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Myeloblast

The myeloblast is a unipotent stem cell, which will differentiate into one of the actors of the granular series.

Contents

Origin

These cells descend from the primitive reticulum cells, which are found in the stroma of the marrow. There is also an intermediate phase between the myeloblast and these primitive reticulum cell, namely the hemocytoblast. At this time several developing blood cell lines are available, like erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis. The granulopoiesis is regulated by humoral agents, like Colony Stimulating Factor and Interleukin 3.

Location in the body

The myeloblasts reside extravascularly in the marrow. The hematopoiesis takes place in the extravascular cavities between the sinuses of the marrow. The wall of the sinuses is composed with two different types of cells, the endothelial cells and the adventitial reticular cells. The hemopoietic cells are aligned in cords or wedges between these sinuses, the myeloblasts and other granular progenitors are concentrated in the subcortical regions of these hemopoietic cords.

Structure

Myeloblasts are rather small cells with a diameter between 14 and 18μm, from which the major part is occupied by a large oval nucleus. Their nucleus is composed of very fine nonaggregated chromatin and possesses 3 or more nucleoli. The cytoplasm has basophilic character and is devoid of granules, which is a major difference with its successor, the promyelocyte. The nucleolus is the site of assembly of ribosomal proteïns, which are located in various particles dispersed over the cytoplasm. Mitochondria are present but have a rather small size.

Function

The granulopoiesis consists of 5 stages, of which the myeloblast is the first recognizable cell. Next in the differentiation sequence is the pro-myelocyte, this one will have ability to turn in one of the three different precursor cells, the neutrophilic, basophilic or eosinophilic myelocyte. This proliferation needs five divisions before the final stage is obtained. These divisions all take place in the first three stages of granulopoiesis.

Pathology

Most common problem with malfunctioning myeloblasts is the acute myeloblastic leukemia. The main clinical features are caused by failure of the hemopoiesis with anemia, hemorrhage and infection as result. There is a progressive accumulation of leukemic cells, because some blast progenitor cells renew themselves and will have a limited differentiated division. Key mediators are the cell-density and Colony Stimulating Factor(CSF). A few acute myeloblastic leukemia can be initiated by earlier hematologic disorder, like pancytopenia, hypoplasia of the bone marrow.

See also

External links

  • Wilson J.D., Braunwald E., Isselbacher K.J., Martin J.B., Fauci A.S., Root R.K. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 12th edition. McGraw-Hill Inc.(1991).
  • Curran R.C., Crocker J. Curran’s Atlas of Histopathology 4th edition. Harvey Miller Publishers LTD. Oxford University Press Inc.(distributor).(2000).
  • Bloom W., Fawcett D.W. A Textbook of Histology 12th edition. W.B. Saunders Company
  • Murohashi I., Tohda S., Suzuki T., Nagata K., Yamashita Y., Nara N.(1989).Autocrine growth mechanisms of the progenitors of blast cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Journal of the American Society of Hematology 74, 35-41
  • Villamor N., Zarco M-A., Rozman M., Ribera J-M., Feliu E., Montserrat E.(1998).Acute myeloblastic leukemia with minimal myeloid differentiation: phenotypical and ultrastructural characteristics. Leukemia 12, 1071-1075
  • News and views.(1949).Journal of the American Society of Hematology 4, 89-96
  • Williams Majorie J.(1955).Myeloblastic Leukemia Preceded by Prolonged Hematologic Disorder. Journal of the American society of hematology 10, 502-509
  • Beutler E.,Lichtman M.,Coller B.,Kipps T. Williams Hematology 5th edition. McGraw-Hill Inc.(1995).
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