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The mushroom Amanita muscaria, commonly known as "fly agaric"
.A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.^ Fruit body : in fungi, the fruit body is the visible part of the fungus which bears spores.
  • Glossary | Medicinal Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC healing-mushrooms.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epigenous (epigeal): a mushroom with a fruiting body above ground; contrast with hypogeous (hypogeal) .
  • Glossary | Medicinal Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC healing-mushrooms.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another advantage of growing oyster mushrooms is that a high percentage of the substrate converts to fruiting bodies, increasing the potential profitability.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, hence the word mushroom is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing.^ A trade association representing those who grow, process, and market cultivated mushrooms in the US, the AMI promotes mushroom cultivation and consumption.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as fungi, mushrooms have life cycles very different from those of green plants.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their web site includes information about their journal, "Mushroom News" and the Sinden Scholarship Fund for cultivation of edible fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.lamella) on the underside of the cap, just as do store-bought white mushrooms.^ Coincidentally, I just bought a big pile of mushrooms.
  • mushroom strudel | smitten kitchen 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

.The word "mushroom" can also be used for a wide variety of gilled fungi, with or without stems, and the term is used even more generally, to describe both the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota and the woody or leathery fruiting bodies of some Basidiomycota, depending upon the context of the word.^ If you use more packages of mushrooms, use more sausage, and increase the other ingredients accordingly.
  • Mushroom Recipes : COLLECTION 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Maitake (Grifola frondosa) is the Japanese name for an edible fungi with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping waves.
  • Mushroom from China & Global Suppliers, Exporters, Manufacturers, Factories, B2B Marketplace 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.21food.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Remove the mushroom stems (I also remove some of the area around the stem as well) and chop these up fine (I use a food processor) 2.
  • Mushroom Recipes : COLLECTION 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: General]

.Forms deviating from the standard morphology usually have more specific names, such as "puffball", "stinkhorn", and "morel", and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called "agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their place Agaricales.^ Gills: the radially arranged, vertical plates below the cap of a mushroom on which spores are formed.
  • Glossary | Medicinal Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC healing-mushrooms.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By extension, the term "mushroom" can also designate the entire fungus when in culture or the thallus (called a mycelium) of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself.^ When the mushrooms are mature, the entire cluster of fruiting bodies are removed from the bottles.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To produce spawn, you inoculate a pasteurized medium, usually grain, with the sterile culture of a particular mushroom species.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another advantage of growing oyster mushrooms is that a high percentage of the substrate converts to fruiting bodies, increasing the potential profitability.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Identification

Morphological characteristics of the caps of mushrooms.
Identifying mushrooms requires a basic understanding of their macroscopic structure. Most are Basidiomycetes and gilled. .Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result.^ Basidiomycetes: a group of fungi which produce their spores externally on so-called basidia.
  • Glossary | Medicinal Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC healing-mushrooms.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the microscopic level the basidiospores are shot off basidia and then fall between the gills in the dead air space.^ Intervenose: having veins in the spaces between gills.
  • Glossary | Medicinal Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC healing-mushrooms.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, a powdery impression reflecting the shape of the gills (or pores, or spines, etc.^ Stir mushrooms into butter mixture; cover and cook over low to medium heat 10 minutes or until mushrooms are cooked down, giving off liquid.
  • Cream of Mushroom Soup Recipe | Simply Recipes 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.elise.com [Source type: General]

^ Place the triangle seam side down on the baking sheet, brush lightly with egg wash and sprinkle with parmesan.
  • mushroom strudel | smitten kitchen 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ I have seen a lot of cream of wild mushroom soup recipes, and most of them include a form of acid based ingredient (such as lemon juice, wine, etc).
  • Cream of Mushroom Soup Recipe | Simply Recipes 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.elise.com [Source type: General]

) is formed (when the fruit body is sporulating). .The color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them.^ The Puget Sound Mycological Society (Washington, USA) publishes a newsletter called Spore Prints.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resources to help you identify, eat, grow and fall in love with mushrooms See also the Taxonomy page, and the Regional Guides page .
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The newsletter of the Los Angeles Mycological Society is called the Spore Print.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spore print colors include white (most common), brown, black, purple-brown, pink, yellow, and cream, but almost never blue, green, or red.^ Color: red brown powder 5.
  • Mushroom from China & Global Suppliers, Exporters, Manufacturers, Factories, B2B Marketplace 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.21food.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Rhodactis Hairy Mushroom is a member of the order Corallimorpharia and occurs in many colors including brown and tan, and the more colorful green and purple.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red lines mean higher elevation where the ball lands, blue means lower elevation and white means equal elevation.
  • Mario Golf: Toadstool Tour walkthroughs for GameCube from Freeola, free Mario Golf: Toadstool Tour solutions and stategy guide 17 September 2009 23:11 UTC walkthrough.freeola.com [Source type: General]

.While modern identification of mushrooms is quickly becoming molecular, the standard methods for identification are still used by most and have developed into a fine art harking back to medieval times and the Victorian era, combined with microscopic examination.^ One of the most common substrates used on modern mushrooms is a mixture of 75% cottonseed hulls, 24% wheat straw and 1% ground limestone.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent years, most production of T. fuciformis has been on synthetic substrate using a mixed culture inoculum technique first developed in Fujian, China (Huang 1982).
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Here are some examples of non-chemical methods used to control typical pests in the production of white button mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, odors, tastes, shades of color, habitat, habit, and season are all considered by both amateur and professional mycologists. Tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens. .Chemical tests are also used for some genera.^ A guide to the genera Russula, Lactarius and hypogeous allies in the western hemisphere, thie site includes a useful bibliography, images, and illustrations of important characters and chemical tests.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here are some examples of non-chemical methods used to control typical pests in the production of white button mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, identification to genus can often be accomplished in the field using a local mushroom guide.^ A wonderful online field guide to the mushrooms, lichens, and slime molds of New Zealand, with many fine photographs.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Identification resources include guides to the Fungi of California (USA), the Fungi of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and an online version of H.D. Thiers' 1975 monograph, California Mushrooms: A Field Guide to the Boletes.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also to be found here are useful and intelligent reviews of various field guides to North American fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Identification to species, however, requires more effort; one must remember that a mushroom develops from a button stage into a mature structure, and only the latter can provide certain characteristics needed for the identification of the species.^ Each species has specific requirements for its stages of development.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mushroom Cultivator provides detailed information on the requirements for 16 species.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are absolutely certain of the identification of an edible species, you can clean it in the field.
  • Shroomery - Psilocybe Mushroom FAQ 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, over-mature specimens lose features and cease producing spores. Many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints.

Classification

The genus Trichaptum, an example of a polypore, a mushroom without a stalk, fruiting on a log
Trametes versicolor another type of polypore mushroom.
.Typical mushrooms are the fruitbodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris.^ A checklist and illustrations of species of the elegant mushroom genus Tricholoma in Denmark.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photographs and descriptions of some (mainly European) species of the mushroom genus Mycena are provided by Arne Aronsen.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lists and illustrations of species of the mushroom genus Lactarius that occur in Sweden (in Swedish).
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruitbodies, and many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders in the class Agaricomycetes.^ Mushrooms and other fungi of Thrace, Greece .
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Rhodactis Hairy Mushroom is a member of the order Corallimorpharia and occurs in many colors including brown and tan, and the more colorful green and purple.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If ordering the (6) polyp or (12) polyp, depending on availability, we may send all mushrooms attached to one rock, or send multiple rocks with one or more mushroom attached to each rock.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, chanterelles are in the Cantharellales, false chanterelles like Gomphus are in the Gomphales, milk mushrooms (Lactarius) and russulas (Russula) as well as Lentinellus are in the Russulales, while the tough leathery genera Lentinus and Panus are among the Polyporales, but Neolentinus is in the Gloeophyllales, and the little pin-mushroom genus, Rickenella, along with similar genera, are in the Hymenochaetales.^ Matsutakes and chanterelles are typical examples of such mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within the main body of mushrooms, in the Agaricales, are common fungi like the common fairy-ring mushroom (Marasmius oreades), shiitake, enoki, oyster mushrooms, fly agarics, and other amanitas, magic mushrooms like species of Psilocybe, paddy straw mushrooms, shaggy manes, etc.^ This is the main body of the mushroom.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultivation of the paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea (Bull.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stamets, 1994 ) In his design, agricultural wastes like cornstalks, wheat straw, or rice straw can be used as growing media for oyster mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An atypical mushroom is the Lobster mushroom, which is a deformed, cooked-lobster-colored parasitized fruitbody of a Russula or Lactarius colored and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete Hypomyces lactifluorum.^ For a treat, see the scans of the color plates from M.C. Cooke's 1894 book, Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Other mushrooms are non-gilled, and then the term "mushroom" is loosely used, so that it is difficult to give a full account of their classifications.^ I used cremini mushrooms and subbed non-fat Greek yogurt for the sour cream.
  • Mushroom Casserole Recipe - 101 Cookbooks 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.101cookbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here are some examples of non-chemical methods used to control typical pests in the production of white button mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some have pores underneath (and are usually called boletes), others have spines, such as the hedgehog mushroom and other tooth fungi, and so on.^ Mushrooms and other fungi of Thrace, Greece .
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He introduces mycorrhizal species such as chanterelles, King boletes, and others to new areas by "satellite planting," in which seedlings are planted near trees that have a desired mushroom species growing around them.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Identification resources include guides to the Fungi of California (USA), the Fungi of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and an online version of H.D. Thiers' 1975 monograph, California Mushrooms: A Field Guide to the Boletes.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Mushroom" has been used for polypores, puffballs, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi, stinkhorns, and cup fungi.^ Mushroom production can play an important role in managing farm organic wastes when agricultural and food processing by-products are used as growing media for edible fungi.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An impressive site dedicated to amateur mycology, MykoWeb includes recipes, a listing of mushroom events, a useful bibliography of works on secotioid and hypogeous fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A site devoted to the recreational use of Psilocybe mushrooms and other hallucinogenic fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the term mushroom is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning.^ Some 260 U.S. growers produced more than 844 million pounds of mushrooms in 2002-03, with a farm gate value of $889 million.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another advantage of growing oyster mushrooms is that a high percentage of the substrate converts to fruiting bodies, increasing the potential profitability.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More overall production is possible, and prices for fresh mushrooms are considerably higher, in winter than during the rest of the year.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.There are approximately 14,000 described species of mushrooms.^ There are four species of deadly mushrooms which do resemble several species of Psilocybe.
  • Shroomery - Psilocybe Mushroom FAQ 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no reliable way of converting weight in grams from fresh to dry, mushrooms contain approximately 90?ater (ie.
  • Shroomery - Psilocybe Mushroom FAQ 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some advice from Mushroom John: There are now 214 species of entheogenic mushrooms thropughout the world.
  • Shroomery - Psilocybe Mushroom FAQ 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]

Mushroom vs. toadstool

The relative sizes of the cap (pileus) and stalk (stipe) vary widely. Shown here is a species of Macrolepiota.
The terms "mushroom" and "toadstool" go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application.
The term "toadstool" was often, but not exclusively, applied to poisonous mushrooms or to those that have the classic umbrella-like cap-and-stem form. Between 1400 and 1600 A.D., the terms tadstoles, frogstooles, frogge stoles, tadstooles, tode stoles, toodys hatte, paddockstool, puddockstool, paddocstol, toadstoole, and paddockstooles sometimes were used synonymously with mushrom, mushrum, muscheron, mousheroms, mussheron, or musserouns.[3]
The word has apparent analogies in Dutch padde(n)stoel (toad-stool/chair, mushroom) and German Krötenschwamm (toad-fungus, alt. word for panther cap). Others have proposed a connection with German "Todesstuhl" (lit. "death's chair").[4] Since Tod is a direct cognate to death, in that case it would be a German borrowing.
The term "mushroom" and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss (mousse). .The toadstool's connection to toads may be direct, in reference to some species of poisonous toad,[5] or may just be a case of phono-semantic matching from the German word.^ Some chefs specialize in locally grown foods and may be interested for that reason.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .However, there is no clear-cut delineation between edible and poisonous fungi, so that a "mushroom" may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable.^ Their web site includes information about their journal, "Mushroom News" and the Sinden Scholarship Fund for cultivation of edible fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mushroom production can play an important role in managing farm organic wastes when agricultural and food processing by-products are used as growing media for edible fungi.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a treat, see the scans of the color plates from M.C. Cooke's 1894 book, Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The term "toadstool" is nowadays used in storytelling when referring to poisonous or suspect mushrooms. The classic example of a toadstool is Amanita muscaria.

Growth rates

Mushroom popping up through macadam in summer near Paris
.Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly.^ Includes growing parameters for 16 species and covers every aspect of mushroom cultivation .
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus species) are a good choice for beginning mushroom cultivators because they are easier to grow than many of the other species, and they can be grown on a small scale with a moderate initial investment.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His book Growing Gourmet & Medicinal Mushrooms ( see Resources ) is an invaluable resource for anyone considering the cultivation of any mushroom species.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly).^ Fiona December 4, 2008 I never liked mushrooms at all growing up.
  • Mushroom Casserole Recipe - 101 Cookbooks 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.101cookbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He describes several alternative methods of producing mushrooms, including growing them outdoors on logs, on stumps, and in the garden, as well as indoors in bags or on columns.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It reproduces through longitudinal fission.It will arrive as one large mushroom attached to a rock and will expand to a larger size in the reef aquarium.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In actuality all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruit bodies, though they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids.^ We saw the gorgeous photos of the mushroom bourguinon and went out the next day to buy all the ingredients.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ There are four species of deadly mushrooms which do resemble several species of Psilocybe.
  • Shroomery - Psilocybe Mushroom FAQ 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This discussion of mushroom toxins and the symptoms they produce forms a chapter of the "Bad Bug Book" by the US Food and Drug Administration.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cultivated mushroom as well as the common field mushroom initially form a minute fruiting body, referred to as the pin stage because of their small size.^ Mushroompeople's web page serves their online catalog of mushroom spawn, books, and mushroom-growing supplies, as well as their guide to morel cultivation.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in oyster mushroom production under closely controlled conditions, the grower lowers the temperature and the CO2 in the grow room to initiate fruiting.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volvariella is well suited for cultivation in the tropics because of its requirement for higher production temperatures.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Slightly expanded they are called buttons, once again because of the relative size and shape. .Once such stages are formed, the mushroom can rapidly pull in water from its mycelium and expand, mainly by inflating preformed cells that took several days to form in the primordia.^ Too much water movement will inhibit these mushrooms to fully expand.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the browning process nears completion (4 weeks), primordia begin to form about 2 mm under the surface of the log indicating that the log is ready to produce mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Once you successfully use the kit, you can begin to learn the steps that precede that final fruiting stage of the mushroom life cycle.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, there are even more ephemeral mushrooms, like Parasola plicatilis (formerly Coprinus plicatlis), that literally appear overnight and may disappear by late afternoon on a hot day after rainfall.^ If ordering more than one, they may ship together on the same rock.   Notes: Place Mushrooms along the bottom half of the aquarium on an exposed rock.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If ordering the (6) polyp or (12) polyp, depending on availability, we may send all mushrooms attached to one rock, or send multiple rocks with one or more mushroom attached to each rock.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sharon January 15, 2009 11 I don’t even like mushrooms and I’m drooling over the pictures .
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

[7] .The primordia form at ground level in lawns in humid spaces under the thatch and after heavy rainfall or in dewy conditions balloon to full size in a few hours, release spores, and then collapse.^ Influence of spawn rate and commercial delayed release nutrient levels on Pleurotus cornucopiae (oyster mushroom) yield, size, and time to production.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As the browning process nears completion (4 weeks), primordia begin to form about 2 mm under the surface of the log indicating that the log is ready to produce mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A small portion of the base or mouth will separate from the parent polyp and grow into a full sized mushroom within a few months.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They "mushroom" to full size.^ A small portion of the base or mouth will separate from the parent polyp and grow into a full sized mushroom within a few months.
  • Mushroom Corals : Aquatic Connection Live 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.aquacon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not all mushrooms expand overnight; some grow very slowly and add tissue to their fruitbodies by growing from the edges of the colony or by inserting hyphae.^ Fiona December 4, 2008 I never liked mushrooms at all growing up.
  • Mushroom Casserole Recipe - 101 Cookbooks 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.101cookbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When I bake portobello mushrooms I usually add some fresh thyme – just love that combination.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ Add back the mushrooms with any juices that have collected and once the liquid has boiled, reduce the temperature so it simmers for 20 minutes, or until mushrooms are very tender.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

.For example Pleurotus nebrodensis grows slowly, and because of this combined with human cultivation, it is now critically endangered.^ Oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus species) are a good choice for beginning mushroom cultivators because they are easier to grow than many of the other species, and they can be grown on a small scale with a moderate initial investment.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Size and age

Yellow, flower pot mushrooms (Leucocoprinus birnbaumii) at various states of development
.Though mushroom fruiting bodies are short-lived, the underlying mycelium can itself be long-lived and massive.^ The part of the organism that we see and call a mushroom is really just the fruiting body.
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^ Another advantage of growing oyster mushrooms is that a high percentage of the substrate converts to fruiting bodies, increasing the potential profitability.
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A colony of Armillaria ostoyae in Malheur National Forest in the United States is estimated to be 2,400 years old, possibly older, and spans an estimated 2,200 acres. .Most of the fungus is underground and in decaying wood or dying tree roots in the form of white mycelia combined with black shoelace-like rhizomorphs that bridge colonized separated woody substrates.^ After several years, under favorable growing conditions for both the tree and the fungus, truffles form underground fruiting bodies that roughly resemble potatoes.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Human use

The Agaricus bisporus, one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms in the world.

Edible mushrooms

.Edible mushrooms are used extensively in cooking, in many cuisines (notably Chinese, European, and Japanese).^ Mushroom production can play an important role in managing farm organic wastes when agricultural and food processing by-products are used as growing media for edible fungi.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a treat, see the scans of the color plates from M.C. Cooke's 1894 book, Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book describes the nutritional benefits and traditional uses in Chinese medicine for shiitake mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though mushrooms are commonly thought to have little nutritional value, many species are high in fiber and provide vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, cobalamins, ascorbic acid.^ Also, as far as browning such a large amount of mushrooms with a little oil: I used a nonstick pan and only a tiny amount of oil for each batch.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ Many people are intrigued by mushrooms nutritional and medicinal properties, in addition to their culinary appeal.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Royse and Schisler, 1980 ) As a group, mushrooms also contain some unsaturated fatty acids, provide several of the B vitamins, and vitamin D. Some even contain significant vitamin C, as well as the minerals potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though not normally a significant source of vitamin D, some mushrooms can become significant sources after exposure to ultraviolet light, though this also darkens their skin.^ Oyster mushroom cultivation has one significant drawback: some people are allergic to the spores.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Royse and Schisler, 1980 ) As a group, mushrooms also contain some unsaturated fatty acids, provide several of the B vitamins, and vitamin D. Some even contain significant vitamin C, as well as the minerals potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .Mushrooms are also a source of some minerals, including selenium, potassium and phosphorus[10].^ Royse and Schisler, 1980 ) As a group, mushrooms also contain some unsaturated fatty acids, provide several of the B vitamins, and vitamin D. Some even contain significant vitamin C, as well as the minerals potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One illustrates some of the macrofungi of Scotland; one describes the cultivation of mushrooms; and a third (luxgene) depicts bioluminescent organisms, including a few fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mushrooms for sale at Borough Market
.Most mushrooms that are sold in supermarkets have been commercially grown on mushroom farms.^ The patent and facility are owned by Terry Farms and represent the only successful commercial process for fruiting these highly valued mushrooms out of season.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most popular of these, Agaricus bisporus, is generally considered safe for most people to eat because it is grown in controlled, sterilized environments, though some individuals do not tolerate it well.^ For instance, shiitakes grown on logs are generally of higher quality and have a longer shelf life than shiitakes grown on sawdust substrates (the most common mass-production method).
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large, well-established companies produce virtually all Agaricus mushrooms; most are located in Pennsylvania and California.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these materials do not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Several varieties of A. bisporus are grown commercially, including whites, crimini, and portobello. .Other cultivated species now available at many grocers include shiitake, maitake or hen-of-the-woods, oyster, and enoki.^ The Fungimap website includes the newsletter, and provides information on the target species and other fungi of Australia. .
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This elegant web site includes many impressive images of mushrooms and other products, including scanning electron micrographs of mushroom ultrastructure.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In recent years increasing affluence in developing countries has led to a considerable growth in interest in mushroom cultivation, which is now seen as a potentially important economic activity for small farmers.^ Web sites devoted to mushrooms and their cultivation are increasing every year.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It includes photos of Montana mushrooms, recipes, an oyster mushroom cultivation project, a mushroom "trunk" for teachers, a morel information site, and information on the WMMA's current activities.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paul Stamets of Fungi Perfecti, an educational and mushroom supply company ( See Resources ), has spent most of his life studying the growth and cultivation of fungi.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
Mushroom and Truffle output in 2005
.There are a number of species of mushroom that are poisonous, and although some resemble certain edible species, eating them could be fatal.^ Although there are no books devoted entirely to oyster mushroom production, Stamets' books provide basic information.
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^ Generally, each mushroom species prefers a particular growing medium, although some species can grow on a wide range of materials.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some species of mushrooms are not yet commercially cultivated.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eating mushrooms gathered in the wild is risky and should not be undertaken by individuals not knowledgeable in mushroom identification, unless the individuals limit themselves to a relatively small number of good edible species that are visually distinctive.^ The mushrooms are good to eat when small.
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^ Oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus species) are a good choice for beginning mushroom cultivators because they are easier to grow than many of the other species, and they can be grown on a small scale with a moderate initial investment.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America: a field to kitchen guide .
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A. bisporus contains carcinogens called hydrazines, the most abundant of which is agaritine. However, the carcinogens are destroyed by moderate heat when cooking.[12]
.More generally, and particularly with gilled mushrooms, separating edible from poisonous species requires meticulous attention to detail; there is no single trait by which all toxic mushrooms can be identified, nor one by which all edible mushrooms can be identified.^ The Mushroom Cultivator provides detailed information on the requirements for 16 species.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way the mushrooms soaked the wine made them completely scrumptious and I could have quite honestly just eaten the mushrooms with no noodles at all.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ For a treat, see the scans of the color plates from M.C. Cooke's 1894 book, Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, even edible mushrooms may produce an allergic reaction, from a mild asthmatic response to severe anaphylaxis shock.^ He describes several alternative methods of producing mushrooms, including growing them outdoors on logs, on stumps, and in the garden, as well as indoors in bags or on columns.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

People who collect mushrooms for consumption are known as mycophagists, and the act of collecting them for such is known as mushroom hunting, or simply "Mushrooming".
China is the world's largest edible mushroom producer.[13]

Toxic mushrooms

Young "Amanita phalloides" mushrooms next to a box of matches.
.Of central interest with respect to the chemical properties of mushrooms is the fact that many species produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic, mind-altering, antibiotic, antiviral, or bioluminescent.^ Today, most shiitakes and many other mushroom species are raised on a sterilized sawdust substrate.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people are intrigued by mushrooms nutritional and medicinal properties, in addition to their culinary appeal.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To produce spawn, you inoculate a pasteurized medium, usually grain, with the sterile culture of a particular mushroom species.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although there are only a small number of deadly species, several others can cause particularly severe and unpleasant symptoms.^ There are also keys to several other groups, including the Nidulariaceae and Phallaceae.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. One defense against consumption and premature destruction is the evolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible, either causing the consumer to vomit (see emetics) the meal, or to learn to avoid consumption altogether.

Psychoactive mushrooms

Hallucinogenic Psilocybe mushrooms
.Mushrooms that have psychoactive properties have long played a role in some native medicine traditions, where they have been used for mental and physical healing, and to facilitate visionary states.^ Two recent books, Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, Healing and Culture and Medicinal Mushrooms You Can Grow , detail existing research on the health benefits of mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mushroom production can play an important role in managing farm organic wastes when agricultural and food processing by-products are used as growing media for edible fungi.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This collar serves to hold the mushrooms in place so that they are long and straight.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

One such ritual is the velada ceremony. .A practitioner of traditional mushroom use is the shaman and curandera (priest-healer).^ I’ve used mushroom broth in soupe a l’oignon (French onion soup) many times, and I think it might even be better than the traditional beef broth.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

Psilocybian mushrooms possess psychedelic properties. .Commonly known as "magic mushrooms," "mushies" or "shrooms," they are openly available in smart shops in many parts of the world, or on the black market in those countries that have outlawed their sale.^ A trade association representing those who grow, process, and market cultivated mushrooms in the US, the AMI promotes mushroom cultivation and consumption.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We had a couple of different kinds of mushrooms cos they were in a bargain bag off the market, also we put in chopped chestnuts.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

^ The farm buys from local growers who, since the mushrooms are not for the fresh market, can freeze them until they have enough to make a delivery to the processing kitchen worthwhile.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Psilocybian mushrooms have been reported as facilitating profound and life-changing insights often described as mystical experiences. Recent scientific work has supported these claims, as well as the long-lasting effects of such induced spiritual experiences.[14]
.Psilocybin, a naturally occurring chemical in certain psychedelic mushrooms like Psilocybe cubensis, is being studied for its ability to help people suffering from psychological disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder.^ A web site devoted to psychedelic mushrooms including Psilocybe and kin, and to the history and people involved in the modern rediscovery of entheogenic mushroom drugs.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A gateway to information on psychedelic mushrooms including Psilocybe and its allies.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Minute amounts have been reported to stop cluster and migraine headaches.[15] .A double-blind study, done by the John Hopkins Hospital, showed that psychedelic mushrooms could provide people an experience with substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance.^ A web site devoted to psychedelic mushrooms including Psilocybe and kin, and to the history and people involved in the modern rediscovery of entheogenic mushroom drugs.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oyster mushroom cultivation has one significant drawback: some people are allergic to the spores.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mushroom Experiment Station in Horst (Netherlands) provides expertise on all areas of commercial mushroom cultivation.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the study, one third of the subjects reported that ingestion of psychedelic mushrooms was the single most spiritually significant event of their lives.^ One of the most common substrates used on modern mushrooms is a mixture of 75% cottonseed hulls, 24% wheat straw and 1% ground limestone.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One illustrates some of the macrofungi of Scotland; one describes the cultivation of mushrooms; and a third (luxgene) depicts bioluminescent organisms, including a few fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Over two-thirds reported it among their five most meaningful and spiritually significant events. On the other hand, one-third of the subjects reported extreme anxiety.[16][17]
Amanita muscaria pictured above is also psychoactive. The active constituents are Ibotenic acid and Muscimol. .The Muscaria chemotaxonomic group of Amanitas contain no amatoxins or phallotoxins, and are not hepatoxic.^ Amanita muscaria, the classic red toadstool with white warts on top, does not contain psilocybin, but a series of muscarinic deleriants.
  • Shroomery - Psilocybe Mushroom FAQ 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some dry these in the sun to transform the Ibotenic acid into the more psychoactive Muscimol.

Medicinal mushrooms

The most well known "medicinal mushroom", Reishi.
.Many species of medicinal mushrooms have been used in folk medicine for thousands of years.^ I’ve used mushroom broth in soupe a l’oignon (French onion soup) many times, and I think it might even be better than the traditional beef broth.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

.The use of medicinal mushrooms in folk medicine, is best documented in the East.^ Shiitake is one of the best known and best characterized mushrooms used for medicinal purposes.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Medicinal mushrooms are now the subject of study for many ethnobotanists and medical researchers. .The ability of some mushrooms to inhibit tumor growth and enhance aspects of the immune system has been a subject of research for approximately 50 years.^ Also known as the beech murhsoom, bunashimeji production has increased steadily over the last few years although not as fast as some other types of mushrooms (Royse 1997).
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some merchandisers have projected a steady growth in consumption of specialty mushrooms.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Peter Oei, in Manual on Mushroom Cultivation ( see Resources ), describes in some detail how alternative mushroom production systems have been used successfully in developing countries.
  • Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] International mushroom research continues today, with a focus on mushroom's that may have hypoglycemic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-pathogenic activity, and immune system enhancing activity. .Recent research has found that the oyster mushroom naturally contains the cholesterol drug lovastatin,[19] mushrooms produce large amounts of vitamin D when exposed to UV light,[20] and that certain fungi may be a future source of taxol.^ A mushroom merchandising action plan appeared in a relatively recent edition of Produce Business Magazine .
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, specialty mushroom producers seeking new outlets for their mushrooms may want to check sources listing reputable produce industry firms (Blue Book 2003, Red Book 2003, The Packer 2003).
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Once the mushrooms are dry, place them into airtight containers and protect from light.
  • Shroomery - Psilocybe Mushroom FAQ 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.shroomery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] To date, penicillin, lovastatin, ciclosporin, griseofulvin, cephalosporin, ergometrine, and statins are the most famous pharmaceuticals which have been isolated from the fungi kingdom.

Other uses

"Tinder fungi"
.Mushrooms can be used for dyeing wool and other natural fibers.^ Mushrooms and other creatures of a small nature preserve in Diemen, the Netherlands.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A site devoted to the recreational use of Psilocybe mushrooms and other hallucinogenic fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultivation techniques used to produce the mushroom on natural logs is similar to that used for shiitake production.
  • Mushroom Spawn Laboratory -- Specialty Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.ppath.cas.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

The chromophores of mushrooms are organic compounds and produce strong and vivid colors, and all colors of the spectrum can be achieved with mushroom dyes. Before the invention of synthetic dyes mushrooms were the source of many textile dyes.
.Some fungi, types of polypores loosely called mushrooms, have been used as fire starters (known as tinder fungi).^ An impressive site dedicated to amateur mycology, MykoWeb includes recipes, a listing of mushroom events, a useful bibliography of works on secotioid and hypogeous fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A site devoted to the recreational use of Psilocybe mushrooms and other hallucinogenic fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also simmered some chopped mushrooms to my veggie broth (strained it before using) to deepen the flavor.
  • mushroom bourguignon | smitten kitchen 17 January 2010 5:57 UTC smittenkitchen.com [Source type: General]

.Mushrooms and other fungi play a role in the development of effective biological remediation and filtration technologies.^ Mushrooms and other fungi of Thrace, Greece .
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nice images of mushrooms and other fungi found in the Netherlands.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A site devoted to the recreational use of Psilocybe mushrooms and other hallucinogenic fungi.
  • Mycology Resources: Mushrooms 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC mycology.cornell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The US Patent and Trademark Office can be searched for patents related to the latest developments in mycoremediation and mycofiltration.

Further reading

Footnotes

  1. ^ Volk, Tom (2001). "Hypomyces lactifluorum, the lobster mushroom". Fungus of the Month. http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/aug2001.html. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  2. ^ Miles PG, Chang S-T (2004). Mushrooms: cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect, and environmental impact. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-1043-1. 
  3. ^ Ramsbottom J (1954). Mushrooms & Toadstools: a study of the activities of fungi. London: Collins. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ [3]
  7. ^ Nelson N (2006-08-13). "Parasola plicatilis". http://collectivesource.com/fungi/newpages/Coprinus_plicatilis.html. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  8. ^ "A Fungus Among Us". Extreme Science. n.d.. http://www.extremescience.com/biggestlivingthing.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-14. 
  9. ^ Associated Press (2006-04-18). "Light-zapped mushrooms filled with vitamin D: Bringing 'shrooms out of the dark packs them with sunshine nutrient". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12370708. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  10. ^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Mushrooms, white, raw". http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2482/2. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  11. ^ FAO, Making Money by growing Mushrooms
  12. ^ Sieger AA (ed.) (1998-01-01). "Spore Prints #338". Bulletin of the Puget Sound Mycological Society. http://www.psms.org/sporeprints/sp338.html. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  13. ^ China Becomes World's Biggest Edible Mushroom Producer
  14. ^ Griffiths R, Richards W, Johnson M, McCann U, Jesse R (August 2008). "Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later". Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) 22 (6): 621–32. doi:10.1177/0269881108094300. PMID 18593735. http://jop.sagepub.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18593735. 
  15. ^ Sewell RA, Halpern JH, Pope HG (June 2006). "Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD". Neurology 66 (12): 1920–2. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000219761.05466.43. PMID 16801660. http://www.neurology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16801660. 
  16. ^ Griffiths RR, Richards WA, McCann U, Jesse R. (Aug 2006), "Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance.", Psychopharmacology (Berl). 187 (3): 268–83, doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5, PMID 16826400 
  17. ^ Weil, Andrew (2006-10-16). "Looking for Mushroom Magic?". http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/id/QAA400055. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  18. ^ Borchers AT, Krishnamurthy A, Keen CL, Meyers FJ, Gershwin ME (2008), "The immunobiology of mushrooms", Exp Biol Med 233 (3): 259–76, doi:10.3181/0708-MR-227, PMID 18296732 
  19. ^ Gunde-Cimerman N, Cimerman A. (Mar 1995), "Pleurotus fruiting bodies contain the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase-lovastatin.", Exp Mycol. 19 (1): 1–6, doi:10.1006/emyc.1995.1001, ISSN 0147-5975, PMID 7614366 
  20. ^ , http://articles.latimes.com/2008/mar/31/health/he-eat31 
  21. ^ Ji, Y; Bi; Yan; Zhu (Jan 2006), "Taxol-producing fungi: a new approach to industrial production of taxol" (Free full text), Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology 22 (1): 1–6, ISSN 1000-3061, PMID 16572833, http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+33069-62-4 

References

  • Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America: A Field-to-kitchen Guide (1992) ISBN 0-292-72080-0
  • Mushrooms of Northeastern North America (1997) ISBN 0-8156-0388-6
  • All That the Rain Promises, and More (1991) ISBN 0-89815-388-3
  • Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms (2000) ISBN 1-58008-175-4
  • Mushroom Cultivator: A Practical Guide to Growing Mushrooms at Home (1983) ISBN 0-9610798-0-0
  • Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact (2004) ISBN 0-8493-1043-1
  • Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save The World (2005) ISBN 1-58008-579-2
  • Mushrooms Demystified: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy Fungi (1986) ISBN 0-89815-169-4
  • Psilocybin Mushroom Handbook: Easy Indoor and Outdoor Cultivation (2004) ISBN 0-932551-64-5
  • Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World (1996) ISBN 0-89815-839-7

External links

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A mushroom is the fruiting body of a kind of fungus. Unlike plants, mushrooms do not use sunlight to make energy for themselves. A toadstool is a poisonous mushroom. Some mushrooms that can be eaten are used for cooking in many countries such as China, Korea, and Europe. People who look for mushrooms to eat are called mycophagists, meaning "mushroom eater".[1] The act of looking for mushrooms is simply called "mushrooming".

Contents

Kinds of mushrooms

  • Agarics (includes edible, poisonous, and hallucinogenic kinds)
  • Boletes (edible and many people consider delicious)
  • Bracket fungi
  • Chanterelles (edible)
  • Coral fungi (edible)
  • Cup fungi (usually edible)
  • Jelly fungi (usually edible, but tastes bad)
  • Polypores (similar to boletes)
  • Psychedelic (also known as shrooms)
  • Puffballs (usually edible)
  • Stinkhorns (edible, but smells bad)
  • Tooth fungi

It is hard to pick mushrooms in the wild, because most mushrooms have "look-alikes". Mushroom hunters learn how to tell these look-alikes apart, usually by chemical features. Edible mushrooms are used in cooking in many cultures and are usually grown in farms. In some places in the world, people learn already in childhood to recognize the edible and delicious mushrooms in the wild.

Structure of mushrooms

Most mushrooms have a stem and a cap. The bottom of the cap sometimes has gills to hold spores, and sometimes holds the spores themselves.

References

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Identification

Research associations


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mushroom, which are similar to those in the above article.








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