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Myopia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 H52.1
ICD-9 367.1
DiseasesDB 8729
MeSH D009216
Normal vision.
Near-sighted vision.
Compensating for myopia using a corrective lens.
.Myopia (Greek: μυωπία, muōpia, "nearsightedness"[1]), is a refractive defect of the eye in which collimated light produces image focus in front of the retina when accommodation is relaxed.^ These problems cause light rays entering the eye to focus in front of the retina .
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This causes light to focus in front of the retina rather than directly on the retina .
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corrective lenses refocus light entering the eye on the retina.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those with myopia see near objects clearly but far away objects appear blurred.^ Trouble seeing objects that are far away.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness -- those whose eyes are unable to see distant objects clearly -- are usually prescribed concave lenses to compensate for their defect and allow them to see clearly.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ First of all, he proposed that functional myopia was produced not as an after-effect of having viewed near objects, but by "an effort, usually unconscious, to see distant objects" which became habit.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

.With myopia, the eyeball is too long, or the cornea is too steep, so images are focused in the vitreous inside the eye rather than on the retina at the back of the eye.^ The doctor also examines the inside of the eye and the retina.
  • Myopia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the people suffering from myopia the eyeball is longer from front to the back and this why the light rays don’t focus properly on the surface of the retina.
  • Myopia - Nearsightedness, Myopia Treatment, Myopia Cure, Symptoms Of Myopia, LASIK Treatmen, Eye Health Care 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.herbalcureindia.com [Source type: General]

^ The vitreous fluid inside the eye thus becomes more watery, and is the main reason why myopic people see "floaters" more often than nonmyopic people.
  • The International Myopia Prevention Association 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.preventmyopia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The opposite defect of myopia is hyperopia or "farsightedness" or "long-sightedness"—this is where the cornea is too flat or the eye is too small.^ Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness -- those whose eyes are unable to see distant objects clearly -- are usually prescribed concave lenses to compensate for their defect and allow them to see clearly.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Eye Problems, Noninjury Farsightedness (Hyperopia) .
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mainstream eye care professionals most commonly correct myopia through the use of corrective lenses, such as glasses or contact lenses.^ Ocular lenses for the correction of high myopia.
  • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Medicines are not used to correct nearsightedness (myopia).
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corrective lenses refocus light entering the eye on the retina.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may also be corrected by refractive surgery, but this does have many risks and side effects.^ After refractive surgery to correct nearsightedness, home care may be needed.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies suggest that laser surgery such as PRK and LASIK is at least as accurate as radial keratotomy (RK) and has less risk of overcorrection or troublesome side effects.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you find that glasses or contact lenses are inconvenient, surgery to correct nearsightedness may be appropriate.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The corrective lenses have a negative optical power (i.e. are concave) which compensates for the excessive positive diopters of the myopic eye.

Contents

Classification

.Myopia has been classified in various manners.^ Knowing their status on each of the predictor variables improved rates for correctly classifying family members as having myopia or not having myopia by 5.7%.
  • Myopia and Personality: The Genes in Myopia (GEM) Personality Study -- van de Berg et al. 49 (3): 882 -- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.iovs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Knowing their status on each of the predictor variables improved the rate for correctly classifying twins as having myopia or not having myopia by 1.6% when the five personality factors, age, sex, and EA were predictors.
  • Myopia and Personality: The Genes in Myopia (GEM) Personality Study -- van de Berg et al. 49 (3): 882 -- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.iovs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Scheerer and Betsch's data can be classified according to prevalence of myopia of various degrees so that some comparisons can be made with Walton's data (Table 3~.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2][3][4]

By cause

Borish and Duke-Elder classified myopia by cause:[3][4]
.
  • Axial myopia is attributed to an increase in the eye's axial length.^ By the end of the 19th century, the idea that myopia is caused by an increase in the length of the eye had been established as fact.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Grosvenor & Scott 1993, Zadnik 1994) that of all the ocular components of refraction, an increase in axial length is most responsible for increases in myopic refraction, for children as well as young adults, regardless of degree of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Elongation of the axial length of the eye by merely 1 mm without other compensation will result in a myopia of 2.02.5 diopters.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [5]
  • .
  • Refractive myopia is attributed to the condition of the refractive elements of the eye.^ Refractive Eye Disorders Eye conditions Lens disorders more types...» Types of Myopia .
    • Myopia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Myopia was defined as worse than or equal to –0.50 (DS) spherical equivalent in the eye with the least refractive error.
    • Myopia and Personality: The Genes in Myopia (GEM) Personality Study -- van de Berg et al. 49 (3): 882 -- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.iovs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Products, offers and promotion categories available for Myopia: Vision & Eye Care more product offers...» Myopia: Undiagnosed Conditions .
    • Myopia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

    [5] Borish further subclassified refractive myopia:[3]
    .
  • Curvature myopia is attributed to excessive, or increased, curvature of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, especially the cornea.^ From the screenshots the help isn't really drawing my eyes, for one thing, the formatting reference should be more plain in it's use of language so it is more reader friendly.
    • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Three correlations involving ganglion cell number (cell number vs. One especially interesting finding is that the correlation between lens weight and the weight of the remainder of the eye is 0.59.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The regression coefficient, or slope, amounts to a gain of 0.17 0.02 mg SE in eye weight for a one gram increase in body weight.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [5] .In those with Cohen syndrome, myopia appears to result from high corneal and lenticular power.^ Menezo JL, Cisneros A, Hueso JR, Harto M. Long-term results of surgical treatment of high myopia with Worst-Fechner intraocular lenses.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [6]
  • .
  • Index myopia is attributed to variation in the index of refraction of one or more of the ocular media.^ They all had a manifest refraction of one to two diopters of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Fifthly, for degree of refractive error, only three numbers were given, one covariance-adjusted mean for each of the three "parental history of myopia" (number of glasses-wearing parents) categories.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If the refraction is myopic, the degree of myopia steadily advances, and is attended with certain intra-ocular changes of an unquestionably pathological character, which also steadily advance with the increasing refraction.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [5]

Clinical entity

Various forms of myopia have been described by their clinical appearance:[4][7]
.
  • Simple myopia is more common than other types of myopia and is characterized by an eye that is too long for its optical power (which is determined by the cornea and crystalline lens) or optically too powerful for its axial length.^ By the end of the 19th century, the idea that myopia is caused by an increase in the length of the eye had been established as fact.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The condition is more common in central and eastern Europe than in northern Europe, Britain, and the United States.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A randomized paired eye comparison of two techniques for treating moderately high myopia: LASIK and artisan phakic lens.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [8] .Both genetic and environmental factors, particularly significant amounts of near work, are thought to contribute to the development of simple myopia.^ It is mostly thought that myopia results from interactions between genetic and environmental factors.
    • Molecular Vision: Linkage analysis of high myopiasusceptibility locus in 26 families 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Since even small deviations from normal structure cause significant refractive errors, it may be difficult to single out any specific genetic or environmental factor as their cause.
    • Myopia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Environmental factors that have a behavioral component, such as near work (reading/studying), academic achievement, and educational attainment, have also been reported to play a role in the development of myopia, explaining 11.6% of the total variance.
    • Myopia and Personality: The Genes in Myopia (GEM) Personality Study -- van de Berg et al. 49 (3): 882 -- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.iovs.org [Source type: Academic]

    [8]
  • .
  • Degenerative myopia, also known as malignant, pathological, or progressive myopia, is characterized by marked fundus changes, such as posterior staphyloma, and associated with a high refractive error and subnormal visual acuity after correction.^ Although in the lower degrees of myopia, the sexes seem to be affected equally, with a probable excess in males; females are more prone to the higher degrees and to degenerative changes.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, surgery cannot correct pathological myopia .
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Arne JL, Lesueur LC. Phakic posterior chamber lenses for high myopia: functional and anatomical outcomes.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [5] .This form of myopia gets progressively worse over time.^ Fischer AJ, Miethke P, Morgan IG, Stell WK. Cholinergic amacrine cells are not required for the progression and atropine-mediated suppression of form-deprivation myopia.
    • Arch Ophthalmol -- Safety and Efficacy of 2% Pirenzepine Ophthalmic Gel in Children With Myopia: A 1-Year, Multicenter, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Parallel Study, November 2004, Siatkowski et al. 122 (11): 1667 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC archopht.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bifocals are prescribed on the assumption that the myopia diagnosed is completely structural and incurable; however, it is thought that the myopia can be kept from getting worse by reducing accommodation for near work.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Although nearsightedness (myopia) is easily treated, it cannot be prevented, nor can you keep it from getting worse when you have it.
    • CIGNA - Nearsightedness (Myopia) 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • New York Health - Nearsightedness (Myopia). Nearsightedness (myopia) is a... 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Nearsightedness (Myopia) - Providence Health & Services 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Degenerative myopia has been reported as one of the main causes of visual impairment.^ No one certain cause of myopia has yet been identified.
    • Molecular Vision: Linkage analysis of high myopiasusceptibility locus in 26 families 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ J. Soelberg Wells (1886) identified congestion of the inner tunics of the eyeball as the main cause of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The condition is commonly known as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and is the leading cause of visual impairment among older people.
    • Glossary of Eye Conditions - AFB Senior Site - American Foundation for the Blind 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.afb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [9]
  • .
  • Nocturnal myopia, also known as night myopia or twilight myopia, is a condition in which the eye has a greater difficulty seeing in low illumination areas, even though its daytime vision is normal.^ Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness -- those whose eyes are unable to see distant objects clearly -- are usually prescribed concave lenses to compensate for their defect and allow them to see clearly.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An obvious question is whether the normal variation in eye size and the susceptibility to myopia in human populations is produced by normal allelic variants at gene loci that are already known to influence eye development.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Myopia, also known as hypometropia, is the condition associated with near-sightedness.
    • Myopia and ametropia, the underlying physiology and bioelectrochemistry 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.sightresearch.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Essentially, the eye's far point of an individual's focus varies with the level of light.^ If the eye accommodates further, the aberration begins to reverse, in which case the peripheral rays come to a focus at a point behind the axial rays.
    • Experiments in Myopia - Experiments in Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC aarcolin4.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The noise level associated with both the circuits of the eye and the quantum nature of light play a major part in limiting the performance of the neurological portion of the visual system.
    • Myopia and ametropia, the underlying physiology and bioelectrochemistry 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.sightresearch.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In contrast, we know almost nothing about genes that are responsible for the far more pervasive but more modest variation in eye size and structure among normal individuals.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Night myopia is believed to be caused by pupils dilating to let more light in, which adds aberrations resulting in becoming more nearsighted.^ Read more about causes of Myopia .
    • Myopia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

    ^ More recently, the National Eye Institute funded the Contact Lens and Myopia Progression (CLAMP) study, the results of which were published in 2004.
    • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some believe that a tendency toward myopia may be inherited, but the actual disorder results from a combination of environmental and genetic factors.
    • Myopia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

    A stronger prescription for myopic night drivers is often needed. .Younger people are more likely to be affected by night myopia than the elderly.^ Although in the lower degrees of myopia, the sexes seem to be affected equally, with a probable excess in males; females are more prone to the higher degrees and to degenerative changes.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ People with myopia see objects more clearly when they are close to the eye, while distant objects appear blurred or fuzzy.
    • Myopia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Graphics and menu options will look more like a computer or DISH Network menu than a traditional DVD menu.

    [10][11]
  • .
  • Pseudomyopia is the blurring of distance vision brought about by spasm of the ciliary muscle.^ Functional myopia is an inability to see at the distance stemming from a dysfunction in the muscles (ciliary) that regulate the medium of accommodation (crystalline lens).
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The stimulus has been so constant for a long period that the impulse to the ciliary is unable to suspend itself and bring about distant vision again.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One of the points that he brought out is that children start using their eyes at an extremely close distance even when their distance vision is normal.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [12]
  • .
  • Induced myopia, also known as acquired myopia, results from exposure to various pharmaceuticals, increases in glucose levels, nuclear sclerosis, or other anomalous conditions.^ Elongation of the axial length of the eye by merely 1 mm without other compensation will result in a myopia of 2.02.5 diopters.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, there have been opponents to the idea that structural myopia is acquired by an increase in the length of the eyeball.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Thus myopia is the result of a nervous disturbance which causes an associated disarrangement in the impulses of assimilation in various parts of the eye, especially in the sclerotic coat.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [8] .The encircling bands used in the repair of retinal detachments may induce myopia by increasing the axial length of the eye.^ By the end of the 19th century, the idea that myopia is caused by an increase in the length of the eye had been established as fact.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Grosvenor & Scott 1993, Zadnik 1994) that of all the ocular components of refraction, an increase in axial length is most responsible for increases in myopic refraction, for children as well as young adults, regardless of degree of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Thus, even axial length may be affected by visual input, at least during growth periods.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [13]
    .
  • Index myopia is attributed to variation in the index of refraction of one or more of the ocular media.^ Refractive Eye Disorders Eye conditions Lens disorders more types...» Types of Myopia .
    • Myopia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They all had a manifest refraction of one to two diopters of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One explanation for this lack of agreement is that the genetic profile of high myopia (defined as a refractive error greater than -6 diopters) may differ from that of low myopia.
    • Myopia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

    [5] .Cataracts may lead to index myopia.^ This more advanced type of myopia may lead to degenerative changes in the eye (degenerative myopia).
    • Myopia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

    [14]
  • .
  • Form deprivation myopia is a type of myopia that occurs when the eyesight is deprived by limited illumination and vision range,[15] or the eye is modified with artificial lenses[16] or deprived of clear form vision.^ Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness -- those whose eyes are unable to see distant objects clearly -- are usually prescribed concave lenses to compensate for their defect and allow them to see clearly.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Strain average eye weight ranges from 16.0 0.2 to 21.6 0.2 mg (Table 1); lens weight ranges from 5.2 to 6.6 mg; and retinal area ranges from 17.1 to 20.6 mm 2 .
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Selther RLP, Stell WK. The effect of VIP on development of form deprivation myopia in the chick: a pharmacological and immunocytochemical study.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [17][18] .In lower vertebrates this kind of myopia seems to be reversible within short periods of time.^ Although in the lower degrees of myopia, the sexes seem to be affected equally, with a probable excess in males; females are more prone to the higher degrees and to degenerative changes.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [18] .Myopia is often induced this way in various animal models to study the pathogenesis and mechanism of myopia development.^ Regardless of the site(s) of action, the results of this study and prior work with pirenzepine argue against an accommodative mechanism in the development of pediatric myopia and also serve to validate the use of form-deprivation myopia to study this entity.
    • Arch Ophthalmol -- Safety and Efficacy of 2% Pirenzepine Ophthalmic Gel in Children With Myopia: A 1-Year, Multicenter, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Parallel Study, November 2004, Siatkowski et al. 122 (11): 1667 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC archopht.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Studies on the TGF-β-induced factor gene ( TGIF ) [ 26 ] had revealed that TGIF 657 T→G was a useful marker for high myopia.
    • Molecular Vision: Sclera-related gene polymorphisms in highmyopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We encourage animal researchers to develop research paradigms to provide tests of alcohol myopia.
    • CAN ALCOHOL LEAD TO INHIBITION OR DISINHIBITION? APPLYING ALCOHOL MYOPIA TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION -- GRANT and MACDONALD 40 (5): 373 -- Alcohol and Alcoholism 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC alcalc.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [18]
.
  • Nearwork Induced Transient Myopia (NITM), is defined as short-term myopic far point shift immediately following a sustained near visual task.^ An increase lens power not found in emmetropes was determined to be responsible for the myopic shift that occurs subsequent to near work (in normal eyes, the lens decreases during maturation).
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Fechner PU. Intraocular lenses for the correction of myopia in phakic eyes: short-term success and long-term caution.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Ciuffreda & Ordonez (1995) characterize the myopia that follows from sustained near work as something that occurs in "some patients" that lasts "several seconds or even minutes".
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [19] .Some authors argue for a link between NITM and the development of permanent myopia.^ Another researcher who found a link between the development of astigmatism and the development of myopia was Joseph Raphaelson.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Research has indicated a link between close work, such as reading, and the development and progression of nearsightedness.
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [20]

Degree

Myopia, which is measured in diopters by the strength or optical power of a corrective lens that focuses distant images on the retina, has also been classified by degree or severity:[2]
  • Low myopia usually describes myopia of −3.00 diopters or less (i.e. closer to 0.00).[5]
  • .
  • Medium myopia usually describes myopia between −3.00 and −6.00 diopters.^ It has been estimated that myopia of more than -6.00 diopters (D) represents 27-32% of the myopic population and more than -8.00 D represents 6-18% of the myopic population.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Nearsightedness (myopia) usually begins in childhood or the early teens, between the ages of 8 and 14.
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The experimental group consisted of children of varying ages -- from 5 years to over 13 years -- and varying initial refractive errors -- from 0.25 to over 2.00 diopters of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [5] Those with moderate amounts of myopia are more likely to have pigment dispersion syndrome or pigmentary glaucoma.[21]
  • .
  • High myopia usually describes myopia of −6.00 or more.^ After instilling atropine, Cohn (1886) found an average of 1.00 D. less myopia (or more hyperopia), which reduced the prevalence to about 20 percent.
    • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It has been estimated that myopia of more than -6.00 diopters (D) represents 27-32% of the myopic population and more than -8.00 D represents 6-18% of the myopic population.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Unilateral high myopia (more than about -6.00 D) of early onset can cause severe amblyopia.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [5] .People with high myopia are more likely to have retinal detachments[22] and primary open angle glaucoma.^ A wikipedia like approach is nice for technical people, geeks, power users, etc., as soon as you reach more "junior" techies you have to simplify your approach.
    • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Colin J, Robinet A, Cochener B. Retinal detachment after clear lens extraction for high myopia: seven-year follow-up.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Unilateral high myopia (more than about -6.00 D) of early onset can cause severe amblyopia.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [23] .They are also more likely to experience floaters, shadow-like shapes which appear singly or in clusters in the field of vision.^ Someone who experiences a sudden decline in vision accompanied by flashes and floaters or a sudden increase in the number of floaters should consult an ophthalmologist urgently.
    • Glossary of Eye Conditions - AFB Senior Site - American Foundation for the Blind 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.afb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Find out more about why this message is appearing and what you can do to make your experience on this site better.
    • Arch Ophthalmol -- Safety and Efficacy of 2% Pirenzepine Ophthalmic Gel in Children With Myopia: A 1-Year, Multicenter, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Parallel Study, November 2004, Siatkowski et al. 122 (11): 1667 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC archopht.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some people like the wider field of view provided by contact lenses, as side vision [peripheral vision] is often blocked, obscured or limited by spectacle frames.
    • Information for Contact Lens Patients 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.contactlens.org.nz [Source type: General]

    [24] .Roughly 30% of myopes have high myopia.^ The prevalence of myopia ranges from 20% to 30% in North American, European, and Australian populations [ 1 ] and is as high as 90% in Asian populations [ 2 , 3 ].
    • Molecular Vision: Sclera-related gene polymorphisms in highmyopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

    [25]

Age of onset

Myopia is sometimes classified by the age of onset:[2]
  • Congenital myopia, also known as infantile myopia, is present at birth and persists through infancy.[8]
  • Youth onset myopia occurs prior to age 20.[8]
    .
  • School myopia appears during childhood, particularly the school-age years.^ It is during childhood and adolescence that most myopia begins to appear.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ While less than 2% of the parents were myopic, approximately 58% of the children were myopic, and the severity of the myopia increased with number of years in school.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Nearsightedness most commonly begins in childhood or in the early teens (between the ages of 8 and 14), so it is usually first discovered in children of grade-school age.
    • New York Health - Nearsightedness (Myopia). Nearsightedness (myopia) is a... 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Nearsightedness (Myopia) - Providence Health & Services 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [26] .This form of myopia is attributed to the use of the eyes for close work during the school years.^ Regardless of the site(s) of action, the results of this study and prior work with pirenzepine argue against an accommodative mechanism in the development of pediatric myopia and also serve to validate the use of form-deprivation myopia to study this entity.
    • Arch Ophthalmol -- Safety and Efficacy of 2% Pirenzepine Ophthalmic Gel in Children With Myopia: A 1-Year, Multicenter, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Parallel Study, November 2004, Siatkowski et al. 122 (11): 1667 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC archopht.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In 1895, Chalmers Prentice writes that the exccessive innervation used in close work for accommodating and convergence, takes its toll on the tissues of the eye.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ While less than 2% of the parents were myopic, approximately 58% of the children were myopic, and the severity of the myopia increased with number of years in school.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [5]
  • Adult onset myopia
  • Early adult onset myopia occurs between ages 20 and 40.[8]
  • Late adult onset myopia occurs after age 40.[8]

Epidemiology

.The global prevalence of refractive errors has been estimated from 800 million to 2.3 billion.^ The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [PMID: 18695106] Katz J, Tielsch JM, Sommer A. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in an adult inner city population.
  • Molecular Vision: Myocilin polymorphisms and high myopia insubjects of European origin 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [PMID: 18382088] Vitale S, Ellwein L, Cotch MF, Ferris FL, , 3rd Sperduto R. Prevalence of refractive error in the United States, 1999–2004.
  • Molecular Vision: Myocilin polymorphisms and high myopia insubjects of European origin 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

[27] .The incidence of myopia within sampled population often varies with age, country, sex, race, ethnicity, occupation, environment, and other factors.^ This incidence rate frequently varies with age, sex, race, ethnicity, occupation, environment, and other factors in various sampled populations.
  • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How much of the variation is due to such factors as sex, age, and body size?
  • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, our sample did include a wide range of ages, males and females taken from different litters and different mothers within strains.
  • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

[25][28] Variability in testing and data collection methods makes comparisons of prevalence and progression difficult.[29]
.In some areas, such as China, India and Malaysia, up to 41% of the adult population is myopic to -1dpt,[30] up to 80% to -0.5dpt.^ That is, pre-populate the question entry area with some example formatting that is typical of the average question.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

^ Euro Micelli on October 23, 2009 1:12 PM "pre-populate the question entry area with some example formatting that is typical of the average question" - Please do!
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

[31]
.A recent study involving first-year undergraduate students in the United Kingdom found that 50% of British whites and 53.4% of British Asians were myopic.^ A recent study about TGF-β revealed that reduced scleral TGF-β is a major contributor to the extracellular matrix remodeling in the myopic eye.
  • Molecular Vision: Sclera-related gene polymorphisms in highmyopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Table 7 presents prevalence figures from studies of college students in the United States and other countries for which some variations in study criteria could be assessed.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies of prevalence among college students in the United States and in Europe probably provide best evidence that prevalence is similar in both areas and over time.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[32]
.In Australia, the overall prevalence of myopia (worse than −0.50 diopters) has been estimated to be 17%.^ Myopia was defined as worse than or equal to –0.50 (DS) spherical equivalent in the eye with the least refractive error.
  • Myopia and Personality: The Genes in Myopia (GEM) Personality Study -- van de Berg et al. 49 (3): 882 -- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.iovs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He reported that prevalence of myopia among all ages was similar in the two countries (26 percent spherical equivalent greater than -0.25 D.~.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nonetheless, the high expression of myocilin in the TMC [ 50 ] is easier to reconcile with the role of MYOC polymorphisms in glaucoma than in myopia.
  • Molecular Vision: Myocilin polymorphisms and high myopia insubjects of European origin 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

[33] .In one recent study, less than 1 in 10 (8.4%) Australian children between the ages of 4 and 12 were found to have myopia greater than −0.50 diopters.^ Nearsightedness (myopia) usually begins in childhood between ages 6 and 12.
  • CIGNA - Nearsightedness (Myopia) 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This change is one reason why some researchers think that myopia is an acquired rather than an inherited trait.
  • Myopia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatments, Prognosis 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When family income was at the upper end of the income range studied, they found the prevalence of myopia to be above 40 percent.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[34] .A recent review found that 16.4% of Australians aged 40 or over have at least −1.00 diopters of myopia and 2.5% have at least −5.00 diopters.^ One recent review of familial studies indicates a definite genetic basis for high myopia, and a strong genetic basis for low myopia.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One study found that spherical aberration decreased and became negative as the accommodative response increased in those patients under the age of 40.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Moreover, a recent review 5 reported a number of candidate loci (14 MYP regions) for nonsyndromic myopia in its low (–0.50 DS to –2.99 DS), moderate (–3.00 DS to –5.99 DS), and high ( –6.00 DS) clinical classifications through family and twin studies.
  • Myopia and Personality: The Genes in Myopia (GEM) Personality Study -- van de Berg et al. 49 (3): 882 -- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.iovs.org [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.In Brazil, a 2005 study estimated that 6.4% of Brazilians between the ages of 12 and 59 had −1.00 diopter of myopia or more, compared with 2.7% of the indigenous people in northwestern Brazil.^ Nearsightedness (myopia) usually begins in childhood or the early teens, between the ages of 8 and 14.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, the non-lenticular components of the eye grow at a rate that is more nearly a function of the logarithm of age between 30 and 500 days.
  • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The experimental group consisted of children of varying ages -- from 5 years to over 13 years -- and varying initial refractive errors -- from 0.25 to over 2.00 diopters of myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] Another found nearly 1 in 8 (13.3%) of the students in the city of Natal were myopic.[37]
.In Greece, the prevalence of myopia among 15 to 18 year old students was found to be 36.8%.^ When family income was at the upper end of the income range studied, they found the prevalence of myopia to be above 40 percent.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I wonder how much more prevalent temporal myopia is now than 100 years ago (i.e.
  • Damn Interesting • Hyperbolic Discounting 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CLAMP evaluated myopia progression over a three-year period in more than 100 eight- to 11-year-old patients.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

[38]
.In India, the prevalence of myopia in the general population has been reported to be only 6.9%.^ While the number of cases is sufficiently small to have little effect on-prevalence of myopia generally, all studies of severe myopia show much greater prevalence among females.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He reported that prevalence of myopia among all ages was similar in the two countries (26 percent spherical equivalent greater than -0.25 D.~.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Clarke (1925) reported 19 percent prevalence in an adult population in England, although his population characteristics and 1 ~ , .
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[38][39]
.A recent review found that 26.6% of Western Europeans aged 40 or over have at least −1.00 diopters of myopia and 4.6% have at least −5.00 diopters.^ Hess and Diedricks (1894) found 26.8 percent prevalence among a group of German children ages 10 to 14.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One study found that spherical aberration decreased and became negative as the accommodative response increased in those patients under the age of 40.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bothman (1932a) found that this effect is greater in both hyperopia and mixed astigmatism than in myopia (+~.00 D. mean difference versus +0.50 D. mean difference).
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.In the United States, the prevalence of myopia has been estimated at 20%.^ The prevalence of myopia is approximately 20% in the United States.
  • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[25] .Nearly 1 in 10 (9.2%) American children between the ages of 5 and 17 have myopia.^ Nearsightedness most commonly begins in childhood or in the early teens (between the ages of 8 and 14), so it is usually first discovered in children of grade-school age.
  • New York Health - Nearsightedness (Myopia). Nearsightedness (myopia) is a... 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nearsightedness (Myopia) - Providence Health & Services 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearsightedness (myopia) usually begins in childhood or the early teens, between the ages of 8 and 14.
  • New York Health - Nearsightedness (Myopia). Nearsightedness (myopia) is a... 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nearsightedness (Myopia) - Providence Health & Services 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 24 percent of the children between ages 13 and 14 (nearest birthday) were myopic by this criterion (18.5 percent were less than -1.00 D. myopic).
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[40] .Approximately 25% of Americans between the ages of 12 and 54 have the condition.^ Approximately 20.5 million Americans age 40 and older have cataracts.
  • Glossary - HeavyGlare - Glossary of Optical Terms 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.heavyglare.com [Source type: General]

^ They found a low positive correlation between time spent reading and myopia at ages 6 to 12, and a high correlation at ages 12 to 17.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The ATOM study followed 400 eligible children between the ages of six and 12 for two years.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

[41] .A recent review found that 25.4% of Americans aged 40 or over have at least −1.00 diopters of myopia and 4.5% have at least −5.00 diopters.^ Approximately 20.5 million Americans age 40 and older have cataracts.
  • Glossary - HeavyGlare - Glossary of Optical Terms 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.heavyglare.com [Source type: General]

^ One recent review of familial studies indicates a definite genetic basis for high myopia, and a strong genetic basis for low myopia.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He reported that prevalence of myopia among all ages was similar in the two countries (26 percent spherical equivalent greater than -0.25 D.~.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.A study of Jordanian adults aged 17 to 40 found that over half (53.7%) were myopic.^ When family income was at the upper end of the income range studied, they found the prevalence of myopia to be above 40 percent.
  • Myopia: Prevalence and Progression 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This study found that hyperopic peripheral defocus is present in eyes of myopic children.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One study found that spherical aberration decreased and became negative as the accommodative response increased in those patients under the age of 40.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

[42]

Ethnicity and race

.The prevalence of myopia has been reported as high as 70–90% in some Asian countries, 30–40% in Europe and the United States, and 10–20% in Africa.^ The prevalence of myopia is approximately 20% in the United States.
  • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This improvement was related to optical factors involved in the correction of the high myopia with a phakic IOL." PRK and LASIK have previously been studied to correct anisometropic amblyopia and have had some success.
  • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The condition is more common in central and eastern Europe than in northern Europe, Britain, and the United States.
  • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[28]
Myopia is less common in African people and associated diaspora.[25] .In Americans between the ages of 12 and 54, myopia has been found to affect African Americans less than Caucasians.^ While less than 2% of the parents were myopic, approximately 58% of the children were myopic, and the severity of the myopia increased with number of years in school.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nearsightedness (myopia) usually begins in childhood or the early teens, between the ages of 8 and 14.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confirming the widely-observed correlation, he found that the occupations that demanded more close work had a higher percentage of myopes than did the occupations that demanded less close work.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[41] Asians had the highest prevalence (18.5%), followed by Hispanics (13.2%). Caucasians had the lowest prevalence of myopia (4.4%), which was not significantly different from African Americans (6.6%). For hyperopia, Caucasians had the highest prevalence (19.3%), followed by Hispanics (12.7%). Asians had the lowest prevalence of hyperopia (6.3%) and were not significantly different from African Americans (6.4%). For astigmatism, Asians and Hispanics had the highest prevalences (33.6% and 36.9%, respectively) and did not differ from each other (P = .17). Blacks had the lowest prevalence of astigmatism (20.0%), followed by whites (26.4%).[43]

Education, intelligence, and IQ

.A number of studies have shown that the incidence of myopia increases with level of education[38][41] and many studies have shown a correlation between myopia and IQ, likely due to the confounding factor of formal education, but also suggested intelligence alone is the determining factor.^ Thus, it is easy to conceive of myopia as simply an overshooting of the target of growth for the eye, a process determined completely by genetic factors.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One problem with these studies, however, is that they are incapable of determining whether the correlations in amount of myopia are directly due to a shared genetic defect, or due to "myopia-risk-increasing" habits encouraged by myopic parents or lookalike siblings.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Broad-sense heritability, or genetic determination, is a relative measure of the fraction of variance due to the combination of all genetic factors (additive, dominance, and epistasis).
  • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

[44]
.Other personal characteristics, such as value systems, school achievements, time spent in reading for pleasure, language abilities and time spent in sport activities correlated to the occurrence of myopia in studies.^ I also completely agree with the other commentors that from the user's perspective he has typed a perfectly well formatted question, and it's really a failure in the system to display it as such.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

^ I don't know - I'm big into UI stuff and making it so that the person doesn't have to read or think about anything other than their task at hand.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

^ Many people have believed for a long time that too much close work, such as reading or sitting too close to the television, causes nearsightedness.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45][46]

Etiology and pathogenesis

.Because in the most common, "simple" myopia, the eye length is too long, any etiologic explanation must account for such axial elongation.^ This disturbance in the nutrition of the sclerotic and other parts, tending to soften them and lessen their mechanical support, together with the pressure of the rectus muscles, probably brings about that elongation of the eye that we find in axial myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Grosvenor & Scott 1993, Zadnik 1994) that of all the ocular components of refraction, an increase in axial length is most responsible for increases in myopic refraction, for children as well as young adults, regardless of degree of myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For theoretical purposes, it is convenient to talk of "true axial-length" versus "functional" myopia, but in practice, there is no easy way to distinguish the two types.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

To date, no single theory has been able to satisfactorily explain this elongation.
In the mid-1900s, mainstream ophthalmologists and optometrists believed myopia to be primarily hereditary; the influence of near work in its development seemed "incidental" and the increased prevalence of the condition with increasing age was viewed as a "statistical curiosity".[3][4][47]
.Among mainstream researchers and eye care professionals, myopia is now thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.^ In a particularly careful analysis that compensated well for environmental factors, Bear et al.
  • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern studies have tried to isolate genetic factors, and for the most part, the authors conclude that there is a significant genetic determining factor for myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Early research was based on the idea that myopia is largely a result of choices: of what to do with the eyes, or of what to eat.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[8][26][48]
.There are currently two basic mechanisms believed to cause myopia: form deprivation (also known as pattern deprivation[49]) and optical defocus.^ It should be noted that the two proposed causes of functional myopia -- protracted near work and a habitual strain produced when looking at distant objects -- are not incompatible.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Selther RLP, Stell WK. The effect of VIP on development of form deprivation myopia in the chick: a pharmacological and immunocytochemical study.
  • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For theoretical purposes, it is convenient to talk of "true axial-length" versus "functional" myopia, but in practice, there is no easy way to distinguish the two types.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[50] .Form deprivation occurs when the image quality on the retina is reduced; optical defocus occurs when light focuses in front of or behind the retina.^ Normally, light focuses directly on the retina .
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These problems cause light rays entering the eye to focus in front of the retina .
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, distant objects always end up focused on some point in front of the retina, causing an indistinct image.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

.Numerous experiments with animals have shown that myopia can be artificially generated by inducing either of these conditions.^ To sum up, alcohol studies on several types of animals have generally shown that low and moderate doses of alcohol cause increases in aggression.
  • CAN ALCOHOL LEAD TO INHIBITION OR DISINHIBITION? APPLYING ALCOHOL MYOPIA TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION -- GRANT and MACDONALD 40 (5): 373 -- Alcohol and Alcoholism 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC alcalc.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In these experiments, monkeys were restricted to close-viewing conditions, sitting within translucent hoods.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

.In animal models wearing negative spectacle lenses, axial myopia has been shown to occur as the eye elongates to compensate for optical defocus.^ This change would have been expected if the axial lengths of the eyes were increasing due to anticipated myopia progression.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness -- those whose eyes are unable to see distant objects clearly -- are usually prescribed concave lenses to compensate for their defect and allow them to see clearly.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers concluded that if converting peripheral hyperopia to peripheral myopia limits axial elongation, then corneal reshaping is an excellent option for the achievement of peripheral myopia.
  • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

[50] .The exact physiological mechanism of this image-controlled elongation of the eye is still unknown, but the mechanism has been described quantitatively with mathematical precision.^ Williams RW, Zhou G. Genetic control of eye size: A novel quantitative genetic approach.
  • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

[51] [52] [48] It has been suggested that accommodative lag leads to blur (i.e. optical defocus) which in turn stimulates axial elongation and myopia.[53]

Theories

.
  • Combination of genetic and environmental factors—In China, myopia is more common in those with higher education background[54] and some studies suggest that near work may exacerbate a genetic predisposition to develop myopia.^ Although in the lower degrees of myopia, the sexes seem to be affected equally, with a probable excess in males; females are more prone to the higher degrees and to degenerative changes.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Risley was of the opinion that an inherent tendency toward astigmatism was what caused the increase in refraction in those forced to do near work.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This improvement was related to optical factors involved in the correction of the high myopia with a phakic IOL." PRK and LASIK have previously been studied to correct anisometropic amblyopia and have had some success.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [55] .Other studies have shown that near work (reading, computer games) may not be associated with myopic progression, however.^ Bifocals are prescribed on the assumption that the myopia diagnosed is completely structural and incurable; however, it is thought that the myopia can be kept from getting worse by reducing accommodation for near work.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Higher values have been inferred from some twin samples, 48,49 but significantly lower values have been computed after compensation for shared familial patterns of education and near-work.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An increase lens power not found in emmetropes was determined to be responsible for the myopic shift that occurs subsequent to near work (in normal eyes, the lens decreases during maturation).
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [56] .A "genetic susceptibility" to environmental factors has been postulated as one explanation for the varying degrees of myopia among individuals or populations,[57] but there exists some difference of opinion as to whether it exists.^ An obvious question is whether the normal variation in eye size and the susceptibility to myopia in human populations is produced by normal allelic variants at gene loci that are already known to influence eye development.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Broad-sense heritability, or genetic determination, is a relative measure of the fraction of variance due to the combination of all genetic factors (additive, dominance, and epistasis).
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The immediate question is whether there are refractive and functional differences: is one strain emmetropic and the other not?
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [26][58] .High heritability simply means that most of the variation in a particular population at a particular time is due to genetic differences.^ Heritability is sufficiently high to map genes that specifically modulate growth of different parts of the eye.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It simply means that you have a variation or disturbance in the shape of your cornea.
    • Glossary - HeavyGlare - Glossary of Optical Terms 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.heavyglare.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Broad-sense heritability, or genetic determination, is a relative measure of the fraction of variance due to the combination of all genetic factors (additive, dominance, and epistasis).
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    .If the environment changes—as, for example, it has by the introduction of televisions and computers—the incidence of myopia can change as a result, even though heritability remains high.^ The results are summarized in the table below, with change (D) indicating the average progression of myopia in diopters.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    .From a slightly different point of view it could be concluded that—determined by heritage—some people are at a higher risk to develop myopia when exposed to modern environmental conditions with a lot of extensive near work like reading.^ Holm E. Myopia from the point of view of heredity.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Modern research on animals leaves no room for doubt that the ultimate shape of the eye can be severely influenced by environmental factors, although most of it has been looking at changes in the shape of the eye as "axial length growth" and has not dealt with the issue of whether astigmatism also develops as a result of a near viewing environment, or whether the development astigmatism is an important factor in the development of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ From an experimental point of viewand from the point-of-view of developing new genetic models to study eye growththe log-linear growth of the eye and lens of mice is of practical interest.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    .In other words, it is often not the myopia itself which is inherited, but the reaction to specific environmental conditions—and this reaction can be the onset and the progression of myopia.^ Esophores, Goss notes, seem to have a higher rate of myopia than other phoria types with single vision lenses, and a lower rate of myopia progression with bifocals.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    Medina showed that myopia is a feedback process where genetic and environmental factors can coexist.[51]
  • .
  • Genetic factors—The wide variability of the prevalence of myopia in different ethnic groups has been reported as additional evidence supporting the role of genetics in the development of myopia.^ Thus, it is easy to conceive of myopia as simply an overshooting of the target of growth for the eye, a process determined completely by genetic factors.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Broad-sense heritability, or genetic determination, is a relative measure of the fraction of variance due to the combination of all genetic factors (additive, dominance, and epistasis).
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Our aim in this study is to analyze environmental and genetic factors that contribute to normal differences in growth of the eye, lens, and retina of mice.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [59] .Measures of the heritability of myopia have yielded figures as high as 89%, and recent research has identified genes that may be responsible: defective versions of the PAX6 gene seem to be associated with myopia in twin studies.^ For example, might subtle change in amino acids of the Chx10 or Pax6 gene products be responsible for some of the differences?
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We do know that some fraction of the variation in eye size is heritable, but we are only beginning to identify genes that contribute to this variation.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the next few year it may be possible to determine the actual gene sequences responsible for relatively subtle differences in eye growth in mice.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [60] .Under this theory, the eye is slightly elongated front to back as a result of faults during development, causing images to be focused in front of the retina rather than directly on it.^ However, instead of saying that astigmatism caused myopia, he asserted that prolonged intensive near focusing during school years where young hyperopic eyes are "given no opportunity to relax and to stretch" (1958, 63) causes both myopia and astigmatism.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Refractive errors cause a disturbance in the way that light rays are focused within the eye.
    • Glossary - HeavyGlare - Glossary of Optical Terms 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.heavyglare.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That is, distant objects always end up focused on some point in front of the retina, causing an indistinct image.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    .It is usually discovered during the pre-teen years between eight and twelve years of age.^ Nearsightedness most commonly begins in childhood or in the early teens (between the ages of 8 and 14), so it is usually first discovered in children of grade-school age.
    • New York Health - Nearsightedness (Myopia). Nearsightedness (myopia) is a... 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During the teen years, as the eyeballs continue to grow, nearsightedness may develop or get worse quickly.
    • CIGNA - Nearsightedness (Myopia) 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • New York Health - Nearsightedness (Myopia). Nearsightedness (myopia) is a... 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nearsightedness (myopia) usually begins in childhood or the early teens, between the ages of 8 and 14.
    • New York Health - Nearsightedness (Myopia). Nearsightedness (myopia) is a... 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It most often worsens gradually as the eye grows during adolescence and then levels off as a person reaches adulthood.^ It is during childhood and adolescence that most myopia begins to appear.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The eye and lens of mice continue to grow long after sexual maturity is reached at 4060 days of age.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Genetic factors can work in various biochemical ways to cause myopia, a weak or degraded connective tissue is a very essential one.^ It should be noted that the two proposed causes of functional myopia -- protracted near work and a habitual strain produced when looking at distant objects -- are not incompatible.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Modern studies have tried to isolate genetic factors, and for the most part, the authors conclude that there is a significant genetic determining factor for myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Broad-sense heritability, or genetic determination, is a relative measure of the fraction of variance due to the combination of all genetic factors (additive, dominance, and epistasis).
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Genetic factors include an inherited, increased susceptibility for environmental influences like excessive near work, and the fact that some people do not develop myopia in spite of very adverse conditions is a clear indication that heredity is involved somehow in any case.
  • Environmental factors—It has been suggested that a genetic susceptibility to myopia does not exist.^ Modern research on animals leaves no room for doubt that the ultimate shape of the eye can be severely influenced by environmental factors, although most of it has been looking at changes in the shape of the eye as "axial length growth" and has not dealt with the issue of whether astigmatism also develops as a result of a near viewing environment, or whether the development astigmatism is an important factor in the development of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Risley was of the opinion that an inherent tendency toward astigmatism was what caused the increase in refraction in those forced to do near work.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An obvious question is whether the normal variation in eye size and the susceptibility to myopia in human populations is produced by normal allelic variants at gene loci that are already known to influence eye development.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [26] .A high heritability of myopia (as for any other condition) does not mean that environmental factors and lifestyle have no effect on the development of the condition.^ Alcohol myopia would indeed predict that alcohol should have no effect on impulsivity in such a paradigm.
    • CAN ALCOHOL LEAD TO INHIBITION OR DISINHIBITION? APPLYING ALCOHOL MYOPIA TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION -- GRANT and MACDONALD 40 (5): 373 -- Alcohol and Alcoholism 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC alcalc.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This improvement was related to optical factors involved in the correction of the high myopia with a phakic IOL." PRK and LASIK have previously been studied to correct anisometropic amblyopia and have had some success.
    • Myopia, Phakic IOL: eMedicine Ophthalmology 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Given the significant worldwide prevalence of myopia, interest in regulating myopic development runs high.
    • Review of Optometry > Continuing Education > Myopia Regulation: Myth or Megatrend? 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.revoptom.com [Source type: Academic]

    Some recommend a variety of eye exercises to strengthen the ciliary muscle. .Other theories suggest that the eyes become strained by the constant extra work involved in "nearwork" and get stuck in the near position, and eye exercises can help loosen the muscles up thereby freeing it for far vision.^ People who have Charles Bonnet syndrome should consult with an eye care specialist because treatment for vision disorders may help.
    • Glossary of Eye Conditions - AFB Senior Site - American Foundation for the Blind 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.afb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It should be noted that the two proposed causes of functional myopia -- protracted near work and a habitual strain produced when looking at distant objects -- are not incompatible.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Suggested resource: www.nystagmus.org Return to the Top O Optic nerve atrophy Degeneration of the optic nerve, which carries vision information from the eye to the brain.
    • Glossary of Eye Conditions - AFB Senior Site - American Foundation for the Blind 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.afb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These primarily mechanical models appear to be in contrast to research results, which show that the myopic elongation of the eye can be caused by the image quality, with biochemical processes as the actuator.^ Early research was based on the idea that myopia is largely a result of choices: of what to do with the eyes, or of what to eat.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Induction of axial eye elongation and myopic refractive shift in one year old chickens.

    ^ Elongation of the axial length of the eye by merely 1 mm without other compensation will result in a myopia of 2.02.5 diopters.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    Common to both views is, however, that extensive near work and corresponding accommodation can be essential for the onset and the progression of myopia.
One Austrian study confirmed that the axial length of the eye does mildly increase while reading, but attributed this elongation due to contraction of the ciliary muscle during accommodation .(the process by which the eye increases optical power to maintain a clear image focus), not "squeezing" of the extraocular muscles.^ An increase lens power not found in emmetropes was determined to be responsible for the myopic shift that occurs subsequent to near work (in normal eyes, the lens decreases during maturation).
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[61]
Near work and nightlight exposure in childhood have been hypothesized as environmental risk factors for myopia..[62] Although one initial study indicated a strong association between myopia and nightlight exposure,[63] recent research has found none.^ Several studies have shown that for at least one population, the natives of the Arctic region, myopia does not come from the parents.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ P.A. Gardiner, a London ophthalmologist, also found a connection between poor nutrition and myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another researcher who found a link between the development of astigmatism and the development of myopia was Joseph Raphaelson.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[62][64][65][66]
  • Near work. .Near work has been implicated as a contributing factor to myopia in some studies, but refuted in others.^ I would like to comment on the implication near the end of your blog post: that you would pre-populate the box with some sort of template.
    • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Our aim in this study is to analyze environmental and genetic factors that contribute to normal differences in growth of the eye, lens, and retina of mice.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Higher values have been inferred from some twin samples, 48,49 but significantly lower values have been computed after compensation for shared familial patterns of education and near-work.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [56] .One recent study suggested that students exposed to extensive "near work" may be at a higher risk of developing myopia, whereas extended breaks from near work during summer or winter vacations may retard myopic progression.^ During the teen years, as the eyeballs continue to grow, nearsightedness may develop or get worse quickly.
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Selther RLP, Stell WK. The effect of VIP on development of form deprivation myopia in the chick: a pharmacological and immunocytochemical study.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Higher values have been inferred from some twin samples, 48,49 but significantly lower values have been computed after compensation for shared familial patterns of education and near-work.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    [67] Near work in certain cultures (e.g. .Vanuatu) does not result in greater myopia[68][69][70] It has been hypothesized that this outcome may be a result of genetics or environmental factors such as diet or over-illumination, changes which seem to occur in Asian, Vanuatu and Inuit cultures acclimating to intensive early studies.^ Several studies have shown that for at least one population, the natives of the Arctic region, myopia does not come from the parents.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Modern studies have tried to isolate genetic factors, and for the most part, the authors conclude that there is a significant genetic determining factor for myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Early research was based on the idea that myopia is largely a result of choices: of what to do with the eyes, or of what to eat.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [70]
  • .
  • Time spent indoors - A number of studies have shown that children who spend more time outdoors have lower rates of myopia, possibly explaining the observed increase in myopia.^ While less than 2% of the parents were myopic, approximately 58% of the children were myopic, and the severity of the myopia increased with number of years in school.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Several studies have shown that for at least one population, the natives of the Arctic region, myopia does not come from the parents.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Children who wear bifocals as opposed to single vision lenses still tend to progress at the rate of a quarter to a half a diopter per year.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    It is theorized that the higher brightness or the larger distances outdoors play a role.[71]
  • .
  • Diet and nutrition – One 2002 article suggested that myopia may be caused by over-consumption of bread in childhood, or in general by diets too rich in carbohydrates, which can lead to chronic hyperinsulinemia.^ One theory on how chronic close focusing ultimately leads to permanent structural myopia was proposed by British optometrist O.D. Rasmussen (1956).
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This could be done by assuring proper nutrition: Malnutrition and defective diets play a large role in causing glandular disorders and the other disturbances which give rise to nearsightedness.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Various other components of the diet, however, were made responsible for contributing to myopia as well, as summarized in a documentation.
  • Stress has been postulated as a factor in the development of myopia.^ Over the past several decades, several powerful animals models have been developed and exploited to study environmental, functional, and biochemical processes that contribute to myopia.
    • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Grosvenor & Scott 1993, Zadnik 1994) that of all the ocular components of refraction, an increase in axial length is most responsible for increases in myopic refraction, for children as well as young adults, regardless of degree of myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To summarize, early close-work theories, as well as Young's theory of myopia tended to treat myopia as a pathological phenomenon, while most modern close-work theories conceive of myopia as a matter of adaptive growth.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [72]
  • Excess sleeping may cause myope because of eyelids.[73]

Relevant research

.
  • A Turkish study found that accommodative convergence, rather than accommodation, may be a factor in the onset and progression of myopia in adults.^ Adult-onset myopia and occupation.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ I am of the opinion that the congenital anomalies in the form of the eyeball are hereditary rather than the myopia itself or any tendency to myopia.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Most nearsightedness (myopia) is caused by a natural change in the shape of the eyeball that makes it egg-shaped rather than round.
    • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [74]
  • .
  • A recent Polish study revealed that "with-the-rule astigmatism" may lead to the creation of myopia.^ And while cycloplegia is very likely to reveal latent hypermetropia, in nonmyopes, more recent studies (Rengstorff 1966, Ludlam et al.
    • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

    [75]

Presbyopia and the 'payoff' for the nearsighted

.Many people with myopia are able to read comfortably without eyeglasses even in advanced age.^ The use of the distant Snellen card gave them relief and they later read without effort or discomfort at a comfortable distance, about twelve inches.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many people have believed for a long time that too much close work, such as reading or sitting too close to the television, causes nearsightedness.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Markdown works equally fine for people who haven't even heard of it yet and advanced users.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

.Myopes considering refractive surgery are advised that this may be a disadvantage after the age of 40 when the eyes become presbyopic and lose their ability to accommodate or change focus.^ We can now reverse the question posed above and ask what the age-related effect on eye size is when we remove the confounding effects of changes in body weight.
  • Neurogenetics at UT Health Science Center 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.nervenet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After refractive surgery to correct nearsightedness, home care may be needed.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After age 40, people often develop presbyopia , an inability to focus on near objects.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diagnosis

A diagnosis of myopia is typically confirmed during an eye examination by an ophthalmologist, optometrist or orthoptist[76]. .Frequently an autorefractor or retinoscope is used to give an initial objective assessment of the refractive status of each eye, then a phoropter is used to subjectively refine the patient's eyeglass prescription.^ When a pupil said he was reading the memorized Snellen card with normal vision, the retinoscope used at the same time, indicated no manifest error of refraction; the eye was adjusted for normal vision.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Refractive errors in eyes of children as determined by retinoscopic examination with cycloplegia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The retinoscope used at the same time indicated no myopic refraction.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

Treatment, management, and prevention

Glasses are commonly used to address near-sightedness.
.Eyeglasses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery are the primary options to treat the visual symptoms of those with myopia.^ Persons with myopia, or nearsightedness -- those whose eyes are unable to see distant objects clearly -- are usually prescribed concave lenses to compensate for their defect and allow them to see clearly.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You may need to wear an eye patch, bandage, or special contact lenses for a few days after surgery.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prescriptions for eyeglasses and contact lenses specify both the shape and power of the lens.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Orthokeratology is the practice of using special rigid contact lenses to flatten the cornea to reduce myopia.^ Corneal ring implants are clear pieces of acrylic that can be surgically implanted to flatten the cornea and reduce nearsightedness.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surgery can also be done to change the shape of the cornea or to implant artificial lenses in the eyes to reduce or fix nearsightedness.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first school system in which this technique was used, myopia -- as determined by examination "during a study period while [the children were] sitting in their seats" -- was reduced from 6 percent to 1 percent (1911).
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

Occasionally, pinhole glasses are used by patients with low-level myopia. .These work by reducing the blur circle formed on the retina, but their adverse effects on peripheral vision, contrast and brightness make them unsuitable in most situations.^ When the children bring their eyes closer and closer to their work, they get assistance from secondary vision (peripheral) which functions better closer to the eyes, thus making it easier for them to see.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

Chromatic aberration of strong eyeglasses

Prismatic color distortion shown with a camera set for nearsighted focus, and using -9.5 diopter eyeglasses to correct the camera's myopia.
Close-up of color shifting through corner of eyeglasses. The light and dark borders visible between color swatches do not exist.
.For people with a high degree of myopia, very strong eyeglass prescriptions are needed to correct the focus error.^ My point is, while user myopia is VERY real (an I'm as guilty of it as anyone) StackOverflow simply didn't show me what I needed to see.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

.However, strong eyeglass prescriptions have a negative side effect in that off-axis viewing of objects away from the center of the lens results in prismatic movement and separation of colors, known as chromatic aberration.^ First of all, he proposed that functional myopia was produced not as an after-effect of having viewed near objects, but by "an effort, usually unconscious, to see distant objects" which became habit.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prescriptions for eyeglasses and contact lenses specify both the shape and power of the lens.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This prismatic distortion is visible to the wearer as color fringes around strongly contrasting colors. The fringes move around as the wearer's gaze through the lenses changes, and the prismatic shifting reverses on either side, above, and below the exact center of the lenses. Color fringing can make accurate drawing and painting difficult for users of strong eyeglass prescriptions.
.Strongly nearsighted wearers of contact lenses do not experience chromatic aberration because the lens moves with the cornea and always stays centered in the middle of the wearer's gaze.^ Prescriptions for eyeglasses and contact lenses specify both the shape and power of the lens.
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^ Most people who are nearsighted simply wear glasses or contact lenses to correct their vision.
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^ Tips on contact lens care , including always rinsing your lens storage case and letting it air-dry to avoid contamination.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eye-exercises and biofeedback

.Practitioners and advocates of alternative therapies often recommend eye exercises and relaxation techniques such as the Bates method.^ No other treatment (such as medicines, diet, eye exercises, or other self-help measures) has been shown to reverse nearsightedness .
  • CIGNA - Nearsightedness (Myopia) 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • New York Health - Nearsightedness (Myopia). Nearsightedness (myopia) is a... 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nearsightedness (Myopia) - Providence Health & Services 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Another method of preventing and eliminating functional myopia worth mentioning is daily reading of a distant eye chart, as advocated by William Bates (1911, 1913, 1920).
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the efficacy of these practices is disputed by scientists and eye care practitioners.^ However, some of the qualitative reports from the teachers give one reason to suspect that practicing with the eye chart daily helps keeps the eyes in working order.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[77] .A 2005 review of scientific papers on the subject concluded that there was "no clear scientific evidence" that eye exercises were effective in treating myopia.^ In this paper I will review the history of research on the nature and proposed treatments of myopia, with particular attention given to the much-neglected case for the preventability and, to some extent, the reversibility of myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern studies have tried to isolate genetic factors, and for the most part, the authors conclude that there is a significant genetic determining factor for myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For theoretical purposes, it is convenient to talk of "true axial-length" versus "functional" myopia, but in practice, there is no easy way to distinguish the two types.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[78]
In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a flurry of interest in biofeedback as a possible treatment for myopia. .A 1997 review of this biofeedback research concluded that "controlled studies to validate such methods ...^ Methods currently being studied to control myopia are primarily biofeedback and bifocals.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

have been rare and contradictory."[79] .It was found in one study that myopes could improve their visual acuity with biofeedback training, but that this improvement was "instrument-specific" and did not generalise to other measures or situations.^ Confirming the widely-observed correlation, he found that the occupations that demanded more close work had a higher percentage of myopes than did the occupations that demanded less close work.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How much of this improvement can be attributed to a decrease in myopia and how much can be attributed to an increase in acuity or perception for other reasons, is not clear.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After only five hours of training, six of seven myopes had "confirmed myopia diminution of -0.25D in one eye, two had improvement in both eyes."
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[80] .In another study an "improvement" in visual acuity was found but the authors concluded that this could be a result of subjects learning the task.^ Modern studies have tried to isolate genetic factors, and for the most part, the authors conclude that there is a significant genetic determining factor for myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[81] Finally, in an evaluation of a training system designed to improve acuity, "no significant difference was found between the control and experimental subjects".[82]

Prevention

.There is no universally accepted method of preventing myopia.^ Never is there mention of the possibility that myopia can be prevented or cured by any means short of surgery.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For theoretical purposes, it is convenient to talk of "true axial-length" versus "functional" myopia, but in practice, there is no easy way to distinguish the two types.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Commonly attempted preventative methods include wearing reading glasses, eye drops and participating in more outdoor activities are described below.^ When she came back she was wearing myopic glasses of 2 diopters, which were prescribed by an ophthalmologist using cycloplegic drops.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After reading in these glasses for several days, the patient was able to read print twelve inches from the eyes.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another method of preventing and eliminating functional myopia worth mentioning is daily reading of a distant eye chart, as advocated by William Bates (1911, 1913, 1920).
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some clinicians and researchers recommend plus power (convex) lenses in the form of reading glasses when engaged in close work or reading instead of using single focal concave lens glasses commonly prescribed.^ Rakusen also cites a case of a girl who was prescribed concave lenses by an oculist who used cycloplegics.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1895, Chalmers Prentice writes that the exccessive innervation used in close work for accommodating and convergence, takes its toll on the tissues of the eye.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And to commenter(s) who suggested why not use WSIWYG instead, I don't think you have used comment forms on the Web much.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

[8][83] .The reasoning behind convex lense's possible effectiveness in preventing myopia is simple to understand: Convex lenses's refractive property of converging light are used in reading glasses to help reduce the accommodation needed when reading and doing close work.^ However, even if such practice cannot reduce existing refractive errors, there is the possibility that constant practice at focusing accurately for the distance reduces the spasm of the ciliary muscles and increases the circulation of blood in and out of the eye, improving acuity (and reducing the need to bring work materials close to the face) and, by preventing congestion and nervous disturbances, preventing structural myopia.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1895, Chalmers Prentice writes that the exccessive innervation used in close work for accommodating and convergence, takes its toll on the tissues of the eye.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DevSolar on October 23, 2009 4:18 AM Of cours users do not read help and do not use tag based formatting (lambda users at least).
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

.Accommodation is however irrelevant in Medina's quantitative model of myopia.^ Bifocals are prescribed on the assumption that the myopia diagnosed is completely structural and incurable; however, it is thought that the myopia can be kept from getting worse by reducing accommodation for near work.
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

The model teaches a very simple method to prevent myopia.[51]. .For people with Presbyopia whose eye's lens can not accommodate enough for very near focus; reading glasses help converge the light before it enters the eye to complement the refractive power of the eye lens so near objects focus clearly on the retina.^ These problems cause light rays entering the eye to focus in front of the retina .
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^ After age 40, people often develop presbyopia , an inability to focus on near objects.
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^ Corrective lenses refocus light entering the eye on the retina.
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.[2] By reducing the focusing effort needed (accommodation), reading glasses or convex lenses essentially relax the focusing ciliary muscles and may consequently reduce chances of developing myopia.^ This may require bifocal glasses or contact lenses .
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^ Secondary myopia , which may develop as a result of many conditions, including premature birth and a number of eye diseases.
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^ LASIK surgery is meant to reduce a person's dependency on glasses or contact lenses.
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source: [3] Inexpensive non prescription reading glasses are commonly sold in drug stores and dollar stores. Alternatively, reading glasses fitted by optometrists have a wider range of styles and lens choices. source: [4] A recent Malaysian study reported in New Scientist[84] suggested that undercorrection of myopia caused more rapid progression of myopia.[85] However, the reliability of these data has been called into question.[86] .Many myopia treatment studies suffer from any of a number of design drawbacks: small numbers, lack of adequate control group, failure to mask examiners from knowledge of treatments used, etc.^ Bad design, on the other hand, prevents using any previously-acquired knowledge from being useful.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

Pirenzepine eyedrops had a limited effect on retarding myopic progression in a recent, placebo-control, double-blinded prospective controlled study.[87]

Daylight

Daylight may prevent myopia. Australian researchers had concluded that exposure to daylight appeared to play a critical role in restricting the growth of the eyeball, which is responsible for myopia or short-sightedness.[88] .They compared children from other developed countries such as Singapore and Australian children spent about 2–3 hours a day outdoors which could increased dopamine in the eyes that restrict distorted shaping of the eyes.^ A number of inherited eye and other diseases increase the risk of nearsightedness.
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^ Developers are also users of other applications, and they are as myopic as anyone else when using other people's programs.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

^ If the sun comes out, you’re at such an elevation the brightness is amplified increasing the damaging affect it will have on your eyes.
  • goggles, glasses, sunglasses & shades at ellis-brigham mountain sports 9 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ellis-brigham.com [Source type: General]

[89][90][91]

Myopia control

Various methods have been employed in an attempt to decrease the progression of myopia.[50] .Dr Chua Weihan and his team at National Eye Centre Singapore have conducted large scale studies on the effect of Atropine of varying strength in stabilizing, and in some case, reducing myopia.^ In some cases, nearsightedness may be caused by eye problems such as cataracts and keratoconus .
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.The use of reading glasses when doing close work may provide success by reducing or eliminating the need to accommodate.^ Many people believe that too much close work, such as reading or sitting too close to the television, causes nearsightedness.
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^ Many people have believed for a long time that too much close work, such as reading or sitting too close to the television, causes nearsightedness.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research has indicated a link between close work, such as reading, and the development and progression of nearsightedness.
  • Health Information 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Altering the use of eyeglasses between full-time, part-time, and not at all does not appear to alter myopia progression.^ Blaming it all on user myopia, completely failing to recognize that users do not care and do not have time to learn your website.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

^ Part of "user myopia" may be that after all this time, advertisers have trained people to ignore anything that isn't content.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

^ Gardiner's observations on the connection between a low protein diet and myopia (1956) led him to use an increased protein diet as a treatment for myopia (1958).
  • The Case for the Preventability of Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.i-see.org [Source type: Academic]

[92][93] .The American Optometric Association's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Myopia refers to numerous studies which indicated the effectiveness of bifocal lenses and recommends it as the method for "Myopia Control".[8] In some studies, bifocal and progressive lenses have not shown significant differences in altering the progression of myopia.^ The American Optometric Association (AOA), which is a national organization of optometrists, can provide information on eye health and eye problems.
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^ IOLs, also called implantable contact lenses (ICLs), have been shown to be a safe and effective means of correcting moderate to severe myopia.
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^ American Optometric Association (AOA) .
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[50].More recently robust studies on children have shown that .Orthokeratology[94] and Centre Distance bifocal contact lenses[95] may arrest myopic development.^ This may require bifocal glasses or contact lenses .
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^ You may need to wear an eye patch, bandage, or special contact lenses for a few days after surgery.
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^ If you find that glasses or contact lenses are inconvenient, surgery to correct nearsightedness may be appropriate.
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Myopia as metaphor

The terms myopia and myopic (or the common terms short sightedness or short sighted) have also been used metaphorically to refer to cognitive thinking and decision making that is narrow sighted or lacking in concern for wider interests or longer-term consequences.[96] .It is often used to describe a decision that may be beneficial in the present but detrimental in the future, or a viewpoint that fails to consider anything outside a very narrow and limited range (see pragmatism, which tends to be myopic).^ But still is it not right that what you write is not what you see, especially considering that the user has access to the formatting toolbar -very confusing.
  • Coding Horror: Treating User Myopia 13 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

Some antonyms of short sightedness are foreseeing, "forward thinking" and prophecy. Hyperopia, the biological opposite of myopia, is also used as a metaphor for those who exhibit "far-sighted" behavior; that is, over-prioritizing long-term interests at the expense of present enjoyment.[97]

See also

References

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External links


Simple English

Myopia, also called near- or short-sightedness, is a problem with the focusing ability of the eye. It is when the eye is not able to focus properly on objects in the distance. This condition is very common and it often occurs with many members of the same family. It happens when the cornea becomes a different shape (too curved) from normal or when the eye is longer than normal and so causes light entering the eye to focus on a point within the eye before the retina. This causes the eye and brain to see the image of the distant object as a blurred image. People with myopia often squint while watching television or trying to see distant objects. Myopia can often be the first symptom of Type II Diabetes.

It can be corrected by using glasses, contact lenses, or surgery.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Myopia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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