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Maple Leaf (from roundel).svg  Music of Canada
By region
Yukon · Northwest Territories · Nunavut
British Columbia · Ontario · Quebec
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prairie Provinces (AB · MB · SK)
Maritime Provinces (NS · PEI · NB)
First Nations (Inuit, Dene, Innu)
Classical · Rock · Blues · Celtic  · Jazz  · Hip hop · Cultural · Sub-Genres
Junos · Polaris · Félixes · Hall of Fame · ECMAs · Atlantis · WCMAs · CASBYs · CRMAs · CCMAs · MMVAs · CUMAs
Jam! · Chart · Exclaim!
CMW · NXNE · Halifax Pop Explosion · Miramichi Folksong Festival · VFMF · Caribana · Stanfest · Harvest J&B · Evolve
Print media
CM · Chart · Exclaim! · The Record · RPM · The Coast
Music television
ATN B4U Music · bpm:tv · CMT · MuchLOUD · MuchMore · MuchMoreRetro · MuchMusic · MuchVibe · MusiMax · MusiquePlus · PunchMuch
National anthem
"O Canada"
"Music of Canada"

The music of Canada has reflected the diverse influences that have shaped the country.[1] aboriginals, the French, and the British have all made unique contributions to the musical heritage of Canada.[2] The music has subsequently been heavily influenced by American culture because of its proximity and migration between the two countries.[3] Since French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1605 and established the first permanent Canadian settlements at Port Royal and Quebec City in 1608, the country has produced its own composers, musicians and ensembles.[4][5] From the 17th century onward Canada has developed a music infrastructure, that includes church halls, chamber halls, conservatories, academies, performing arts centers, record companies, radio stations and television music video channels.[6][7]



Before European settlers came to what is now Canada, the region was occupied by a large number of Aboriginal peoples, including the West Coast Salish and Haida, the centrally located Iroquois, Blackfoot and Huron, the Inuit and Dene people to the North, and the Innu and Mi'kmaq in the East.[8] Each of the aboriginal communities had (and have) their own unique musical traditions. Chanting - singing is widely popular and most use a variety of musical instruments.[8] Being resourceful and creative they used the materials at hand to make their instruments for thousands of years before Europeans immigrated to the new world.[9] They made gourds and animal horns into rattles, many rattles were elaborately carved and beautifully painted.[10] In woodland areas, they made horns of birchbark and drumsticks of carved antlers and wood.[9] Drums were generally made of carved wood and animal hides.[11] Drums and rattles are percussion instruments traditionally used by First Nations people.[12] These musical instruments provide the background for songs and led to aboriginal dances.[11] For many years after Europeans came to Canada, First Nations people were forbidden to practice their traditional ceremonies.[11]


17th century

Louis Jolliet signature (1645–1700)

The French settlers brought with them a great love of song, dance and fiddle playing. Beginning in the 1630s French and First Nations children at Quebec City were taught to sing and play European instruments, like viols, violins, guitars, transverse flutes, drums, fifes and trumpets.[4] Ecole des Ursulines and The Ursuline Convent are among North America's oldest schools and the first institutions of learning for women in North America.[13] Both where founded in 1639 by French nun Marie de l'Incarnation (1599–1672) alongside laywoman Marie-Madeline de Chauvigny de la Peltrie (1603–1671) and are the first Canadian institutions to have music as part of the curriculum.[14] The earliest written record of violins in Canada comes from the Jesuit Relation of 1645.[15] The Jesuits additionally have the first documented organ sale, imported for their Quebec City chapel in 1657.[1][15] Notre-Dame de Québec Cathedral build in 1647 is the primate church of Canada and seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. It is the oldest Catholic "Episcopal see" in the New World north of Mexico and site of the first documented choir in Canada.[16] Canada's first formal ball was given by Louis-Théandre Chartier de Lotbinière (1612–1688) on 4 Feb. 1667.[17] Louis Jolliet (1645–1700) is on record as one of the first classically trained practicing musicians in New France, although history has recognized him more as an explorer, hydrographer and voyageur.[18] Jolliet is said to have played the organ, harpsichord, flute, and trumpet.[18] 1700, under the British rule at this time, an organ was installed in Notre-Dame Basilica in Montreal and military bands gave concerts on the Champ de Mars.[14] A French-born priest, René Ménard, composed motets around 1640, and a second Canadian-born priest, Charles-Amador Martin, is credited with the plainchant music for the Sacrae familiae felix spectaculum, in celebration of the Holy Family feast day in 1700.[6]

18th century

Joseph Quesnel (1746–1809)

Historically, music was composed in Canada during the 1700s, although very few popular named works have survived or were even published.[5] The New France War of the Conquest by England began and left the population economically drained and ill-equipped to develop cultural pursuits properly.[6] The part-time composers of this period were nonetheless often quite skilled.[4] Traditional songs and dances, such as those of the Habitants and Métis, were transmitted orally, from generation to generation and from village to village, thus people felt no need to transcribe or publish them.[19] Printed music was required, for music teachers and their pupils, who were from the privileged minority where domestic music making was considered a proof of gentility.[20] Music publishing and printing in Europe by this time was a thriving industry, but it did not begin in Canada until the 1800s.[21] Canadian composers were not able to focus entirely on creating new music in these years, most made their living in other musical activities such as leading choirs, church organists and teaching.[22] Regimental bands were musically part of civil life, they featured perhaps a dozen woodwind and brass instruments, performing at parades, festive ceremonies, minuets, country dances and balls.[23] After the 1760s, regular concerts became a part of the cultural landscape, as well as a wide variety of dancing. Operatic excerpts began to appear, and before the end of the century Canada had its first home-grown grand opera.[4] A "Concert Hall" existed in Québec City by 1764 and subscription concerts by 1770, given, one may presume, by band players and skilled amateurs.[24] Programs for the Québec City and Halifax concerts of the 1790s reveal orchestral and chamber music by Handel, J.C. Bach, Haydn, Mozart and Pleyel.[5] Canada's first wildly published sheet music are two operas written in late 1700s by New France composer, poet, and playwright Joseph Quesnel (1746–1809).[25] The instrument of favor for the lower-class was the fiddle. Fiddlers were a fixture in most public drinking establishments.[26] The late 1700s two new melodic instruments the diatonic harmonica and the button accordion make their appearance in folk-music tradition.[26]

19th century

The beginning of the 19th century Canadian musical ensembles had started forming in great numbers, writing waltzes, quadrilles, polkas and galops.[6][27] The first volumes of music printed in Canada were the "Graduel romain" in 1800 and the "Processional 'sic' romain" in 1801.[6] Folk music was still thriving, as recounted in the poem titled "The Canadian Boat Song". The poem was composed by the Irish poet Thomas Moore (1779-1852) during a visit to Canada in 1804.[28] "The Canadian Boat Song" was so popular that it was published several times over the next forty years in Boston, New York and Philadelphia.[4] Dancing likewise was extremely popular form of entertainment as noted In 1807 by the Scottish traveler and artist George Heriot (1759–1839), Who wrote....

The whole of the Canadian inhabitants are remarkably fond of dancing, and frequently amuse themselves at all seasons with that agreeable exercise. [29]

Among the earliest musical societies were Halifaxs "New Union Singing Society" of 1809 and Quebec's "Harmonic Society" of 1820.[4] One of the first registered all-civilian musical ensemble was a religious sect organized from Upper Canada called Children of Peace in 1820.[30] 1833, a student orchestra was organized at the Séminaire de Québec the Société Ste-Cécile, as it was known, is one of the earliest ensemble of its kind in Lower Canada.[30] The first appearance of a piece of music in a newspaper or magazine was in the pages of the Montreal twice-weekly newspaper, La Minerve, on September 19, 1831.[31] Many immigrants during this time lived in relative isolation and music sometimes obtained through subscriptions to newspapers and magazines, provided entertainment and a life line to civilization.[1] One of the earliest surviving publication in Canada of a song for the piano in sheet music format is The Merry Bells of England by J.F. Lehmann, in 1840.[32]

Calixa Lavallée, (1842–1891)

Mass immigration during the 1840s and 1850s, largely from Ireland, England and Scotland, broadened considerably the Canadian musical culture.[33] 1844, Samuel Nordheimer (1824–1912) opened a music store in Toronto selling pianos and soon thereafter began to publish engraved sheet music.[1] His store A.& S. Nordheimer Co was among the first and by far the largest specialized music publisher in Pre-Confederation Canada.[34] They initially had the sole right to publish copies of The Maple Leaf Forever that for many years served as an unofficial Canadian national anthem.[35] By the Constitution Act of 1867, songwriting had become a favored means of personal expression in Canada. In a society in which most middle-class families now owned a piano, and standard education included at least the rudiments of music, the result was often an original song.[36] Such stirrings frequently occurred in response to noteworthy events, and few local or national excitements were allowed to pass without some musical comment.[37][38] The 1870s saw several conservatories opened their doors, providing their string, woodwind and brass faculty, leading to the opportunity for any class level of society to learn music.[39] 'One Sweetly Solemn Thought in 1876 by Hamilton-based Robert S. Ambrose, became one of the most popular songs to ever be published in the 19th century.[27] It fulfilled the purpose of being an appropriate song to sing in the parlors of homes that would not permit any non-sacred music to be performed on Sundays. At the same time it could be sung in dance halls or on the stage along operas and operettas.[40] The national anthem of Canada titled O Canada was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille (1834–1897) , for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony.[41] Calixa Lavallée (1842–1891) wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier (1839–1920). The text was originally only in French, before it was translated to English in 1906.[42] Leo, the Royal Cadet a light opera with music by Oscar Ferdinand Telgmann and a libretto by George Frederick Cameron was composed in Kingston, Ontario, Canada in 1889. The work centres on Nellie's love for Leo, a cadet at the Royal Military College of Canada who becomes a hero serving during the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Empire. The operetta focussed on typical character types, events and concerns of Telgmann and Cameron's time and place.[43] By the end of 1800s there were more than forty piano manufacturers across the country. The Bell company in Guelph Ontario made more than a hundred thousand harmoniums and other instruments-including some for Queen Victoria.[4]

20th century


R. Nathaniel Dett (1882–1943)

Prior to the development of the gramophone, Canadian songwriters' works were published as sheet music, or in periodicals in local newspapers such as The Montreal Gazette and Toronto Empire. Most recordings purchased by Canadians in the early days of the gramophone were made by American and British singers, behind some of these international hits were Canadian songwriters.[44][45] Robert Nathaniel Dett (1882-1943) was among the first African Canadian composers during the early years of the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers. His works often appeared among the programs of William Marion Cook's New York syncopated Orchestra.[46] Dett himself performed at Carnegie Hall and at the Boston Symphony Hall as a pianist and choir director.[47] Following quickly on the gramophone's spread came World War I.[48] The war was the catalyst for the writing and recording of large numbers of Canadian-written popular songs, some of which achieved lasting international commercial success.[49] The military during WWI produced official music such as regimental marches and songs as well as utilitarian bugle calls. The soldiers had a repertoire of their own, largely consisting of new, often ribald, lyrics to older tunes.[50]

Murray Adaskin, (1906-2002)

Canada's first independent record label Compo Company built a pressing plant (the largest of its day) in 1918 at Lachine, Quebec.[51] Compo was originally created to serve the several American independent record companies such as Okeh Records which wanted to distribute records in Canada.[52] The 1920s saw Canada's first radio stations, this allowed Canadian songwriters to contributed some of the most famous popular music of the early 20th century.[53] Canada's first commercial radio station CFCF (formerly XWA) begins broadcasting regularly scheduled programming in Montreal in 1920, followed by CKAC, Canada's first French language radio station, in 1922.[54] By 1923, there were 34 radio stations in Canada[55] and subsequently proliferated at a remarkable rate, and with them spread the popularity of jazz. Jazz became associated with all things modern, sophisticated, and also decadent.[56] In 1925, the Canadian Performing Rights Society was formed to administer public performance and royalties for composers and lyricists. it became known as the Composers, Authors and Publishers Association of Canada (CAPAC).[57] Toronto-born Murray Adaskin (1906–2002) was a violinist, composer, conductor and teacher at the University of Saskatchewan. From 1923 to 1936 he was an orchestral and chamber musician with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, he was later named head of music at the University of Saskatchewan.[58] He was a composer-in-residence at the University of Saskatchewan, the first appointment of this type in Canada.[59]


Guy Lombardo (1902–1977)

During the great depression, the majority of Canadians listened to what we would call today swing (Jazz)[60] just as country was starting its roots.[61] The diversity in the evolution of swing dancing in Canada is reflected in its many American names, Jive, Jitterbug and Lindy. Canada's first big band star was Guy Lombardo (1902–1977), who formed his easy listening band, The Royal Canadians, with his brothers and friends. They achieved international success starting in the mid 1920s selling an estimated 250 millions phonograph records.[62] 1932, the first Broadcasting Act was passed by Parliament creating the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission. It was to both to regulate all broadcasting and create a new national public radio network.[55] 1936, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation came into existence, at the time, a million Canadian households had a radios.[55]

Emerging out of the great depression on near equal-footing to American popular music, Canadian popular music continued to enjoyed considerable success at home and abroad in the preceding years.[57][63] Among them Montreal's jazz virtuoso Oscar Peterson (1925-2007) who is considered to have been one of the greatest pianists of all time, releasing over 200 recordings and receiving several Grammy Awards during his lifetime.[64] Also notable is Hank Snow (1914-1999), who signed with RCA Victor in 1936 and went on to become one of America's biggest and most innovative country music superstars of the 1940s and 1950s.[65] Snow became a regular performer at the Grand Ole Opry on WSM in Nashville and released more than 45 LPs over his life time.[66] Snow was one of the inaugural inductees to the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame started in 2003.[66]

With World War II came a small wave of Canadian patriotic songs, although they did not produce hits in the music industry sense. The WWII musical era produced only a fraction of the number of morale-boosting patriotic songs brought forth by WWI.[57] A number of Canadian singers who learned their craft in Canadian opera companies in the 1930s went on to sing in major international opera houses.[67] Most notable from the 1940s is contralto singer Portia White (1911-1968). She achieved international fame because of her voice and stage presence.[68] As a Canadian female of African descent, her popularity helped to open previously-closed doors for talented women who followed. She has been declared "A person of national historic significance" by the Government of Canada.[68] In 1964 she perform for Queen Elizabeth II, at the opening of the Confederation Centre of the Arts.[69]

Paul Anka, 2007

Following WWII a growth phase for Canadian bands was experienced, this time among school bands.[70] Rapid advances in the inclusion of instrumental music study in formal school curricula brought about fundamental changes to the philosophy of the band movement and the type of repertoire available.[70] The CHUM Chart debuted on May 27, 1957, under the name CHUM's Weekly Hit Parade, was in response to the fast growing diversity of music that needed to be subdivided and categorized.[71] The CHUM charts were the longest-running Top 40 chart in Canada ending in 1986.[72] 1958 saw its first Canadian rock and roll teen idol Paul Anka, who went to New York City where he auditioned for ABC with the song, Diana.[73] This song brought Anka instant stardom and he became the first Canadian to have a number one hit single on the US Billboard charts.[74] "Diana" has gone on to be one of the best selling 45s in music history.[75] As well in 1958, US-born rockabilly pioneer Ronnie Hawkins came to Canada, where he became a key player in the Canadian blues and rock scene.[76] The 4th of October was declared "Ronnie Hawkins Day" by the city of Toronto when Hawkins was inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame.[77] He was also inducted into the Canadian Music Industry Hall of Fame[78] and his pioneering contribution to rockabilly has been recognized with induction into the Rockabilly Hall of Fame.[79]


Neil Young, 2007

Canada's music scene was regarded with indifference during the 1960s and Canadian recording artists were forced to turn toward the United States to establish healthy long lasting careers .[80] As the need to conform to the taste of a Canadian audience that has had its standards and expectations formed by constant exposure to US and British acts. Canada would still produce some of the worlds most influential artist during this time.[81] Most notable is Winnipeg's Neil Young, who has been inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame, Canada's Walk of Fame and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice.[82] Walt Grealis of Toronto started in the music business with Apex Records in 1960, the Ontario distributor for Compo Company. He later joined London Records, where he worked until February 1964, when he then established RPM weekly trade magazine. From the first issue of RPM Weekly on February 24, 1964 to its final issue on November 13, 2000, RPM was the defining charts in Canada.[83]

The American and British counterculture and hippie movements had diverted music to that which was dominated by socially and American politically incisive lyrics by the late 1960s .[84] The music was an attempt to reflect upon the events of the time -- civil rights, the war in Vietnam and the rise of feminism.[85] This led to the Canadian government passing Canadian content legislation to help Canadian artists. On January 18, 1971 regulations came into force requiring AM radio stations to devote 30 per cent of their musical selections to Canadian content. Although this was (and still is) controversial, it quite clearly contributed to the development of a nascent Canadian pop star system.[55]

Rush, 2004

With the introduction in the mid 1970s of mainstream music on FM radio stations, where it was common practice to program extended performances, musicians were no longer limited to songs of three minutes' duration as dictated by AM stations for decades.[80] The most notable musicians to benefit from this and one of the largest Canadian exports is Rush. They have produced 25 gold records and 14 platinum (3 multi-platinum) records,[86] making them one of the best-selling ensembles in history.[87] Rush currently place fourth behind The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and Aerosmith for the most consecutive gold and platinum albums by a modern musical group.[88][89]

Canada's first nation-wide music awards began as a reader poll conducted by Canadian music industry trade magazine RPM Weekly in December 1964.[90] A similar balloting process continued until 1970 when the RPM Gold Leaf Awards, as they were then known, were changed to the Juno Awards.[90] The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences held the first Juno Award ceremony in 1975. This was in response to rectifying the same concerns about promotion of Canadian artist that the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission had.[90]

Things changed course in the 1980s and 1990s, the changing fast-paced culture was accompanied by an explosion in youth culture.[91] Until the mid-1960s, little attention was paid to music by Canadian daily newspapers except as news or novelty. With the introduction during the late 1970s of the "Music critic", coverage began to rival that of any other topic. Canadian publications devoted to all styles of music either exclusively or in tandem with more general editorial content directed to young readers, was expanding expectational.[92]

The influence of Canadian hip hop and its innovations was felt in Canada when Music videos became an important marketing tool for Canadian musicians with the debut of MuchMusic in 1984 and MusiquePlus in 1986. Now both English and French Canadian musicians had outlets to promote all forms of music through video in Canada.[93][94] The networks were not just an opportunity for artists to get their videos played—the networks created VideoFACT, a fund to help emerging artists produce their videos. One of the most internationally recognized artist to arise during the birth of music videos is Bryan Adams. Adams has received eighteen Juno awards the most in Canadian history.[95] He has also received two Grammy Awards [96] and been awarded with the Order of Canada and the Order of British Columbia[97] for his contribution to popular music and for his philanthropic work.

Canadian women at the end of the 20th century enjoyed greater international commercial success than ever before.[98] Canadian women set a new pinnacle of success, in terms financial, critical and in their immediate and strong influence on their respective genres.[99] They were the women and their daughters who had fought for emancipation and equality starting in the 1960s.[99] Most notable is Celine Dion, who in 2004 after surpassing 175 million in album sales worldwide received a Chopard Diamond Award from the World Music Awards for becoming the best selling international female artist of all time.[88][100][101][102]

21st century

The turn of the millennium was a time of incredible nationalism, at least as far as Canadian radio is concerned.[103] The 1971 CRTC rules (30% Canadian content on Canadian radio)[55] finally come into full effect and by the end of the 20th century radio stations would have to play 35% Canadian content.[104] This led to an explosion in the 21st century of Canadian pop musicians dominating the airwaves unlike any era before.[105] In 1996, VideoFACT launched PromoFACT, a funding program to help new artists produce electronic press kits and websites.[106] At about the same time, the CD (cheap to manufacture) replaced the vinyl album and Compact Cassette (expensive to manufacture).[107] Shortly thereafter, the Internet allowed musicians to directly distribute their music, thus bypassing the selection of the old-fashioned "record label".[6][108] Canada's music industry has suffered as a result of the internet and the boom of independent music. The drop in annual sales between 1999 - the year that Napster's unauthorized peer-to-peer file sharing service launched[109] - and the end of 2004 was $465 million.[110] Canada in 2007 joined 50 other nations in attempts to update the Copyright Act with Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement[111], and in doing so aims to allow artists and others to seek compensation for their work, no matter how it is distributed.[110][112] Negotiations were originally anticipated to conclude by the end of 2008, then in November 2008 the European Commission stated that negotiations were likely to continue for some time.[113] At the 7th round of negotiations, in Guadalajara, Mexico in January 2010, participants have still to reach an agreement on many key points.[114]

Patriotic Canadian songs

Following is a list of patriotic songs in Canada.

Music awards

Canada has many different music awards, both for different genres of music and for geographic regions. Some of these that feature rock artists include:

See also

Further reading

  1. ^ a b c d "History of Canada in music". Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  2. ^ eds Beveley Diamond & Robert Witmer (1994). Canadian Music-Issues of Hegemony & Identity. Canadian Scholars Press. 
  3. ^ edited by Kenneth G. Pryke, Walter C. Soderlund (2000). Profiles of Canada. Boulder, Colo. NetLibrary. ISBN 058527925X. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g by Amtmann, Willy. Cambridge, Ont. (1975). Music in Canada 1600-1800. Habitex Books. p. 320. ISBN 088912020X. 
  5. ^ a b c La Musique au Québec 1600-1875. Montreal - Les Éditions de l'Homme. 1976. ISBN 0775905178. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Carl Morey (1997) (Google books). Music in Canada: A Research and Information Guide. New York Garland Publishing.,&ei=6k9_SvCND5v-yATPuIzJCg&client=firefox-a#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  7. ^ The Canadian Communications Foundation. "The history of broadcasting in Canada". Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  8. ^ a b "First Nations Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  9. ^ a b Canadian native art; arts and crafts of Canadian Indians and Eskimos. Don Mills, Ont., Collier-Macmillan. 1973. p. 36. ISBN 0029756103. 
  10. ^ "The Aboriginal Curatorial Collective" (pdf). kingfisher (ACC/CCA). Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  11. ^ a b c First Nations?.. Second Thoughts. 2008 - 2nd ed.. p. 12-28. ISBN 0773534431. 
  12. ^ First Nations Music in Canada. Published under the authority of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. 1999. ISBN 0-662-26856-3. 
  13. ^ "The Ursulines in New-France". Musée des Ursulines de Québec. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  14. ^ a b New Catholic encyclopedia. editors, Thomas Carson, Joann Cerrito - Washington, D.C. Catholic University of America.(ISBN 0787640042)
  15. ^ a b "The Jesuit Relations(c.1635)". Cengage Learning, Inc. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  16. ^ Music in Canada: Capturing Landscape and Diversity. by Elaine Keillor. McGill-Queen's University Press. 2006. (ISBN 0773530126)
  17. ^ "Louis-Théandre Chartier de Lotbinière". University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  18. ^ a b "Louis Jolliet". University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  19. ^ Contemporary Canadian Composers. ed. by Keith MacMillan and John Beckwith. Toronto, Ont. Oxford University Press, 1975.
  20. ^ The Canadian musical heritage Ottawa. Canadian Musical Heritage Society, 1983 [A series of historical Canadian MUSIC SCORES publications.](ISBN 0919883001)
  21. ^ Contemporary Canadian composers ed. by Keith MacMillan and John Beckwith. Toronto. Oxford University Press, 1975 (ISBN 0195402448)
  22. ^ Canadian Music and Education : an annotated bibliography of theses and dissertations / by Diane Peters. Lanham, Md. : Scarecrow Press, 1997. 476 p.
  23. ^ Canadian Musical Works S 1900-1980 : a bibliography of general and analytical sources. Ottawa : Canadian Association of Music Libraries, 1983. p96
  24. ^ Research in music education : a Festschrift for Dr. Allen Clingman Brian A. Roberts, ed. St. John's Nfld. : Binder's Press, 1993. 214 p. A survey of research in Canada. (MT3 .C2O93 1993t)
  25. ^ "Canadian Songs for Parlour and Stage". Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  26. ^ a b "Canadian fiddle music". By Edward A. Whitcomb. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  27. ^ a b "Canadian Musical Composition before the First World War". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  28. ^ "The Canadian Boat Song Thomas Moore {128}". Poets' Corner Editorial Staff. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  29. ^ Travels Through the Canadas. by George Heriot. London: Richard Phillips, 1807, p. 257 (ISBN 0665356811)
  30. ^ a b "Band music composition". Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  31. ^ "Canadian Sheet Music Before 1867". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  32. ^ "A book of scattered leaves". James G. Hepburn Bucknell University Press (1999). Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  33. ^ "Mass immigration and the national interest (Pg50)". By Vernon M. Briggs (ISBN 0765609339).,&source=bl&ots=dU8K5hGsPc&sig=XfG7pXJsY8ayGMVX5posVB5PI8c&hl=en&ei=CciASpT1EpqltgfLlMTECg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  34. ^ LAC. "Canadian Confederation" the Web site of Library and Archives Canada, 2006-01-09 (ISSN 1713-868X) [includes a bibliography
  35. ^ "Maple Cottage, Leslieville, Toronto". Institute for Canadian Music. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  36. ^ The Piano Concert In Canada, 1900-1980 a bibliographic survey. by Zuk, Ireneus. Baltimore, Md. Peabody Institute, 1985. 429 p. (Ref ML128 .P3Z85 1985t)
  37. ^ Making Music: Profiles from a Century of Canadian Music, Alex Barris and Ted Barris. Toronto: HarperCollins, 2001.
  38. ^ Canadian news facts v. 35 no. 22 (15 December 2001. ISSN 0008-4565
  39. ^ "Publishing and printing". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  40. ^ "One Sweetly Solemn Thought Composer. Robert Steele Ambrose". Clifford Ford Publications. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  41. ^ "'O Canada'". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  42. ^ a b Government of Canada (2008-06-23). "Hymne national du Canada". Canadian Heritage. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  43. ^
  44. ^ Music in Canada, capturing landscape and diversity by Elaine Keillor. Montreal McGill-Queen's University Press. 1939 (ISBN 0773531777)
  45. ^ Early Toronto Newspapers II
  46. ^ "The music of black Americans". By Eileen Southern (ISBN -0393038432) Publisher, Norton. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  47. ^ Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans: A History. W. W. Norton & Company; 3rd edition. (ISBN 0-393-97141-4)
  48. ^ "Chamber music performance". Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  49. ^ "Canadian Songwriting to 1920". Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  50. ^ "History of Recorded Sound in Canada". Canadian Antique Phonograph Society. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  51. ^ "The Compo Company, History of Recorded Sound in Canada". Canadian Antique Phonograph Society. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  52. ^ "Compo Company Ltd.". The Canadian Encyclopedia (Historica Foundation of Canada). Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  53. ^ "Songwriters and Songwriting (English Canada)". Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  54. ^ "Canadian Cultural Policies Chronology 1920's". Canadian Cultural Policies Chronology. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  55. ^ a b c d e "Highlights in the Evolution of Canadian Content Regulations". The Fraser Institute. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 
  56. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). War, Peace, and All That Jazz. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 41–46. (ISBN 0-19-509514-6)
  57. ^ a b c Before the gold rush: flashbacks to the dawn of the Canadian sound by Nicholas Jennings, (Yorkville ON: Viking, 1997) (ISBN 06-70873-810)
  58. ^ "The Murray Adaskin collection". University of Saskatchewan. 
  59. ^ Everett-Green, Robert. Composer expressed joy in art's beauty, The Globe and Mail, Wednesday, May 8, 2002. R7. accessed on October 18, 2006.
  60. ^ Lanza, Joseph. (1994). Elevator Music: a Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-Listening, and Other Moodsong. New York: St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-10540-1.
  61. ^ Music in Canada: Capturing Landscape & Diversity, by Elaine Keillor, 2006 (McGill-Queen's University Press)
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  • Music in Canada, capturing landscape and diversity by Elaine Keillor. Montreal McGill-Queen's University Press. (1939) (ISBN 0773531777)
  • Canadian Music Catalogues and Acquisitions lists. Toronto, (1971) various lists of Canadian music (orchestral, vocal, chamber, choral).
  • Canadian native art; arts and crafts of Canadian Indians and Eskimos. by Patterson, Nancy-Lou. Don Mills, Ont., Collier-Macmillan, (1973) (ISBN 0029756103)
  • Music in Canada, 1600-1800 by Willy Amtmann (1975), Habitex Books. (ISBN 088912020X)
  • Contemporary Canadian Composers ed. by Keith MacMillan and John Beckwith. Toronto : Oxford University Press, (1975)
  • La Musique au Québec 1600-1875 by Michelle Pharand. Montreal: Les Éditions de l'Homme (1976) (ISBN 0775905178)
  • Canadian Musical works 1900-1980 a bibliography of general and analytical sources. Ottawa : Canadian Association of Music Libraries, (1983) (ISBN 0708896358)
  • Heart of Gold: 30 years of Canadian pop music by Martin Melhuish, (Toronto ON: CBC Enterprises, (1983) (ISBN 08-87841-125)
  • The Penguin Book of Canadian Folk Songs by Edith Fowke. Markham, ON: Penguin, (1986) (ISBN 0-14-070842-1)
  • The Piano Concert In Canada, 1900-1980 a bibliographic Zuk, Ireneus. Baltimore, Md. : Peabody Institute, (1985) (Ref ML128 .P3Z85)
  • Canadian music fast facts : profiles of Canada's pop music pioneers. by Randy Ray and Mark Kearney London, Ont. : Sparky Jefferson Productions, (1991) (ISBN 0969514905)
  • Canadian Music Fast Facts: Canadian pop music history by Mark Kearney, Randy Ray, (London, ON: Sparky Productions, (1991) (ISBN 09-69514-905)
  • Encyclopedia of Canadian rock, pop and folk music by Rick Jackson, (Kingston, ON: Quarry Press, (1994) (ISBN 15-50821-075)
  • Women Musicians in Canada "on the record the Music Division of the National Library of Canada by C. Gillard. Ottawa : NLC, (1995) (ISBN 0775905178)
  • Canadian musician periodical Unionville Branch v. 20 no. 4, (1998) (ISBN 0547089635)
  • Profiles of Canada. edited by Kenneth G. Pryke, Walter C. Soderlund. Boulder, Colo. : NetLibrary, (2000)(ISBN 058527925X)
  • Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 3: The United States and Canada. Koskoff, Ellen (ed.), ed (2000). Garland Publishing. (ISBN 0-8240-4944-6)
  • The Top 100 Canadian Albums by Bob Mersereau, Fredericton: Goose Lane Editions, (2007) (ISBN 9780864925008)

External links


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