Screenshot of the default MySQL command line.
|Initial release||May 23, 1995|
|Stable release||(March 17, 2010 ) [+/−]|
|Preview release||(February 14, 2010 ) [+/−]|
|Written in||C, C++|
|License||GNU General Public License (version 2, with linking exception) or proprietary EULA|
MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. MySQL is officially pronounced /maɪˌɛskjuːˈɛl/ ("My S-Q-L"), but is often /maɪsiːˈkwɛl/ ("Micey Quell") or /maɪˈsiːkwəl/ ("My Sequel"). It is named for original developer Michael Widenius's daughter My.
The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL is owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Sun Microsystems, a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation.
Members of the MySQL community have created several forks such as Drizzle and MariaDB. Both forks were in progress long before the Oracle acquisition (Drizzle was announced 8 months before the Sun acquisition).
Free-software projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL. Such projects include (for example) WordPress, phpBB, Drupal and other software built on the LAMP software stack. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale World Wide Web products including Wikipedia, Google and Facebook.
Many web applications use MySQL as the database component of a LAMP software stack. Its popularity for use with web applications is closely tied to the popularity of PHP, which is often combined with MySQL. Several high-traffic web sites (including Flickr, Facebook, Wikipedia, Google (though not for searches), Nokia and YouTube) use MySQL for data storage and logging of user data.
MySQL works on many different system platforms, including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, i5/OS, Linux, Mac OS X, NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, eComStation, OS/2 Warp, QNX, IRIX, Solaris, Symbian, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare, Sanos, Tru64 and Microsoft Windows. A port of MySQL to OpenVMS also exists.
All major programming languages with language-specific APIs include Libraries for accessing MySQL databases. In addition, an ODBC interface called MyODBC allows additional programming languages that support the ODBC interface to communicate with a MySQL database, such as ASP or ColdFusion. The MySQL server and official libraries are mostly implemented in ANSI C/ANSI C++.
MySQL is primarily an RDBMS and therefore ships with no GUI tools to administer MySQL databases or manage data contained within. Users may use the included command-line tools, or download MySQL Frontends from various parties that have developed desktop software and web applications to manage MySQL databases, build database structure, and work with data records.
The official MySQL Workbench is a free integrated environment developed by MySQL AB, that enables users to graphically administer MySQL databases and visually design database structure. MySQL Workbench replaces the previous package of software, MySQL GUI Tools. Similar to other third-party packages but still considered the authoritative MySQL frontend, MySQL Workbench lets users manage the following:
MySQL Workbench is available in two editions, the regular free and open source Community Edition which may be downloaded from the MySQL website, and the proprietary Standard Edition which extends and improves the feature set of the Community Edition.
Several other third-party proprietary and free graphical administration applications (or "Frontends") are available that integrate with MySQL and enable users to work with database structure and data visually. Some well-known frontends are:
MySQL can be built and installed manually from source code, but this can be tedious so it is more commonly installed from a binary package unless special customizations are required. On most Linux distributions the package management system can download and install MySQL with minimal effort, though further configuration is often required to adjust security and optimization settings.
Though MySQL began as a low-end alternative to more powerful proprietary databases, it has gradually evolved to support higher-scale needs as well.
It is still most commonly used in small to medium scale single-server deployments, either as a component in a LAMP based web application or as a standalone database server. Much of MySQL's appeal originates in its relative simplicity and ease of use, which is enabled by an ecosystem of open source tools such as phpMyAdmin.
In the medium range, MySQL can be scaled by deploying it on more powerful hardware, such as a multi-processor server with gigabytes of memory.
There are however limits to how far performance can scale on a single server, so on larger scales, multi-server MySQL deployments are required to provide improved performance and reliability. A typical high-end configuration can include a powerful master database which handles data write operations and is replicated to multiple slaves that handle all read operations. The master server synchronizes continually with its slaves so in the event of failure a slave can be promoted to become the new master, minimizing downtime. Further improvements in performance can be achieved by caching the results from database queries in memory using memcached, or breaking down a database into smaller chunks called shards which can be spread across a number of distributed server clusters.
mysqlhotcopy) under certain conditions
The developers release monthly versions of the MySQL Enterprise Server. The sources can be obtained either from MySQL's customer-only Enterprise site or from MySQL's Bazaar repository, both under the GPL license. The MySQL Community Server is published on an unspecified schedule under the GPL and contains all bug fixes that were shipped with the last MySQL Enterprise Server release. Binaries are no longer provided by MySQL for every release of the Community Server.
MySQL implements the following features, which some other RDBMS systems may not:
Milestones in MySQL development include:
The MySQL 6 roadmap outlines support for:
Via MySQL Enterprise MySQL AB offers support itself, including a 24/7 service with 30-minute response time. The support team has direct access to the developers as necessary to handle problems. In addition, it hosts forums and mailing lists, employees and other users are often available in several IRC channels providing assistance.
In addition to official product support from Sun, other companies offer support and services related to usage of MySQL. For example, Pythian offers full database administration, architecture, optimization and training services. Percona and 42sql offer services related to optimization and Monty Program Ab offers non-recurring engineering such as patches to MySQL. OpenQuery provides MySQL training.
Buyers of MySQL Enterprise have access to binaries and software certified for their particular operating system, and access to monthly binary updates with the latest bug-fixes. Several levels of Enterprise membership are available, with varying response times and features ranging from how to and emergency support through server performance tuning and system architecture advice. The MySQL Network Monitoring and Advisory Service monitoring tool for database servers is available only to MySQL Enterprise customers.
Potential users can install MySQL Server as free software under the GNU General Public License (GPL), and the MySQL Enterprise subscriptions include a GPL version of the server, with a traditional proprietary version available on request at no additional cost for cases where the intended use is incompatible with the GPL.
Both the MySQL server software itself and the client libraries use dual-licensing distribution. Users may choose the GPL, which MySQL has extended with a FLOSS License Exception. It allows Software licensed under other OSI-compliant open source licenses, which are not compatible to the GPL, to link against the MySQL client libraries.
Customers that do not wish to follow the terms of the GPL may purchase a proprietary license.
In October 2005, Oracle Corporation acquired Innobase OY, the Finnish company that developed the third-party InnoDB storage engine that allows MySQL to provide such functionality as transactions and foreign keys. After the acquisition, an Oracle press release mentioned that the contracts that make the company's software available to MySQL AB would be due for renewal (and presumably renegotiation) some time in 2006. During the MySQL Users Conference in April 2006, MySQL issued a press release that confirmed that MySQL and Innobase OY agreed to a "multi-year" extension of their licensing agreement..
In February 2006, Oracle Corporation acquired Sleepycat Software, makers of the Berkeley DB, a database engine providing the basis for another MySQL storage engine. This had little effect, as Berkeley DB was not widely used, and was deprecated (due to lack of use) in MySQL 5.1.12, a pre-GA release of MySQL 5.1 released in October 2006.
In April 2009, Oracle Corporation entered into an agreement to purchase Sun Microsystems, then owners of the MySQL intellectual property. Sun's board of directors unanimously approved the deal, it was also approved by Sun's shareholders, and by the U.S. government on August 20, 2009. On December 14, 2009, Oracle pledged to continue to enhance MySQL. as it had done for the previous 4 years. The Oracle acquisition was approved by the European Commission on January 21, 2010.
Pronounced maɪˌɛskjuːˈɛl(My S Q L)
MySQL is a free, widely used SQL engine. It can be used as a fast database as well as a rock-solid SGDB using a modular engine architecture.
The purpose of this wikibook is to provide a practical knowledge on using the database from two points of view:
Best of all, this book is freely available for everybody to use and share, under the GNU Free Documentation License.
This is the table of contents, with the current progress. Click on a chapter title to go to its separate page.
The basic SQL commands
Case study: I was suggested to use SPIP (a system to manage articles and news) for a sample study. Mediawiki might be interesting as well :)
Add a list of CLIENTS to use with MYSQL, I dont know of any good ones, MYSQL GUI ones are ok, but I need some others
The following sources are released under the GFDL and hence good candidates for inclusion in the wikibook, as well as joint writing efforts:
|Developer:||MySQL AB, a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems since February 2008 which is also a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation since January 2010|
|Initial release:||23 May 1995|
|Latest release:||5.1.50 (Community Server) / 17 August 2010|
|Use:||Relational database management system|
|License:||GNU General Public License or proprietary EULA|
MySQL was first released in May 1995 and a Windows version was released in January 1998. The latest version (5.1) was released in November 2008.
Some of the largest MySQL users on the internet include:
Many PHP scripts also use MySQL. These include: