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Muslim Rajputs
مسلمان راجپوت
Quaidportrait.jpgMalik Umar Hayat Khan - Assistant Delhi Herald.jpgAllama Mashriqi.jpg
Bhutto 1974.jpgAmir Khan 2007.jpgSajid Mahmood 2007.jpg
1st row: , M.A Jinnah, Umar Hayat Khan, Allama Mashriqi
2st row: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Amir Khan, Sajid Mahmood
Total population
18,906,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan 16,561,000 [2]
 India 2,310,000 [3]
Languages

PunjabiSindhiSeraikiUrduEnglish

Religion

Allah-green.svg Islam

Related ethnic groups

Indo-Aryan peopleRajputsPunjabi RajputsSindhi RajputsKashmiri Rajputs

Muslim Rajputs or Musalman Rajputs (Urdu: مسلمان راجپوت) are Muslims belonging to the Rajput tribe of Pakistan and India.

Muslim Rajput avidly take parts in politics and work as Prime Ministers, Chief Ministers, Governor of provinces and official Ministers, such as Muhammad Ali Jinnah the father of Pakistan and his sister Fatima Jinnah their grandfather was Poonja Gokuldas Meghji,[4] a Bhatia, Rajput from Paneli village in Gondal state in Kathiawar. Jinnah's ancestors were Hindu Rajput that converted to Islam[5]. The founder of the Khaksar Tehrik, Allama Mashriqi was a prominent member of the Muslim Rajput family. His father, Khan Ata Mohammad Khan, had inherited a large property from his father. His ancestors had held prominent positions during the Mughal Empire. Mashriqi was a noted intellectual who became a college Principal at the age of 25, and then became an Under Secretary, at the age of 29, in the Education Department of the Government of India. He wrote an exegesis of the Qur'an which was nominated for the 1925 Nobel Prize. He was offered an Ambassadorship to Afghanistan at age 32 and Knighthood at the age of 33 years, but he declined all honors.[6] First elected prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto belongs to Bhutto clan of Sindhi Rajput tribe[7]. Who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. and his daughter Benazir Bhutto also having twice been Prime Minister of Pakistan (1988–1990; 1993–1996). M. Feroz Khan Noon the 7th Prime Minister of Pakistan belongs to Noon clan of Rajput from Sargodha, Punjab. Muhammad Khan Junejo the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan was Junejo Rajput from Tharparkar, Sindh. In Azad Kashmir's political scene, the Rajputs have been major players. Arguably the leading politician in Azad Kashmir is Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan belongs to Kashmiri Rajput tribe who served as Prime Minister and President of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Late Raja Mumtaz Hussain Rathore, former Prime Minister of Azad Jammu and Kashmir was another prominent Rajput leader of Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Contents

History

The term Rajput is traditionally applied to the original Suryavanshi, Chandravanshi and Agnivanshi clans, the ancient ruling dynasties of South Asia.

Muslim conquest of South Asia

The history of the Muslim Rajput coincides with the Muslim Conquest of South Asia. At the time of arrival of Islam, the north and western regions of South Asia were ruled by Rajput clans. The Rajputs and Muslim armies fought many battles for the control of South Asia. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni conquered the regal power of Rajput Maharaja Jayapala Shahi of the North Western South Asian region by 1026, through successive battles.

Towards the end of the 13th century Sultan Muiz-uldin Muhammad of Ghor conquered Delhi after defeating last defence of the Rajputs, by Maharaja Prithvi Raj Chauhan and established the Muslim empire by 1206.

In 1527, the Muslim Janjua Rajput clan aided the Mughal conquest of South Asia by taking part in the Imperial Mughal armies as Generals.[8] It must also be mentioned here that Hindu Rajputs also took part in these conquests as allies and even took part in marriages with the Mughals such as the Kachwaha Rajput Clan (who had to give Rani Jodhabai's hand to Mughal Emperor Akbar), Raja Man Singh aided Emperor Akbar in 1568 against the Sesodias.

The Mughal princes and Emperors had maternal Rajput blood. Emperor Muazzam Shah Alam Bahadar Shah's mother was a Muslim Rajput Nawab Bai Begum Sahiba (second wife of Emperor Aurangzeb) being the daughter of Raja Taj-ud-Din Jarral (Raja Chatar Shena Jarral) the late Raja of Rajauri, in Kashmir. Crown Prince Salim's mother was a Kachwaha Rajput princess, the sister of Jaipur's Maharaja Man Singh Kachwaha.

Conversion to Islam

Many Rajput clans were converted to Islam during the early 12th century and were given the title of Shaikh (elder of the tribe) by the Arab or Mirza by the Mughal rulers. Since conversion Rajput clans have remained loyal to their faith. Rajputs were converted to Islam by the Muslim Sufis missionaries of the famed Chistiya, Qadriya orders and many others. Rai Tulsi Das was converted to Islam by Makhdoom Jahania Jahangasht of Uch Sharif in 1323 AD and named Sheikh Sirajuddin alias Sheikh Chachu who established his independant state (District Ludhiana) given to him by Emperor Alauddin.[9][10].[11] Some conversions also took place for political reasons. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal dynasty encouraged the martial Rajput clans to convert to Islam. Conversions to Islam continued into the 19th century period of the British Raj.

The fact of subsequent conversion to other faiths, did not deprive them of this heritage; just as the Greeks, after their conversion to Christianity, did not lose pride in the mighty achievements of their ancestors, of the Italians in the great days of the Roman Republic and early empire... Christians, Jews, Parsees, Moslems. Indian converts to these religions never ceased to be Indian on account of a change of their faith....

—From The Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru[12]

Nehru also mentioned his own personal experience with Muslim Rajputs as he grew up, "I grew to know; the Rajput peasant and petty landholder, still proud of his race and ancestry, even though he might have changed his faith and adopted Islam." More importantly he bears testament to the fact that despite his change of faith, a Rajput is still a Rajput.[13]

The general conversion of the Muslim Rajputs from Hinduism is supposed to have taken place towards the end of the 13th or early 14th century AD. The Muslim conquests undoubtedly accelerated this change of religion, but the preaching of several renowned Muslim saints, especially Baba Farid of Pakpattan, whose eloquence drew large numbers to hear him, helped considerably to this end...

—From Punjabi Musalmans by J.M.Wikeley[14]

Jawaharlal Nehru made mention of Islam's mass appeal, "...The impact of the invaders of the north-west and Islam on India had been considerable. It pointed out and shown up the abuses that had crept up into Hindu society-the petrifaction of caste, untouchability, exclusiveness carried to fantastic lengths. The idea of brotherhood of Islam and of the theoretical equality of its adherents made a powerful appeal, especially those of the Hindu fold who were denied any semblance of equal treatment..."[15]

He further stated the conversions of Hindu upper castes to Islam, "Some individuals belonging to the higher castes also adopted the new faith, because for political economic reasons because of fear... though all their social structure was based on the group (caste/social class), in matters of religion they were highly individualistic.... It is worth noting as a rule, conversions to Islam were group conversions to protect their entire race...Among the upper castes individuals may change their religion...almost an entire village would convert... group life as well as well as their functions continued as before with only minor variations with regards worship etc."[16]

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Recent conversions and ethos

Regarding their rule as Muslim Rajput chiefs of multi-faith subjects, it is recorded in the Jhelum District Gazetteer "thoroughly convinced of the truth of their own Islamic creed, though they are by no means intolerant or fanatical."[17]

The Rajput conversions attracted criticism from their Hindu counterparts. In fact a testimony of the steadfast practice of Islam by the Muslim Rajputs;

By and large, the only converts who keep the prescriptions of the (Islamic) Faith intact are the Muslim Rajputs

—From Looking back on India by Hubert Evans[18]

There is an interesting case of this happening up until the recent British Raj era of India's history which established a precedent in their government. In the state of Rajgarh, the ruling Rajput Chief began to show a tendency towards Islam and got into difficulties with his Hindu caste peers over this. This occurred during the period of Sir John Lawrence's Viceroy period. His open following of Islamic traditions had infuriated his peers and feelings were so strong against him that he chose to abdicate the royal throne and retire to his new found faith. The subsequent inquiry against him however showed that he was a good ruler and no misgovernment was charged against him and his subjects were satisfied with his rule. A year later this Rajput chief openly declared the Kalima (Muslim affirmation of embracing Islam) and renounced the Hindu faith. His sons also joined him. This case established for the British Raj the precedent that no leader or ruler can be replaced simply because of his change of creed. Regardless of the feelings of his peers, it was the quality of his rule that mattered.[19]

There is also recorded instances of recent conversions of Rajputs to Islam in Western Uttar Pradesh, Khurja tahsil of Bulanshahr.[20]

But despite the difference in faith, where the question has arisen of Common Rajput honour, there have been instances where both Muslim and Hindu Rajputs have united together against threats from external ethnic groups.[21]

Muslim Gautama Thakurs

An interesting example is also of the Gautamana Thakurs Gautama is the gotra of Kshatriya Rajputs of Uttar Pradesh, India.Gautama Maharishi is one of the Saptarishis (Seven Great Sages Rishi) He was one of the Maharishis of Vedic times, known to have been the discoverer of Mantras -- 'Mantra-drashtaa', in Sanskrit. The kshatriyas consisting of both Hindus and Muslims, co exist as a single tribe, supported each other staunchly through the Pre Partition Communal riots and have continued their respect towards one another despite the two distinct faiths of Islam and Hinduism.[22]

Beliefs and customs of Muslim Rajputs

Change of name

A custom during these conversions was to adopt a new name to reflect their change of faith. Many Rajput kings changed their names, but also retained their ancestral/lineal titles such as tribal Clan names. This sense of identity has never been lost and Islam did in fact support and recognize "tribal identity".

Marriages

Hindu Rajput code dictates that Rajputs can only marry amongst other Rajputs thats why Mostly Muslim Rajputs still marry into other Muslim Rajputs only.. However, tradition of marriages into only one group or clan because of caste reasons is not permitted in Islam. This led to a great change in the traditional Rajput marital policy. Muslim Rajputs therefore started to marry from other dominant aristocratic Muslim clans. This was to continue the tradition of royal/strategic marriages without prejudice to Rajput affiliation. This was further realized when some major Rajput clans of Punjab intermarried into other clans of foreign descent. However, Mostly Muslim Rajputs still follow the custom of only marrying into other Muslim Rajput clans only.

Being recent converts to Islam from a culturally Rajput background, there was very little difference between Rajasthani and Uttar Pradeshi Hindu and Muslim Rajputs (outside of religious practices)[23]. Hence up until recently, marriages between Muslim and Hindu Rajputs also took place.India's Literary History by Stuart H. Blackburn, Vasudha Dalmia, Orient Longman, 2004, p26</ref>

Genealogical family trees

This is a strong tradition that exists amongst the most distinguished of Rajputs of all faiths, the recording of family names and continuance of the family tree. Muslim Rajputs of prominence hold and continue to record their genealogical trees since their Hindu past even after their conversion to Islam, to the present day. The less distinguished Rajputs or claimants of Rajput heritage will more than likely not have ancestral records of family lineage.

Inheritance

A reference to certain customs of inheritance and marriage of Muslim Rajputs is mentioned on this link in relation to Hindu Rajputs and other tribes.[24]

Demographics

The 1931 census of British India was the last to record caste affiliation in a manner that provides reliable information on Rajput demographics. Any present-day estimates are therefore speculative; they also vary widely.

The 1931 census reported a total of 10.7 million people self-describing as Rajput. Of this population, about 8.6 million people also self-described as being Hindu, about 2.1 million as being Muslim Rajput and about 50,000 as being Sikh Rajput by religion.

The Joshua Project reported that 16,561,000 Pakistani's describing as Muslim Rajputs about 10% of the total population of Pakistan.[2] Largest Provinces on file the Punjab (8,969,000), the Sindh (4,720,000), the Azad Kashmir (643,000), the Islamabad (223,000), the North-West Frontier Province (174,000), the Balochistan (37,000).

Major languages spoken by the Muslim Rajputs of Pakistan: Punjabi, Western (7,459,000 speakers), Sindhi (2,671,000), Seraiki (1,592,000), Urdu (1,458,000).

As well as Pakistan Joshua Project also reported that 2,310,000 of Indian describing as Muslim Rajputs.[3] Largest States on file the Uttar Pradesh (1,528,000), the Jammu and Kashmir (176,000), the Haryana (161,000), the Rajasthan (91,000), the Delhi (68,000), the Uttarakhand (65,000), the Gujarat (57,000), the Punjab (28,000), the Maharashtra (28,000), the Andhra Pradesh (17,000).

Major Languages Spoken by the Muslim Rajputs of India. Urdu (1,725,000 Speakers), Kashmiri (73,000), Panjabi, Eastern (72,000), Marwari (63,000), Gujarati (39,000).

Titles

Some Muslim Rajputs use the title of honor Jam: Jaam. Jam is considered as true spellings but pronounced as Jaam . Jam means having the royal competency or Prince Equal to Rajput. and almost all Muslim Rajputs use the title of Jam to call someone honorably.

Majority of Muslim Rajputs use their ancient Royal titles such as Raja, Rana, Rao and Rai. All these titles are originated from the ancient Sanskrit word Rajanya.

Many Muslim Rajputs were also conferred titles by the Delhi Sultans and the Mughal Emperors such as Sultan (king), Malik (Royal, King), Nawab ( Provincial Governor), Sirdar (Chief), Khan, Mian and Mirza (Royal prince), Sheikh (elder of the tribe), after embracing Islam.

  • Raja: It was not uncommon for such titles to continue down the line of descent. Although the majority of Muslim Rajputs use Raja as their ancestral title.this is the main and this is the highest title in pakistan.
  • Rao: The majority of Raos in Pakistan are Muslim Punwar (Pawar) Rajputs. Raos can be found all across Pakistan and are found in large numbers in the Punjab Province. Raos are the brave people of the country as the majority of Raos are in Army forces of Pakistan. Rao in Rajasthan called Jagirdar.
  • Rai: Rai was a title of honor for certain Manj Rajput rulers, like Rai Kalha, the ruler of Raikot State-Ludhiana 1705 AD. The title today is found mostly in the Pakistani province of Punjab.
  • Kunwar: (pronounced Koo-war) Hindu Janjuas use the title of Kunwar with their names. The variation of the pronounced word, Kanwar is also used by Muslim Janjuas also. Kanwar Muhammad Dilshad being the Secretary of the Election Commission of Pakistan.
  • Khan: Khan or Khaan. the title of Khaan. It is also spelled as Khaan. Khaan is considered as true speelings because it is خاں in Urdu. Khaan means the royal blood or Prince Equal to Rajput. so, originally it is Khaan. almost all Muslim Rajputs use the title of Khaan or Khan instead of Singh Title.
  • Sirdar: This title is manily used by the Sikh Minhas Rajputs. However, lately some Muslim Minhas Rajput clans in Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab Sialkot & Chakwal have also started using this title due to various reasons.
  • Sultan: The Janjua Rajputs of Jhelum were bestowed the title of Sultan, currently still used and recognised in Kusuk, Watli and the Sultan of Makhiala. It was bestowed upon the Houses of Watli and Makhiala by Emperor Babur is only used by the one head man of each Dynasty respectively.[25] The current Sultan of Watli Fort and riyasat of Watli being Raja Sultan Azmat Hayat Janjua.
  • Nawab: The title Nawab was conferred on the ruler of the Darapur State, Malik Talib Mehdi Khan. His current descendants use the title as Nawabzada since the abolition of Princely States in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Current chief of the famed Darapur Dynasty being, Nawabzada Iqbal Mehdi Khan.
  • Mirza: Some also adopted the Persian title of Mirza instead of Rajput to distinguish their Muslim identity from their previous Hindu one as it is a Persian word meaning prince of the blood, the equivalent of Raj-putra. Although the Rajputs of the Jarral dynasty were ordained as Mirza's after their intermarriage with the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir. That lineage today resides in Saman Burj, Wazirabad and some continue to use Mirza as prefix but the majority descendents of Jarral Rajputs continue to use Raja as recognised by the Queen.
  • Malik: The title Malik (meaning prince) is used by a branch of the Jhelum Jodh branch of Janjua. Malik Darwesh Khan and Malik Hast (Asad) were known by these titles. Janjuas of Shadia Dist Mianwali are also referred to as Malik. (They are in dominance in Shadia and have the following sub clans; Mulkai Khel, Pattu Khel, Aziz Khel, Longi, Musi, Shah Mir Khel, Janu Khel, Ahmed Khel, Shah-wali Khel, Mehrwan Khel, Zaid Khel, Malu Khel and Sikandri Janjua.
  • Sheikh: Many Rajput clans had converted to Islam during the early 12th century and were given the honorary title of Sheikh (elder of the tribe) by the sufi saints due whom they embraced Islam.Sheikh rajputs were the earliest in Rajputs to embrace Islam.
  • Mian: This title was conferred upon the 'Punjab Hill Chiefs' by the Mughal King, Jhangir and was used by most of the Rajput tribes in the Punjab Hills for many centuries. The elder brother was called Raja, whereas his younger brothers were called Mian. Lately, the Rajputs have decided to use 'Thakur' instead of this Mughal title.
  • chaudhri in East and West Punjab chaudhari is a famous title a lot of rajputs.e.g.Bhatti,Manj, Naru,Ghorewah,Minhas,Khokhar etc.the most popular rajput today is chief justice Iftekhar Muhammad Chaudhri.

British Raj references of Muslim Rajputs

A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province based on the census report for the Punjab, 1883 written by Sir Denzil Ibbetson has reference to the Mangral Rajput. Under Western Rajputs, he writes that "The third Group is the Rajpoots of the western hills including the Salt Range Tract, comprising both dominant tribes of proud position such as Janjua and Mongrel Rajpoots from the Jammu hills" [26]

During the British era, the English quickly recognised the martial spirit of the Muslim Rajput and conferred great respect on their prominent clans and also documented their presence in the British army, praising their Martial traditions and abilities.

The Bais Rajputs of Awadh were describe as the

"Best dressed and housed people of southern Oudh.

[27] Nearly half of Bais Rajputs to day are Muslim.

In 1922 there is a mention of Muslim Rajputs having their own regiments as well as taking part in other famous regiments;

  • 18th Musalman Rajput regiment [28]
  • Punjabi Musalmans [29]
  • 35th Scinde Horse [30]
  • 36th Jacob's Horse [31]
  • 17th Musalman Rajput regiment of Wana, Bengal Army
  • Mauritius 18th Muslim Rajput regiment [32]

The Jhelum District Gazetteer[33] states clearly the esteem of the Muslim Rajput tribes of Janjua and Tiwana;

"the recruiting ground par excellence for Punjábi Musalmáns...The Janjúas of the Salt Range are considered second to none in martial spirit and tradition, and with the Tiwánás form the élite of the Punjábi Musalmáns

Sir Lepel H. Griffin [34] states;

The Janjuahs furnish excellent Cavalry recruits.... The Janjua clan are famous Muslim Rajputs of the Punjab region

Many Muslim Bais Rajputs were also recognised in the British Raj from Oudh, Lucknow, Punjab and Kashmir. The soldiers of the Bais Rajput were also given the title 'Bhale Sultan' due to their bravery on the battle field and were also well known for their tank building. More can be seen in the article Bais Rajput.

Sardar Bahadur Lieutenant Colonel Raja Atta Ullah Khan Jarral of Rajaur'and later Wazirabad' - He served in the Hodson's Horse and 9th and 10th Bengal Lancers. Wounded many a time and was a highly decorated soldier of his time. He was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and from the year 1885–1891, was designated as the British Envoy (Ambassador) to Afghanistan. He was also conferred the title of Sardar Bahadur by the British Raj. Punjab Chiefs (Lahore 1909, p100) notes, "(he) received Orders of Merit and of British India. In special acknowledgement of his services, a grant of 600 acres (2.4 km2) in Rukhanwala, Tahsil Kasur, Lahore, was made to him and his heirs in perpetuity." He was highly respected by the British who further granted him the personal title of Raja also.

Sardar Bahadur Malik Jahan Khan Tiwana - of Jahanabad, established a reputation as valiant, gallant and faithful in his time, being conferred also the titles of, "... Sardar Bahadur for conspicuous bravery and merit..."[35]

Sardar Bahadur Captain Hussain Baksh Khan Janjua - was a decorated and highly respected Chief during the British Raj. He was conferred the title of Sardar Bahadur for his bravery and courage.[36]

All above, indicating a strong and continued martial tradition even into the present day with high ranking military officers listed in the below sections.

Rajput of the Punjab Hill States and Kashmir

History of the Panjab Tribes by J. Hutchinson and J.P.Vogel lists a total of 22 states (16 Hindu and 6 Muslim) that formed the State of Jammu following the conquest of Kashmir by Raja Ranjit Singh in 1820. Of these 6 Muslim states, two (Kotli and Punch) were ruled by Mangrals, two (Bhimber and Khari-Khariyala) were ruled by Chibs one (Rajouri) was ruled by the Jarrals and one (Khashtwar) was ruled by the Khashtwaria. Of these 22 states, 21 formed a pact with Ranjit Singh and formed the State of Jammu. Only Poonch ruled by the Mangrals retained a state of semi-autonomy. Following the War of 1947 Poonch was divided and is now split between Pakistan Administered Kashmir Poonch District (AJK) and Indian Administered Kashmir Poonch.[37]

As stated in History of the Panjab Hill States by J.Hutchinson and J.P. Vogel;

"Kotli was founded about the fifteenth century by a branch of the royal family of Kashmir.Kotli and Punch remained independent until subdued by Ranjit Singh in 1815 and 1819 respectively."

Martial traditions

The Punjabi Rajputs has a long martial tradition which has continued into modern times. Punjabi Rajputs, being recognised in history as the warrior aristocracy, prior to this they were designated by the British Empire as a Martial Race and recruited into the Imperial Army. Muslim Rajputs naturally engaged in the Pakistani military in strong numbers, reaching ranks of Generals and the highest grade of Chief of Staff such as 7th Chief of Army Staff General Tikka Khan, Narma, Rajput and the 10th Chief of Army Staff General Asif Nawaz Khan Janjua.

Some of the most respected officers of the Pakistan Army including its first General, PA 1, Muhammed Akbar Khan (Order of the British Empire), PA 2 General Muhammad Iftikhar Khan(designated to become the first C-in-C, but died in an aircrash), PA 12 Brig.General Muhammed Zafar(first Indian to become Commander of Cavalary) and PA 48 General Muhammad Anwar Khan (Pakistan's first E-in-C) all hail from this clan. General Anwar is considered the father of Pakistan's Corps of Engineers, and also served as Chairman OGDC.

Top military awards

Daily Mirror Khudadad Khan was awarded Victoria Cross, the first native Indian to receive this honour

Members of Punjabi Rajput tribes have the honour of receiving top military awards both in British India and in Pakistan. Khudadad Khan VC (20 October 1888 – 8 March 1971) was the first Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest military award for gallantry in the face of the enemy given to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the first native-born Indian to win the Victoria Cross]

Victoria Cross

On 31 October 1914, at Hollebeke, Belgium, 26-year old Khan performed an act of bravery for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross during the First World War.

Hilal-e-Kashmir

Hilal-e-Kashmir is equal to Nishan-e-Haider. Saif Ali Janjua Shaheed received Hilal-e-Kashmir. He fought in the Kashmir sector during the 1948 War and embraced martyrdom.

Nishan-e-Haider

Five Rajputs was awarded Pakistan's top military honour, the Nishan-E-Haider .

Major Muslim Rajput clans

Here is a brief description of the major Muslim Rajput clans, set out by province, starting with the Punjab.

Punjab

The Hon. Major General Nawab Malik Umar Hayat Khan as an Honorary Lieutenant of the 18th King George's Own Lancers, early 20th century (watercolour by Major A.C. Lovett (1862-1919)
President Pervez Musharraf administers the oath of the office of the Chief Justice of Pakistan to Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry in 2005. he belongs to Ghorewaha clan of Rajput.

See also Punjabi Rajput

According to the 1901 Census of India, the total Rajputs population in the Punjab was 1,798,000.[38], of which 1,347,000 (75%) were Muslim. Traditionally, in the plains of Punjab, most of the Rajput clans had converted to Islam, while those of Punjab hills (modern Himachal Pradesh) remained Hindu.[39]

Punjabi Rajput are vast holding landlords of Punjab. The members of Punjabi Rajput tribes are landowners, businessmen and they play an active role in politics and bureaucracy. In 1947, during the independence, almost all Punjabi Muslim Rajputs of India moved to Pakistan.

Alpial

The Alpial clan is found mainly in Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock District& Rawalpindi. The Alpial are a clan of the Manj Rajputs. The Alpials use the titles of Chaudhary & Raja.

Baghela

The Baghela are a Suryavanshi clan of Rajputs. In Punjab, they occupy a few villages in Kamalia. The use the title Mehr.

Baghial

The Baghial clan is found mainly in Rawalpindi District. They are a clan of the Parmara Rajputs. The use the title Raja.

Bangial

The Bangial are tribe found mainly in the Potohar region of Punjab and also in the Mirpur District of Azad Kashmir . Those of Rawalpindi District consider themselves Rajputs, while those in Jhelum and Gujrat consider themselves as Jats. This not uncommon in the Potohar region. The Rajput branch uses the title Raja. In addition to those in the Potohar region, the Bangial tribe is also found in Thal desert, especially Darya Khan in Bhakkar District. These use the title Malik. The Bangial are a clan of the Parmara Rajputs.

Bargujar

There are two Muslim branches of the Bargujar clan, one of which was found in the Gurgaon District, in modern Haryana. After the independence in 1947, these Bargujar settled in Okara and Sahiwal District. They use the title Rao. Another Muslim branch, which remains in India are the Lalkhanis of Aligarh District in Uttar Pradesh, to which belongs the famous family of the Nawabs of Chathari.

Bargujar families from Rohtak (village Beri) settled in larkana and karachi who are in large numbers now they have relatives settled in punjab near multan and khanewal these families belong to a same ancestor called eddu who was the son of juma a Muslim elder of Bargujars in their ancestral village.In other parts of Sindh, there are families of Muslim Lalkhani among the Urdu speaking Mohajirs in Karachi

Bhachar

The Bhachar are a clan of Khokhar Rajputs, found mainly in in and around the town of Wan Bhachran in Mianwali District. They use the title Malik.

Bhakral

The Bhakral are found in the Potohar region, in Jhelum and Rawalpindi Districts. They claim to be a clan of the Parmara Rajputs. Like all Potohar Rajputs, they use the title Raja.

Bhao

The Bhao are found in Gujrat District of Punjab,and Bhimber District of Azad Kashmir. The Bhao are Dogras, and are a clan of the Raghbansi Rajputs. Like the Chibs, whom they closely resemble, the use Raja as title.

Bharat

The Bharat are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan. They are found in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. Some historians consider them to last remnants of the ancient clan of the Bharatas, the clan of the Pandav. They use the title Raja.

Bhatti

The largest Rajput tribe in the Punjab, found in every district of that province. They are a Chandravanshi clan, claim descent from Krishna. Prior to the independence, the Bhatti were found in almost all the districts of the British province, barring the extreme south east. Many other clans such as the Sidhu Jats, among other claim Bhatti descent. Those of Potohar use the title Raja, those from Jalandhar and Ludhiana use the title Rai or Rana. Specially Bhatti Rajputs from Riyasat Kapurthala uses the Title of Rana along With Khaan or Khan, while those of Pindi Bhattian and Chakwal use the title Chawdhary. A lot of Bhatti Rajputs use the title of Khan or Khaan as well.

Bhutta

Found in south west Punjab, especially atround Multan, the Bhutta are a Suryavanshi clan. They use the title Malik or Chaudhray. They should not be confused with the Bhutta clan of the Arain tribe, which is entirely distinct.

Chadhar

The Chadhar are a Parmara clan, and found through out southern Punjab. The Jhang Chadhars call themselves Rajputs, and use the title Chaudhary. But the Chadhars of Gujranwala, Sargodha and Jhelum consider themselves to be Jat.

Chattar

The Suryavanshi clan found in Chiniot, Gujrat, Kharian, Lalamusa, Sri alamgir, Kallar Syedan and Azad Kashmir. Chattaris use the titles of Raja or Thakar, while some were given honorary titles of Sheikh or Malik after embracing Islam. Chattaris of Jammu region are classified as Dogra Rajputs.

Chib

The Chib are a clan of the Katoch Rajputs of Kangra, and are Dogras. They are found in Bharot Sharif and the Kharian Tehsil of Gujrat District, and to the north and east of Mirpur in the old hill states of Azad Kashmir, Like other Rajputs of these regions, they use Raja as their title.

Chandel

The Chandel are a Chandravanshi clan, historically found in the Doaba and Malwa regions of Indian Punjab. Like other East Punjab clans, they emigrated to Pakistan after partition. The use the title Rana.

Chauhan

The Chauhan are a widespread clan, and together with Parmar, come from the Agnivanshi branch of the Rajputs. The Chauhans were also one of the main clans of the old Punjab, who had almost entirely converted to Islam. There were only a few Hindu villages left in the Gurgaon District of India.

The Chauhans found in Attock, Rawalpindi and Jhelum of the Potohar region use the title Raja. The Chauhans of Lahore, Sheikhupura as well as those once settled in Amritsar and Jalandhar use the title Rana. The Chauhans form the main element of the Ranghar of Haryana. Like other Haryana Muslims, they emigrated to Pakistan. They use the title Rao.

Daulatana

The Daulatana are a clan of Johiya Rajputs. They are found in Vehari District. They use Mian as a title.

Dhamial Rajputs

The Dhamial are a clan of the Janjua Rajputs. They are found mainly in Rawalpindi District, a few families are also found in Jhelum. Like other Potohar tribes, they have both Rajput and Jat section. The Dhamial of Mirpur District, and Jhelum district areJ at.

Dhudhi

The Dhudhi are a clan of Parmara Rajputs. They are found mainly in Sargodha, Jhang, Faisalabad, Multan and Khanewal districts. Like other Rajput clans of southern Punjab, they use Rai,Rana & Mian as a title.

Gaharwal

The Gaharwal are a clan of the Janjua Rajputs. They are found in the Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. They use the title Raja.

Ghorewaha

Perhaps the largest of the central Punjab clans, found historically in Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar and Ludhiana districts. They are a clan of the Kachwaha Rajputs. After the division of the Punjab, in 1947, they all migrated to Pakistan. However, two Hindu branchs of the tribe are still found in Nawanshahr (Jadla) and Hoshiarpur. They are now found mainly in Faisalabad District, Sargodha, Silanwali and use the title Rana.

Hattar

The Hattar are a branch of the Bhatti Rajputs. They are found mainly in Chakwal, Jhelum, Sargodha and Attock districts. The Pothohar branch use Raja as the title, while those of Sargodha and Mandi Bahauddin use Malik as a title.

Hon

The Hon or Hoon are a branch of the Parmara Rajputs. Found mainly in the Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. Like other Potohar Rajputs, they use the title Raja.

Jalap

The Jalap are a clan of Khokhar Rajputs, found in Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil of Jhelum District. They use the title Raja.

Jamra

The Jamra are a clan of the Samma, found mainly in Rajanpur District. They use the title Malik.

Janjua

One of the most important of the Potohar Rajput clans. They are found in Jhelum, Chakwal, Khushab and Rawalpindi Districts. They generally use the title Raja, but certain families have the additional title of Sultan.

Jarral

The only rajput royal lineage in Punjab, are the Jarrals found in Wazirabad Tehsil of Gujranwala District. They ruled Princely State of Rajaur for over 650 years that at one time included Munawar near Marala-Poonch-Bhimber-Khairkhyali and Reasi one of the largest Punjab Hill States. They are not a Dogra clan but have fought Dogras and subdued them for many centuries. Some use the title Raja, while others uniquely among Rajputs, use the title Mirza given by Mughal Emperor Akbar.Princess Nawab Bai Begum Sahiba, a jarral rajput princess (Rajauri) was wife of Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir and mother of Emperor Moazzam Shah Alam-1.

Jasgam

A Rajput clan found in Gujar Khan , Kotli Sattian and Kallar Syedan tehsils of Rawalpindi District. They use the title Raja.

Jaswal

The Jaswal are a Katoch clan, who are overwhelmingly Hindu. The Muslim section lived in Hoshiarpur District. They emigrted to Pakistan, after partion. They use the title Mian.

Jatal

A Bhatti Rajput clan, found in the Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. Like other Potohar Rajputs, they use the title Raja.

Jatu

The Jatu are a Tonwar clan, found mainly in what is now Haryana state. They now form part of the Ranghar community settled in Okara, Kasur and Multan districts. They use the title Rao.

Jodhra

The pre-eminent Rajput clan of the Attock District, to which belong the Maliks of Pindigheb. They use the title Malik.

Johiya

One of 36 original clans of Rajputs, belonging to the Chandravanshi division. Historically found as far east as Sirsa, in what is now Haryana, to Mianwali in the west of Punjab. The Firozpur, Fazilka and Sirsa Johiya use Rana as a title, while the Johiya of southern Punjab and those of Sargodha and Mianwali, use Malik as a title.

Kanyal

The Kanyal are a clan of Minhas Rajputs. They are found mainly in Jhelum District and Gujar Khan Tehsil. Like some other Potohar clans, they have both Rajput and Jat sections. The Rajput section uses Raja as a title, whilst the Jats use the traditional Jat title of Chaudhary.

Kathia

The Kathia are a clan of the Parmara Rajputs. They are found mainly in Sahiwal, Khanewal, Vehari and Jhang Districts. The use Mehr as a title.

Kharal

The Kharal are a clan of Agnivanshi clan of Rajputs. They are found mainly in Okara, Vehari, Khanewal, Faisalabad and Sahiwal districts. Prior to independence, there were several Kharal villages in Jalandhar and Firozpur districts of Indian Punjab. They use the title Rai.

Khichi

The Khichi are a clan of Chauhan Rajputs. They are found mainly in Vehari, Sahiwal, Khanewal, Jhang and Sargodha districts. They use Malik as a title.

Khokhar

One of the largest Rajput tribes in Punjab. Historically the Khokhar were found in Lahore, Gujranwala, Kasur, Sialkot and Gujrat districts of central Punjab and Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur, Amritsar and Jallandhar districts of East Punjab. Most of the East Punjab Khokhars emigrated to Pakistan after the partition of British India. The Khokhars of central and eastern Punjab use Rana as a title. Smaller numbers of Khokhars can also be found in Sargodha, Multan, Mianwali, Jhang and Sahiwal districts, these Khokhars use Malik as a title. Finally, the Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil, of Jhelum District is home to a prominent family, who use the title Raja.

Langrial

The Langrial according to some traditions are of Brahmin ancestry, according to others they are a Bhatti clan. Those of Rawalpindi District consider themselves to be Rajputs, while those in other districts

Lodhra

The Lodhra are a clan of the Minhas Rajputs. They are found entirely in Lodhran District, the town of Lodhran is named after the tribe.

Mahaar

The Mahaar are a Chandravanshi Rajput clan. They are found all along the valley of the Sutlej river, in Okara, Sahiwal, and Lodhran districts. They were also found in Sirsa, this branch of was known as the Sanwrepotre. Like other Haryana Muslim Rajputs, the migrated to Pakistan, after independence. The Mahaar are distinct from the Mahar, another Rajput tribe of Chandravanshi ancestry, who are found mainly in Sindh and southern Punjab.

Mangral

The Mangral, are a Rajput clan originating from the Jangladesh region of Rajastan and the historical founders and rulers of the Panjub Hills States of Kotli and Poonch.

In Punjab they are to be found in Gujrat and Rawalpindi districts. They use the title Raja.

Manj

The Manj are a Bhatti Chandravanshi clan. Historically, they were found in Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Amritsar and Hoshiarpur districts. There were and still are a few villages in Lahore District. Like other Muslim Rajputs of East Punjab, they migrated to Pakistan after the independence. They are now found in Sheikhupura, Faisalabad, Okara, Sahiwal and Toba Tek Singh districts. They use the title of Rai,Rana,Raja and Chaudary. They are Said to be Bhatti Rajputs.

Marral

The Marral are a clan of Chauhan Rajputs. Found in Jhang and Bahawalpur. They use the title Malik.

Meo

The Meo are a clan of Jadubansi Rajputs, claiming descent from Krishna. They were and many are still found in the Mewat region of India. The districts of Gurgaon, Alwar and Bharatpur formed the Mewat region. After independence, many Meos became refugees. In Punjab, they are found in Narowal, Lahore, Kasur and Okara districts. They use the title Chawdhary.

Minhas

The Minhas are a Suryavanshi clan, and are Dogras. The Hindu branch provided the Maharajas of Jammu and Kashmir. Prior to independence, the districts of Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur were home to a large number of Muslim Minhas. In what became Pakistani territory, they were and are found in numbers in Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts, which all bordered Jammu and Kashmir. The Mair Minhas, are found in Chakwal District, while the Manes and Lodhra branches were found in south Punjab. The Sialkot and East Punjab Minhas used Mian as a title, and so do the Manes and Lodhra. The Mair Minhas use Chawdhary as a title, while the Gujrat and Potohar Minhas use Raja as a title.

Nagyal

The Nagyal are a Minhas clan. They are found mainly in Rawalpindi and Jhelum Districts. Like other Potohar clans, they have both a Rajput & Jat section. The Rajput section uses Raja as a title, whilst the Jats use the traditional Jat title of Chaudhary.

Narma

The Narma are a Parmara Rajput clan. They are found in Gujrat, Jhelum and Rawalpindi districts. Like other Potohar Rajputs, they use Raja as a title.

Naru

The Naru are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan. Historically found in Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Ludhiana and Ambala districts. Like other Muslim Rajputs, they emigrated to Pakistan after independence. Now found in Sargodha, Faisalabad, Sahiwal, Okara and Sheikhupura districts. They use Rana as a title.

Naul

The Naul are a clan of the Bhatti Rajputs. They are found in Kasur, Sahiwal, Okara, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahib and Jhang Districts. They use Mehr as a title.

Noon

The Noon are a clan of the Bhatti Rajputs. They are found in Sargodha, Multan and Bhakkar. The Sargodha Noon use Malik as a title, and have historically been connected with the Tiwana tribe. The Multan and Bhakkar Noon use Rana as a tiyle.

Pahur

The Pahur or Pahor or Pahore are a clan of Chandravanshi Rajputs. They are found in Chachran, Mauza Pahoran, Hasanabad, Zahir Pir, Khan Pur, Rahim Yar Khan, Bhawal Pur, Melsi and Rajanpur Districts. They use Khan or Jam or Malik as title.

Panhwar

The Panwhar or Parmara or sometimes Puar are one of the four Agnivanshi clans of the Rajputs. In Punjab, they were found in four clusters, those of central punjab, who were found in Lahore, Amritsar and Firozpur districts. These used the tile Rana. As with other Muslim Rajputs, those of Amritsar and Firozpur emigrated to Pakistan.

The Panwhar of found among the Seraiki speaking community in Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan. They used Malik as title. In Haryana, the Panwhar or Puar were after the Chauhan, the principal tribe. They used Rao as a title. They have all emigrated to Pakistan, after 1947, and are found in Okara, Kasur and Sahiwal districts.

And finally, in Jhelum, there were a few villages in the Pabbi hill, who use the title Raja.

In addition to the Panwhar proper, a number of clans such as the Sial and Tiwana are of Panwhar descent.

Pathania

The Pathania are Chandravanshi Rajputs. This clan is overwhelmingly Hindu, with there being only two villages of Muslim Pathania in Gurdaspur District. Like other Muslim Rajput clans, after partition, they emigrated and settled in Pakistan. They use the title Mian.

Pundir

The Pundir are a Suryavanshi clan. They were found in the Yamuna valley in Karnal and Ambala districts. Like other Haryana clans, the emigrated to Pakistan. They use the title Rao.

Ranghar

The term Ranghar is used to collectively describe the Muslim Rajputs, of what is now Haryana state in India. They mainly belong to the Bargujar, Bhatti, Chauhan, Johiya, Mandahar, Panhwar, Pundir and Tonwar clans. Almost all these clans used Rao as a title. The Ranghar are now found in Okara, Kasur, Bhakkar, Mandi Bahauddin and Multan districts.

Ranial Rajputs

The Ranial or Arnial, are a branch of the Janjua rajputs. Found in Rawalpindi District of Punjab and the Islamabad Capital Territory. They use Raja as a title.

Ratial

The Ratial is a clan of the Katoch Rajputs. They occupy a few villages in the Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi District. Like other Potohar clans, the use Raja as a title.

Rathore

The Rathore are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan. In Punjab, Muslim Rathore were found mainly in Hissar District. In addition to these Rathore, Punjab is also home to Rathore who originate in the Kashmir valley.

Sarral

The Sarral are a small clan of unknown origin. They occupy several villages in the Islamabad Capital Territory. Like other Potohar clans, the use Raja as a title.

Sangra

The Sangra are clan of the Bhatti Rajputs. They are found mainly in Jhang and Multan districts. They use the title Rai.

Sohlan

The Sohlan are a clan of the Parmara Rajputs. Found in a few villages in Jhelum Tehsil. They use the title Raja.

Sulehria

The Sulehria, or Salaria or Sulehri is a Suryavanshi clan of Rajputs. In Punjab, they are found mainly in Sialkot and Gurdaspur Districts. The Muslim Sulehrias of Gurdaspur migrated to Pakistan after independence and settled in various villages of Narowal, Sialkot, Sheikhupura and Faisalabad Districtst They use the titles Rana and Chaudhary.while,in Jhelum And Azad Kashmir they use the title Raja.

Saharan

Saharan means (King of the world). Saharan is a Yaduvanshi clan of Kshatriya Rajput.This clan is basically Kshatriya. They are found in Syedwala, Chiniot, Saharanwala, Saharanwali, Dera Saharan. They use title Shah, Rana, Chaudhary and Malik specially in Chiniot.

This is a warrior clan of rajputs. Some of them adopted the profession of agriculture so they consider them from jats. It is another thing that they are also from rajputs because they clam fom Yaduvanshi king Maharaja Gaj of Ghazni. Some Saharans in India and Pakistan still claim from Kshatriya rajputs and their lineage go to Ram Chandra included Saharans of syedwala. Some Saharan come from Bhatti Rajput and some connect to their linage to Saharan who was the brother of Sindu (Two rulers of Gujrat, India). But Some come from Raja Saharan of Thanesar who embraced Islam and this raja also belonged to Gujrat. Some Saharans come from Nagavanshi Rajput linage.

Sial

The Sial are a clan of Parmara Rajputs. Found in Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Sargodha, Mianwali, Sahiwal, Khanewal, Vehari, Rawalpindi and Jhelum district. The Sial of Jhang use Mehr as a title, while those of Jhelum and Rawalpindi use Raja.

Sunpal-Sial-Rajput

The Sunpal are sub clan of Sial rajput Found mainly in Jhang, Khanewal, Sahiwal, and some in Rahim Yar Khan

Thathaal

Thathaal (थठाल) (also referred as Thothaal) is a Jat clan or gotra and Rajputs of the area between Salt Range and Kharian Pubbi and Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan. Thathaals also found in Hoshiarpur[1] India. They are said to be descendants of legendary Raja Karan Singh of the Mahabharata[2]. Thathaals also claim Suryavanshi Rajput ancestry[3] Thathaals claim their kinship with a Suryavanshi Rajput Raja Karan Singh through his son Raja Thathoo. In the Potohar region, it is not uncommon for tribes to claim both Rajput and Jat origins.

Tiwana

The Tiwana are a clan of the Parmara Rajputs. There are two branches of the tribe, those of Khushab, and those of Samana in Patiala District. Those of Samana are now settled in Pakistan as well. The Khushab Tiwana use Malik as a title, while those originally from Samana use Chawdhary.

Tonwar

The Tonwar or Tomar or Toor are a Chandravanshi Rajput clan. The Tonwar were found in Hissar and Rohtak districts of Haryana. After independence, they settled among other Ranghar communities in Okara and Sahiwal. They use the title Rao. In addition to Tonwar Rajputs, the Punjab is also home to the Toor Jats, who claim Tonwar ancestry, as do the Jarral Rajputs, who are also of Tonwar ancestry.

Varya Rajputs

The Varya or Baryah or something Warah are a clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs. Found historically inAmbala, Jalandhar and Patiala State. Like other Muslim Rajputs of the region, they emigrated to Pakistan, after independence.

Wattu (Wattoo)

The Wattu or Wattoo are a clan of the Chandravanshi Rajputs. Historically, they were found in Fazilka, Sira, Zira, Bahawalnagar, Kasur, Okara and Sahiwal. The Fazilka, Sirsa and Zira Wattu emigrated to Pakistan, after the partition of India. They use the title Mian.

Sindh

> The province of Sindh, in Pakistan is to home to a large number of Rajput clans. Sindhi society is essential feudal , with land held by a small number of families. Many of the feudal families in Sindh belong to the Rajput family.

Here is a brief description of the major Sindhi Muslim Rajput clans:

Abro

The Abro are a branch of the Samma Rajputs, and are Chandravanshi. Found in Shikarpur, Jacobabad, Larkana districts and Balochistan.

Bargujar

The Bargujar are Suryavanshi Rajput clan. In Sindh, there are a few families of Muslim Lalkhani among the Urdu speaking Mohajirs in Karachi.

Bhutto

Perhaps the most famous clan of the Sindhi Rajput, they are a clan of the Bhatti Rajputs, and as such are Chandravanshi. They are found in Larkana District, in a cluster of villages such as Mirpur Bhutto and Salar Bhutto north of Larkana city. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto belongs to Bhutto clan of Rajputs[40]

Bhatti

The Bhatti or sometimes pronounced Bhati are directly linked with those of Rajasthan. They are found through out Sindh, but have especial concenterations in Tharparkar.

Joyo

The Joyo or Johiya form part of a communities of tribes known as the Sarai, that migrated from Punjab in the 18th Century. They are found in Sukkur, Shikarpur, Larkana and Nawabshah districts.

Junejo

The Junejo are a clan of Samma Rajputs. They are found in Nawabshah, Sanghar, Hyderabad, Larkana, Ubaro, Badin, Shikarpur, Sindhri, Larkana, Dadu, Badin, Mirpurkhas and Thatta Districts.

Khanzada

The Khanzada are a clan of the Jadaun or Jadubansi (Yaduvansh) Rajputs, claiming direct descent from Krishna. They were originally settled in northern Rajasthan and Haryana until 1947. Like other Muslim coommunities of this region, they had to migrate to Pakistan, after the independence. They are now found in Karachi, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar, Matiari, Hyderabad and Nawabshah districts.

Kharal

The Kharal are a clan of the Sarais, who immigrated from Punjab in the 18th Century. They are found mainly in the Sanghar District.

Khokhar

The Khokhar are a major clan of the Sarais. They are found mainly in Larkana District.

Mahar

The Mahar are a clan of Bhatti Rajputs, and as such are a Chandravanshi clan. Theu are found mainly in Ghotki, where their chief resides, and Sukkur and Shikarpur District.

Mangrio

The Mangrio are a clan of the Chandravanshi Rajputs. They are found mainly in Sanghar and Tharparkar districts.

Meo

The Meo are a clan of Jadubansi Rajputs, claiming descent from Krishna. They were and many are still found in the Mewat region of India. The districts of Gurgaon, Alwar and Bharatpur formed the Mewat region. After independence, many Meos became refugees. In Sindh, they are found in Nawabshah, Khairpur and Sukkur districts.

Pahur

The Pahur or Pahor or Pahore are a clan of Chandravanshi Rajputs. They are found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Dadu, Khair Pur, Larkana, Jowngal, Sukkur and Shikarpur Districts. They use Khan or Jam or Malik as title.

Panhwar

The Panhwar or Panwar or Paramara are an Agnivanshi Rajput clan. The Panhwars constitute about 40% of the population of Dadu District, as well being found in Tharparkar, Umarkot, Badin and Hyderabad districts.

Qaimkhani

The Qaimkhani are a clan of Chauhan Rajputs, originally from Rajasthan and Hissar in India. After the independence, they migrated en masse to Pakistan. They are found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Mirpurkhas, Umarkot, Tando Allahyar, Larkana, Nawabshah, Naushahro, Multan, Bahawalpur and Mithankot.

Prince of Peace

Prince for Peace HRH M.S.Elahi of Prince Kaim Khan { Founder and Chairman (1) Prince Kaim Khan Memorial Society International (2) World Royal Foundation for Peace. (3) South Asian Peace Center- www.peacec.org [1] }.

Ranghar

The Muslim Rajputs of the old Delhi Division of East Punjab, what is now Haryana State in India, were commonly known as Ranghars. They speak Haryanvi dialect which is often called Ranghari. They found in Mirpurkhas and Nawabshah Districts of Sindh.

Rathore

The Rathore are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan. Most of the Rathore have remained Hindu, although Umarkot District is home to some Muslim Rathore.

Samma

The Samma are largest Rajput tribe found in Sindh, and are branch of Yaduvanshi race. They are found through out Sindh, and ruled the country from 1350 to 1500. The Hindu Jadeja and Chudasama branch were rulers of Kutch and a number states in Kathiawar belonged to this clan

Sial

The Sial are another Sarai tribe, found mainly in Sanghar, Nawabshah and Khairpur Districts.

Solangi

The Solangi are a branch of the Solanki (Chalukya) Rajput tribe. Solangi are among the oldest tribes of ancient Sindh. Found through out Sindh.

Soomro

The Soomro are another important tribe, and are said by some to be a branch of the Parmara Rajputs. They ruled Sindh from 750 AD - 1350 AD. They are found through out Sindh, with special concenterations in Shikarpur District.

Unar

The Unar are a Samma Rajput clan. They are found in Larkana and Shikarpur districts.

Jammu & Kashmir

Raja Mummtaz Hussain Rathore.
Raja Hafiz Ullah Khan and Right Honourable Gordon Brown, Prime Minister

See also: Ethnic groups of Azad Kashmir and Kashmiri Rajput

Azad Kashmir is home to a large number of Rajput clans. About 500,000 Rajputs resides in Azad Kashmir. The central districts of Poonch, Bagh and Kotli are home a large number of Rajput clans.

Here is a brief description of the major Kashmiri Muslim Rajput clans:

Baghial

The Baghial are a Paramara Rajput clan. They are found in Mirpur District, and use the title Raja.

Bangial

The Bangial are a clan of Parmara Rajputs. They are found in Mirpur and Kotli districts of Azad Kashmir. Most of the Bangial clan considers itself Jat in Mirpur. They use the title Raja.

Bhao

The Bhao are a clan of Raghbansi Rajputs. They are found in Bhimber District, and use the title Raja.

Bhawpal

Found in Poonch, Bagh and Rajauri, part of the Chibhali tribal group. They use the title Sardar.

Charak

Some communities of the Charak of Jammu had converted to Islam. After the division of Kashmir in 1948, the Muslim Charak moved to Punjab.

Chattar

A small population of muslim Chattar rajputs is found in Azad Kashmir. Chattaris in Jammu region are a major tribe and commonly known as Dogra Rajputs.

Chib

The Chib are a clan of the Katoch Rajputs. They are found in Mirpur and Bhimber Districts, and use the title Raja.

Dhamial Rajputs

The Dhamial are a clan of the Janjua Rajputs. Most Dhamial in Mirpur District consider themselves to be Jat. They use the title Raja

Domaal Rajputs

The Domaal are a clan of Rajputs, who are collectively known as Chibhali. They are found in Poonch District of both Indian and Pakistani administerd Kashmir. They use the title Sardar.

Jarral

The Jarral are a clan of Tonwar Rajputs. Found mainly in Rajauri District of Indian administered Kashmir. In Pakistan administerd Kashmir, refugees families settled in Mirpur District. They uniquely use the title of Mirza and sometimes Raja.

Junhal

Another Chibhali clan found in the divided Poonch District. They use the title Sardar, like other Poonch Rajputs

Kahlotra

A Minhas clan, refugees from Reasi District. Found mainly in Mirpur District. They use the title Raja.

Katoch

The Muslim branch of this clan is found in Doda District. The Chib clans claims descent from the Katoch.

Khakha

A Janjua clan, found mainly in Muzaffarabad and Kupwara District. The Teziyal clan is found in Bagh.

Khokhar

A major Rajput clan, one of the first Rajput clans in Jammu and Kashmir to embrace Islam[41], prominent in Mirpur and other areas of Azad Kashmir, commonly found throughout the Jammu region.

Kistwaria

The Kistwaria are found in Udhampur District. They were once rulers of the Kisthwar region, which was one of the Muslim Rajput hill states.

Mangral

Today, Mangrals are based mainly in Kotli District, Poonch District (AJK), Trar Dewan Rawalakot(AJK) and Poonch in Indian Administered Kashmir although many have also emigrated to Europe and the United States of America.

Minhas

Perhaps the largest tribe in Jammu & Kashmir. Muslim Minhas are found in Kotli and Bhimber districts of Pakistan administerd Kashmir, and in Rajauri, Udhampur and Jammu Districts of Indian administered Kashmir.

Narma

The Kashmir Narma are found in Bagh and Poonch. They are a Parmara clan. They use the title Raja.

Panwar

The Panwar or Parmara are found in a few villages in the Mirpur District. Many of other clans such as the Narma, Baghial, Bangial and Sohlan claim Parmara ancestry.

Ranyal

The Ranyal or sometimes pronounced as Arnyal are found predominately in the Mirpur and surrounding area, The vast majority of Ranyals of this region regard themselves as exclusively Jat.

Rathore

Found primarily in Poonch, Jammu, Rajauri and Kotli districts. Also found among the Kashmiris of the valley. The Rathore family in Poonch is the direct descendant of Rao Jodha through Rao Suraj Singh and they ruled Poonch from 1596 till 1819, when the Dogra took over.

Sakhial

The Sakhial are found in Mirpur District. They use the title Raja.

Sohlan

A Paramara clan, found in Mirpur District. They use the title Raja.

Sulehria

Historically found in Jammu and Kathua. Most Muslim Sulehria are now found in Punjab.Like other Rajput Clans in Azad Kashmir they use the title Raja.

Thakir

The Thakirs are mostly found in Kotli, Azad Kashmir. They are the social elites of Mohallah Balyah.

Thakial Rajputs

Found mainly in Kotli District, once rulers of Rajauri. They use the title Raja.

Uttar Pradesh

The Rajputs of Uttar Pradesh are divided into four sub-groups, the Ranghar and Lalkhani of the Ganges Yamuna Doab, the Malkana of the Agra Division and the Khanzada of Awadh. These Khanzada are distinct from Khanzada of Rajasthan. These four sub-groups are divided into several clans or gotras. The word Ranghar in western Uttar Pradesh refers to any Hindu Rajput who converts to Islam][42] The total Muslim Rajput population of Uttar Pradesh in 1901 was 402,922 (11%), out a total Rajput population of 3,806,498.[43] Here is a list of Rajput clans by district tabulated under 1901 Census of India. All those districts of UP where the Muslim Rajput population was less than a 1,000 have been ignored.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 5,815. The figure excluded the Malkana, who numbered 4,546. The main clans, other than the Malkanas are Chauhan, Panwar or Parmar, Pundir, Sikarwar and Tonwar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 2,052. The main clans are the Baghela and Chauhan.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 13,456. The main clans are the Bargujar (including the famous Lalkhani clan), Bais, Bhadauria, Chauhan, Gehlot and Rathore.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 6,451. The main clans are the Bais, Bisen, Chauhan and Panwar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 5,265. The main clans are the Bargujar, Bhatti, Chauhan and Panwar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 6,958. The main clan was the Chauhan.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 2,554. The main clan is the Dikhit.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 6,066. The main clans are the Bhatti, Jadaun, Katehria and Sombansi.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 6,958. The main clans are the Bais, Bhale Sultan, Bisen (including the famous Khanzada clan) and Chauhan.

  • Beri District - Haryana

A village at times before 1947 had a good number of bargujar rajputs who now reside in sindh, punjab and karachi. prominent in them were the family of Ramzan, Eddu, Shamsher these were the descendants of Rasoola a Muslim elder respected in his community.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 5,265. The main clan were the Bhatti, Chauhan, Gehlot and Panwar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 34,237. The main clan were the Bais, Bargujar, Bhale Sultan, Bhatti, Chauhan, Panwar and Tomar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 6,147. The main clans are the Bargujar, Bhatti and Chauhan.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 9,858. The main clans are the Bais, Bhale Sultan, Bisen, Panwar and Sikarwar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 2,405. The main clans are the Bais, Chauhan, Gaharwar, and Rathore.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 5,749. The main clans are the Bhatti, Chauhan, Donwar, Gaharwar, Kinwar, Panwar and Sikarwar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 40,848. The main clans are the Bhale Sultan, Bisen, Gautam, Kalhans, Panwar, Raikwar, and Raghubansi.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 11,484. The main clans are the Bais, Bisen, Chandel, Chauhan, Dikhit, Raghubansi, and Surajbansi.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 4,994. The main clans are the Bais, Chandel, Gaur, Janwar, Raikwar and Sombansi.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 2,859. The main clans are Bais, Bachgoti, Chauhan, Gehlot, Gautam and Sikarwar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 12,104. The main clans are the Ahbans, Chauhan, Gaur, Gautam, Janwar, Katehriya, and Sombansi.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 8,885. The main clans are Bhale Sultan, Chauhan and Malkana.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 45,101. The main clans are Bargujar, Bhale Sultan, Bhatti, Chauhan, Gehlot, Panwar, Pundir and Tomar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 13,849. The main clans areBargujar, Bhatti, Chauhan, Gaur, Katehriya, Rathore, Tomar and Sombansi. Moradabad is also home to the Khokhar Rajputs, the only district in the UP.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 23,634. The main clans areBargujar, Bhatti, Chauhan, Gaur, Gaharwar, Gehlot, Kachwaha, Mandahar, Panwar, Pundir, Solanki and Sombansi.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 3,125. The main clans are Bais, Bachgoti,kanhpuria(in atheha pargana) Chauhan and Raikwar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 7,601. The main clans are Bais (including Bharsaiyan clan), Bhadauriya,kanhpuria (in salon pargana) Bhale Sultan, Chauhan, Gaharwar, Gautam and Sombansi.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 3,224. The main clans are the Bhatti and Katehria.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 22,858. The main clans were Bachil, Bargujar, Bhatti, Chauhan, Jadaun, Gehlot, Jaiswar, Kachwaha, Mandahar, Panwar, Pundir, Rawat and Tomar.

The total Muslim Rajput population was 11,411. The main clans were the Bachil, Bais, Bisen, Chauhan, Gautam, Gaur, Panwar, Sombansi and Tomar.

The total Muslim population was 25,800. The main clans are Bachgoti, Bais, Bhale Sultan, Bisen, Chauhan, Kanhpuria, Raghubansi and Sikarwar.

  • Unnao District

The total Muslim Rajput population was 3,446. The main clans are Bais, Dikhit and Sengar.

  • Clans
Ahbans
Bachil
Bais
Bargujar
Bhadauria
Bhale Sultan
Bhatti
Bisen
Chandel
Chauhan
Dikhit
Donwar
Gaharwar
Gautam
Gaud
Gehlot
Jadaun
Jaiswal
Kachwaha
Kalhans
Kanhpuria
Katehriya
Kinwar
Mandahar
Malkana
Panwar
Pundir
Raghubansi
Raikwar
Rathore
Rawat
Sengar
Sikarwar
Solanki
Sombansi
Surajbansi
Tomar

Haryana

All the Haryana Rajput clans emigrated to Pakistan, at the time of the partition of India. The information below is taken from Rose's Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of India, Volumes 1 & 2. The term Ranghar was used by Hindu clans of Rajasthan and Haryana to describe them. This term has been seen as offensive by some Muslim Rajputs of the region. For the present location, please see Sindh & Punjab entries.

Rao
Bargujar
Bhatti
Chauhan
Johiya
Meo
Panhwar
Pundir
Qaimkhani
Tonwar
Varya
Wattu
Rana.

Rajasthan

The Muslim Rajputs in Rajasthan belong mainly to five communities, the Qaimkhanis of Jaipur, the Deswali and Chita-Merat of Ajmer, Sindhi-Sipahi of Barmer and Jaisalmer, the Rath (including the Johiya) of Bikaner and the Meo of Mewat.[44] The Khanzada community of Bharatpur and Alwar, have substantially emigrated to Pakistan. These are the main clans of Rajputs:

Bhati
Chita
Deswali
Johiya
Kathat
Merat
Mangrio
Meo
Qaimkhani
Samma
Sameja
Sodha
Rath
Rathore.
Pahore.
Pahur.
pahor.
Rana.

Gujarat

The Muslim Rajput in Gujarat belong to a number of communities. In Kutch and Kathiawar, the Rajputs are members of the the Samma tribe, and its sub-divisions, such as the Halaypotra, Hingorja, Hingora, Juneja, Mutwa, Theba, and Raheema. In Gujarat proper, the Rajput communities include the Bhati, Molesalam Rajput, Sipahi, Soomra, Malik, Makwana, Rathore, Khokhar, Nayak Parmars and Solankis.[45]

The Behlim

The Behlim are a Muslim Rajput tribe found in North Gujarat and Bharuch. They claim descent from early Turkish immigrants who settled in Gujarat in during the rule of the Vaghela dynasty. [46]

Bhati

The Gujarat Bhati emigrated from Jaisalmer in Rajasthan, and are said to have converted to Islam during the period of the Gujarat Sultanate. [47]

Kasbatis

They are found in North Gujarat and Bharuch, and claim to be converts from Bhati and Parmar Rajputs. [48]

Khokhars

The Khokhar are found mainly in Ahmadabad, Kathiawar and Pattan. They settled in Gujarat from Punjab, during the period of the Gujarat Sultanate.[49]

Makwanas

The Makwanas are a Rajput tribe, found in central Gujarat[50]

Molesalam

The Molesalam are one of the larger Rajput communities. They are found mainly in Bharuch and Rewa Kantha. The community comprises a number of Rajput tribes, such as the Jethwa and Jhala, who converted to Islam, during the rule of Sultan Mahmud Begada. [51]

Parmars

Found mainly in North Gujarat, they are Muslim converts from the Parmar Rajput tribe. [52]

Rathores

The Rathore are Muslim converts from the Rathore tribe. Found in west and north Gujarat. [53]

Samma

The Samma are found mainly in Kathiawar and Kutch. They are the largest Muslim Rajput community in Gujarat. Their main sub-divisions are the Hingora, Hingorja, Juneja, Raheema, Nahria and Raysipotra. [54]

Sipahi

The Sipahi are converts from Chauhan, Gohil and Parmar tribes. They are found mainly in Kathiawar. [55]

Solankis

They are converts from the Solanki tribe. Found mainly in north Gujarat. [56]

Soomra

The Soomra are found in west Gujarat, Kathiawar and Kutch. They were converted to Islam during the rule of Mahmud Begada. The Soomra of Gujarat are closely connected with those of Sindh.

Prominent Muslim Rajputs

Prince for Peace

Prince for Peace HRH M.S.Elahi of Prince Kaim Khan { Founder and Chairman (1) Prince Kaim Khan Memorial Society International (2) World Royal Foundation for Peace. (3) South Asian Peace Center- www.peacec.org [1] }

Historical figures

Politics/Assembly of Pakistan

Science and technology

  • Prof Dr Mohammad Sharif Chattar
  • Prof. Dr. F.A.Shams (late) (Naru Rajput)Dean Faculty of Science, University of Punjab Lahore, President Pakistan Academy of Geological Sciences
  • Dr. Muhammad Jawed Rajput(Parihar) Program Director Mental Health. USA
  • Shahid ali Rajput Director and producer London

Armed forces

Pakistan Army

Pakistan Air Force

Pakistan Navy

Nishan-e-Haider

Victoria Cross

Hilal-e-Kashmir

Chief Justice

Sports

Cricket

Boxing & Wrestling or Kabbadi

  • Amir Khan (Boxer)
  • Rana Mehr Khaan Bhatti a famous Kabbadi Player

Journalism

  • Muhammad Suleman Khan Manj (Editor-in-Chief Auto & Travel Magazine Karachi-Pakistan)

Arts

  • Inayat Hussain Bhatti (1928-1999) Multidimensional icon of Pakistan. His body of work includes contributions as a singer, actor, producer, director, script writer, social worker, columnist, religious scholar and a protagonist of the development of Punjabi language and literature.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?rop3=113109
  2. ^ a b http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=113109&rog3=PK
  3. ^ a b http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php
  4. ^ India's Partition: The Story Of Imperialism In Retreat By D. N. Panigrahi, 2004; Routledge, p. 16
  5. ^ Ahmed, Akbar S. 1997. Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin. London: Routledge. 320 pages. ISBN 0415149665. page 3.
  6. ^ S. Shabbir Hussain, Al-Mashriqi: The Disowned Genius, Lahore, Jang Publishers, 1991
  7. ^ "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto". Britannica Concise. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9357207/Zulfikar-Ali-Bhutto. Retrieved 2007-12-28. "Bhutto Born on into nobel Rajput family that had accepted Islam." 
  8. ^ The Baburnama, 2002, W.M Thackston, p377
  9. ^ Martyrdom in Islam' David Cook, Publ Cambridge University Press, 2007, p75 online version
  10. ^ Gender in World History Peter N. Stearns, PublRoutledge, 2000, p41 online version
  11. ^ The History of Islamic Political Thought Antony Black, Publ Routledge, 2001, 160 online version
  12. ^ The Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru, Oxford Uni. Press 1985, p62, p341
  13. ^ The Discovery of India, 2004, Penguin, p51
  14. ^ Punjabi Musalmans by J.M.Wikeley, Manohar 1991, p4
  15. ^ The Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru, Oxford Uni. Press 1985, p265
  16. ^ The Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru, Oxford Uni. Press 1985, p266
  17. ^ Jhelum District Gazetteer Lahore, repr.2004, p129
  18. ^ Looking back on Indiaby Hubert Evans, 1988, p112
  19. ^ Rulers of India, Lord Lawrence and the Reconstruction of India Under The Crown by Sir Charles Aitcheson, K.C.S.I., M.A., LL.D., Clarendon Press 1897,V p117
  20. ^ Muslim Women by Zakia A. Siddiqi, Anwar Jahan Zuberi, Aligarh Muslim University, India University Grants, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1993, p93
  21. ^ Self and sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850 by Ayesha Jalal, Routledge 2000, p480,p481
  22. ^ <India Today
  23. ^ People Of India by K. S. Singh, B. K. Lavania, S. K. Mandal, Anthropological Survey of India, N. N. Vyas, Popular Prakashan, 1998, p880
  24. ^ source
  25. ^ Punjab Chiefs Sir Lepel H.Griffin KCSI, Lahore 1909, p217
  26. ^ Panjab Castes by Sir Denzil Ibbetson
  27. ^ Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars By C. A. Bayly
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ The Punjabi Musalmans by J. M. Wikeley - 1991, chiefly represented by the Janjua and Tiwanas (from the Rajput side)
  30. ^ [2]
  31. ^ [3]
  32. ^ [4]
  33. ^ The Jhelum Gazetteer of 1904 Lahore 2002, p254
  34. ^ Chiefs and Families of note in the Punjab 1909, Lahore, p217
  35. ^ Chiefs and Families of Note of the Punjab, L.H.Griffin, Lahore 1909,p189
  36. ^ Tarikh e Janjua Raja M.A.Khan Janjua, Sahiwal Press, p263
  37. ^ History of the Panjab Hill States by J. Hutchinson, J.P. Vogel
  38. ^ Census of India 1901, Punjab Part 2
  39. ^ Punjab Castes by Sir Denzil Ibbetson
  40. ^ http://www.elections.com.pk/candidatedetails.php?id=6884
  41. ^ People of India Jammu & Kashmir Volume XXV page xxii
  42. ^ People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part One edited by A Hasan & J C Das page 19 Manohar publications
  43. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India: Provincial Series United Provinces Volume 1 page 44 Superintendent of Government Printing 1908
  44. ^ The Castes of Marwar by Munshi Hardyal Singh page 43
  45. ^ People of India Gujarat Volume XXII Part Two edited by R.B.Lal, S.V Padmanabham, & A Mohideen page XXV Popular Prakashan Publications
  46. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX pages 58 Government Central Press, Bombay
  47. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX page 81 Government Central Press, Bombay
  48. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX pages 63 to 64 Government Central Press, Bombay
  49. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX page 65 Government Central Press, Bombay
  50. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX pages 65 Government Central Press, Bombay
  51. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX page 68 Government Central Press, Bombay
  52. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX pages 68 to 69 Government Central Press, Bombay
  53. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX page 69 Government Central Press, Bombay
  54. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX page 69 Government Central Press, Bombay
  55. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX pages 83 Government Central Press, Bombay
  56. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX page 70 Government Central Press, Bombay

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