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Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance X-Men vol. 1 #1 (September 1963)
Created by Stan Lee
Jack Kirby
Place of origin Earth
Notable members X-Men
Dark X-Men
New Mutants
Brotherhood of Mutants

A mutant is a type of fictional character that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. Primarily featured in comics featuring the X-Men, a mutant is an individual who possesses a genetic trait called an X-gene that allows them to naturally develop superhuman powers and abilities. Mutants are members of the subspecies Homo sapiens superior, an evolutionary progeny of Homo sapiens, and are considered the next stage in human evolution.

Unlike Marvel's mutates, characters who develop their powers only after exposure to outside stimuli or energies (e.g. Hulk, Spider-Man, The Fantastic Four et al.), mutants are born with their powers, although they typically don't manifest in the character until puberty.

Like mutates, the powers of the vast majority of Marvel's human superheroes are the result of genetic manipulation by the Celestials millions of years in the past.



A March 1952 story in Amazing Detective Cases #11 called "The Weird Woman" tells of a woman describing herself as a mutant who seeks a similarly superhuman mate.[1]

Roger Carstairs, a mutant who can create illusions, is shown in Man Comics #28, dated September 1953.[2]

A character with superhuman powers, born from a radiation-exposed parent, was seen in "The Man With The Atomic Brain!"[3] in Journey into Mystery #52 in May 1959; although not specifically called a "mutant", his origin is consistent with one.

A little-known story in Tales of Suspense #6 (November 1959) titled "The Mutants and Me!"[4] was one of the first Marvel (then known as Atlas) stories to feature a named "mutant".

The modern concept of mutants as an independent subspecies was created and utilized by Marvel editor/writer Stan Lee in the early 1960s, as a means to create a large number of superheroes and villains without having to think of a separate origin for each one. As part of the concept, Lee decided that these mutant teenagers should, like ordinary ones, attend school in order to better cope with the world, in this case Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters. These mutants first appeared in the superhero series X-Men, which debuted in 1963 and remains the most prominent vehicle for the mutant concept.[citation needed]

The extensive popularity of the X-Men led Marvel to create several additional mutant superhero teams, including The New Mutants, X-Factor, Excalibur, X-Force, and Generation X.[citation needed]

Officially, Namor the Sub-Mariner is considered the first mutant superhero whom Marvel Comics ever published,[1] debuting in 1939. However, Namor was not actually described as a mutant until decades after his first appearance. The same is true of Toro, a little-known hero introduced in 1940.


Secondary mutations

Some mutants have shown the ability to develop a secondary mutation. See Secondary Mutation.

Omega-level mutants

An Omega-level mutant is one with the most powerful genetic potential of their mutant abilities. The term was first seen in the 1986 issue Uncanny X-Men #207, but was completely unexplained (beyond the obvious implication of it referring to an exceptional level of power). The term was not seen again until the 2001 limited series X-Men Forever. Some abilities depicted by mutants described as Omega-level include immortality, extreme manipulation of matter and energy, high psionic ability, strong telekinesis, and the potential to exist beyond the boundaries of the known physical universe. No firm definition has been offered in comics. Mutants that have been confirmed as Omega-level include Jean Grey,[2] Vulcan,[3] Rachel Summers,[4] Iceman,[5] Legion,[6] Elixir,[7], and Franklin Richards.[8]

"Homo Superior Superior"

Introduced in Chris Claremont's X-Treme X-Men, a character known as Vargas claimed to be humanity's natural response to mutants. Vargas was born at the epitome of peak physical skill, having superhuman levels of strength, speed, reflexes, agility, stamina, and durability. Vargas also seemed to be immune to various mutant abilities (such as Rogue's absorption and Psylocke's telekinetic blast).

According to Chris Claremont, "Basically, the notion behind Vargas is that nature, abhoring a vacuum and perceiving one in the appearance of mass numbers of super-powered mutants, is attempting to redress the imbalance by jump-starting Humanity to a level where they can compete with mutants and super-beings on relatively equal terms."[citation needed]


Created by Rob Liefeld, Externals are immortal mutants. Eventually, most of the Externals were killed by the Selene, thus proving that they were not so immortal after all. Gideon, Selene, and Apocalypse are examples of Externals.

Cheyarafim and Neyaphem

Cheyarafim and Neyaphem first appear in Uncanny X-Men issue 429. According to the character Azazel, the Cheyarafim are a group of angel-like mutants who were the traditional enemies of the Neyaphem, a demonic-looking group of mutants who lived in Biblical times. The Cheyarafim were fanatics who had a strict, black-and-white view of morality which led them into conflict with the Neyaphem. This escalated into a holy war, causing the Neyaphem to be exiled into an alternate dimension. What happened to the Cheyarafim after this has not been revealed.

The X-Man Angel is said to be descended from Cheyarafim[citation needed], while Nightcrawler is supposedly the son of a Neyaphem, Azazel.

Dominant Species/Lupine

Maximus Lobo claimed to be a part of a mutant sub-species of feral, wolf-like mutants, whom he called The Dominant Species. He later tried to recruit Wolf Cub into his ranks, to no avail. A few years later, another mutant, Romulus claimed that some human mutants evolved from canines instead of primates. Mutants who were a part of this group were Romulus, Wolverine, Daken, Sabretooth, Wolfsbane, Wild Child, Thornn, and Sasquatch. Other likely candidates being X-23 and The Native. These groups appear to be one and the same. [9]


Introduced in the second series of X-Factor, a changeling is a mutant whose powers manifest at birth. Jamie Madrox AKA the Multiple Man and Damian Tryp are examples of this sub-class.

Mutant aliens

Humans are not the only species to have 'mutant subspecies'. Ariel, Longshot, Ultra Girl, and Warlock are examples of mutant aliens.

Mutants as metaphor

As a fictional oppressed minority, mutants are often used as extended metaphors for real-world people and situations. In 1982, X-Men writer Chris Claremont said, "[mutants] are hated, feared and despised collectively by humanity for no other reason than that they are mutants. So what we have here, intended or not, is a book that is about racism, bigotry and prejudice."[citation needed]

Danny Fingeroth writes extensively in his book Superman on the Couch about the appeal of mutants and their meaning to society. He writes, "The most popular pop culture franchises are those that make the viewer/reader feel special and unique, while simultaneously making him or her feel he or she is part of a mass of people experiencing and enjoying the same phenomenon. The plight of the mutants is universally compelling. Many people feel a need for a surrogate family, one composed of those the world has abused and persecuted in the same way they have been their whole life. This is especially true in adolescents, which may in part explain some of the draw of mutants."[10] An obvious parallel between homosexuality and mutation is drawn in the film X2, where Iceman's mother asks, "Have you tried not being a mutant?" This question (or various forms thereof) is common among parents who find out their children are gay.[11][12]

In his article Super Heroes, a Modern Mythology, Richard Reynolds writes, "Much of the appeal and draw of the mutants that comprise the X-Men has to do with feeling like an outcast while simultaneously feeling like part of a family. Mutants are ostracized because they are different but they bound together because of their differences. The may be forced together to a certain extent like “real” families but they are also a team. They differ from other teams such as the Justice League, which is like a meritocracy; only the best of the best join that team. In contrast, the X-Men is composed of outcasts. They train and nurture one another and are united by common goals and beliefs. ...the whole theme of the X-Men---the isolation of mutants and their alienation from "normal" society---be read as a parable of the alienation of any minority... of a minority grouping determined to force its own place within society."[citation needed]

Ultimate Mutants

In Ultimate Origins #1 it is revealed that super-powered "mutants" in the Ultimate Marvel universe were artificially created via genetic modification by the Weapon X program in a laboratory in Alberta, Canada in October of 1943. The project was an attempt to produce a supersoldier, inspired by the existence of Captain America. James Howlett was the first individual to be so modified.


See also


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