population (2002 Census)[6] 892,534 inhabitants
- Rank within Russia 61st
- Urban[6] 92.2%
- Rural[6] 7.8%
- Density 6 /km2 (0/sq mi)[7]
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[8] 144,900 km2 (55,946.2 sq mi)
- Rank within Russia 26th
Established May 28, 1938[9]
License plates 51
ISO 3166-2:RU RU-MUR
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Government (as of March 2010)
Governor[10] Dmitry Dmitriyenko[11]
Legislature Oblast Duma[12]
Charter Charter of Murmansk Oblast
Official website
http://www.gov-murman.ru/

Murmansk Oblast (Russian: Му́рманская о́бласть, Murmanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the northwestern part of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Murmansk.

Contents

Geography

Geographically it is located mainly on the Kola Peninsula, and it is a part of the larger Lapland region that spans over four countries. Murmansk Oblast borders Karelia, Finnmark County in Norway and Lapland Province in Finland. Norrbotten County in Sweden is also located nearby(300 km).

History

The oblast was established on May 28, 1938 from Murmansk Okrug of Leningrad Oblast (comprising the city of Murmansk, Kirovsky, Kolsky, Lovozersky, Polyarny, Saamsky, Teribersky, and Tersky Districts) and Kandalakshsky District of the Karelian ASSR.[9]

Administrative divisions

Demographics

As of the 2002 Census, 92.2% of the oblast's population live in urban areas.[13] The most populous city is the Oblast's administrative center, Murmansk, with 336,137 inhabitants.[13] Other large cities and towns include Severomorsk, Apatity, Kandalaksha, Monchegorsk, and Kirovsk.

The Polar Alpine Botanical Garden (Полярно-альпийский ботанический сад-институт) in Kirovsk, world's northernmost botanical garden

According to the (2002 Census), the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows:

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Vital statistics in 2007

In Krasnoshchelye, a village on the Ponoy River
  • Birth rate: 10.18 per 1000 (average for Russia is 11.30)
  • Death rate: 11.68 per 1000
  • Net migration: -5.6 per 1000
  • NGR: -0.15% per annum
  • PGR: -0.71% per annum

Vital statistics for 2008

  • Births: 9,136
  • Deaths: 10,173 [14]

Economy

The Murmansk Oblast is very rich in natural resources and has deposits of over 700 minerals.[15] The main industries of the region are in the sphere of raw material extraction and basic processing.[16] The largest industries are metallurgy (36,6%), electric power-production (22,9%) and food-industry, including fishing (13,7%).[17][18] The icefree port of Murmansk plays an important role in marine transportation in Russia, and the oblast has a 41% share of the total Russian marine transport market.[19][20] The fishing industry is among the most profitable in the region, supplying 16% of Russia's total fish production. Murmansk is key base for three fishing fleets, including Russia's largest, Murmansk Trawl Fleet.[16]

A Norilsk Nickel plant (fomerly, Severonikel) in Monchegorsk

The economy of the region is export-oriented. Main export items are nickel products, apatite concentrate, copper and copper products, aluminium and ferrous metals.[19] The Murmansk Region produces almost 100 percent of Russia's apatite concentrate (3.7 million tons in 1998), 43 percent of nickel, 15 percent of copper, 12 percent of iron ore and iron ore concentrate (17.7 million and 6.4 million tons in 1998), and 40 percent of cobalt.[15][17]

The largest companies of the region - constituting 90% of the oblast's production - are Pechenganickel, Olcon, the Kola Nuclear Power Plant, Sevrybkholodflot, Murmanrybprom, Murmansk Trawl Fleet and Murmansk Shipping Company.[15]

Large oil and gas resources have been discovered on the shelf of the Barents sea, including the massive Shtokman field - one of the world's largest gas fields with estimated reserves of 3.8 trillion cubic meters.[20][15][21] Prospective oil fields could potentially yield up to 40 million tons in the next 10-15 years.[15] However, the development of the oil and gas resources will require considerable investment.[15]

In 2006, the Murmansk Oblast's gross regional product was 141.9 billion rubles, which amounts to about 0.4% of the Russian GDP.[19] Unemployment in 2006 was 3,4%.[19] GRP pro capita in 2007 was 225 044 rubles.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Charter of Murmansk Oblast, Article 3.3
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ Charter of Murmansk Oblast, Article 8.1
  5. ^ According to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia, Russian is the official language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Article 68.2 further stipulates that only the republics have the right to establish official languages other than Russian.
  6. ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  7. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  9. ^ a b Президиум Верховного Совета СССР. Указ от 28 мая 1938 г. «Об образовании Мурманской области». Опубликован: "Ведомости Верховного Совета СССР", №7, 1938. (Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Decree of May 28, 1938 On Establishing Murmansk Oblast. ).
  10. ^ Charter of Murmansk Oblast, Article 14.1
  11. ^ Official website of the Government of Murmansk Oblast. Dmitry Dmitriyenko, Governor of Murmansk Oblast (Russian)
  12. ^ Charter of Murmansk Oblast, Article 13
  13. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_04_1.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  14. ^ http://www.regnum.ru/news/1129955.html
  15. ^ a b c d e f "OVERVIEW OF MURMANSK REGION". Federation of American Scientists. http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/industry/docs/mark0241.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  16. ^ a b Murmansk Oblast Globalsecurity.org
  17. ^ a b "Murmansk region". Häme Polytechnic. https://www.amk.fi/bin/get/id/5aBm9Nrfx. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  18. ^ "Murmansk Region". http://www.rustradeuk.org/cooperation/rusregion/about_regions/files/Murmansk_region.ppt. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  19. ^ a b c d Positive economic development in Murmansk
  20. ^ a b Economic Development in the Murmansk Region in 2007
  21. ^ UPDATE 1-Russia's Gazprom ups Shtokman reserves to 3.8 tcm
  22. ^ Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения Федеральная служба государственной статистики

Sources

  • Мурманская областная Дума. Закон от 26 ноября 1997 г. «Устав Мурманской области», в ред. Закона №1114-01-ЗМО от 25 июня 2009 г «О внесении изменения в статью 58 Устава Мурманской области». Вступил в силу на двенадцатый день со дня официального опубликования в газете "Мурманский Вестник". Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №235, стр. 6-7, 6 декабря 1997 г. (Murmansk Oblast Duma. Law of November 26, 1997 Charter of Murmansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #1114-01-ZMO of June 25, 2009 On Amending Article 58 of the Charter of Murmansk Oblast. Effective as of the day twelve days after the official publication in the Murmansky Vestnik newspaper).

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Russia : Northwestern Russia : Murmansk Oblast
A view of Murmansk's harbor
A view of Murmansk's harbor

Murmansk Oblast is the northernmost region of Northwestern Russia, on the Kola Peninsula, which borders Finland's Lapland to the west, Norway's Finnmark Region to the northwest, the Barents Sea to the north, the White Sea to the southeast, and Karelia to the south.

  • Murmansk — the capital and largest city is an important naval base and has a large sea port which remains ice free year round; the world's largest city north of the Arctic Circle
  • Kandalaksha
  • Kirovsk — a large town with the world's northernmost botanical gardens and a ski resort
  • Kola — the peninsula's oldest town boasts its original fort, the Cathedral of the Assumption (the first stone building in the region), and a museum of local culture
  • Polyarny — a closed town, one of the region's oldest, on the Murmansk Fjord; currently a site for decommissioning nuclear Soviet and Russian submarines
  • Severomorsk — a closed city, the region's second largest city, and the main administrative center of the Russian Northern Fleet
  • Kandalakshky Nature Reserve
  • Lapland Nature Reserve
  • Pasvik Nature Reserve

Understand

Murmansk Oblast is of interest to a tourist mostly for its novelty value—it is located in Russia's extreme north, above the Arctic Circle, and is relatively easy to get to from Saint Petersburg. The highlights of a Murmansk Oblast trip are certainly the capital itself and perhaps also an adventurous trip out to Kola. To heighten the novelty value of your trip, try to come around the summer Equinox, when the sun moves around the sky but never sets, or the winter Solstice, when the sun never rises and the city is plunged into blackness. The winter is cold, but it is also the best time to see the Northern Lights.

Talk

See Russian phrasebook.

Get in

The easiest way to get in is via Murmansk's airport, which serves flights to/from Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Arkhangelsk.

There is also a long (about 28 hour) daily overnight train to Murmansk from Saint Petersburg, which leaves Piter around 18:00 and arrives the next day around 22:00. Trains also travel between Murmansk and Petrozavodsk.

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