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Aqua: one of Denmark's most successful pop groups (2009)

Denmark's most famous classical composer is Carl Nielsen, especially remembered for his six symphonies while the Royal Danish Ballet specializes in the work of Danish choreographer August Bournonville. Danes have distinguished themselves as jazz musicians, and the Copenhagen Jazz Festival has acquired an international reputation. The modern pop and rock scene has produced a few names of note, including Aqua, The Raveonettes, Alphabeat, Kashmir, Michael Learns to Rock and Mew.

Contents

Origins

Bronze lurs from northern Sealand

The earliest traces of Danish music go back to the many twisting bronze-age horns or lurs found in various parts of Scandinavia but mostly in Denmark since the end of the 18th century which some experts have identified as musical instruments.[1][2]

Codex Runicus: Denmark's oldest musical notation

In his Gesta Danorum (c.1200), the historian Saxo Grammaticus refers to the power music had over King Erik the Kind-Hearted. In the 13th and early 14th centuries, German minnesingers such as Tannhäuser and Frauenlob sang in the Danish courts. The Codex Runicus (c.1300) contains a verse written in runes with a non-rhythmic music notation. The first line is Drømdæ mik æn drøm i nat (I Dreamed Me a Dream Last Night). There is also evidence that English monks came to Denmark to sing at a celebration commemorating St Canute who died in 1086. In 1145, Lund Cathedral received Scandinavia's first choir statues and, by 1330, was one of the larger churches to have an organ installed.[1]

Historical influences

Pratum Spirituale by Mogens Pedersøn (1620)

The greatest influence on the evolution of music in Denmark has certainly been the monarchy. At the time of his coronation in 1448, Christian I engaged a permanent corps of trumpeters while by 1519, the court had a corps of court singers as well as an instrumental ensemble. The collections of works used by the chapel royal under Christian III in the middle of the 16th century were based on Dutch, Italian, French and German masters. Christian IV spent considerable sums on training local musicians and bringing foreign masters to Denmark. Mogens Pedersøn, one of his Danish musicians who had studied in Venice under Giovanni Gabrieli, became one of Denmark's most important composers of church music. His principal work Pratum spirituale was a collection of 21 Danish hymns in five-part settings, a mass in five parts, three Latin motets and a number of Danish and Latin choral responses. It was published in Copenhagen in 1620 and is still performed today.[3]

Under the influence of Louis XIV of France, music for the theatre was established in Denmark during the reigns of Frederik III and Christian V when lavish court ballets were performed. This soon led to opera and the performance of Der vereinigte Götterstreit composed by Povl Christian Schindler on Christian's birthday in 1689. Although it was a great success, there was little further interest in opera after the theatre caught fire a few days later causing 180 deaths.[4]

In 1569, shortly after the Reformation, Denmark's first hymn book, Thomesens Salmebog, was published with music for the individual hymns.[1]

Dieterich Buxtehude (c. 1637–1707) was a German-Danish organist and a highly regarded composer of the Baroque period. His organ works comprise a central part of the standard organ repertoire and are frequently performed at recitals and church services but he is remembered first and foremost for his vocal compositions. In his day, Buxtehude was considered to be the unrivalled master of his time.[5]

Classical music

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Opera, song and concerts

Frederik IV opened a new opera house in Copenhagen in 1703, the first performance being an opera by the Italian Bartolomeo Bernardi. Reinhard Keiser, the prolific opera composer from Hamburg, presented his works in Copenhagen from 1721–1723. In 1748, Den Danske Skueplads (the Danish Theatre) moved into a new building where, from 1779, Det Kongelige Kapel (the Royal Orchestra) became a permanent attachment.[6]

Christoph Weyse: Song composer

Pietro Mingotti from Venice who had formed an opera company was invited to Copenhagen by Queen Louise in 1747. His members included Christoph Willibald Gluck and Giuseppe Sarti. In 1756, Sarti provided the music for the first syngespil which, in the early 1790s, became established as a popular national genre with Høstgildet (the Harvest Celebration) and Peters Bryllup (Peter's Wedding) both composed by Johann Abraham Peter Schulz.

Christoph Ernst Friedrich Weyse from Altona who was a pupil of Schulz, is remembered above all for his Danish songs, hymns and carols which remain popular to this day. But he also composed religious music, piano pieces and symphonies.[7]

Friedrich Kuhlau wrote Elverhøj (Elves' Hill) (1828) which contains the music for Kong Kristian stod ved højen mast, the Danish national anthem. Elverhoj is considered to be the first Danish national play and has continued to be performed more than any other. Kuhlau was also a pianist and brought Beethoven's piano music to Denmark.[8]

Schulz and Kunzen both gained importance as a result of their influence as as chief conductors at the Royal Theatre where they brought the best of European music to Danish audiences. Weyse and Kuhlau not only contributed to orchestral and chamber music but contributed to the popular repertory, Weyse with secular secular and religious songs and Kuhlau with chamber music suitable for amateur musicians.[9]

Opera has continued to figure prominently on the Danish music scene, thanks in part to the Copenhagen Opera House which was opened in 2000. Although the majority of performances cover the works of the well-known European composers, Danish operas are also included from time to time. In 2010, with the involvement of the ambitious young artistic director Kasper Bech Holten, there are to be performances of Poul Ruders' new work Kafka's Trial while in recent years works by both John Frandsen and Bent Sørensen have been part of the repertoire.[10]

The Golden Age

Hans Christian Lumbye (1805–1900)

The 19th century saw the emergence of a number of Danish composers inspired by Romantic nationalism. Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann (1805–1900) who, apart from opera and ballet music, contributed to song and the piano repertory. From 1843 until his death, he was the organist at the Church of Our Lady. His works are not only romantic but generally inspired by the old Nordic legends.[11]

Hans Christian Lumbye (1810-1874) was employed as the first music director at the Copenhagen amusement park Tivoli when it opened in 1843. Here he had a platform for presenting a large foreign and Danish repertory, including his many waltzes and gallops. In 1839, he had heard a Viennese orchestra play music by Johann Strauss, after which he composed in the same style, eventually earning the nickname "The Strauss of the North".[12] One of his most popular pieces, associated with Tivoli, is Champagnegaloppen (the Champagne Galop), which starts with the happy sound of a champagne cork popping. It has been used in several Danish films including Reptilicus (1961), and Champagnegaloppen (1938).

Niels W. Gade (1817-1890) participated in the development of Musikforeningen (the Music Society) which had been founded in 1836 with the purpose of extending and improving the understanding of classical music. He became its conductor in 1850, and under his management a number of masterpieces of choral music were given their first performance in Denmark, among them Bach's St. Matthew Passion in 1875.[13]

Marie Taglioni in Bournonville's La Sylphide

At the conservatory in Copenhagen he helped teach future generations, including Edvard Grieg and Carl Nielsen. In the spirit of Romantic nationalism, he composed eight symphonies, a violin concerto, chamber music, organ and piano pieces and a number of large-scale cantatas, among them Elverskud, the most famous Danish work of its kind.[14]

Another major contributor to the Golden Age was August Bournonville (1805–1879), the renowned ballet master and choreographer. From 1830 to 1877, he was the choreographer at the Royal Danish Ballet, for which he created more than 50 ballets admired for their exuberance, lightness, and beauty. He created a style which, although influenced by the Paris ballet, is entirely his own. Bournonville's best-known works are La Sylphide (1836), Napoli (1842), Le Conservatoire (1849), The Kermesse in Bruges (1851) and A Folk Tale (1854). He drew on a number of different composers including Holger Simon Paulli and Niels Gade. The ballets are widely performed today, not only in Denmark but worldwide, especially in the United States.[15]

The Carl Nielsen era

As a result of problems with Germany, Denmark's attitude during the first half of the 20th century became nationalistic and introverted. The two leading figures, Carl Nielsen and Thomas Laub revived interest in the purer music of earlier periods such as the Renaissance.[9]

  • Carl Nielsen (1865-1931), now an internationally recognized composer, was the dominant figure in Danish music and musical life from the end of the 1890s until well into the 20th century. He had grown up in a small village on Funen but, by performing with folk musicians as a child and as a bugler in the army, he was able to enter the music conservatory in Copenhagen in 1884. By the time he took over Gade's role around 1900, Denmark's music scene was firmly established with strong popular interest and support.[16] Nielsen's orchestral music, including six symphonies and concertos for violin, flute and clarinet, is widely performed. Indeed, the success of his First Symphony when it was played in Berlin in 1896 paved the way for his growing reputation. The Third Symphony (1912), which interestingly contains wordless vocal solos, was performed in the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Finland within the first two years. The Fourth Symphony (1916) featuring a battle between two sets of timpani is the one which has been most widely recorded.[17] Maskarade (1906), a three-act opera based on the play by Ludvig Holberg, is regarded as the Danish national opera.[18] Nielsen also composed the opera Saul og David (1901) which offers marvellous chorus scenes. Another important choral work is the cantata Hymnus Amoris (1897), a beautiful composition for choir and orchestra.[16]
  • Thomas Laub (1852–1927), an organist, was devoted to reintroducing the old Protestant hymn tunes which had been forgotten or altered over the years. He published a number of important works including Kirkemelodier (Church Melodies) (1890), Udvalg af Salme-Melodier i Kirkestil (Selected Hymn Tunes in the Church Style) (1896 and 1902), Dansk Kirkesang (Danish Church Song) (1918) and Musik og Kirke (Music and Church) (1920). Laub also wrote folk song music and together with Carl Nielsen published En Snes danske Viser (A Set of Danish Folk Songs) (1917).[19]
  • Rued Langgaard (1893-1952), a late-Romantic composer, was not fully recognized until 16 years after his death. He was inspired by his conviction that music had a spiritual power and was therefore important for mankind. He was a prolific composer, completing over 400 works representing over 50 hours of music. His Symphony No. 1 Klippepastoraler (Rock Pastorals) is in the late-romantic style, reminiscent of Anton Bruckner while Symphony No. 10 Din Torden-Bolig (Your Dwelling of Thunder) is also majestic but more in the style of Richard Strauss[20]

Contemporary composers

In addition to those specialising in rock, folk and electronic music, Denmark has a number of contemporary composers who have been successful in writing classical music covering a variety of genres. Among the most successful are:

  • Per Nørgård (born 1932) has composed works in all major genres: six operas, two ballets, seven symphonies and other pieces for orchestra, several concertos, choral and vocal works, an enormous number of chamber works, ten string quartets and several solo instrumental works. The conductor Sergiu Celibidache once precisely expressed the potential of Nørgård’s large-scale, faultless creation: "Only the mind of a new time in the new millennium will be able to understand the scope of Nørgård’s music."[21]
  • Anders Koppel (born 1947) has had an extremely versatile career in rock, classical and world music. He has composed the music for eight ballets with the Danish Dance Theatre, 50 theatrical plays and for more than 100 movies.[22]
  • Poul Ruders (born 1949) is known internationally for the music he has written works for choir, chamber ensemble, and solo instruments, which are frequently performed outside Denmark. It is however is orchestral music, especially his symphonies and concertos which is most appreciated in Denmark.[23]
  • Hans Abrahamsen (born 1952) is one of the most notable contemporary composers whose works have evolved from his initial New Simplicity style leading to his internationally successful Nacht und Trompeten.[24]

Light Classical

One of the most universally known pieces of Danish music is the Tango Jalousie (1925) composed by Jacob Gade. It has been used in countless films, such as the classic Danish sex comedy I Tvillingernes tegn (1975), where it is the centerpiece of a big nude dancing production number set in the 1930s, and Sally Potter's The Man Who Cried (2000), with Johnny Depp playing a gypsy in the 1920s.

A special position is occupied by Bent Fabricius-Bjerre (b. 1924), who has written music for Danish films and television series such as Matador in his highly individual style. The signature tune "Alley Cat" quickly won international success in the same class as Gade's tango. [25]

Jazz, rock and popular music

Jazz

The Marilyn Mazur Group playing in Warsaw in 2008

Jazz has been one of Denmark's most important musical developments over the past century. Its origins can be traced to Valdemar Eiberg's band in 1923 and their recordings the following year. But is was in 1925, when Sam Wooding brought his orchestra to Copenhagen that the Danish music scene was properly introduced to the genre. Interestingly, early Danish jazz was influenced by three classically trained musicians: Erik Tuxen (1902-1957), who created one the country's first jazz bands, Bernhard Christensen (b.1906), a composer of both jazz and classical music, and Sven Møller Kristensen (1909-1991) who wrote lyrics for Christensen as well as a number of books about jazz.[26]

As jazz became more popular in the 1930s, one of the rising stars was the talented violinist Svend Asmussen (born 1916) who made his first recordings in 1934 at the age of 18 and was still playing with his quartet more than 70 years later. [27]

During the German occupation in the 1940s, jazz was discouraged but many musicians continued to perform while others escaped to Sweden. Indeed, the period became known as "The Golden Age of Jazz" as the number of concerts in hotels and restaurants increased and the number of recordings rose from about 180 in 1935–1939 to over 650 from 1940 to 1945.[28]

Following World War II, Danish jazz musicians began to split into an older guard, which maintained the style of older New Orleans jazz, and newer musicians who favored the bebop style of Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie that was then emerging in America. The former were represented by musicians such as pianist Adrian Bentzon, trombonist Papa Bue, and trumpeter Theis Jensen, while the latter included saxophonist Max Brüel, bassist Erik Moseholm, and trumpeter Jørgen Ryg.[1]

In the early 1960s, when there was something of a revival, the Jazzhus Montmartre opened in Copenhagen, reflecting the atmosphere of clubs in Paris and New York City. It soon became a major venue for both Danish and American artists. Many Americans moved to Denmark including Stan Getz, Dexter Gordon, Ben Webster, Lee Konitz and many others. The American pianist Kenny Drew formed a trio with drummer Alex Riel and bassist Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen which became a staple at Jazzhus Montmartre.[29] Danish musicians also began to explore free jazz in the 1960s with saxophonist John Tchicai the most prominent proponent. In parallel, a more mainstream wing evolved, including saxophonist Jesper Thilo.[1]

As rock music became more popular in the 1970s, jazz's popularity waned, but it continues to be supported in venues such as the Copenhagen Jazzhouse and the Jazz Club Loco, as well as at the annual Copenhagen Jazz Festival. Danish jazz musicians continue to find unity in diversity, exploring a wide range of feelings and genres and bringing new strength to contemporary jazz as it unfolds in all its shapes and sizes.[29] Prominent jazz musicians today include Carsten Dahl, Jørgen Emborg, Thomas Clausen, Fredrik Lundin, Marilyn Mazur, Mads Vinding, Ib Glindemann, Jakob Bro, Chris Minh Doky and his brother Niels Lan Doky.[30]

Rock

Anne Linnet at a concert in Odense, 2006

The Danish rock scene thrived in the 1970s when groups drew on trends in the United States and Britain. Many consider their style to be Danish although this seems mainly to be due to the language of the songs and the way they fit into the national agenda. The most successful have been Gasolin', Shu-Bi-Dua, Sebastian, Anne Linnet, TV-2, and more recently Magtens Korridorer. Kim Larsen who had played with Gasolin' went on to become a very successful solo artist in his own right while Sebastian has composed a number of successful musicals for theatre and film. The versatile Anne Linnet is still popular in Denmark today. [31]

Until fairly recently, few Danish rock groups had been successful outside Denmark. An exception was D-A-D (formerly Disneyland After Dark) who had a hit with Sleeping My Day Away in the early 1990s.[32] Today, however, with the Music Export Denmark initiative, several rock bands are doing increasingly well internationally. These include Mew, The Raveonettes, and Blue Van.[33][34]

Michael Learns to Rock, The Kissaway Trail, Junior Senior , Nephew, Carpark North, Saybia, Swan Lee and Dizzy Mizz Lizzy which has just had a revival.[35]

Famous Danish rock musicians are among other Lars Ulrich, the drummer and co-founder of Metallica, and Mike Tramp, the vocalist and co-songwriter of White Lion.

The annual Roskilde Festival is held in Danish city of Roskilde. The festival is the second-largest in Europe with ticket sales normally running from 70,000 to 100,000. The festival has featured many prominent artists (mainly rock), such as Nirvana, Guns N' Roses, U2, Bob Dylan, Black Sabbath and Green Day, and there has also been an emphasis on world music, alternative genres and Danish music at the festival. In 2000, the festival suffered a terrible accident during a Pearl Jam concert where nine people were crushed by the wild crowds, making security a primary issue of the following festivals. The festival has sufferend no further incidents of the kind.[36]

Pop

Alphabeat performing in Stockholm (2008)

Other groups that are doing well include Kashmir, As with rock music, the Danish pop scene has started to benefit from the Music Export Denmark initiative. One of the biggest recent successes is the singer Aura who in 2010 reached the top of the charts in Germany and was doing well in the rest of Europe.[34] Another group that has progressed in Europe is Infernal with singers Lina Rafn and Paw Lagermann. Their most successful hits have been From Paris to Berlin and Ten Miles.[37] Finally, Alphabeat, now working in the UK have been successful with their increasingly retro pop hits Fascination, 10,000 Nights and The Spell.[38]

The Danish band that have had the biggest impact outside of Denmark itself is the europop group Aqua with Barbie Girl. The 1997 mega-hit became famous all over the world with the result that over the next few years Aqua sold a total of 15 million albums and 6 million singles.[39]

However, before Aqua came into the scene, the band that had set the benchmark for Danish music exports in the early and mid 90s was the pop-soft rock band Michael Learns to Rock which became the most popular international act in many Asian markets with their brand of ballads[40], and have sold nearly 9 million records in Asia[41].

One of the most popular Danish pop artists is Thomas Helmig who has won awards at the Danish Music Awards (DMA) eight times.[42]

Thomas Helmig performing in Aalborg, 2009

Denmark also participates in the annual Eurovision Song Contest, and holds its own Dansk Melodi Grand Prix competition to select the song that will represent Denmark in the Eurovision contest. Denmark has won the Eurovision Song Contest twice: first with Grethe & Jørgen Ingmann's "Dansevise" in 1963; and again with Brødrene Olsen's (Olsen Brothers) "Fly on the Wings of Love" (from the Danish Smuk Som Et Stjerneskud, literally "Beautiful as a shooting star") in 2000.[43]

The winners of the 2010 Melodi Grand Prix, Christina Chanée and Tomas N'evergreen with "In a Moment Like This" were already doing well in Eastern Europe by mid-March as their song became the most popular download in several countries.[44]

Some hit songs of Danish origin have become international hits after being covered by foreign artists. Vengaboys covered The Walkers' "Shalala Lala", Jamelia covered Christine Milton's "Superstar", Shayne Ward covered Bryan Rice's "No Promises" and Celine Dion covered Tim Christensen's "Right Next To The Right One". Different covers of Rune's "Calabria" have also been international hits.

Electronic music

Safri Duo performing in Aarhus, 2005

Else Marie Pade was a Danish pioneer in electronic music as early as the 1950s. She knew and worked with Pierre Schaeffer and Karlheinz Stockhausen and has continued to make appearances on the Danish electronica scene well into the new millennium. With his Coma parties, Kenneth Bager brought Acid house to Denmark in 1988 and was active in building a Danish club scene, moving venues from the discotheques to deserted factories and basements.[45][46] The most successful Danish electronic musician internationally is Trentemøller[47] while from a very early age Mike Sheridan has achieved success and been labelled a name of the future.[48] In the more mainstream part of the genre, Safri Duo also experienced international success with their mixture of tribal sound and electronica.

A leading Danish venue for electronic music is Culture Box in Copenhagen which is subsidised by the Ministry of Culture as a regional music venue, enabling it to keep a high artistic profile.[49] The Strøm and Copenhagen Distortion festivals are also dedicated to the capital's electronic and club music scene.[50][51]

Folk

Sebastian performing with Eivør Pálsdóttir at Tønder in 2006

Traditionally, Danish folk music has relied on a fiddle and accordion duo but, unlike its Scandinavian neighbours, Danish fiddlers almost always play in groups with few solo performance. Danish bands also tend to feature the guitar more prominently than the other Nordic countries.[52]

Fiddle and accordion duos play generally rhythmic dance music, local versions of the Nordic folk dance music. The oldest variety is called pols, and it is now mostly found on Fanø with variants such as Sønderhoning from Sønderho.[52]

The first systematic collection of popular folk songs, some of which go back centuries, was undertaken by the folklore collector Evald Tang Kristensen (1843-1929). These important sources were then transferred to the Danish Folklore Archives, established in 1904. The popular dance music tradition was continued into the 20th century by musicians such as the violinist Ewald Thomsen (1913-93).[53]

Danish traditional music experienced a renaissance when the Anglo-American folk song wave hit Denmark around 1970. Among the prominent soloists, often composing new songs, were Sebastian, Poul Dissing and Niels Hausgaard. The successful Lars Lilholt Band led by the violinist Lars Lilholt combines the folk music tradition with rock. A new and refreshing combination of techno music and medieval ballads has been provided by the group Sorten Muld since their first recording in 1996.[53]

The formation of the Danish Folk Council to actively promote folk music both at home and abroad has helped raise the profile.[54] Curiously, Danish folk music received its biggest boost from the home chart success of Sorten Muld, who used acoustic and electric instruments and electronica on old songs to create something very contemporary on its best-selling albums.[52]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Denmark - Culture - Music", Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  2. ^ The Brudevælte Lurs. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  3. ^ "Pederson, Mogens (1580–1628)", Naxos.com. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  4. ^ Louis Bobé, "Operahusets Brand paa Amalienborg den 19. April 1689", Emil Bergmanns Forlag, København 1886. (Danish) Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  5. ^ "Dietrich Buxtehude (Composer)", Bach-Cantatas.com. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  6. ^ Carsten E. Hatting, "18th and 19th Centuries: Opera and Concerts". Denmark - Culture - Music, Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  7. ^ "C.E.F. Weyse - den første danske guldalderkomponist". (Danish). Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  8. ^ "Friedrich Daniel Rudolph Kuhlau 1786-1832" (Danish) Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Factsheet Denmark - Classical Music", Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  10. ^ "The History of the Royal Danish Opera", The Royal Danish Theatre. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  11. ^ "Gamle Danske Sange - med melodi af J. P. E. Hartmann". (Danish) Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  12. ^ "Lumbye, Hans Christian", Naxos.com. Retrieved 11 March 2010
  13. ^ "Danish Choral Music", DanishMusic.info. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  14. ^ "Gade, Niels W.", Eclassical.com. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
  15. ^ "The Bourgonville website." Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  16. ^ a b "Four milestones in Danish music before 1945", DanishMusic.info. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  17. ^ "Carl Nielsen Society - Orchestral Music." Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  18. ^ "Nielsen, Maskarade : at the Royal Danish Opera, Copenhagen, 26.1.2008", MusicWeb-International. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  19. ^ "Thomas Laub og salmesangsreformen", Provisorietidens musik. (Danish) Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  20. ^ "A listening guide for those new to Langgaard". Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  21. ^ Anders Beyer, "Per Nørgård", Edition Wilhelm Hansen. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  22. ^ Malene Wichmann, "Anders Koppel", DanishMusik.info. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  23. ^ Anders Beyer, "Poul Ruders", ChesterNovello.com. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  24. ^ "Hans Abrahamsen (Born 1952)", Dacapo-Records.dk. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  25. ^ Stig Mervild, "Light Music in Denmark 1800-1960", DanishMusic.info. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  26. ^ Peter H. Larsen, "Jazz", the Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  27. ^ Kjeld Frandsen, "The Danish Jazz Scene", DanishMusik.info. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  28. ^ Danish Golden Age Jazz. DVM. Accessed September 26, 2007.
  29. ^ a b Jacob Bækgaard, "Contemporary Jazz in Denmark: Different Sounds, Different Scenes", AllAboutJazz.com
  30. ^ Jazz, Pop and Rock. Undenrigsministeriet. Accessed September 26, 2007. passim.
  31. ^ Henrik Marstal, "The Sound of Danish Rock", DanishMusic.info. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  32. ^ D-A-D website. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  33. ^ Jens Fuglsang , "The Danes Hit the Charts", DanishMusic.info. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  34. ^ a b "Music Export Denmark". Retrieved 15 March 2010
  35. ^ "Rock, pop and techno: an overview", VisitDenmark.com. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  36. ^ "Roskilde Festival throughout the years". Retrieved 15 March 2010
  37. ^ "Infernal (band)", AbsoluteAstronomy.com. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  38. ^ "Alphabeat to release second album", BBC Newsbeat. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  39. ^ Jens Fuglsang, "The Danes Hit the Charts", DanishMusic.info
  40. ^ "Hit Denmark, MLTR". 11 Sep 1999. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=oggEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT69&dq=Michael+learns+to+rock&hl=en&ei=xumgS7veO4GmrQfk68DhAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Michael%20learns%20to%20rock&f=false.  Billboard- Google Books Retrieved 18 March 2010
  41. ^ Charles Ferro & Steve Mclure (29 Jan 2005). "Danes Play, China Buys - Danish band Michael Learns to Rock sells millions in Asia". http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ZxQEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=Michael+learns+to+rock+billboard&source=bl&ots=9xPZkom2xK&sig=bRu5h_9jL8_FYy71aExR1lZAWKo&hl=en&ei=ZaycS97xI822rAepz7TfAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CAsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Michael%20learns%20to%20rock%20billboard&f=false.  Billboard- Google Books Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  42. ^ Winers of Danish Music Awards and Dansk Grammy from 1989-2008
  43. ^ "ESC-dk / Dansk grandprix historie", Melodigrandprix.net
  44. ^ "Grand prix-vindere har succes i øst", Fyens.dk. (Danish) Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  45. ^ "Kenneth Bager". Clash Music. http://www.clashmusic.com/artists/kenneth-bager. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  46. ^ "Hvad lyttede vi til i 80’erne?". Helsingør Kommunes Biblioteker. http://www.helsbib.dk/tilbud/tekst_lyd_Billede/marts08/80erne.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  47. ^ "365 interviews: Anders Trentemøller". 365Mag International Music Magazine. http://365mag.com/index.php?pg=spec&recnum=557&Title=365+Interview%3A+Anders+Trentemoeller+on+365Mag+International+Music+Magazine. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  48. ^ "Mike Sheridan: Techno Boy Wonder". All Scandinavian. http://allscandinavian.com/1050/mike-sheridan-techno-boy-wonder/. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  49. ^ "Culture Box". AOK. http://www.aok.dk/natteliv/culture-box. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  50. ^ "This is Strøm". Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  51. ^ "Distortion 2010 about". Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  52. ^ a b c http://www.moabmusicfest.org/Norse_by_NorseWest_School_Assembly Norse by Norse(West) School Assembly 2009.
  53. ^ a b Bendt Viinholt Nielsen, "Folk Music in Denmark – in brief", DanishMusic.info. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  54. ^ "The Danish Folk Council". Retrieved 15 March 2010.

Sources

  • Cronshaw, Andrew. "A New Pulse for the Pols". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp 58–63. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0

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