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Danieri Basammula-Ekkere Mwanga II Mukasa was Kabaka from 1884 until 1888 and from 1889 until 1897. He was the thirty-first (31st) Kabaka of Buganda.

Contents

Life

Claim to the throne

He was born at Nakawa in 1868. His father was Kabaka Mukaabya Walugembe Muteesa I Kayiira, Kabaka of Buganda, who reigned between 1856 and 1884. His mother was Naabakyaala Abisaagi Baagal'ayaze, the tenth wife of his father's eighty five wives. He ascended to the throne on October 18, 1884, after the death of his father. He established his capital on Mengo Hill.

Married Life and Offspring

He is on record as having married sixteen wives and fathering seven sons and four daughters including Kabaka Daudi Chwa II, Kabaka of Buganda, who reigned between 1897 and 1939.

Reign

Mwanga saw the greatest threat to his rule coming from the Christian missionaries who had gradually penetrated Buganda. His father had played-off the three religions; Catholics, Protestants and Muslims against each other and thus balanced the influence of the colonial powers that were backing each group. Mwanga II took a much more aggressive approach, expelling missionaries and insisting that Christian converts abandon their faith or face death.

On October 29, 1885, he had the incoming archbishop James Hannington murdered on the eastern border of his kingdom. Then between 1885 and 1887, over forty-five of the king's pages were put to death on the orders of Mwanga. The crime was failure to renounce their newly-found Christian beliefs, although refusal to submit to Mwanga's sexual advances played a part thus challenging his traditional political powers. [1][2] Twenty-two of the men, who had converted to Catholicism, were burned alive at Namugongo in 1886 and later became known as the Uganda Martyrs. Among those executed were two Christians who held the court position of Master of the Pages, Joseph Mukasa Balikuddembe and Charles Lwanga. They had repeatedly defied the king by rescuing royal pages in their care from sexual exploitation by Mwanga which they believed contrary to Christian teaching. [1]

These murders and Mwanga's continued resistance alarmed the British, who backed a rebellion by Christian and Muslim groups who supported Mwanga's half brother and defeated Mwanga at Mengo in 1888. Mwanga's brother, Kiweewa Nnyonyintono was elevated to the throne. He lasted exactly one month and was replaced on the throne by another brother, Kabaka Kalema Muguluma. However, Mwanga escaped and negotiated with the British. In exchange for handing over some of his sovereignty to the British East Africa Company, the British changed their backing to Mwanga, who swiftly removed Kalema from the throne in 1889.

Final years

On December 26, 1890, Mwanga signed a treaty with Lord Lugard, granting certain powers over revenue, trade and the administration of justice to the Imperial British East Africa Company. These powers were transferred to the crown on April 1, 1893.

On August 27, 1894, Mwanga accepted for Buganda to become a Protectorate. However, on July 6, 1897, he declared War on the British and launched an attack, but was defeated on July 20, 1897, in Buddu (today's Masaka District). He fled into German East Africa (today it is the Republic of Tanzania), where he was arrested and interned at Bukoba.

He was deposed in absentia, on August 9, 1897. Tenacious as he was, he escaped and returned to Buganda with a rebel army, but was again defeated on January 15, 1898. He was captured and in April 1899 was exiled to the Seychelles. While in exile, he was received into the Anglican Church, was baptized with the name of Danieri (Daniel). He spent the rest of his life in exile. He died in 1903, aged 35 years. In 1910 his remains were repatriated and buried at Kasubi.[3]

Succession table: First time

Preceded by
Muteesa I Mukaabya Walugembe
King of Buganda
1884 - 1888
Succeeded by
Kiweewa Nnyonyintono

Succession table: Second time

Preceded by
Kalema Muguluma
King of Buganda
1889 - 1897
Succeeded by
Daudi Chwa II

External links

Photos

See also

References








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